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Title: Enquire Within Upon Everything
The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
Author: Anonymous
Release Date: January 21, 2004 [eBook #10766]
[Most recently updated: February 25, 2021]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
Produced by: Jon Ingram, Clytie Siddall and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team

Enquire Within
Upon Everything


the great Victorian-era domestic standby

with hyperlinked index

"Whether You Wish to Model a Flower in Wax;
to Study the Rules of Etiquette;
to Serve a Relish for Breakfast or Supper;
to Plan a Dinner for a Large Party or a Small One;
to Cure a Headache;
to Make a Will;
to Get Married;
to Bury a Relative;
Whatever You May Wish to Do, Make, or to Enjoy,
Provided Your Desire has Relation to the Necessities of Domestic Life,
I Hope You will not Fail to 'Enquire Within.'"—Editor


Table of Contents

Companion Works to Enquire Within

title price
Daily Wants, Dictionary of 7s. 6d.
Useful Knowledge, Dictionary of 10s.
Medical and Surgical Knowledge, Dictionary of 5s.
Reason Why. Christian Denominations 3s. 6d.
Reason Why. Physical Geography and Geology 3s. 6d.
Reason Why. General Science 2s. 6d.
Reason Why. Natural History 2s. 6d.
Historical Reason Why. English History 2s. 6d.
Reason Why. Gardener's and Farmer's 2s. 6d.
Reason Why. Domestic Science for Housewives 2s. 6d.
Biblical Reason Why. Sacred History 2s. 6d.
Family Save-All; or, Secondary Cookery, etc. 2s. 6d.
Journey of Discovery, or, The Interview 2s. 6d.
Practical Housewife and Family Medical Guide 2s. 6d.
Notices to Correspondents 2s. 6d.
Corner Cupboard. A Family Repository 2s. 6d.
How a Penny Became a Thousand Pounds
Life Doubled by the Economy of Time

Either of these two Works separately

2s. 6d.

1s. 6d. cloth
Wonderful Things of All Nations, Two Series each 2s. 6d.
The Historical Finger-Post 2s. 6d.

By the Same Editor

title price
History of Progress in Great Britain. Two Series each 6s.
That's It; or, Plain Teaching. Cloth, gilt edges 3s. 6d.
Walks Abroad and Evenings at Home. Cloth, gilt edges 3s. 6d.
Elegant Work for Delicate Fingers 1s.
Philosophy and Mirth United by Pen and Pencil 1s.
Handy Book of Shopkeeping, or, Shopkeeper's Guide 1s.
Shilling Kitchiner, or, Oracle of Cookery for the Million 1s.

Editor's Preface

If there be any among my Readers who, having turned over the pages of "Enquire Within," have hastily pronounced them to be confused and ill-arranged, let them at once refer to The Index, at page 389, and for ever hold their peace.

The Index is, to the vast congregation of useful hints and receipts that fill the pages of this volume, what the Directory is to the great aggregation of houses and people in London.

No one, being a stranger to London, would run about asking for "Mr. Smith." But, remembering the Christian name and the profession of the individual wanted, he would turn to the Directory, and trace him out.

Like a house, every paragraph in "Enquire Within" has its number,—and the Index is the Directory which will explain what Facts, Hints, and Instructions inhabit that number.

For, if it be not a misnomer, we are prompted to say that "Enquire Within" is peopled with hundreds of ladies and gentlemen, who have approved of the plan of the work, and contributed something to its store of useful information. There they are, waiting to be questioned, and ready to reply. Within each page some one lives to answer for the correctness of the information imparted, just as certainly as where, in the window of a dwelling, you see a paper directing you to "Enquire Within," some one is there to answer you.

Housekeepers of experience live at Nos. 1, 30, 438, 1251 and 2091; old Dr. Kitchiner lives at 44; Captain Crawley is to be found at 46 and 2568; the well-known Mrs. Warren lives at 1809; Miss Acton at 1310; Dr. Franklin at 1398; Mrs. Hitching at 215; Mr. Banting at 1768; Dr. Wilson Philip at 1762; Mr. Withering at 2338; Mr. Mechi at 997; Dr. Stenhouse at 1776; Dr. Erasmus Wilson at 1700; Dr. Southwood Smith at 1743; Dr. Blair at 2180; M. Soyer at 1130; Dr. Babington at 2407; Miss Gifford at 2337; and Dr. Clark at 2384. In addition to these and many more, a Doctor lives at 475; a Gardener at 249; a Schoolmaster at 161; a Butcher at 27; a Dancing-Master at 139; an Artist at 2548; a Naturalist at 2330; a Dyer at 2682; a Modeller at 2346; a Professed Cook at 1032; a Philanthropist at 1368; a Lawyer at 1440; a Surgeon at 796; a Chess Player at 71; a Whist Player, almost next door, at 73; a Chemist at 650; a Brewer at 2267; a Lawn Tennis Player at 2765; a homœopathic Practitioner at 925; a Wood-stainer at 1413; two Confectioners at 1628 and 2024; a Poultry-Keeper at 1642; a Meteorologist at 962; Philosophers at 973 and 1783; a Practical Economist at 985; a Baker at 1002; a Master of the Ceremonies at 1924 and 2613; a Bird Fancier at 2155: a Washerwoman at 2729; an Analytical Chemist at 2747; an Accountant at 2769; and so on.

Well! there they live—always at home. Knock at their doors—Enquire Within. No Fees to Pay!!

Much care has been taken in selecting the information that is given, and, as is amply shown by the above list, so many kind and competent friends have lent a hand in the production of this volume that is impossible to turn to any page without at once being reminded of the Generous Friend who abides there.

To some extent, though in a far less degree, assistance has been rendered by the authors of many useful and popular works, for which due acknowledgment must be made. Chief among these works are Dr. Kitchiner's "Cooks' Oracle"; "The Cook," in Houlston and Sons' Industrial Library; "The Shopkeeper's Guide;" "The Wife's Own Cookery," "The Practical Housewife," and many of the volumes of the "Reason Why" series.

Lastly, as in everyday life it is found necessary at times to make a thorough inspection of house and home, and to carry out requisite repairs, alterations, and additions, this has been done in the recent editions of "Enquire Within," to which some hundreds of paragraphs have been added, while others have been remodelled and revised in accordance with the progress of the times in which we live. Care, however, has been taken to alter nothing that needed no alteration, so that, practically, this Popular Favourite is still the old "Enquire Within;" improved, it is true, but in no way so changed as to place it beyond the recognition of those to whom it has been a Book Of Constant Reference since its first appearance.

Publisher's Preface

to the Seventy-Fifth Edition

The unparalleled success achieved by "Enquire Within Upon Everything" demands special mention from its Publishers at the present moment. Its prominent characteristics—varied usefulness and cheapness—have won for it universal esteem. There is scarcely a spot reached by English civilization to which this book has not found its way, receiving everywhere the most cordial welcome and winning the warmest praise. Proof of this world-wide popularity is clearly shown by the record of the number of copies sold, now amounting to the wonderful total of

One Million Copies

—a sale which the Publishers believe to be absolutely without precedent among similar books of reference. This result has been mainly brought about by the kindly interest shown in the book by many friends, to whom the Publishers' most hearty thanks are tendered for their generous support and recommendations.

The work of revision has been carried on from year to year with watchfulness and care, and many Additions have been made, both modern and interesting, including Homœopathy, Lawn Tennis, &c Enquirers on the laws of Landlord and Tenant, Husband and Wife, Debtor and Creditor, are supplied with the latest information. Diseases and their Remedies, and Medicines, their Uses and Doses, have received special attention. The Index has been considerably extended, and with the aid of this, and the Summary of Contents, it is hoped that no Enquirer will fail to receive complete and satisfactory replies.

The "Enquire Within" and "Reason Why" Series now comprises Twenty-seven Volumes, containing upwards of Seven Thousand pages of closely printed matter. They are entirely original in plan, and executed with the most conscientious care. The Indexes have been prepared with great labour, and alone occupy about 500 pages. A vast Fund of valuable Information, embracing every Subject of Interest or Utility, is thus attainable, and at a merely nominal Cost.

These Works are in such general demand, that the Sale has already reached considerably upwards of

One-and-a-Half Million Volumes.

The attention of all parties interested in the dissemination of sound Theoretical Instruction and Practical Knowledge is particularly directed to the Twenty-seven Volumes in this Series of Popular and Valuable Books.

volume title details
1-3 Daily Wants, the Dictionary of containing nearly 1,200 pages of Information upon all matters of Practical and Domestic Utility. Above 118,000 copies have been sold.
4-7 Useful Knowledge, the Dictionary of a Book of Reference upon History, Geography, Science, Statistics, &c A Companion Work to the Dictionary of Daily Wants.
8 & 9 Medical and Surgical Knowledge, the Dictionary of a Complete Practical Guide on Health and Disease, for Families, Emigrants, and Colonists.
10 Enquire Within Upon Everything
11 The Reason Why, Christian Denominations giving the Origin, History, and Tenets of the Christian Sects, with the Reasons assigned by themselves for their Specialities of Faith and forms of Worship.
12 The Reason Why, Physical Geography and Geology containing upwards of 1,200 Reasons, explanatory of the Physical Phenomena of Earth and Sea, their Geological History, and the Geographical distribution of Plants, Animals, and the Human Race.
13 The Reason Why, Biblical and Sacred History a Family Guide to Scripture Readings, and a Handbook for Biblical Students.
14 The Reason Why, General Science giving Hundreds of Reasons for things which, though generally received, are imperfectly understood. This Volume has reached a sale of 53,000.
15 The Reason Why, Historical designed to simplify the study of English History.
16 The Reason Why, Natural History giving Reasons for very numerous interesting Facts in connection with the Habits and Instincts of the various Orders of the Animal Kingdom.
17 The Reason Why, Gardening and Farming giving some Thousands of Reasons for various Facts and Phenomena in reference to the Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil.
18 The Reason Why, Houswife's Science affording to the Manager of Domestic Affairs intelligible Reasons for the various duties she has to superintend or to perform.
19 Journey of Discovery All Round Our House, or, The Interview with copious Information upon Domestic Matters.
20 The Practical Housewife and Family Medical Guide a Series of Instructive Papers on Cookery, Food, Treatment of the Sick, &c, &c
21 The Family Save-All a System of Secondary Cookery with Hints for Economy in the use of Articles of Household Consumption.
22 Notices to Correspondents a Work full of curious Information on all Subjects, gathered from actual Answers to Correspondents of various Magazines and Newspapers.
23 The Corner Cupboard containing Domestic Information, Needlework Designs, and Instructions for the Aquarium, &c
24 Life Doubled by the Economy of Time and How a Penny Became a Thousand Pounds The first of these teaches the Value of Moments, and shows how Life may be abridged by a careless indifference to trifles of time; the second pursues a similar argument with reference to Money.
25 & 26 Wonderful Things affording interesting descriptions of the Wonders of all Nations, with Illustrations.
27 The Historical Finger-Post giving briefly, but clearly, the meaning and origin of hundreds of Terms, Phrases, Epithets, Cognomens, Allusions, &c, in connection with History, Politics, Theology, Law, Commerce, Literature, Army and Navy, Arts and Sciences, Geography, Tradition, National, Social, and Personal Characteristics. &c

1.  Choice of Articles of Food

Nothing is more important in the affairs of housekeeping than the choice of wholesome food. Apropos to this is an amusing conundrum which is as follows:—"A man went to market and bought two fish. When he reached home he found they were the same as when he had bought them; yet there were three! How was this?" The answer is—"He bought two mackerel, and one smelt!" Those who envy him his bargain need not care about the following rules; but to others they will be valuable:
2.  Mackerel

must be perfectly fresh, or it is a very indifferent fish; it will neither bear carriage, nor being kept many hours out of the water. The firmness of the flesh and the clearness of the eyes must be the criteria of fresh mackerel, as they are of all other fish.
3.  Turbot, and all flat white fish

are rigid and firm when fresh; the under side should be of a rich cream colour. When out of season, or too long kept, this becomes a bluish white, and the flesh soft and flaccid. A clear bright eye in any fish is also a mark of its being fresh and good.
4.  Cod

is known to be fresh by the rigidity of the muscles (or flesh), the redness of the gills, and clearness of the eyes. Crimping much improves this fish.
5.  Salmon

The flavour and excellence of this fish depend upon its freshness and the shortness of time since it was caught; for no method can completely preserve the delicate flavour that salmon has when just taken out of the water. A great deal of what is brought to London has been packed in ice, and comes from the Scotch and Irish rivers, and, though perfectly fresh, is not quite equal to salmon from English streams.
6.  Herrings

should be eaten when very fresh; and, like mackerel, will not remain good many hours after they are caught. But they are excellent, especially for breakfast relishes, either salted, split, dried, and peppered, or pickled. Mackerel are very good when prepared in either of these ways.
7.  Fresh-Water Fish

The remarks as to firmness and clear fresh eyes apply to this variety of fish, of which there are carp, tench, pike, perch, &c
8.  Lobsters

recently caught, have always some remains of muscular action in the claws, which may be excited by pressing the eyes with the finger; when this cannot be produced, the lobster must have been too long kept. When boiled, the tail preserves its elasticity if fresh, but loses it as soon as it becomes stale. The heaviest lobsters are the best; when light they are watery and poor. Hen lobsters may generally be known by the spawn, or by the breadth of the "flap."
9.  Crab and Crayfish

must be chosen by observations similar to those given above in the choice of lobsters. Crabs have an agreeable smell when fresh.
10.  Prawns and Shrimps

when fresh, are firm and crisp.
11.  Oysters

If fresh, the shell is firmly closed; when the shells of oysters are open, they are dead, and unfit for food. The small-shelled oysters, the Byfleet, Colchester, and Milford, are the finest in flavour. Larger kinds, as the Torbay oysters, are generally considered only fit for stewing and sauces, and as an addition to rump-steak puddings and pies, though some persons prefer them to the smaller oysters, even when not cooked. Of late years English oysters have become scarce and dear; and in consequence the American Blue Point oysters find a ready market.
12.  Beef

The grain of ox beef, when good, is loose, the meat red, and the fat inclining to yellow. Cow beef, on the contrary, has a closer grain and whiter fat, but the meat is scarcely as red as that of ox beef. Inferior beef, which is meat obtained from ill-fed animals, or from those which had become too old for food, may be known by a hard, skinny fat, a dark red lean, and, in old animals, a line of horny texture running through the meat of the ribs. When meat rises up quickly, after being pressed by the finger, it may be considered as being the flesh of an animal which was in its prime; but when the dent made by pressure returns slowly, or remains visible, the animal had probably passed its prime, and the meat consequently must be of inferior quality.

13.  Veal

should be delicately white, though it is often juicy and well-flavoured when rather dark in colour. Butchers, it is said, bleed calves purposely before killing them, with a view to make the flesh white, but this also makes it dry and flavourless. On examining the loin, if the fat enveloping the kidney be white and firm-looking, the meat will probably be prime and recently killed. Veal will not keep so long as an older meat, especially in hot or damp weather: when going, the fat becomes soft and moist, the meat flabby and spotted, and somewhat porous like sponge. Large, overgrown veal is inferior to small, delicate, yet fat veal. The fillet of a cow-calf is known by the udder attached to it, and by the softness of the skin; it is preferable to the veal of a bull-calf.

14.  Mutton

The meat should be firm and close in grain, and red in colour, the fat white and firm. Mutton is in its prime when the sheep is about five years old, though it is often killed much younger. If too young, the flesh feels tender when pinched; if too old, on being pinched it wrinkles up, and so remains. In young mutton, the fat readily separates; in old, it is held together by strings of skin. In sheep diseased of the rot, the flesh is very pale-coloured, the fat inclining to yellow; the meat appears loose from the bone, and, if squeezed, drops of water ooze out from the grains; after cooking, the meat drops clean away from the bones. Wether mutton is preferred to that of the ewe; it may be known by the lump of fat on the inside of the thigh.

15.  Lamb

This meat will not keep long after it is killed. The large vein in the neck is bluish in colour when the fore quarter is fresh, green when it is becoming stale. In the hind quarter, if not recently killed, the fat of the kidney will have a slight smell, and the knuckle will have lost its firmness.

16.  Pork

When good, the rind is thin, smooth, and cool to the touch; when changing, from being too long killed, it becomes flaccid and clammy. Enlarged glands, called kernels, in the fat, are marks of an ill-fed or diseased pig.

17.  Bacon

should have a thin rind, and the fat should be firm, and tinged red by the curing; the flesh should be of a clear red, without intermixture of yellow, and it should firmly adhere to the bone. To judge the state of a ham, plunge a knife into it to the bone; on drawing it back, if particles of meat adhere to it, or if the smell is disagreeable, the curing has not been effectual, and the ham is not good; it should, in such a state, be immediately cooked. In buying a ham, a short thick one is to be preferred to one long and thin. Of English hams, Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and Hampshire are most esteemed; of foreign, the Westphalian. The bacon and "sugar cured" hams now imported in large quantities from Canada and the United States are both cheap and good.

18.  Venison

When good, the fat is clear, bright, and of considerable thickness. To know when it is necessary to cook it, a knife must be plunged into the haunch; and from the smell the cook must determine whether to dress it at once, or to keep it a little longer.

19.  Turkey

In choosing poultry, the age of the bird is the chief point to be attended to. An old turkey has rough and reddish legs; a young one smooth and black. Fresh killed, the eyes are full and clear, and the feet moist. When it has been kept too long, the parts about the vent have a greenish appearance.

20.  Common Domestic Fowls

when young, have the legs and combs smooth; when old these parts are rough, and on the breast long hairs are found when the feathers axe plucked off: these hairs must be removed by singeing. Fowls and chickens should be plump on the breast, fat on the back, and white-legged.

21.  Geese

The bills and feet are red when old, yellow when young. Fresh killed, the feet are pliable, but they get stiff when the birds are kept too long. Geese are called green when they are only two or three months old.

22.  Ducks

Choose them with supple feet and hard plump breasts. Tame ducks have yellow feet, wild ones red.

23.  Pigeons

are very indifferent food when they are kept too long. Suppleness of the feet shows them to be young; the flesh is flaccid when they are getting bad from keeping. Tame pigeons are larger than wild pigeons, but not so large as the wood pigeon.

24.  Hares and Rabbits

when old, have the haunches thick, the ears dry and tough, and the claws blunt and ragged. A young hare has claws smooth and sharp, ears that easily tear, and a narrow cleft in the lip. A leveret is distinguished from a hare by a knob or small bone near the foot.

25.  Partridges

when young, have yellowish legs and dark-coloured bills. Old partridges are very indifferent eating.

26.  Woodcocks and Snipes

when old, have the feet thick and hard; when these are soft and tender, they are both young and fresh killed. When their bills become moist, and their throats muddy, they have been too long killed.

(See Food in Season, Pars. 3042.)

27.  Names and Situations of the Various Joints

28.  Meats

In different parts of the kingdom the method of cutting up carcases varies. That which we describe below is the most general, and is known as the English method.

i.   Beef
Fore-Quarter fore-rib (five ribs)
middle rib (four ribs)
chuck (three ribs)
shoulder piece (top of fore leg)
brisket (lower or belly part of the ribs)
clod (fore shoulder blade)
shin (below the shoulder)
Hind-Quarter Sirloin
aitch-bone these are the three divisions of the upper part of the quarter
buttock and mouse-buttock which divide the thigh
veiny piece joining the buttock
thick flank and thin flank (belly pieces)
and leg
The sirloin and rump of both sides form a baron.

Beef is in season all the year; best in winter.

The Miser Fasts with Greedy Mind to Spare.

ii.   Mutton
breast (the belly)
over which are the loin (chump, or tail end)
loin (best end)
neck (best end)
neck (scrag end)
haunch or leg and chump end of loin
and head
A chine is two necks
a saddle two loins

Mutton is best in winter, spring, and autumn.

iii.   Lamb
is cut into fore quarter
hind quarter
and shoulder

'Grass lamb' is in season from Easter to Michaelmas;
'House lamb' from Christmas to Lady-day.

iv.   Pork
is cut into leg
hand or shoulder
hind loin
fore loin
spare-rib, or neck
and head

Pork is in season nearly all the year round, but is better relished in winter than in summer.

v.   Veal
is cut into neck (scrag end)
neck (best end)
loin (best end)
loin (chump, or tail end)
fillet (upper part of hind leg)
hind knuckle which joins the fillet
knuckle of fore leg
blade (bone of shoulder)
breast (best end)
and breast (brisket end)

Veal is always in season, but dear in winter and spring.

vi.   Venison
is cut into haunch
and breast

Doe venison is best in January, October, November, and December, and buck venison in June, July, August, and September.

vii.  Scottish mode of division.

According to the English method the carcase of beef is disposed of more economically than upon the Scotch plan. The English plan affords better steaks, and better joints for roasting; but the Scotch plan gives a greater variety of pieces for boiling. The names of pieces in the Scotch plan, not found in the English, are:

the hough or hind leg
the nineholes or English buttock
the large and small runner taken from the rib and chuck pieces of the English plan
the shoulder-lyer the English shoulder, but cut differently
the spare-rib or fore-sye the sticking piece, &c

The Scotch also cut mutton differently.

viii.   Ox-tail

is much esteemed for purposes of soup; so also is the Cheek. The Tongue is highly esteemed. The Heart, stuffed with veal stuffing, roasted, and served hot, with red currant jelly as an accompaniment, is a palatable dish. When prepared in this manner it is sometimes called Smithfield Hare, on account of its flavour being something like that of roast hare.

ix.  Calves' Heads

are very useful for various dishes; so also are their Knuckles, Feet, Heart, &c

29.  Relative Economy of the Joints

i.   The Round

is, in large families, one of the most profitable parts owing to its comparative freedom from bone: it is usually boiled, and is generally sold at the same price as the sirloin, and ribs. It is sometimes divided downwards, close to the bone; one side being known as the top side, and the other as the silver side. Either of these parts is as good roasted as boiled.

ii.   The Brisket

is always less in price than the roasting parts. It is not so economical a part as the round, having more bone with it, and more fat. Where there are children, very fat joints are not desirable, being often disagreeable to them, and sometimes prejudicial, especially if they have a dislike to fat. This joint also requires more cooking than many others; that is to say, it requires a double allowance of time to be given for simmering it; it will, when served, be hard and scarcely digestible if no more time be allowed to simmer it than that which is sufficient for other joints and meats. Joints cooked in a boiler or saucepan, should always be simmered, that is to say, boiled as slowly as possible. Meat boiled fast, or "at a gallop," as the phrase goes, is always tough and tasteless. The brisket is excellent when stewed; and when cooked fresh (i.e., unsalted) an excellent stock for soup may be extracted from it, and yet the meat will serve as well for dinner.

iii.   The Edge-bone, or Aitch-bone

is not considered to be a very economical joint, the bone being large in proportion to the meat; but the greater part of it, at least, is as good as that of any prime part. On account of the quantity of bone in it, it is sold at a cheaper rate than the best joints. It may be roasted or boiled.

iv.   The Rump

is the part of which the butcher makes great profit, by selling it in the form of steaks, but the whole of it may be purchased as a joint, and at the price of other prime parts. It may be turned to good account in producing many excellent dishes. If salted, it is simply boiled; if used unsalted, it is generally stewed.

v.   The Veiny Piece

is sold at a moderate price per pound; but, if hung for a day or two, it is very good and very profitable. Where there are a number of servants and children to have an early dinner, this part of beef will be found desirable.

vi.   The Leg and Shin

afford excellent stock for soup; and, if not reduced too much, the meat taken from the bones may be served as a stew with vegetables; or it may be seasoned, pounded with butter, and potted; or, chopped very fine, and seasoned with herbs, and bound together by egg and bread crumbs, it may be fried in balls, or in the form of large eggs, and served with a gravy made with a few spoonfuls of the soup.

vii.   Ox-cheek

makes excellent soup. The meat, when taken from the bones, may be served as a stew.

viii.   The Sirloin and the Ribs

are the roasting parts of beef, and these bear in all places the highest price. The more profitable of these two joints at a family table is the ribs. The bones, if removed from the beef before it is roasted, are useful in making stock for soup. When boned, the meat of the ribs is often rolled up on the shape of a small round or fillet, tied with string, and roasted; and this is the best way of using it, as it enables the carver to distribute equally the upper part of the meat with the fatter parts, at the lower end of the bones.

30.  Food in Season

There is an old maxim, "A place for everything, and everything in its place," To which may be added another, "A season for everything, and everything in season."

[Fish, Poultry, &c, whose names are distinguished by Italics in each month's "Food in Season," are to be had in the highest perfection during the month.]

31.  In Season in January

i.   Fish:
Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon-trout, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat:
Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, and doe venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game:
Capons, chickens, ducks, wild-ducks, fowls, geese, grouse, hares, larks, moor-game, partridges, pheasants, pigeons (tame), pullets, rabbits, snipes, turkeys (hen), widgeons, woodcocks.
iv.   Vegetables:
Beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, cresses, endive, garlic, herbs (dry), Jerusalem artichokes, kale (Scotch), leeks, lettuces, mint (dry), mustard, onions, parsley, parsnips, potatoes, rape, rosemary, sage, salsify, Savoy cabbages, scorzonera, shalots, skirrets, sorrel, spinach (winter), tarragon, thyme, turnips.
v.   Forced Vegetables:
Asparagus, cucumbers, mushrooms, sea-kale.
vi.   Fruit:
Almonds. Apples: Golden pippin, golden russet, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, winter pearmain. Pears: Bergamot d'Hollande, Bon Chrétien, Chaumontel, Colmar, winter beurré. Grapes: English and foreign. Chestnuts, medlars, oranges, walnuts, filbert nuts.

The Hypocrite Will Fast Seem More Holy.

32.  In Season in February

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, carp, cockles, cod, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Capons, chickens, ducklings, geese, hares, partridges, pheasants, pigeons (tame and wild), rabbits (tame), snipes, turkeys, turkey poults, wild-ducks, woodcocks.
iv.   Vegetables
Beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, cresses, endive, garlic, herbs (dry), Jerusalem artichokes, leeks, lettuces, mint (dry), mushrooms, onions, parsnips, parsley, potatoes, radish, rape, rosemary, sage, salsify, Savoys, scorzonera, shalots, skirrets, sorrel, spinach, sprouts, tarragon, thyme, turnips, winter savoury.
v.   Forced Vegetables
Asparagus, cucumbers, mushrooms, sea-kale, &c
vi.   Fruit
Apples: Golden pippin, golden russet, Holland pippin, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, Wheeler's russet, winter pearmain. Chestnuts, oranges. Pears: Bergamot, winter Bon Chrétien, winter Russelet.

33.  In Season in March

i.   Fish
Brill, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crabs, dabs, dory, eels, flounders, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullets, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, salmon-trout, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, turbot, tench, and whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, grouse, leverets, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, turkeys, woodcocks.
iv.   Vegetables
Artichokes (Jerusalem), beet, broccoli (white and purple), Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, cresses, endive, garlic, herbs (dry), kale (sea and Scotch), lettuces, mint, mushrooms, mustard, onions, parsley, parsnips, potatoes, rape, rosemary, sage, Savoys, shalots, sorrel, spinach, tarragon, thyme, turnips, turnip-tops.
v.   Forced Vegetables
Asparagus, French beans, cucumbers, and rhubarb.
vi.   Fruit
Apples: Golden russet, Holland pippin, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, Norfolk beefing, Wheeler's russet. Chestnuts, oranges. Pears: Bergamot, Chaumontel, winter Bon Chrétien. Forced: Strawberries.

34.  In Season in April

i.   Fish
Brill, carp, chub, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crabs, dabs, dory, eels, floandeis, halibut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullets, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, prawns, plaice, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, trout, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wood-pigeons.
iv.   Vegetables
Asparagus, broccoli, chervil, colewort, cucumbers, endive, fennel, herbs of all sorts, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, radishes, sea-kale, sorrel, spinach, small salad, tarragon, turnip-radishes, turnip-tops, and rhubarb.
vi.   Fruit
Apples: Golden russet, nonpareil, Wheeler's russet. Nuts, oranges. Pears: Bergamot, Bon Chrétien, Carmelite. Forced: Apricots, cherries, strawberries.

35.  In Season in May

i.   Fish
Brill, carp, chub, cod, conger-eels, crab, cray-fish, dabs, dace, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddock, halibut, herring, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, trout, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, pullets, rabbits; wood-pigeons.
iv.   Vegetables
Angelica, artichokes, asparagus, balm, kidney-beans, cabbage, carrots, cauliflowers, chervil, cucumbers, fennel, herbs of all sorts, lettuce, mint, onions, parsley, peas, new potatoes, radishes, rhubarb, salad of all sorts, sea-kale, sorrel, spinach, turnips.
vi.   Fruit
Apples: Golden russet, winter russet. May-duke cherries; currants; gooseberries; melons. Pears: L'amozette, winter-green. Forced: Apricots, peaches, strawberries.

36.  In Season in June

i.   Fish
Carp, cod, conger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, salmon-trout, skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducklings, fowls, geese, leverets, pigeons, plovers, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wood-pigeons.
iv.   Vegetables
Angelica, artichokes, asparagus, beans (French, kidney, and Windsor), white beet, cabbage, carrots, cauliflowers, chervil, cucumbers, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuce, onions, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad of all sorts, spinach, turnips, vegetable marrow.
v.   For Drying
Burnet, mint, tarragon, lemon thyme.
vi.   Fruit
Apples: Quarrenden, stone pippin, golden russet. Apricots. Cherries: May-duke, bigaroon, white-heart. Currants; gooseberries; melons. Pears: Winter-green. Strawberries. Forced: Grapes, nectarines, peaches, pines.

37.  In Season in July

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, carp, cod, conger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, skate, soles, tench, thornback, trout.
ii.   Meat
Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese, leverets, pigeons, plovers, rabbits, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.
iv.   Vegetables
Artichokes, asparagus, balm, beans (French, kidney, scarlet, and Windsor), carrots, cauliflowers, celery, chervil, cucumbers, endive, herbs of all sorts, lettuces, mushrooms, peas, potatoes, radishes, salads of all sorts, salsify, scorzonera, sorrel, spinach, turnips.
v.   For Drying
Knotted marjoram, mushrooms, winter savoury.
vi.   For Pickling
French beans, red cabbage, cauliflowers, garlic, gherkins, nasturtiums, onions.
vii.   Fruit
Apples: Codlin, jennetting, Margaret, summer pearmain, summer pippin, quarrenden. Apricots, cherries (black-heart), currants, plums, greengages, gooseberries, melons, nectarines, peaches. Pears: Catherine, green-chisel, jargonelle. Pineapples, raspberries, strawberries.

38.  In Season in August

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, carp, cod, conger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabs, dace, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, skate, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese, grouse (from 12th), leverets, pigeons, plovers, rabbits, turkeys, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wild ducks, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.
iv.   Vegetables
Artichokes, beans (French, kidney, scarlet and Windsor), white beet, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cucumbers, endive, pot-herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad of all sorts, salsify, scorzonera, shalots, spinach, turnips.
v.   For Drying
Basil, sage, thyme.
vi.   For Pickling
Red cabbage, capsicums, chilies, tomatoes, walnuts.
vii.   Fruit
Apples: Codlin, summer pearmain, summer pippin. Cherries, currants, figs, filberts, gooseberries, grapes, melons, mulberries, nectarines, peaches. Pears: Jargonelle, summer, Bon Chrétien, Windsor. Plums, greengages, raspberries, Alpine strawberries.

Without Economy None can be Rich.

39.  In Season in September

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crab, dace, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, hake, herrings, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, soles, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese, grouse, hares, larks, leverets, partridges, pigeons, plovers, rabbits, teal, turkeys, turkey poults, wheat-ears, wild ducks, wild pigeons, wild rabbits.
iv.   Vegetables
Artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, beans (French and scarlet), cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cucumbers, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad of all sorts, shalots, turnips.
v.   Fruit
Apples: Golden nob, pearmain, golden rennet. Cherries (Morella), damsons, figs, filberts. Grapes: Muscadine, Frontignac, red and black Hamburgh, Malmsey. Hazel nuts, walnuts, medlars, peaches. Pears: Bergamot, brown beurré. Pineapples, plums, quinces, strawberries, walnuts.

40.  In Season in October

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, cod, conger-eels, crabs, dace, dory, eels, gudgeon, haddocks, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, prawns, salmon-trout, shrimps, smelts, soles, tench, thornback, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, dotterel, ducks, fowls, green geese, grouse, hares, larks, moor-game, partridges, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, teal, turkey, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, wild pigeons, wild rabbits, woodcocks.
iv.   Vegetables
Artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, broccoli, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, coleworts, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad, Savoys, scorzonera, skirrets, shalots, spinach (winter), tomatoes, truffles, turnips.
v.   Fruit
Apples: Pearmain, golden pippin, golden rennet, royal russet. Black and white bullace, damsons, late figs, almonds, filberts, hazel nuts, walnuts, filberts. Grapes, medlars. Peaches: Old Newington, October. Pears: Bergamot, beurré, Chaumontel, Bon Chrétien, swan's-egg. Quinces, services, walnuts.

41.  In Season in November

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, cod, crabs, dace, dory, eels, gudgeons, gurnets, haddocks, hake, halibut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.
ii.   Meat
Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Chickens, dotterel, ducks, fowls, geese, grouse, hares, larks, partridges, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, teal, turkey, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, wood-cocks.
iv.   Vegetables
Jerusalem artichokes, beet root, borecole, broccoli, cabbages, cardoons, carrots, celery, chervil, coleworts, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuces, onions, parsnips, potatoes, salad, Savoys, scorzonera, skirrets, shalots, spinach, tomatoes, turnips.
vi.   Fruit
Almonds. Apples: Holland pippin, golden pippin, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, winter pearmain, Wheeler's russets. Bullace, chestnuts, hazel nuts, walnuts, filberts, grapes, medlars. Pears: Bergamot, Chaumontel, Bon Chrétien.

With Economy, Few Need be Poor.

42.  In Season in December

i.   Fish
Barbel, brill, turbot, carp, cockles, cod, crabs, dab, dory, eels, gudgeon, gurnets, haddocks, bake, halibut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, ruffe, salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, whitings.
ii.   Meat
Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.
iii.   Poultry and Game
Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, grouse, guinea-fowl, hares, larks, partridges, pea-fowl, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, teal, turkeys, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild ducks, woodcocks.
iv.   Vegetables
Jerusalem artichokes, beet root, borecole, white and purple broccoli, cabbages, cardoons, carrots, celery, endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuces, onions, parsnips, potatoes, salad, Savoys, scorzonera, skirrets, shalots, spinach, truffles, turnips, forced asparagus.
v.   Fruit
Almonds. Apples: Golden pippin, nonpareil, winter pearmain, golden russet. Chestnuts, hazel nuts, walnuts, filberts, Almeria grapes, medlars, oranges. Pears: Bergamot, beurré d'hiver.

43.  Drying Herbs

Fresh herbs are preferable to dried ones, but as they cannot always be obtained, it is most important to dry herbs at the proper seasons:

Basil is in a fit state for drying about the middle of August
Burnet in June, July, and August
Chervil in May, June, and July
Elder Flowers in May, June, and July
Knotted Marjoram during July
Lemon Thyme end of July and through August
Mint end of June and July
Orange Flowers May, June, and July
Parsley May, June, and July
Sage August and September
Summer Savoury end of July and August
Tarragon June, July, and August
Thyme end of July and August
Winter Savoury end of July and August

These herbs always at hand will be a great aid to the cook. Herbs should be gathered on a dry day; they should be immediately well cleansed, and dried by the heat of a stove or Dutch oven. The leaves should then be picked off, pounded and sifted, put into stoppered bottles, labelled, and put away for use. Those who are unable or may not care to take the trouble to dry herbs, can obtain them prepared for use in bottles at the green-grocer's.

Do Good to your Enemy, that he may become Your Friend.

44.  Dr. Kitchiner's Rules for Marketing

The best rule for marketing is to pay ready money for everything, and to deal with the most respectable tradesmen in your neighbourhood. If you leave it to their integrity to supply you with a good article at the fair market price, you will be supplied with better provisions, and at as reasonable a rate as those bargain-hunters who trot "around, around, around about" a market till they are trapped to buy some unchewable old poultry, tough tup-mutton, stringy cow-beef, or stale fish, at a very little less than the price of prime and proper food. With savings like these they toddle home in triumph, cackling all the way, like a goose that has got ankle-deep into good luck. All the skill of the most accomplished cook will avail nothing unless she is furnished with prime provisions. The best way to procure these is to deal with shops of established character: you may appear to pay, perhaps, ten per cent. more than you would were you to deal with those who pretend to sell cheap, but you would be much more than in that proportion better served.

Every trade has its tricks and deceptions; those who follow them can deceive you if they please, and they are too apt to do so if you provoke the exercise of their over-reaching talent. Challenge them to a game at "Catch who can," by entirely relying on your own judgment, and you will soon find nothing but very long experience can make you equal to the combat of marketing to the utmost advantage. If you think a tradesman has imposed upon you, never use a second word, if the first will not do, nor drop the least hint of an imposition; the only method to induce him to make an abatement is the hope of future favours; pay the demand, and deal with the gentleman no more; but do not let him see that you are displeased, or as soon as you are out of sight your reputation will suffer as much as your pocket has. Before you go to market, look over your larder, and consider well what things are wanting—especially on a Saturday. No well-regulated family can suffer a disorderly caterer to be jumping in and out to make purchases on a Sunday morning. You will be enabled to manage much better if you will make out a bill of fare for the week on the Saturday before; for example, for a family of half a dozen:

Sunday Roast beef and pudding.
Monday Fowl, what was left of pudding fried, or warmed in the Dutch oven.
Tuesday Calf's head, apple pie.
Wednesday Leg of mutton.
Thursday Ditto broiled or hashed, and pancakes.
Friday Fish, pudding.
Saturday Fish, or eggs and bacon.

It is an excellent plan to have certain things on certain days. When your butcher or poulterer knows what you will want, he has a better chance of doing his best for you; and never think of ordering beef for roasting except for Sunday. When you order meat, poultry, or fish, tell the tradesman when you intend to dress it: he will then have it in his power to serve you with provision that will do him credit, which the finest meat, &c, in the world will never do, unless it has been kept a proper time to be ripe and tender.

(Kitchiner's Cook's Oracle 56th Thousand. 5s. Houlston & Sons.)

45.  The Family Circle

Under this title a group of acquaintances in London once instituted and carried out a series of friendly parties. The following form of invitation, and the rules of the "Family Circle," will be found interesting, probably useful:

Will you do me the favour of meeting here, as a guest, on —— next, at seven precisely, a few friends who have kindly joined in an attempt to commence occasional pleasant and social parties, of which the spirit and intent will be better understood by the perusal of the few annexed remarks and rules from

Yours sincerely, ——

"They manage it better in France," is a remark to be often applied with reference to social life in England, and the writer fancies that the prevalence here of a few bad customs, easily changed, causes the disadvantageous difference between ourselves and our more courteous and agreeable neighbours.
  1. Worldly appearance; the phantom leading many to suppose that wealth is the standard of worth—in the minds of friends, a notion equally degrading to both parties.
  1. Overdress; causing unnecessary expense and waste of time.
  1. Expensive entertainments, as regards refreshments.
  1. Late hours.
The following brief rules are suggested, in a hope to show the way to a more constant, easy, and friendly intercourse amongst friends, the writer feeling convinced that society is equally beneficial and requisite—in fact, that mankind in seclusion, like the sword in the scabbard, often loses polish, and gradually rusts.
  1. That meetings be held in rotation at each member's house, for the enjoyment of conversation; music, grave and gay; dancing, gay only; and card-playing at limited stakes.
  1. That such meetings commence at seven and end about or after twelve, and that members and guests be requested to remember that punctuality has been called the politeness of kings.
  1. That as gentlemen are allowed for the whole season to appear, like the raven, in one suit, ladies are to have the like privilege; and that no lady be allowed to quiz or notice the habits of another lady; and that demi-toilette in dress be considered the better taste in the family circle; not that the writer wishes to raise or lower the proper standard of ladies' dress, which ought to be neither too high nor too low, but at a happy medium.
  1. That any lady infringing the last rule be liable to reproof by the oldest lady present at the meeting, if the oldest lady, like the oldest inhabitant, can be discovered.
  1. That every member or guest, be requested to bring with them their own vocal, instrumental, or dance music, and take it away with them, if possible, to avoid loss and confusion.
  1. That no member or guest, able to sing, play, or dance, refuse, unless excused by medical certificate; and that no cold or sore throat be allowed to last more than a week.
  1. That as every member or guest known to be able to sing, play, or dance, is bound to do so if requested, the performer (especially if timid) is to be kindly criticized and encouraged; it being a fact well known, that the greatest masters of an art are always the most lenient critics, from their deep knowledge of the feeling, intelligence, and perseverance required to at all approach perfection.
  1. That gentlemen present do pay every attention to ladies, especially visitors; but such attention is to be general, and not particular—for instance, no gentleman is to dance more than three times with one lady during the evening, except in the case of lovers, privileged to do odd things during their temporary lunacy, and also married couples, who are expected to dance together at least once during the evening, and oftener if they please.
  1. That to avoid unnecessary expense, the refreshments be limited to cold meat, sandwiches, bread, cheese, butter, vegetables, fruits, tea, coffee, negus, punch, malt liquors, &c, &c
  1. That all personal or face-to-face laudatory speeches (commonly called toasts, or, as may be, roasts) be for the future forbidden, without permission or inquiry, for reasons following:—That as the family circle includes bachelors and spinsters, and he, she, or they may be secretly engaged, it will be therefore cruel to excite hopes that may be disappointed; and that as some well-informed Benedick of long experience may after supper advise the bachelor to find the way to woman's heart—vice versa, some deep-feeling wife or widow, by "pity moven," may, perhaps, after supper advise the spinster the other way, which, in public, is an impropriety manifestly to be avoided.
  1. (suggested by a lady). That any lady, after supper, may (if she please) ask any gentleman apparently diffident, or requiring encouragement, to dance with her, and that no gentleman can of course refuse so kind a request.
  1. That no gentleman be expected to escort any lady home on foot beyond a distance of three miles, unless the gentleman be positive and the lady agreeable.
Rule the Last:  That as the foregoing remarks and rules are intended, in perfect good faith and spirit, to be considered general and not personal, no umbrage is to be taken, and the reader is to bear in mind the common and homely saying,—
"Always at trifles scorn to take offence,
It shows great pride and very little sense."
P.S.—To save trouble to both parties, this invitation be deemed accepted, without the necessity to reply, unless refused within twenty-four hours.

As a Man Lives, so shall he Die.

46.  Evening Pastimes

Among the innocent recreations of the fireside, there are few more commendable and practicable than those afforded by what are severally termed Anagrams, Arithmorems, Single and Double Acrostics, Buried Cities, &c, Charades, Conundrums, Cryptographs, Enigmas, Logogriphs, Puzzles, Rebuses, Riddles, Transpositions, &c Of these there are such a variety, that they are suited to every capacity; and they present this additional attraction, that ingenuity may be exercised in the invention of them, as well as in their solution. Many persons who have become noted for their literary compositions may date the origin of their success to the time when they attempted the composition of a trifling enigma or charade.

47.  Acrostics

The acrostic is a short poem in which the first letters of each line, read collectively, form a name, word, or sentence. The word comes from the Greek akros, extreme, and stichos, order or line. The acrostic was formerly in vogue for valentine and love verses. When employed as a riddle it is called a Rebus, which see.

48.  Acrostics (Double)

This very fashionable riddle is a double Rebus, the initial and final letters of a word or words selected making two names or two words. The usual plan is to first suggest the foundation words, and then to describe the separate words, whose initials and finals furnish the answer to the question. Thus:
A Party to charm the young and erratic—
But likely to frighten the old and rheumatic.
  1. The carriage in which the fair visitants came:
  2. A very old tribe with a very old name;
  3. A brave Prince of Wales free from scandal or shame.
The answer is Picnic.
1.     P Phaeton N
2.     I Iceni I
3.     C Caradoc C
Sometimes the Double Acrostic is in prose, as in this brief example:
A Briton supports his wig, his grand-mother, his comfort, and his country-women.

The answer is, Beef—Beer:

Bob, Eve, Ease, Fair.

49.   Acrostics (Triple)

are formed on the same plan, three names being indicated by the initial, central, and final letters of the selected words.

50.  Anagrams

are formed by the transposition of the letters of words or sentences, or names of persons, so as to produce a word, sentence, or verse, of pertinent or of widely different meaning. They are very difficult to discover, but are exceedingly striking when good. The following are some of the most remarkable:

Words Transpositions
Astronomers No more stars
Catalogues Got as a clue
Elegant Neat leg
Impatient Tim in a pet
Immediately I met my Delia
Masquerade Queer as mad
Matrimony Into my arm
Melodrama Made moral
Midshipman Mind his map
Old England Golden land
Parishioners I hire parsons
Parliament Partial men
Penitentiary Nay I repeat it
Presbyterian Best in prayer
Radical Reform Rare mad frolic
Revolution To love ruin
Sir Robert Peel Terrible poser
Sweetheart There we sat
Telegraphs Great help

51.  Arithmorems

This class of riddle is of recent introduction. The Arithmorem is made by substituting figures in a part of the word indicated, for Roman numerals. The nature of the riddle—from the Greek arithmos, number, and the Latin remanere, back again—will be easily seen from the following example, which is a double Arithmorem:

H 51 and a tub —— a fine large fish
A 100 and gore —— a sprightly movement in music
R 5 and be —— a part of speech
U 551 and as and —— a Spanish province
To 201 and ran —— a stupefying drug
R 102 and nt —— an acid
OU 250 and pap —— a Mexican town

The answer is Havanna—Tobacco.

Halibut, Allegro, Verb, Andalusia, Narcotic, Nitric, Acapulco.

52.  Charades

are compositions, poetical or otherwise, founded upon words, each syllable of which constitutes a noun, the whole of each word constituting another noun of a somewhat different meaning from those supplied by its separate syllables. Words which fully answer these conditions are the best for the purposes of charades; though many other words are employed. In writing, the first syllable is termed "My first," the second syllable "My second," and the complete word "My whole." The following is an example of a Poetical Charade:
The breath of the morning is sweet;
The earth is bespangled with flowers,
And buds in a countless array
Have ope'd at the touch of the showers.
The birds, whose glad voices are ever
A music delightful to hear,
Seem to welcome the joy of the morning,
As the hour of the bridal draws near.
What is that which now steals on my first,
Like a sound from the dreamland of love,
And seems wand'ring the valleys among,
That they may the nuptials approve?
'Tis a sound which my second explains,
And it comes from a sacred abode,
And it merrily trills as the villagers throng
To greet the fair bride on her road.
How meek is her dress, how befitting a bride
So beautiful, spotless, and pure!
When she weareth my second, oh, long may it be
Ere her heart shall a sorrow endure.
See the glittering gem that shines forth from her hair—
'Tis my whole, which a good father gave;
Twas worn by her mother with honour before—
But she sleeps in peace in her grave.
Twas her earnest request, as she bade them adieu,
That when her dear daughter the altar drew near,
She should wear the same gem that her mother had worn
When she as a bride full of promise stood there.
The answer is Ear-ring. The bells ring, the sound steals upon the ear, and the bride wears an ear ring. Charades may be sentimental or humorous, in poetry or prose; they may also be acted, in which manner they afford considerable amusement.

53.  Charades (Acted)

A drawing room with folded doors is the best for the purpose. Various household appliances are employed to fit up something like a stage, and to supply the fitting scenes. Characters dressed in costumes made up of handkerchiefs, coats, shawls, table-covers, &c, come on and perform an extempore play, founded upon the parts of a word, and its whole, as indicated already. For instance, the events explained in the poem given might be acted—glasses might be rung for bells—something might be said in the course of the dialogues about the sound of the bells being delightful to the ear; there might be a dance of the villagers, in which a ring might be formed; a wedding might be performed, and so on: but for acting charades there are many better words, because Ear-ring could with difficulty be represented without at once betraying the meaning. There is a little work entitled "Philosophy and Mirth united by Pen and Pencil," and another work, "Our Charades; and How we Played Them,"1 by Jean Francis, which supply a large number of these Charades. But the following is the most extensive list of words ever published upon which Charades may be founded:

Footnote 1:  "Philosophy and Mirth, united by Pen and Pencil," One Shilling.

"Our Charades; and How we played Them," by Jean Francis, One Shilling.

Both published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square, London, EC.

A Fool's Bolt Is Soon Shot.

54.  Words which may be converted into Acting or Written Charades

Aid-less Ba-boon Cab-in Dark-some Ear-ring False-hood Gain-say Had-dock Ill-nature Jac(k)o-bite
Air-pump Back-bite Can-did Day-break Earth-quake Fan-atic Gang-way Hail-stone Ill-usage Joy-ful
Ale-house Back-slide Can-ton Death-watch Ear-wig Fare-well Glow-worm Hail-storm In-action Joy-less
Ann-ounce Bag-gage Care-ful Dog-ma Far-thing Glut-ton Half-penny In-born Justice-ship
Arch-angel Bag-pipe Car-pet Don-key K Fear-less God-child Ham-let In-crease
Arm-let Bag-dad Car-rot Drink-able Key-stone Fee-ling God-daughter Ham-mock In-justice L
Art-less Bail-able Cart-ridge Drug-get Kid-nap Field-farm God-father Hand-cuff Ink-ling Lace-man
Ass-ail Bale-ful Chair-man Duck-ling King-craft Fire-lock God-like Hang-man In-land Lady-bird
Band-age Chamber-maid King-fisher Fire-man God-mother Hap-pen In-mate Lady-ship
M Band-box Cheer-ful N Kins-man Fire-pan God-son Hard-ship In-no-cent Lamp-black
Ma-caw Bane-ful Cheer-less Name-sake Kit-ten Fire-ship Gold-finch Hard-ware In-sane Land-lady
Mad-cap Bar-bed Christ-mas Nan-keen Knight-hood Fire-work Gold-smith Harts-horn In-spirit Land-lord
Mad-house Bar-gain Church-yard Nap-kin Know-ledge Fir-kin Goose-berry Head-land In-tent Land-mark
Mad-man Bar-rack Clans-men Neck-cloth Fish-hook Grand-father Hard-ship Inter-meddle Land-scape
Mag-pie Bar-row Clerk-ship Neck-lace O Flag-rant Grate-ful Hard-ware Inter-sect Land-tax
Main-mast Bat-ten Cob-web Nest-ling Oak-apple Flip-pant Grave-stone Harts-horn Inter-view Lap-dog
Main-sail Beard-less Cock-pit News-paper Oat-cake Flood-gate Green-finch Head-land In-valid Lap-pet
Main-spring Bid-den Cod-ling Nick-name Oat-meal Fond-ling Grey-hound Head-less In-vent Laud-able
Mam-moth Bird-lime Coin-age Night-cap Off-end Foot-ball Grim-ace Head-long In-vest Law-giver
Man-age Birth-right Con-fined Night-gown Oil-man Foot-man Grind-stone Head-stone In-ward Law-suit
Man-date Black-guard Con-firm Night-mare O-men Foot-pad Ground-plot Head-strong Ire-ful Lay-man
Marks-man Blame-less Con-form Night-watch On-set Foot-step Ground-sell Hear-say Iron-mould Leap-frog
Mar-row Block-head Con-tent Nine-fold O-pen Foot-stool Guard-ship Heart-less I-sing-lass Leap-year
Mass-acre Boat-man Con-test Noon-tide O-pinion For-age Gun-powder Heart-sick Lee-ward
Match-less Boot-jack Con-tract North-star Our-selves For-bear Heart-string P Life-guard
May-game Book-worm Con-verse North-ward Out-act For-bid Q Hedge-hog Pack-age Like-wise
Meat-man Bound-less Cork-screw Not-able Out-bid Found-ling Quad-rant Heir-less Pack-cloth Live-long
Mis-chance Bow-ling Count-less Not-ice Out-brave Fox-glove Quench-less Heir-loom Pad-dock Load-stone
Mis-chief Brace-let Court-ship No-where Out-brazen Free-hold Quick-lime Hell-hound Pad-lock Log-book
Mis-count Brain-less Crab-bed Nut-gall Out-cast Free-stone Quick-sand Hell-kite Pain-ful Log-wood
Mis-deed Break-fast Cross-bow Nut-meg Out-cry Fret-work Quick-set Hence-forth Pain-less Loop-hole
Mis-judge Breath-less Cur-tail Out-do Fri-day Quick-silver Hen-roost Pal-ace Lord-ship
Mis-quote Brick-bat Cur-tail R Out-grow Friend-ship Herb-age Pal-ate Love-sick
Monks-hood Brick-dust Rain-bow Out-law Frost-bite S Herds-man Pal-let Low-land
Moon-beam Bride-cake T Ram-part Out-line Fur-long Safe-guard Her-self Pan-cake Luck-less
Moon-light Bride-groom Tar-get Ran-sack Out-live Sal-low Hid-den Pan-tiler Luke-warm
Muf-fin Broad-cloth Tar-tar Rap-a-city Out-march U Sand-stone High-land Pa-pa
Broad-side Taw-dry Rasp-berry Out-rage Up-braid Sat-in High-way Pa-pal V
W Broad-sword Tax-able Rattle-snake Out-ride Up-hill Sat-ire Hind-most Par-able Vain-glory
Wag-on Brow-beat Tea-cup Red-breast Out-run Up-hold Sauce-box Hoar-frost Pa-rent Van-guard
Wag-tail Brown-stone Teem-ful Red-den Out-sail Up-land Sauce-pan Hob-goblin Pa-ring Vault-age
Wain-scot Bug-bear Teem-less Rid-dance Out-sell Up-ride Saw-dust Hogs-head Par-snip
Waist-coat Bull-dog Tell-tale Ring-leader Out-shine Up-right Saw-pit Home-bred Par-son Y
Wake-ful Bump-kin Ten-able Ring-let Out-side Up-roar Scare-crow Honey-bag Par-took Year-ling
Wal-nut Buoy-ant Ten-a-city Ring-tail Out-sit Up-shot Scarf-skin Honey-comb Part-ridge Youth-ful
Wan-ton But-ton Ten-ant Ring-worm Out-sleep Up-start Scar-let Honey-moon Pass-able
Ward-mate Ten-dance Rolling-pin Out-spread Up-ward School-fellow Honey-suckle Pass-over S continued
Ward-robe O continued Ten-don Rose-water Out-stare Use-less School-master Hood-wink Pas-time Ship-wreck
Ward-ship Over-plus Ten-dril Rot-ten Out-stretch School-mistress Horse-back Patch-work Shirt-less
Ware-house Over-poise Ten-or Round-about Out-talk P continued Scot-free Horse-shoe Pa-tent Shoe-string
War-fare Over-power Thank-ful Round-house Out-vie Port-hole Screech-owl Host-age Path-way Shoe-waker
War-like Over-press Thank-less Run-a-gate Out-ward Post-age Scul-lion Hot-bed Pat-ten Shop-board
War-rant Over-rack Them-selves Rush-light Out-weigh Post-chaise Sea-born Hot-house Peace-able Shop-keeper
Wash-ball Over-rate Thence-forth Out-wit Post-date Sea-calf Hot-spur Pea-cock Shop-man
Waste-ful Over-reach There-after W continued Out-work Post-house Sea-coal Hounds-ditch Pear-led Shore-less
Watch-ful Over-right There-at Whit-low Out-worn Post-man Sea-faring Hour-glass Peer-age Short-hand
Watch-man Over-ripen There-by Whit-sun-tide Over-act Post-office Sea-girt House-hold Peer-less Short-lived
Watch-word Over-roast There-fore Who-ever Over-awe Pot-ash Sea-gull House-maid Pen-knife Short-sighted
Water-course Over-rule There-from Whole-sale Over-bear Pot-hook Sea-maid House-wife Pen-man Shot-free
Water-fall Over-run There-in Whole-some Over-board Pound-age Sea-man Hum-drum Pen-man-ship Shoulder-belt
Water-fowl Over-see There-on Wild-fire Over-boil Prim-rose Seam-less Hump-back Penny-worth Shrove-tide
Water-man Over-seer There-to Wil-low Over-burden Prior-ship Seam-stress Hurri-cane Per-jury Side-board
Water-mark Over-set There-with Wind-lass Over-cast Prop-a-gate Sea-nymph Pert-in-a-city Side-long
Water-mill Over-shade Thick-set Wind-mill Over-charge Punch-bowl Sea-piece S continued Pick-lock Side-saddle
Water-work Over-shadow Thought-ful Wind-pipe Over-cloud Sea-port Sod-den Pick-pocket Side-ways
Way-lay Over-shoe Thought-less Win-now Over-come S continued Sea-sick Sol-ace Pie-bald Sight-less
Way-ward Over-shoot Thread-bare Win-some Over-court Star-board Sea-son So-lo Pike-staff Silk-weaver
Weather-cock Over-sight Three-fold Wise-acre Over-do Star-gazer Sea-ward Sol-vent Pill-age Silk-worm
Weather-glass Over-size Three-score Wit-less Over-due Star-less Second-hand Some-body Pin-cushion Silver-smith
Weather-wise Over-sleep Thresh-old Wolf-dog Over-eye Star-light Seed-cake Some-how Pine-apple Sin-less
Web-bed Over-spread Through-out Wood-cock Over-feed Star-like Seed-ling Some-time Pip-kin Six-fold
Web-foot Over-stock Thunder-bolt Wood-land Over-flow Star-ling Seed-pearl Some-what Pitch-fork Skim-milk
Wed-lock Over-strain Thunder-struck Wood-lark Over-grown States-man Seed-time Some-where Pit-men Skip-jack
Week-day Over-sway Till-age Wood-man Over-head Stead-fast Seers-man Song-stress Plain-tiff Sky-lark
Wel-come Over-swell Tip-pet Wood-note Over-hear Steel-yard Sex-tile Son-net Play-fellow Sky-light
Wel-fare Over-take Tip-staff Wood-nymph Over-heard Steer-age Sex-ton Southern-wood Play-house Slap-dash
Well-born Over-throw Tire-some Work-house Over-joy Step-dame Shame-less Span-king Play-mate Sleeve-less
Well-bred Over-took Title-page Work-man Over-lade Step-daughter Sham-rock Spare-rib Play-wright Slip-board
Wheel-wright Over-value Toad-stool Work-shop Over-lay Step-father Shape-less Spar-row Plough-man Slip-shod
Where-at Over-work Toil-some Worm-wood Over-leap Step-mother Sharp-set Speak-able Plough-share Slip-slop
Where-by Ox-gall Tom-boy Wrath-ful Over-load Steward-ship Sheep-cot Speech-less Pole-cat Slope-wise
Whet-stone Ox-lip Tooth-ache Wrath-less Over-look Stiff-neck Sheep-shearing Spite-ful Pol-lute Slow-worm
Whip-cord Top-knot Wrist-band Over-mast Still-born Sheep-walk Sports-man Pop-gun Snip-pet
Whip-hand S cont. Top-most Writ-ten Over-match Stock-jobber Sheet-anchor Spot-less Pop-in-jay Snip-snap
Whirl-pool Stow-age Top-sail Over-pass Stone-fruit Shell-fish Spring-halt Port-age Snow-ball
Whirl-wind Strata-gem Touch-stone S cont. Over-pay Store-fruit Shift-less Spruce-beer Port-hole Snow-drop
White-wash Straw-berry Touch-wood Stream-let Over-peer Store-house Ship-board Stair-case Post-age Snuff-box
Sun-dry Towns-man Strip-ling Sup-position seven Sweet-william
Sun-flower Toy-shop Sum-mary T cont. Sup-press T cont. Sweet-willow
Sun-less Track-less Summer-house Trod-den Swans-down Twelfth-night Swine-herd
Sup-plant Trap-door Summer-set Turn-pike Sweep-stake Twelfth-tide Swords-man
Sup-pliant Tre-foil Sun-beam Turn-spit Sweet-bread Two-fold
Sup-port Trip-let Sun-burnt Turn-stile Sweet-briar Two-pence
Sup-port-able Trip-thong Sun-day Tutor-age Sweet-heart

A Liar Should Have a Good Memory.

55.  Chronograms or Chrono-graphs

are riddles in which the letters of the Roman notation in a sentence or series of words are so arranged as to make up a date. The following is a good example:
My Day Closed Is In Immortality.
The initials MDCIII. give 1603, the year of Queen Elizabeth's death. Sometimes the Chronogram is employed to express a date on coins or medals; but oftener it is simply used as a riddle:
A poet who in blindness wrote; another lived in Charles's reign; a third called the father of English verse; a Spanish dramatist; the scolding wife of Socrates; and the Prince of Latin poets,—their initials give the year of the Great Plague—MDCLXV.—1665: Milton, Dryden, Chaucer, Lope-de-Vega, Xantippe, Virgil.
The word comes from Chronos, time, and gramma, a letter.

Begin Well and End Better.

56.  Conundrums

These are simple catches, in which the sense is playfully cheated, and are generally founded upon words capable of double meaning. The following are examples:
Where did Charles the First's executioner dine, and what did he
He took a chop at the King's Head.

When is a plant to be dreaded more than a mad dog?
When it's madder.

What is majesty stripped of its externals?
It is a jest.
[The m and the y, externals, are taken away.]

Why is hot bread like a caterpillar?
Because it's the grub that makes the butter fly.

Why did the accession of Victoria throw a greater damp over England than the death of King William?
Because the King was missed (mist) while the Queen was

Why should a gouty man make his will?
To have his legatees (leg at ease).

Why are bankrupts more to be pitied than idiots?
Because bankrupts are broken, while idiots are only cracked.

Why is the treadmill like a true convert?
Because it's turning is the result of conviction.

When may a nobleman's property be said to be all feathers?
When his estates are all entails (hen-tails).

Every Man Knows Where His Own Shoe Pinches.

57.  Cryptography, or secret writing

from the Greek cryptos, a secret, and graphein, to write—has been largely employed in state despatches, commercial correspondence, love epistles, and riddles. The telegraphic codes employed in the transmission of news by electric wire, partakes somewhat of the cryptographic character, the writer employing certain words or figures, the key to which is in the possession of his correspondent. The single-word despatch sent by Napier to the Government of India, was a sort of cryptographic conundrum—Peccavi, I have sinned (Scinde); and in the agony column of the Times there commonly appear paragraphs which look puzzling enough until we discover the key-letter or figure. Various and singular have been the devices adopted—as, for instance, the writing in the perforations of a card especially prepared, so as only to allow the real words of the message to be separated from the mass of writing by means of a duplicate card with similar perforations; the old Greek mode of writing on the edges of a strip of paper wound round a stick in a certain direction, and the substitution of figures or signs for letters or words. Where one letter is always made to stand for another, the secret of a cryptograph is soon discovered, but when, as in the following example, the same letter does not invariably correspond to the letter for which it is a substitute, the difficulty of deciphering the cryptograph is manifestly increased:
Ohs ya h sych, oayarsa rr loucys syms
Osrh srore rrhmu h smsmsmah emshyr snms.
The translation of this can be made only by the possessor of the key.
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
h u s h m o n e y b y c h a r l e s h r o s s e s q
"Hush Money, by Charles H. Ross, Esq."—twenty-six letters which, when applied to the cryptograph, will give a couplet from Parnell's "Hermit":
"Far in a wild, unknown to public view,
From youth to age a reverend hermit grew."
The employment of figures and signs for letters is the most usual form of the cryptograph. From the following jumble we get a portion of Hamlet's address to the Ghost:

cryptography example

it is easy to write and not very hard to read the entire speech. The whole theory of the cryptogram is that each correspondent possesses the key to the secret. To confound an outside inquirer the key is often varied. A good plan is to take a line from any ordinary book and substitute the first twenty-six of its letters for those of the alphabet. In your next cryptogram you take the letters from another page or another book. It is not necessary to give an example. Enough will be seen from what we have written to instruct an intelligent inquirer.

58.   Decapitations and Curtailments

are riddles somewhat of the nature of the Logogriph, which see. In the first, the omission of the successive initials produces new words, as—Prelate, Relate, Elate, Late, Ate. In the curtailment the last letter of the word is taken away with a similar result, as—Patent, Paten, Pate, Pat, Pa. Of like kind are the riddles known as variations, mutilations, reverses, and counterchanges. A good example of the last-named is this:
Charge, Chester, Charge: on, Stanley, on!
Were the last words of Marmion.
Had I but been in Stanley's place,
When Marmion urged him to the chase,
A tear might come on every face."
The answer is onion—On, I, on.

Mock Not a Cobbler for His Black Thumb.

59.  Enigmas

are compositions of a different character, based upon ideas, rather than upon words, and frequently constructed so as to mislead, and to surprise when the solution is made known. Enigmas may be founded upon simple catches, like Conundrums, in which form they are usually called Riddles, such as:
"Though you set me on foot,
I shall be on my head."
The answer is, A nail in a shoe. The celebrated Enigma on the letter H, by Miss Catherine Fanshawe, but usually attributed to Lord Byron, commencing:
"'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas muttered in hell,
And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell;"
and given elsewhere in this volume (See par. 215, page 77), is an admirable specimen of what may be rendered in the form of an Enigma.

60.  Hidden Words.

A riddle in which names of towns, persons, rivers, &c, are hidden or arranged, without transposition, in the midst of sentences which convey no suggestion of their presence. In the following sentence, for instance, there are hidden six Christian names:—Here is hid a name the people of Pisa acknowledge: work at each word, for there are worse things than to give the last shilling for bottled wine.—The names are Ida, Isaac, Kate, Seth, Ethel, Edwin. Great varieties of riddles, known as Buried Cities, Hidden Towns, &c, are formed on this principle, the words being sometimes placed so as to read backwards, or from right to left. The example given will, however, sufficiently explain the mode of operation.

61.  Lipogram

from leipein, to leave out, and gramma, a letter—is a riddle in which a name or sentence is written without its vowels, as:
The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

Whnhnorslst ts—rlftd,
Dths bt—sr rtrt fm nfmy.

"When honour's lost 'tis a relief to die,
Death's but a sure retreat from infamy."
This riddle sometimes appears as a proverb.
"Fear's the white feather all cowards wear."
——s' th wht fthr ll cwrds——

62.  Logogriph

This is a riddle (logos, a word, and griphos, a riddle) in which a word is made to undergo several changes. These changes are brought about by the addition, subtraction, omission, or substitution of a letter or letters. The following, by the late Lord Macaulay, is an excellent example:
"Cut off my head, how singular I act:
Cut off my tail, and plural I appear.
Cut off my head and tail—most curious fact,
Although my middle's left, there's nothing there!
What is my head cut off?—a sounding sea!
What is my tail cut off?—a flowing river!
Amid their mingling deaths I fearless play
Parent of softest sounds, though mute for ever!
The answer is cod. Cut off its head and it is od (odd, singular); its tail, and it is Co., plural, for company; head and tail, and it is o, nothing. Its head is a sounding C (sea), its tail a flowing D (river Dee), and amid their depths the cod may fearless play, parent of softest sounds yet mute for ever.

63.  Metagram

a riddle in which the change of the initial letter produces a series of words of different meanings; from meta, implying change, and gramma, a letter. Thus:
I cover your head; change my head, and I set you to sleep; change it again and again, and with every change comes a new idea.—Cap, Nap, Gap, Sap, Hap, Map, Lap, Pap, Rap, Tap. This kind of riddle is also known as word-capping.

Gunpowder Made By a Monk at Cologne A.D.1330.

64.  Palindrome

from the Greek palin-dromos, running back again. This is a word, sentence, or verse that reads the same both forwards and backwards—as, madam, level, reviver; live on no evil; love your treasure and treasure your love; you provoked Harry before Harry provoked you; servants respect masters when masters respect servants. Numerous examples of Palindrome or reciprocal word-twisting exist in Latin and French; but in English it is difficult to get a sentence which will be exactly the same when read either way. The best example is the sentence which, referring to the first banishment of the Great Napoleon, makes him say, as to his power to conquer Europe:
"Able was I ere I saw Elba."

65.  Puzzles

vary much. One of the simplest that we know is this:
Take away half of thirteen and let eight remain.

Write XIII on a slate, or on a piece of paper—rub out the lower half of the figures, and VIII will remain.
Upon the principle of the square-words, riddlers form Diagonals, Diamonds, Pyramids, Crosses, Stars, &c These specimens will show their peculiarities:

66.  Oblique Puzzle.

Malice, eight, a polemical meeting, a Scottish river, what I write with, a decided negative, the capital of Ireland. The initials downward name a celebrated musician.
(solution in p.67 below.)

67.  Diagonal Puzzle

A direction, a singer, a little bird, a lady's ring, a sharp shaver.

Read from left to right and right to left, the centrals show two famous novelists.
The following are answers to these two puzzles, and afford good examples of their construction to any one who wishes to try his hand at their manufacture.
puzzle 1

68.  Diamond Puzzle

The head of a mouse, what the mouse lives in, the county of calves, the city of porcelain, a German town, a Transatlantic stream, a royal county, a Yorkshire borough, Eve's temptation, our poor relation, myself. Centrals down and across, show a wide, wide, long river.
The construction of the Diamond Puzzle is exhibited in the following diagram, which is, at the same time, the answer to it.
puzzle 2

69.  Rebuses

are a class of Enigma generally formed by the first, sometimes the first and last, letters of words, or of transpositions of letters, or additions to words. Dr. Johnson, however, represents Rebus to be a word represented by a picture. And putting the Doctor's definition and our own explanation together, the reader may glean a good conception of the nature of the Rebus of which the following is an example:
The father of the Grecian Jove;
A little boy who's blind;
The foremost land in all the world;
The mother of mankind;
A poet whose love-sonnets are
Still very much admired;—
The initial letters will declare
A blessing to the tired.
Answer—Saturn; Love; England; Eve; Plutarch. The initials form sleep.

The excellent little work mentioned in para. 53, entitled "Philosophy and Mirth united by Pen and Pencil," has this novelty, that many of the Enigmas are accompanied by enigmatical pictures, so that the eye is puzzled as well as the ear.

Glass First Brought to England A.D. 668.

70.  Square Words

A comparatively modern sort of riddle, in which the letters of each word selected reads both across and down. With four letters the making of the riddle is easy, but with five or six the difficulty increases. We give an example of each.
  1. Inside, a thought, a liquid gem, a timid creature.
  2. To run out, odour, to boil, to loosen, unseen essence.
  3. Compensations, a court favourite, to assist, to bite slightly, Spanish money, sarcasms.
puzzle 3
With seven or eight letters the riddle becomes exceedingly difficult, especially if the selected words are of like character and syllables.

71.  Chess, Laws of.

The rules given below are those which are now universally accepted by English players.

  1. The board is to be so placed as to leave a white square at the right hand of the player.
  1. Any mistake in placing the board or the men may be rectified before the fourth move is completed, but not after.
  1. The players draw lots for the first move, and take the move alternately.
[When odds are given, the player giving them moves first. White generally moves first; therefore, if black win the move, the board is turned. It is usual to play with the white and black men alternately.]
  1. The piece touched must be moved. When the fingers of the player have once left the man, it cannot be again removed from the square it occupies.
[Except the move be illegal, when the opponent can insist on the piece being moved in the proper manner, or for the opposing King to be moved.]
  1. In touching a piece simply to adjust it, the player must notify to his adversary that such is his intention.
[It is usual, in such a case, to say J'adoube (I adjust); but he may not touch a piece with the intention of moving it, and then, when he discover his mistake, say, J'adoube. The phrase is simply intended to be used when a piece is displaced or overturned by accident.]
  1. If a player take one of his own men by mistake, or touch a wrong man, or one of his opponent's men, or make an illegal move, his adversary may compel him to take the man, make the right move, move his King, or replace the piece, and make a legal move.
  1. A pawn may be played either one or two squares at a time when first moved.
[In the latter case it is liable to be taken en passant, with a pawn that could have taken it had it been played only one square.]
  1. A player cannot castle under any of the following circumstances:
    1. If he has moved either King or Rook.
    2. If the King be in check.
    3. If there be any piece between the King and the Rook.
    4. If the King, in moving, pass over any square commanded by any one of his adversary's forces.
[You cannot castle to get out of check.]
  1. If a player give a check without crying "check," the adversary need not take notice of the check. But if two moves only are made before the discovery of the mistake, the pieces may be replaced, and the game properly played.
  1. If a player say check without actually attacking the King, and his adversary move his King or take the piece, the latter may elect either to let the move stand or have the pieces replaced and another move made.
  1. If, at the end of a game, the players remain, one with a superior to an inferior force, or even if they have equal forces, the defending player may call upon his adversary to mate in fifty moves on each side, or draw the game.
[If one player persist in giving perpetual check, or repeating the same move, his opponent may count the moves for the draw; in which case touching a piece if reckoned a move.]
  1. Stalemate, or perpetual check is a drawn game.
  1. Directly a pawn reaches its eighth square it must be exchanged for a piece.
[It is usual to change the pawn for a Queen, but it may be replaced by a Rook, Bishop, or Knight, without reference to the pieces already on the board. In practice it would be changed for a Queen or a Knight, seeing that the Queen's moves include those of the Rook and Bishop. Thus you may have two or more Queens, three or more Rooks, Bishops, or Knights on the board at the end of the game.]
  1. Should any dispute arise, the question must be submitted to a bystander, whose decision is to be considered final.

For information as to the best modes of play, the Openings and Endings of Games, &c, read The Book of Chess, by G.H. Selkirk, published by Messrs. Houlston and Sons.

72.  Draughts, Rules of the Game.

The accepted laws for regulating the game are as follows:

  1. The board is to be so placed as to have the white or black double corners at the right hand of the player.
  1. The first move is taken by chance or agreement, and in all the subsequent games of the same sitting, the first move is taken alternately. Black generally moves first.
  1. Any action which prevents your adversary from having a full view of the board is not allowed, and if persisted in, loses the game to the offending player.
  1. The man touched must be moved, but the men may be properly adjusted during any part of the game. After they are so placed, if either player, when it is his turn to play, touch a man, he must move it. If a man be so moved as to be visible on the angle separating the squares, the player so touching the man must move it to the square indicated.
[By this it is meant that a player may not move first to one square and then to another. Once moved on to a square, the man must remain there.]
  1. It is optional with the player either to allow his opponent to stand the huff, or to compel him to take the offered piece.
["Standing the huff" is when a player refuses to take an offered piece, but either intentionally or accidentally makes another move. His adversary then removes the man that should have taken the piece, and makes his own move—huff and move, as it is called.]
  1. Ten minutes is the longest time allowed to consider a move, which if not made within that time, forfeits the game.
  1. It is compulsory upon the player to take all the pieces he can legally take by the same series of moves. On making a King, however, the latter remains on his square till a move has been made on the other side.
  1. All disputes are to be decided by the majority of the bystanders present, or by an umpire.
  1. No player may leave the room without the consent of his adversary, or he forfeits the game.
  1. A false move must be remedied as soon as it is discovered, or the maker of such move loses the game.
  1. When only a small number of men remain toward the end of the game, the possessor of the lesser number may call on his opponent to win in at least fifty moves, or declare the game drawn. With two Kings to one, the game must be won in at most twenty moves on each side.
  1. The player who refuses to abide by the rules loses the game. In the losing game a player must take all the men he can by his move.

73.  Whist

Great silence and attention should be observed by the players. Four persons cut for partners; the two highest are against the two lowest. The partners sit opposite to each other, and he who cuts the lowest card is entitled to the deal. The ace is the lowest in cutting.

  1. Shuffling—-Each person has a right to shuffle the cards before the deal; but it is usual for the elder hand only; and the dealer after.
  1. Cutting.—The pack is then cut by the right hand adversary; and the dealer distributes the cards, one by one, to each of the players, beginning with the player on his left, until he comes to the last card, which he turns up for trump, and leaves on the table till the first trick be played.
  1. First Play.—The elder hand, the player on the left of the dealer, plays first. The winner of the trick plays again; and so on, till all the cards are played out.
  1. Mistakes.—No intimations, or signs are permitted between the partners. The mistake of one party is the profit of the adversary.
  1. Collecting Tricks.—The tricks belonging to each player should be turned and collected by one of the partners only. All above six tricks reckon towards game.
  1. Honours.—The ace, king, queen, and knave of trumps are called honours; and when either of the partners hold three separately, or between them, they count two points towards the game; and in case they have four honours, they count four points.
  1. Game.—Long Whist game consists of ten points, Short Whist of five points.

74.  Terms used in Whist.

  1. Finessing, is the attempt to gain an advantage; thus:—If you have the best and third best card of the suit led you put on the third best, and run the risk of your adversary having the second best; if he has it not, which is two to one against him, you are then certain of gaining a trick.
  1. Forcing, is playing the suit of which your partner or adversary has not any, and which in order to win he must trump.
  1. Long Trump, the one or more trumps in your hand when all the rest are out.
  1. Loose Card, a card of no value, and the most proper to throw away.
  1. Points,—Ten make the game; as many as are gained by tricks or honours, so many points are set up to the score of the game.
  1. Quarte, four successive cards in suit.
  1. Quarte Major, a sequence of ace, king, queen, and knave.
  1. Quinte, five successive cards in suit.
  1. Quinte Major, is a sequence of ace, king, queen, knave, and ten.
  1. See-saw, is when each partner trumps a suit, and when they play those suits to each other for that purpose.
  1. Score, is the number of points set up. The following is a good method of scoring with coins or counters:
puzzle 4

For Short Whist there are regular markers.
  1. Slam, is when either side win every trick.
  1. Tenance, is possessing the first last and third best cards, and being the player; you consequently catch the adversary when that suit is played: as, for instance, in case you have ace and queen of any suit, and your adversary leads that suit, you must win two tricks, by having the best and third best of the suit played, and being the last player.
  1. Tierce, three successive cards in suit.
  1. xv. Tierce Major, a sequence of ace, king, and queen.

Children and Chickens Must Always be Picking.

75.  Maxims for Whist.

  1. Lead from your strong suit, be cautious how you change suits, and keep a commanding card to bring it in again.
  1. Lead through the strong suit and up to the weak; but not in trumps; unless very strong in them.
  1. Lead the highest of a sequence; but if you have a quarte or cinque to a king, lead the lowest.
  1. Lead through an honour, particularly if the game is against you.
  1. Lead your best trump, if the adversaries be eight, and you have no honour; but not if you have four trumps, unless you have a sequence.
  1. Lead a trump if you have four or five, or a strong hand; but not if weak.
  1. Having ace, king, and two or three small cards, lead ace and king if weak in trumps, but a small one if strong in them.
  1. If you have the last trump, with some winning cards, and one losing card only, lead the losing card.
  1. Return your partner's lead, not the adversaries'; and if you hold only three originally, play the best; but you need not return it immediately, when you win with a king, queen, or knave, and have only small ones, or when you hold a good sequence, a strong suit, or five trumps.
  1. Do not lead from ace queen, or ace knave.
  1. Do not—as a rule—lead an ace, unless you have a king.
  1. Do not lead a thirteenth card, unless trumps be out.
  1. Do not trump a thirteenth card, unless you be last player, or want the lead.
  1. Keep a small card to return your partner's lead.
  1. Be cautious in trumping a card when strong in trumps, particularly if you have a strong suit.
  1. Having only a few small trumps, make them when you can.
  1. If your partner refuse to trump a suit, of which he knows you have not the best, lead your best trump.
  1. When you hold all the remaining trumps, play one, and then try to put the lead in your partner's hand.
  1. Remember how many of each suit are out, and what is the best card left in each hand.
  1. Never force your partner if you are weak in trumps, unless you have a renounce, or want the odd trick.
  1. When playing for the odd trick, be cautious of trumping out, especially if your partner be likely to trump a suit. Make all the tricks you can early, and avoid finessing.
  1. If you take a trick, and have a sequence, win it with the lowest.

There are None So Wicked as Represented.

76.  Laws of Whist

as accepted at the best Clubs.

  1. The deal is determined by cutting-in. Cutting-in and cutting-out must be by pairs.
[Less than three cards, above or below, is not a cut. Ace is lowest. Ties cut again. Lowest deals. Each player may shuffle, the dealer last. The right-hand adversary cuts to dealer.]
  1. iIf a card be exposed, a fresh deal may be demanded.
  1. Dealer must not look at bottom card; and the trump-card must be left, face upwards, on the table till the first trick be turned, or opponents may call a fresh deal.
  1. Too many or too few cards is a misdeal—an exposed or face card. In either case, a fresh deal may be demanded.
[In cases of a misdeal, the deal passes to the next player.]
  1. After the first round has been played, no fresh deal can be called.
[If the first player hold fewer than thirteen cards, the other hands being right, the deal stands.]
  1. If two cards be dealt to the same player, the dealer may rectify his error before dealing another card.
[The dealer must not touch the cards after they have left his hands; but he may count those remaining in the pack if he suspect a misdeal, or he may ask the players to count their cards. One partner may not deal for another without the consent of opponents.]
  1. If the trump-card be not taken into the dealer's hand at the expiration of the first round, it may be treated as an exposed card, and called.
[After this, no one has a right to ask what was the trump-card, but he may ask "What are Trumps?"]
  1. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth has a right to play before his partner; or if the fourth hand play before the second or third, the cards so played must stand, and the second be compelled to win the trick if he can.
  1. If a player lead out of his turn, or otherwise expose a card, that card may be called, if the playing of it does not cause a revoke.
[Calling a card is the insisting of its being played when the suit comes round, or when it may be played.]
  1. If a player trump by mistake, he may recall his card, and play to the suit, if the card be not covered; but he may be compelled to play the highest or lowest of the suit led, and to play the exposed trump when it is called by his adversaries.
  1. If, before a trick be turned, a player discover that he has not followed suit, he may recall his card; but the card played in error can be called when the suit is played.
  1. Before a trick is turned, the player who made it may see the preceding trick.
[Only one trick is to be shown; not more, as is sometimes erroneously believed.]
  1. Before he plays, a player may require his partner to "draw his card," or he may have each card in the trick claimed before the trick be turned.
  1. When a player does not follow suit his partner is allowed to ask him whether he has any card of the suit led.
  1. The penalty for a revoke—either by wrongfully trumping the suit led, or by playing a card of another suit—is the loss of three tricks; but no revoke can be claimed till the cards are abandoned, and the trick turned.
[Revokes forfeit three tricks from the hand or score: or opponents may add three to their score; partner may ask and correct a trick if not turned; the revoking side cannot score out in that deal.]
  1. No revoke can be claimed after the tricks are gathered up, or after the cards are cut for the next deal.
[The wilful mixing up of the cards in such case loses the game.]
  1. The proof of a revoke lies with the claimants, who may examine each trick on the completion of the round.
  1. If a revoke occur on both sides, there must be a new deal.
  1. Honours cannot be counted unless they are claimed previous to the next deal.
[No omission to score honours can be rectified after the cards are packed; but an overscore, if proved, must be deducted.]
  1. Honours can only be called at eight points (in Long Whist), and at nine they do not count.
[In some Clubs, eight, with the deal, cannot call against nine.]

77.  Short Whist

is the above game cut in half. Honours are not called at any part of the game; but, as in Long Whist, they are counted by their holders and scored—except at the score of four. All the maxims and Rules belonging to the parent game apply to Short Whist.

78.   Points at Short Whist.

The Game consists of Five Points. One for a Single—5 to 3 or 4; Two for a Double—5 to 1 or 2; Three for a Triple—5 to love. A Rubber—two Games successively won, or the two best Games out of three—counts for Two Points. Thus, if the first Game be won by 5 to 4, the Points are 1 to love; the second Game won by the opposite side by 5 to 1, the Points are then 1 to 2; the third Game won by the side which won the first, by 5 to love. The Points are then 6 to 2—a balance of 4. This is arrived at thus: the Single in the first Game, 1; the Triple in the third Game, 3; the Rubber (two Games of three), 2; together, 6. From this deduct 2, for the Double gained by the opponents in the second Game, which leaves 4, as above. Short Whist is usually played for points—say, a shilling, or a penny, for each point; two for the Game, and two for the Rubber.

None are so Good as they Should Be.

79.  Advice to all Players.

  1. Count, and arrange your cards into suits; but do not always place your trumps in one particular part of your hand, or your opponents will discover how many you have.
  1. Attend to the game, and play as though your hand consisted of twenty-six instead of thirteen cards.
  1. In the second round of a suit, win the trick when you can, and lead out for your partner's high cards as soon as possible.
  1. Touch only the card you intend to play.
  1. Retain a high trump as long as you can, to bring back your strong suit.
  1. With a weak hand, always try to secure the seventh or odd trick to save the game.
  1. Attend to the score, and play as if the whole fortune of the game depended on yourself.
  1. Remember the number of trumps out at every stage of the game. Note, also, the fall of every court-card in the other suits, so that you are never in doubt as to the card that will win the trick.
  1. Hold the turn-up as long as you can, as by that means you keep your adversaries from knowing your strength in trumps.
  1. Do not force your partner unnecessarily, as by that means you sometimes become his adversary instead of his friend.
  1. When in doubt, play a trump. Play the game in its integrity, and recollect that Whist is full of inferences as well as facts.

80.  Cribbage

The game of Cribbage differs from all other games by its immense variety of chances. It is played with the full pack of cards, often by four persons, but it is a better game for two. There are also different modes of playing—with five, six, or eight cards; but the best games use those with five or six cards.

Night is not Dark to the Good.

81.  Terms Used in Cribbage

  1. Crib.—The crib is composed of the cards thrown out by each player, and the dealer is entitled to score whatever points are made by them.
  1. Pairs are two similar cards, as two aces or two kings. Whether in hand or play they reckon for two points.
  1. Pairs-Royal are three similar cards, and reckon for six points, whether in hand or play.
  1. Double Pairs-Royal are four similar cards and reckon for twelve points, whether in hand or play. The points gained by pairs, pairs-royal, and double pairs-royal, in playing, are thus effected:—Your adversary having played a seven and you another, constitutes a pair, and entitles you to score two points; your antagonist then playing a third seven, makes a pair-royal, and he marks six; and your playing a fourth is a double pair-royal, and entitles you to twelve points.
  1. Fifteens.—Every fifteen reckons for two points, whether in hand or play. In hand they are formed either by two cards—as a five and any tenth card, a six and a nine, a seven and an eight, or by three cards, as a two, a five, and an eight, two sixes and a three. If in play, such cards as together make fifteen are played, the player whose card completes that number, scores two points.
  1. Sequences are three or four more successive cards, and reckon for an equal number of points, either in hand or play. In playing a sequence, it is of no consequence which card is thrown down first; as thus:—your adversary playing an ace, you a five, he a three, you a two, then he a four—he counts five for the sequence.
  1. Flush.—When, the cards are all of one suit, they reckon for as many points as there are cards. For a flush in the crib, the turned-up card must be of the same suit as those put out.
  1. Nob.—The knave of the suit turned up reckons for one point; if a knave be turned up, the dealer marks two.
  1. End Hole.—The point scored by the last player, if he make under thirty-one; if he make thirty-one exactly, he marks two.
  1. Last.—Three points taken at the commencement of the game of five-card cribbage by the non-dealer.

Nor is Day Bright to the Wicked.

82.  The Accepted Laws of Cribbage.

  1. The players cut for deal. The ace is lowest in cutting. In case of a tie, they cut again. The holder of the lowest card deals.
  1. Not fewer than four cards is a cut; nor must the non-dealer touch the pack after he has cut it.
  1. Too many or too few cards dealt constitutes a misdeal, the penalty for which is the taking of two points by the non-dealer.
  1. A faced card, or a card exposed during the act of dealing necessitates a new deal, without penalty.
  1. The dealer shuffles the cards and the non-dealer cuts them for the "start."
  1. If the non-dealer touch the cards (except to cut them for the turn-up) after they have been cut for the start, he forfeits two points.
  1. In cutting for the start, not fewer than three cards must be lifted from the pack or left on the table.
  1. The non-dealer throws out for the crib before the dealer. A card once laid out cannot be recalled, nor must either party touch the crib till the hand is played out. Either player confusing the crib cards with his hand, is liable to a penalty of three points.
[In three and four-hand cribbage the left-hand player throws out first for the crib, then the next; the dealer last. The usual and best way is for the non-dealer to throw his crib over to the dealer's side of the board; on these two cards the dealer places his own, and hands the pack over to be cut. The pack is then at the right side of the board for the next deal.]
  1. The player who takes more points than those to which he is entitled, either in play or in reckoning hand or crib, is liable to be "pegged;" that is, to be put back as many points as he has over-scored, and have the points added to his opponent's side.
[In pegging you must not remove your opponent's front peg till you have given him another. In order "to take him down,'' you remove your own back peg and place it where his front peg ought to be, you then take his wrongly placed peg and put it in front of your own front, as many holes as he has forfeited by wrongly scoring.]
  1. No penalty attaches to the taking of too few points in play, hand, or crib.
  1. When a player has once taken his hand or crib, he cannot amend his score.
  1. When a knave is turned up, "two for his heels" must be scored before the dealer's own card be played, or they cannot be taken.
  1. A player cannot demand the assistance of his adversary in reckoning hand and crib.
  1. A player may not, except to "peg him," touch his adversary's pegs, under a penalty of two points. If the foremost peg has been displaced by accident, it must be placed in the hole behind the peg standing on the board.
  1. The peg once holed cannot be removed by either player till another point or points be gained.
  1. The player who scores a game as won when, in fact, it is not won, loses it.
  1. A lurch—scoring the whole sixty-one before your adversary has scored thirty-one—is equivalent to a double game, if agreed to previous to the commencement of the game.
  1. A card that may be legally played cannot be withdrawn after it has been once thrown face upwards on the table.
  1. If a player neglect to score his hand, crib, or any point or points of the game, he cannot score them after the cards are packed or the next card played.
  1. The player who throws up his cards and refuses to score, forfeits the game.
  1. If a player neglect to play when he can play a card within the prescribed thirty-one, he forfeits two holes.
  1. Each player's hand and crib must be plainly thrown down on the table and not mixed with the pack, under penalty of the forfeiture of the game.
The player who refuses to abide by the rules, loses the game. Bystanders must not interfere unless requested to decide any disputed point.

83.  Five-Card Cribbage.

In this the sixty-one points or holes on the cribbage-board mark the game. The player cutting the lowest card deals; after which, each player lays out two of the five cards for the crib, which belongs to the dealer. The adversary cuts the remainder of the pack, and the dealer turns up and lays upon the crib the uppermost card, the turn-up. If it be a knave, he marks two points. The card turned up is reckoned by both in counting their hands or crib. After laying out, the eldest hand plays a card, which the other should endeavour to pair, or find one, the pips of which, reckoned with the first, will make fifteen; then the non-dealer plays another card, and so on alternately, until the pips on the cards played make thirty-one, or the nearest possible number under that.

84.   Counting for Game in Cribbage.

When he whose turn it is to play cannot produce a card that makes thirty-one, or comes under that number, he says, "Go," and his antagonist scores one, or plays any card or cards he may have that will make thirty-one, or under. If he can make exactly thirty-one, he takes two points; if not, one. Such cards as remain after this are not played, but each player then counts and scores his hand, the non-dealer first. The dealer then marks the points for his hand, and also for his crib, each reckoning the cards every way they can possibly be varied, and always including the turned-up card.

cards points
For every fifteen 2
Pair, or two of a sort 2
Pair-royal, or three of a sort 6
Double pair-royal, or four ditto 12
Knave of the turned-up suit 1
Sequences and flushes whatever their number.

85.  Examples of Hands in Cribbage

cards count
Two sevens, two eights, and a nine 24
Two eights, a seven, and two nines 20
Two nines, a six, seven, and eight 16
Two sixes, two fives, and a four 24
Two sixes, two fours, and a five 24
Two fives, two fours, and a six 24
Two threes, two twos, and an ace 16
Two aces, two twos, and a three 16
Three fives and a tenth card 14
Three fours and a seven 12
Three twos and a nine 8
Six, seven, eight, and two aces the ragged 13
6 + 1 and 8 15-2
6 + 1 and 8 16-4
6 + 1 + 1 + 7 15-6
7 + 8 15-8
the pair of aces
and the sequence 5

Three sixes and a nine 12
Three sevens and an eight 12
Three eights and a seven 12
Three nines and a six 12
Three threes and a nine 12
Three sixes and a three 12
Three sevens and an ace 12
Two tens (pair) and two fives 12
Two tenth cards (not a pair)
and two fives

Two nines and two sixes 12
Two eights and two sevens 12
Two sixes and two threes 8
Two fives, a four, and a six 12
Two fours, a five, and a six 12
Two sixes, a four, and a five 12
Two threes and two nines 8
Two nines, a seven, and an eight 10
Two eights, a seven, and a nine 12
Two sevens, an eight, and a nine 12
Two sixes, a seven, and an eight 10
Two sixes, a three, and a nine 8
A seven, eight, nine, ten, and knave 7
A six, seven, eight, nine, and ten 9
A six, seven, eight, and nine 8
A six, five, and two sevens 8
Any double sequence of three cards and a pair
(as knave, queen, and two kings).

Any sequence of three cards and a fifteen 5
Any sequence of four cards and a fifteen
(as seven, eight, nine and ten)
Any sequence of six cards 6
Any sequence of four cards and a flush 8
Any flush of four cards and a fifteen 6
Any flush of four cards and a pair 6

The highest number that can be counted from five cards is 29—made from four fives and a knave; that is, three fives and a knave of the suit turned up, and a five on the pack—for the combinations of the four fives, 16; for the double pair-royal, 12; his nob, 1-29.

Rustle is not Industry.

86.  Maxims for laying out the Crib Cards.

In laying out cards for the crib, the player should consider not only his own hand, but also to whom the crib belongs, as well as the state of the game; for what might be right in one situation would be wrong in another. Possessing a pair-royal, it is generally advisable to lay out the other cards for crib, unless it belongs to the adversary. Avoid giving him two fives, a deuce and a trois, five and six, seven and eight, five and any other tenth card. When he does not thereby materially injure his hand, the player should for his own crib lay out close cards, in hope of making a sequence; or two of a suit, in expectation of a flush; or cards that of themselves reckoned with others will count fifteen. When the antagonist be nearly up, and it may be expedient to keep such cards as may prevent him from gaining at play. The rule is to baulk your adversary's crib by laying out cards not likely to prove of advantage to him, and to lay out favourably for your own crib. This applies to a stage of the game when it may be of consequence to keep in hand cards likely to tell in play, or when the non-dealer would be either out by his hand, or has reason for thinking the crib of little moment. A king and a nine is the best baulk, as none can form a sequence beyond it; king or queen, with an ace, six, seven, eight, or nine, are good ones to put out. Low cards are generally the most likely to gain at play; the flushes and sequences, particularly if the latter be also flushes, are eligible hands, as thereby the player will often be enabled either to assist his own crib, or baulk that of the opponent; a knave should never be put out for his crib, if it can be retained in hand.

87.  Three or Four-Hand Cribbage

differs little from the preceding. They put out but one card each to the crib, and when thirty-one, or the nearest to that has been made, the next eldest hand leads, and the players go on again in rotation, with the remaining cards, till all are played out, before they proceed to show hands and crib. For three-handed cribbage triangular boards are used.

88.  Three-Hand Cribbage

is sometimes played, wherein one person sits out, not each game, but each deal in rotation. In this the first dealer generally wins.

89.  Six-Card Cribbage

The two players commence on an equality, without scoring any points for the last, retain four cards in hand, and throw out two for crib. At this game it is of advantage to the last player to keep as close as possible, in hope of coming in for fifteen, a sequence, or pair, besides the end hole, or thirty-one. The first dealer is thought to have some trifling advantage, and each player may, on the average, expect to make twenty-five points in every two deals. The first non-dealer is considered to have the preference, when he gains ten or more the first hand, the dealer not making more than his average number.

90.  Eight-Card Cribbage

is sometimes played. Six are retained in hand, and the game is conducted on the same plan as before.

91.  All Fours

is usually played by two persons; not unfrequently by four. Its name is derived from the four chances, called high, low, Jack, game, each making a point. It is played with a complete pack of cards, six of which are to be dealt to each player, three at a time; and the next card, the thirteenth, is turned up for the trump by the dealer, who, if it prove a knave, scores one point. The highest card cut deals first. The cards rank the same as at whist—the first to score ten points, wins.

92.  Laws of All-Fours

  1. A new deal can be demanded for an exposed card, too few or too many cards dealt; in the latter case, a new deal is optional, provided it be done before a card has been played, but not after, to draw from the opposing hand the extra card.
  1. iNo person can beg more than once in each hand, except by mutual agreement.
  1. Each player must trump or follow suit on penalty of the adversary scoring one point.
  1. If either player score wrongly it must be taken down, and the adversary either scores four points or one, as may have previously been agreed.
  1. When a trump is played, it is allowable to ask your adversary if it be either high or low.
  1. One card may count all-fours; for example, the eldest hand holds the knave and stands his game, the dealer has neither trump, ten, ace, nor court-card; it will follow that the knave will be both high, low, Jack, and game, as explained by:

93.  Terms used in All-Fours

  1. High.—For the highest trump out, the holder scores one point.
  1. Low.—For the lowest trump out, the original holder scores one point, even if it be taken by the adversary.
  1. Jack.—For the knave of trumps the holder scores one. If it be won by the adversary, the winner scores the point.
  1. Game.—The greatest number that, in the tricks gained, are shown by either player, reckoning:

Four for an ace
Three for a king
Two for a queen
One for a knave
Ten for a ten
The other cards do not count: thus it may happen that a deal may be played without having any to reckon for game.
  1. Begging is when the eldest hand, disliking his cards, uses his privilege, and says, "I beg;" in which case the dealer either suffers his adversary to score one point, saying, "Take one," or gives each player three cards more from the pack, and then turns up the next card, the seventh for trumps. If, however, the trump turned up to be of the same suit as the first, the dealer must go on, giving each three cards more, and turning up the seventh, until a change of suit for trumps shall take place.

94.  Maxims for All-Fours

  1. Make your knave as soon as you can.
  1. Secure your tens by playing any small cards, by which you may throw the lead into you adversary's hand.
  1. Win your adversary's best cards when you can, either by trumping or with superior cards.
  1. If, being eldest hand, you hold either ace, king, or queen of trumps, without the knave or ten, play them immediately, as, by this means, you may chance to win the knave or ten.

95.  Loo

This game is played both Limited and Unlimited Loo; it is played two ways, both with five and three cards. Several may play, but five or seven make the better game.

96.  Three-Card Loo

  1. This game is played by any number of persons, from three, but five or seven make the best game.
  1. The cards are cut for deal, the holder of the lowest card being dealer; after which the deal goes round, from left to right. In case of a tie, the players cut again. Ace is lowest, and the court-cards and tens are reckoned of the same value,—namely, ten.
  1. The left-hand adversary shuffles or makes the pack, and the player to the right of the dealer cuts previous to the deal.
  1. The cards take their usual value, ace highest; then king, queen, knave, ten, and so on, down to deuce. The dealer then gives three cards, one at a time, face downwards, to each player; and also dealing an extra hand, or "miss," which may be thrown on the table either as the first or last card of each round.
  1. A card too many or too few is a misdeal.
  1. The stakes being settled beforehand, the dealer puts into the pool his three halfpence, pence, or sixpences, and the game proceeds:
  1. The first player on the left of the dealer looks at his hand, and declares whether he will play or take the miss. If he decide to play, he says, "I play," or "I take the miss;" but he may elect to do neither; in which case he places his cards on the pack, and has nothing further to do with that round. The next player looks at his hand, and says whether he will play or not; and so on, till the turn comes to the dealer, who, if only one player stand the chance of the loo, may either play or give up the stakes.
  1. In the first round it is usual either to deal a single; that is, a round without a miss, when all the players must play; or each player puts into the pool a sum equal to that staked by the dealer in which latter case a miss is dealt.

Never Open the Door to a Little Vice.

97.  Laws of Loo.

  1. For a misdeal the dealer is looed.
  1. For playing out of turn or looking at the miss without taking it, the player is looed.
  1. If the first player possess two or three trumps, he must play the highest, or be looed.
  1. With ace of trumps only, the first player must lead it, or be looed.
  1. The player who looks at his own cards, or the miss out of his turn, is looed.
  1. The player who looks at his neighbour's hand, either during the play or when they lie on the table, is looed.
  1. The player who informs another what cards he possesses, or gives any intimation that he knows such or such cards to be in the hand or the miss, is looed.
  1. The player who throws up his cards after the leading card is played, is looed.
  1. Each player who follows the elder hand must head the trick if he can, or be looed.
  1. Each player must follow suit if he can, or be looed.
The player who is looed pays into the pool the sum agreed.

98.  Mode of Play

  1. When it is seen how many players stand in the round, the elder hand plays a card—his highest trump if he has two or more; if not, any card he chooses. The next plays, and, if he can, follows suit or heads the trick with a trump. If he can do neither, he throws away any card.
  1. And so the round goes on; the highest card of the suit, or the highest trump, winning the trick. The winner of the trick then leads another card.
  1. The game consists of three tricks, and the pool is divided equally among the players possessing them. Thus, if there be three pence, shillings, or half-crowns, in the pool, the tricks are a penny, sixpence, or half-a-crown each. The three tricks may of course be won by a single player, or they may be divided between two or three. Each player who fails to win a trick is looed, and pays into the next pool the amount determined on as the loo.
  1. When played for a determinate stake, as a penny for the deal and three pence for the loo, the game is called Limited Loo. When each player is looed for the sum in the pool, it is Unlimited Loo.
  1. Caution is necessary in playing this game to win. As a general rule, the first player should not take the miss, as the dealer's stake is necessarily to be added to the loo. Nor the miss be taken after two players have "struck in" (declared to play), for the chances are that they possess good leading cards.

99.  Club Law

Another way of playing Loo is for all the parties to play whenever a club is turned up as trumps. It is merely another mode of increasing the pool.

100.  Five-Card Loo.

  1. In principle it is the same as the other game Loo, only instead of three, the dealer (having paid his own stake into the pool) gives five cards to each player, one by one, face downwards.
  1. After five cards have been dealt to each player, another is turned up for trump; the knave of clubs generally, or sometimes the knave of the trump suit, as agreed upon, is the highest card, and is styled Pam; the ace of trumps is next in value, and the rest on succession, as at Whist. Each player can change all or any of the five cards dealt, or throw up his hand, and escape being looed. Those who play their cards, either with or without changing, and do not gain a trick, are looed. This is also the case with all who have stood the game, when a flush or flushes occur; and each, except a player holding pam, of an inferior flush, must pay a stake, to be given to him who sweeps the board, or divided among the winners at the ensuing deal, according to the tricks made. For instance, if every one at dealing stakes half-a-crown, the tricks are entitled to sixpence a-piece, and whoever is looed must put down half-a-crown, exclusive of the deal; sometimes it is settled that each person looed shall pay a sum equal to what happens to be on the table at the time. Five cards of a suit, or four with pam, make a flush which sweeps the board, and yields only to a superior flush, or the elder hand. When the ace of trumps is led, it is usual to say, "Pam be civil;" the holder of which last-mentioned card must then let the ace pass.
  1. Any player with five cards of a suit (a flush) looes all the players who stand in the game.
  1. The rules in this game are the same as in Three Card Loo.

101.  Put

The game of Put is played with an entire pack of cards, generally by two, but sometimes by four persons. At Put the cards have a value distinct from that in other games. The best card in the pack is a trois, or three; the next a deuce, or two; then the ace, king, queen, knave, ten in rotation. The dealer distributes three cards to each player, by one at a time; whoever cuts the lowest card has the deal, and five points make the game, except when both parties say, "I put"—for then the score is at an end, and the contest is determined in favour of the player who may win two tricks out of three. When it happens that each player has won a trick, and the third is a tie—that is, covered by a card of equal value—the whole goes for nothing, and the game must begin anew.

102.  Two-Handed Put

The eldest hand plays a card; and whether the adversary pass it, win it, or tie it, has a right to say, "I put," or place his cards on the pack. If you accept the first and your opponent decline the challenge, you score one; if you prefer the latter, your adversary gains a point; but if, before he play, your opponent says, "I put," and you do not choose to see him, he is entitled to add one to his score. It is sometimes good play to say, "I put," before you play a card: this depends on the nature of your hand.

103.  Four-Handed Put.

Each party has a partner, and when three cards are dealt to each, one of the players gives his partner his best card, and throws the other two face downwards on the table: the dealer is at liberty to do the same to his partner, and vice versa. The two who have received their partners' cards play the game, previously discarding their worst card for the one received from their partners. The game then proceeds as at two-handed Put.

104.  Laws of Put

  1. When the dealer accidentally discovers any of his adversary's cards, the adversary may demand a new deal.
  1. When the dealer discovers any of his own cards in dealing, he must abide by the deal.
  1. When a faced card is discovered during the deal, the cards must be reshuffled, and dealt again.
  1. If the dealer give his adversary more cards than are necessary, the adversary may call a fresh deal, or suffer the dealer to draw the extra cards from his hand.
  1. If the dealer give himself more cards than are his due, the adversary may add a point to his game, and call a fresh deal, or draw the extra cards from the dealer's hand.
  1. No bystander must interfere, under penalty of paying the stakes.
  1. Either party saying, "I put"—that is, "I play"—cannot retract, but must abide the event of the game, or pay the stakes.

Knowledge Makes Humble.

105.  Speculation

is a lively round game, at which several may play, with a complete pack of cards, bearing the same value as at whist. A pool is made with fish or counters, on which such a value is fixed as the company may agree. The highest trump in each deal wins the pool; and should it happen that not one trump be dealt, then the company pool again, and the event is decided by the succeeding deal. After determining the deal, &c, the dealer pools six fish, and every other player four; then three cards are given to each, by one at a time, and another turned up for trump. The cards are not to be looked at, except in this manner: The eldest hand shows the uppermost card, which, if a trump, the company may speculate on, or bid for—the highest bidder buying and paying for it, provided the price offered be approved of by the seller. After this is settled, if the first card does not prove a trump, then the next eldest is to show the uppermost card, and so on—the company speculating as they please, till all are discovered, when the possessor of the highest trump, whether by purchase or otherwise, gains the pool. To play at speculation well, recollection is requisite of what superior cards of that particular suit have appeared in the preceding deals, and calculation of the probability of the trump offered proving the highest in the deal then undetermined.

106.  Connexions

Three or four persons may play at this game. If the former number, ten cards each are to be given; but if the latter, only eight are dealt, which bear the same value as at whist, except that diamonds are always trumps. The connexions are formed as follows:
  1. By the two black aces.
  1. The ace of spades and king of hearts.
  1. The ace of clubs and king of hearts.

107.  For the First Connexion

2s. are drawn from the pool; for the second, 1s.; for the third, and by the winner of the majority in tricks, 6d. each is taken. These sums are supposing gold staked: when only silver is pooled, then pence are drawn. A trump played in any round where there is a connexion wins the trick, otherwise it is gained by the player of the first card of connexions; and, after a connexion, any following player may trump without incurring a revoke: and also, whatever suit may be led, the person holding a card of connexion is at liberty to play the same; but the others must, if possible, follow suit, unless one of them can answer the connexion, which should be done in preference. No money can be drawn till the hands are finished; then the possessors of the connexions are to take first, according to precedence, and those having the majority of tricks take last.

108.  Matrimony

This game is played with an entire pack of cards, by any number of persons from five to fourteen. It consists of five chances, usually marked on a board, or sheet of paper, as follows:

The Ace of Diamonds turned up.
King and Knave
King and Queen.
The Highest.

Matrimony is generally played with counters, and the dealer puts what he pleases on each or any chance, the other players depositing each the same quantity, less one—that is, when the dealer stakes twelve, the rest of the company lay down eleven each. After this, two cards are dealt round to every one, beginning on the left; then to each person one other card, which is turned up, and he who so happens to get the ace of diamonds sweeps all.

If it be not turned up, then each player shows his hand; and any of them having matrimony, intrigue, &c, takes the counters on that point; and when two or more people happen to have a similar combination, the oldest hand has the preference; and, should any chance not be gained, it stands over to the next deal.—Observe: The ace of diamonds turned up takes the whole pool, but when in hand ranks only as any other ace; and if not turned up, nor any ace in hand, then the king, or next superior card, wins the chance styled best.

Ignorance Makes Proud.

109.  Pope Joan.

A game somewhat similar to Matrimony. It is played by any number, with an ordinary pack of cards, and a marking or pool board, to be had of most fancy stationers. The eight of diamonds must first be taken from the pack. After settling the deal, shuffling, &c, the dealer dresses the board. This he does by putting the counters into its several compartments—one counter or other stake to Ace, one each to King, Queen, Knave, and Game; two to Matrimony, two to Intrigue, and six to the nine of diamonds, styled the Pope. This dressing is, in some companies, at the individual expense of the dealer, though, the players usually contribute two stakes each towards the pool.

The cards are then dealt round equally to every player, one turned up for trump, and about six or eight left in the stock to form stops. For example, if the ten of spades be turned up, the nine becomes a stop. The four kings, and the seven of diamonds, are always fixed stops, and the dealer is the only person permitted, in the course of the game, to refer occasionally to the stock for information what other cards are stops in their respective deals. If either ace, king, queen, or knave happen to be the turned-up-trump, the dealer may take whatever is deposited on that head; but when Pope be turned up, the dealer is entitled both to that and the game, besides a stake for every card dealt to each player.

Unless the game be determined by Pope being turned up, the eldest hand begins by playing out as many cards as possible; first the stops, then Pope, if he have it, and afterwards the lowest card of his longest suit—particularly an ace, for that never can be led through. The other players follow, when they can, in sequence of the same suit, till a stop occurs. The player having the stop becomes eldest hand, and leads accordingly; and so on, until some player parts with all his cards, by which he wins the pool (game), and becomes entitled besides to a stake for every card not played by the others, except from any one holding Pope, which excuses him from paying.

If Pope has been played, then the player having held it is not excused. King and Queen form what is called matrimony; queen and knave, when in the same hand, make intrigue; but neither these nor ace, king, queen, knave, or pope, entitle the holder to the stakes deposited thereon, unless played out; and no claim can be allowed after the board be dressed for the succeeding deal. In all such cases the stakes remain for future determination. Pope Joan needs only a little attention to recollect what stops have been made in the course of the play. For instance, if a player begin by laying down the eight of clubs, then the seven in another hand forms a stop, whenever that suit be led from any lower card; or the holder, when eldest, may safely lay it down, in order to clear his hand.

Knowledge Talks Lowly.

110.  Cassino

The game of cassino is played with an entire pack of cards, generally by four persons, but sometimes by three, and often by two.

111.  Terms used in Cassino

  1. Great Cassino, the ten of diamonds, which reckons for two points.
  1. Little Cassino, the two of spades, which reckons for one point.
  1. The Cards is when you have a greater share than your adversary, and reckons for three points.
  1. The Spades is when you have the majority of that suit, and reckons for one point.
  1. The Aces: each of which reckons for one point.
  1. Lurched is when your adversary has won the game before you have gained six points.
In some deals at this game it may so happen that neither party win anything, as the points are not set up according to the tricks, &c, obtained, but the smaller number is constantly subtracted from the larger, both in cards and points; and if they both prove equal, the game commences again, and the deal goes on in rotation. When three persons play at this game, the two lowest add their points together, and subtract from the highest; but when their two numbers together either amount to or exceed the highest, then neither party scores.

112.  Laws of Cassino.

  1. The deal and partners are determined by cutting, as at whist, and the dealer gives four cards, one at a time, to each player, and either regularly as he deals, or by one, two, three, or four at a time, lays four more, face upwards, upon the board, and, after the first cards are played, four others are dealt to each person, until the pack be concluded; but it is only in the first deal that any cards are to be turned up.
  1. The deal is not lost when a card is faced by the dealer, unless in the first round, before any of the four cards are turned up upon the table; but if a card happen to be faced in the pack, before any of the said four be turned up, then the deal begins again.
  1. Any person playing with less than four cards must abide by the loss; and should a card be found under the table, the player whose number is deficient takes the same.
  1. Each person plays one card at a time, with which he may not only take at once every card of the same denomination upon the table, but likewise all that will combine therewith; as, for instance, a ten takes not only every ten, but also nine and ace, eight and deuce, seven and three, six and four, or two fives; and if he clear the board before the conclusion of the game, he is to score a point; and whenever any player cannot pair or combine, then he is to put down a card.
  1. The tricks are not to be counted before all the cards are played; nor may any trick but that last won be looked at, as every mistake must be challenged immediately.
  1. After all the pack is dealt out, the player who obtains the last trick sweeps all the cards then remaining unmatched upon the table and wins the game.

113.  Vingt-un

Description of the Game.—The game of Vingt-un, or twenty-one, may be played by two or more persons; and, as the deal is advantageous, and often continues long with the same person, it is usual to determine it at the commencement by turning up the first ace, or knave.

114.  Method of Playing Vingt-un

The cards must all be dealt out in succession, unless a natural Vingt-un occur, and in the meantime the pone, or youngest hand, should collect those that have been played, and shuffle them together, ready for the dealer, against the period when he shall have distributed the whole pack. The dealer first gives two cards, one at a time, to each player, including himself; then he asks each player in rotation, beginning with the eldest hand on the left, whether he stands or chooses another card. If he need another card, it must be given from off the top of the pack, and afterwards another, or more, if desired, till the points of the additional card or cards, added to those dealt, exceed or make twenty-one exactly, or such a number less than twenty-one as the player thinks fit to stand upon.

When the points on the player's cards exceed twenty-one, he throws the cards on the table, face downwards, and pays the stake. The dealer is, in turn, entitled to draw additional cards; and, on taking a Vingt-un, receives double stakes from all who stand the game, except such other players, likewise having twenty-one, between whom it is thereby a drawn game. When any adversary has a Vingt-un, and the dealer not, then the opponent so having twenty-one, wins double stakes from him. In other cases, except a natural Vingt-un happen, the dealer pays single stakes to all whose numbers under twenty-one are higher than his own, and receives from those who have lower numbers; but nothing is paid or received by such players as have similar numbers to the dealer. When the dealer draws more than twenty-one, he pays to all who have not thrown up. In some companies ties pays the dealer.

Ignorance Talks Loud.

115.  Natural Vingt-un

Twenty-one, when dealt in a player's first two cards, is styled a Natural. It should be declared at once, and entitles the holder to double stakes from the dealer, and to the deal, except it be agreed to pass the deal round. If the dealer turns up a natural he takes double stakes from all the players and retains the deal. If there be more than one natural, all after the first receive single stakes only. Aces count either eleven or one; court cards, ten; the rest according to their points.

116.  The Odds of natural Vingt-un

depend upon the average number of cards likely to come under or exceed twenty-one; for example, if those in hand make fourteen exactly, it is seven to six that the one next drawn does not make the number of points above twenty-one; but if the points be fifteen, it is seven to six against that hand; yet it would not, therefore, always be prudent to stand at fifteen, for as the ace may be calculated both ways, it is rather above an even bet that the adversary's first two cards amount to more than fourteen. A natural Vingt-un may be expected once in seven coups when two, and twice in seven when four, people play, and so on, according to the number of players.

117.  Quadrille

This game, formerly very popular, has been superseded by Whist. Quadrille, the game referred to by Pope in his "Rape of the Lock," is now obsolete.

118.  Ecarté

This game, which has lately revived in popularity, is played by two persons with a pack of cards from which the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes have been discarded. In the clubs it is usual to play with two packs, used alternately. The players cut for deal, the highest card deals. The pack is shuffled and the non-dealer cuts. The dealer then from the united pack gives five cards to each, beginning with his adversary, by twos and threes, or threes and twos; and always dealing in the same way throughout the game. The eleventh card is turned up for trump. If the turn-up be a king, the dealer marks one point; five points being game. The non-dealer looks at his cards, and if he be dissatisfied with them, he may propose—that is, change any or all of them for others from the stock, or remainder of the pack on the table. Should he propose, he says, "I propose," or "cards," and it is in the option of the dealer to give or refuse cards. When he decides to give, he says, "I accept," or "How many?" Should he refuse to change he says, "I decline," or "Play." The dealer may, if he accept the proposal, change any or all the cards in his own hand.

Sometimes a second discard is allowed, but that must be by previous agreement. Of course the non-dealer may play without discarding, in which case the dealer must play his own hand without changing any of his cards. When the hands are arranged the non-dealer plays a card, which is won or lost by the playing of a superior card of the suit led. The second must follow suit, or win the trick if he can; otherwise he may throw any card he chooses. The order in value of the cards is—king, queen, knave, ace, ten, nine, eight, seven. The winner of the trick leads for the next trick, and so on, till the five cards on each side are played. The winner of three tricks scores one point; if he win the whole five tricks—the rôle—he scores two points; if he hold the king, he names it before playing his first card—"I mark king." Should the non-dealer play without proposing, and fail to make three tricks, his adversary marks two points; should the dealer refuse to accept and fail to win three tricks, his opponent scores two. The game is five up; that is, the player who first marks five points, wins. The score is marked by two cards, a three and a two, or by counters. The deal is taken alternately; but when the play is for rubbers it is usual to cut for deal at the end of each rubber.

Knowledge is Modest, Cautious, and Pure.

119.  Rules of Ecarté

  1. Each player has right to shuffle the cards above the table.
  1. The cut must not be fewer than two cards off the pack, and at least two cards must be left on the table.
  1. When more than one card is exposed in cutting, there must be a new deal.
  1. The highest ecarté card cut secures the deal, which holds good even though the pack be imperfect.
  1. The dealer must give five cards to each by three and two, or by two and three, at a time, which plan must not be changed, during the game.
  1. An incorrect deal, playing out of turn, or a faced card, necessitates a new deal.
  1. The eleventh card must be turned up for trumps; and the remaining cards placed, face downwards, on the table.
  1. The king turned up must be marked by the dealer before the trump of the next deal is turned up.
  1. A king of trumps held in hand must be announced and marked before the player lays down his first card, or he loses his right to mark it. If played in the first trick, it must be announced before it is played to.
  1. A proposal or acceptance cannot be retracted or altered.
  1. Before taking cards, the player must place his discarded cards, face downwards, on the table, and neither look at or touch them till the round be over.
  1. The player holding king marks one point; making three tricks, one point; five tricks, two points.
  1. The non-dealer playing without proposing and failing to win the point, gives two tricks to his opponent.
  1. The dealer who refuses the first proposal and fails to win the point (three tricks), gives his opponent two points.
  1. An admitted overscore or underscore may be amended without penalty before the cards are dealt for the following round.

120.  Euchre

which is founded on Ecarté, and is the national game of the United States, is played with a pack of cards from which the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes have been withdrawn. In the Euchre pack the cards rank as at Whist, with this exception—the knave of trumps, called the Right Bower, and the other knave of the same colour, known as the Left Bower take precedence over the rest of the trumps. Thus, when hearts are trumps, the cards rank thus:—Knave of hearts, knave of diamonds, ace, king, queen, ten, nine, eight, and seven of hearts. When diamonds are trumps, the knave is right bower, and the knave of hearts left bower; and in like manner the knaves of spades and clubs become right and left bower, when the black suits are trumps.—In Four-handed Euchre, two play against two, and the tricks taken by both partners count for points.

Ignorance Boastful, Conceited, and Sure.

121.  Rules for Euchre

  1. The players cut for deal; the higher card cut dealing.
  1. The cards are dealt by twos and threes, each player having five.
  1. The eleventh card is turned up for trumps.
  1. Five points constitute game.
  1. The player winning three or four tricks marks one point; winning five tricks, two points.
  1. When the first player considers his hand strong enough to score, he can order it up—that is, he can oblige the dealer to discard one of his cards and take up the trump in its stead.
  1. When the first player does not find his hand strong enough, he may pass—" I pass;" with the view of changing the suit.
  1. In case of the first player "ordering it up," the game begins by his playing a card, to which the dealer must follow suit or trump, or throw away. The winner of the trick then leads: and so on till all the five cards in each hand are played.
  1. If the player order up the trump and fail to make three tricks, he is euchred, and his opponent marks two points.
  1. If the player, not being strong enough, passes, the dealer can say, "I play," and take the trump into his own hand; but, as before, if he fail to score, he is euchred.
  1. If both players pass, the first has the privilege of altering the trump, and the dealer is compelled to play. Should the first player fail to score, he is euchred.
  1. If he pass for the second time, the dealer can alter the trump, with the same penalty if he fail to score.
  1. When trumps are led and you cannot follow suit, you must play the left bower if you have it, to win the trick.
The score is marked as in Ecarté, by each side with a two and three.

122.  Bézique

This fashionable game is played with two packs of cards, from which the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes, have been discarded. The sixty-four cards of both packs, shuffled well together, are then dealt out, eight to each player, by threes, twos, and threes; the seventeenth turned up for trump, and the rest left, face downwards, on the table. If the trump card be a seven, the dealer scores ten points. An incorrect deal or an exposed card necessitates a new deal, which passes to the other player. A trump card takes any card of another suit. Except trumping, the higher card, whether of the same suit or not, takes the trick—the ace ranking highest, the ten next, and then the king, queen, knave, nine, &c When two cards of equal value are played, the first wins.

Some players require the winning card to be of the same suit as that led, unless trumped. After each trick is taken, an additional card is drawn by each player from the top of the pack—the taker of the last trick drawing first, and so on till all the pack is exhausted, including the trump card. Players are not obliged to follow suit or trump until all the cards have been drawn from the pack. Tricks are of no value, except for the aces and tens they may contain. Tricks should not be looked at till the end of the deal, except by mutual consent. When a player plays without drawing, he must draw two cards next time, and his opponent scores ten. When a player draws out of turn, his opponent scores ten, if he has not drawn a card himself. When a player draws two cards instead of one, his opponent may decide which card is to be returned to the pack—it should not be placed at the top, but towards the middle of the pack. A player discovering his opponent holding more than eight cards, while he only holds eight, adds 100 to his score. Should both have more than their proper number there is no penalty, but each must play without drawing.

Be Not the First by Whom the New is Tried.

123.  Mode of Playing

  1. Immediately after taking a trick, and then only, a player can make a Declaration; but he must do so before drawing another card. Only one Declaration can be made after each trick.
  1. If, in making a declaration, a player put down a wrong card or cards, either in addition to or in the place of any card or cards of that declaration, he is not allowed to score until he has taken another trick. Moreover, he must resume the cards, subject to their being called for as "faced" cards.
  1. The seven of trumps may be exchanged for the trump card, and for this exchange ten is scored. This exchange is made immediately after he has taken a trick, but he may make a declaration at the same time, the card exchanged not being used in such declaration.
  1. Whenever the seven of trumps is played, except in the last eight tricks, the player scores ten for it, no matter whether he wins the trick or not.
  1. When all the cards are drawn from the pack, the players take up their eight cards. No more declarations can he made, and the play proceeds as at Whist, the ten ranking higher than the king, and the ace highest.
  1. In the last eight tricks the player is obliged to follow suit, and he must win the trick if possible, either by playing a higher card, or, if he has not a card of the same suit, by playing a trump.
  1. A player who revokes in the last eight tricks, or omits to take when he can, forfeits the eight tricks to his opponent.
  1. The last trick is the thirty-second, for which the winner scores ten. The game may be varied by making the last trick the twenty-fourth—the next before the last eight tricks. It is an unimportant point, but one that should be agreed upon before the game is commenced.
  1. After the last eight tricks are played, each player examines his cards, and for each ace and ten that he holds he scores ten.
  1. The non-dealer scores aces and tens first; and in case of a tie, the player scoring the highest number of points, less the aces and tens in the last deal, wins the game. If still a tie, the taker of the last trick wins.
  1. All cards played in error are liable to be called for as "faced" cards at any period of the game, except during the last eight tricks.
  1. In counting forfeits a player may either add the points to his own score or deduct them from the score of his opponent.

124.  Terms used in Bezique.

  1. A Declaration is the exhibition on the table of any cards or combination of, cards, as follows:
  1. Bezique is the queen of spades and knave of diamonds, for which the holder scores 40 points. A variation provides that when the trump is either spades or diamonds, Bezique may be queen of clubs and knave of hearts. Bézique having been declared, may be again used to form Double Bezique—two queens of spades and two knaves of diamonds. All four cards must be visible on the table together—500 points.
  1. Sequence is ace, ten, king, queen, and knave of trumps—250 points.
  1. Royal Marriage is the king and queen of trumps—40 points.
  1. Common Marriage is the king and queen of any suit, except trumps—20 points.
  1. Four aces are the aces of any suits —100 points.
  1. Four kings are the kings of any suits—80 points.
  1. Four Queens are the queens of any suits—60 points.
  1. Four knaves are the knaves of any suits—40 points.

Nor Yet the Last to Cast the Old Aside.

125.  Marriages, Sequences, &c

  1. The cards forming the declarations are placed on the table to show that they are properly scored, and the cards may thence be played into tricks as if in your hand.
  1. Kings and queens once married cannot be re-married, but can be used, while they remain on the table, to make up four kings, four queens, or a sequence.
  1. The king and queen used in a sequence cannot afterwards be declared as a royal marriage.
  1. If four knaves have been declared, the knave of diamonds may be used again for a bézique, or to complete a sequence.
  1. If four aces have been declared, the ace of trumps may he again used to perfect a sequence.
  1. If the queen of spades has been married, she may he again used to form a bézique, and vice versâ, and again for four queens.
  1. Playing the seven of trumps—except in last eight tricks—10; exchanging the seven of trumps for the trump card—10; the last trick—10; each ace and ten in the tricks—at the end of each deal—10.
  1. The game is 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 up. Markers are sold with the cards.

126.  Forfeits at Bezique

The following are Forfeits:

i. For drawing out of turn 10
ii. For playing out of turn 10
iii. For playing without drawing 10
iv. For overdrawing 100
v. For a revoke in the last eight tricks all the eight tricks.

127.  Cautions in Bezique.

In playing Bézique, it is best to keep your tens till you can make them count; to retain your sequence cards as long as possible; to watch your opponent's play; to declare a royal marriage previous to declaring a sequence or double bezique; to make sure of the last trick but one in order to prevent your opponent from declaring; to declare as soon as you have an opportunity.

128.  Three-Handed Bezique

  1. The above rules hold good in the case of three-handed games—treble bézique counting 1,500. An extra pack of cards is required for the third other player; so that, in the case of three, the trump card is the twenty-fifth.
  1. The game is always played from left to right, the first player on the left of the dealer commencing. Three-handed bézique is sometimes played with two packs of cards, suppressing an eight, thus rendering them divisible by three.

129.  Four-Handed Bezique.

  1. Four-handed Bezique may be played by partners decided either by choice or cutting. Partners sit opposite each other, one collecting the tricks of both, and the other keeping the score, or each may keep his own score, which is preferable.
  1. A player may make a declaration immediately after his partner has taken a trick, and may inquire of his partner if he has anything to declare, before drawing.
  1. Declarations must be made by each player separately, as in two-handed bézique.
  1. The above descriptions will serve to sufficiently acquaint the reader with the rules and modes of play adopted in this excellent game. Bézique is said to be of Swedish origin, and to have been introduced to English players through the medium of some Indian officers who had learned it of a Scandinavian comrade. Variations in the play occur in different companies. These, however, having been indicated above, need not be more particularly noted.

130.  Napoleon

This popular game is played by four, five, or six persons with a full pack of cards, which take the same value as in Whist. The object of the game is to make tricks, which are paid to or received from the dealer at a fixed rate, a penny or more a trick, as previously arranged. The deal being decided in the usual way, the pack is cut and five cards are dealt one at a time to each player, beginning at the left. After every round the deal passes. Each player looks at his cards, the one to the left of the dealer being the first to declare. When he thinks he can make two or three tricks he says, "I go two," or "I go three." The next may perhaps think he can make four tricks; and if the fourth believes he can do better he declares Napoleon, and undertakes to win the whole five tricks. The players declare or pass in the order in which they sit; and a declaration once made cannot be recalled.

The game then, proceeds. The first card played is the trump suit; and to win the trick, a higher card than that led in each suit must be played. The winner of the first trick leads for the second, and so on till each of the five tricks are played out. Each player must follow suit, but he is not bound to head the trick or to trump. Each card as played remains face upwards on the table. Supposing the stake to be a penny a trick, the declarer, if he win all the tricks he declared, receives from each of his adversaries a penny for each of the declared tricks; but if he fail to win the required number, he pays to each of them a penny a trick. For Napoleon he receives double stakes from each player; but failing to win the five tricks, he pays them single stakes. The game, though simple, requires good judgment and memory to play it well. In some companies it is varied by the introduction of a Wellington, which is a superior call after the Napoleon, and takes triple stakes; or a Sedan, in which the player undertakes to lose all his tricks. This declaration takes precedence of all the others. Each player may Pass, or decline to make a declaration; and when all the players pass, the deal is void. Occasionally a pool or kitty is made by each dealer paying a half stake; or the players may purchase new cards from the pack. In either case, the pool is taken by the winner of the first Napoleon, or divided according to arrangement at the close of the play. The best play in Napoleon is not to win tricks, but to co-operate in defeating the declaring hand.

131.  Picquet

A game for two players, once very fashionable in France and of some repute in England; but now quite obsolete. Like Quadrille, it is encumbered with a vast number of rules and maxims, technical terms and calculations; all too long and tiresome for modern card-players.

132.  Poker, or Draw Poker

a gambling game common in the United States. An elaboration of the old English game of Brag, which, like Blind Hookey and Baccarat, is purely one of chance, generally played by two or three sharpers opposed to three or four greenhorns. And, for these reasons, is unworthy a place in this volume.

133.  Lansquenet

This is a game for a large company, much played in France, where it is the custom to mix three, four, or more packs of cards together. In England it is played with one pack, after the following plan:—The dealer, who has rather an advantage, begins by shuffling the cards, and having them cut by any of the party. He then deals two cards on his left hand, turning them up; then one for himself, and a fourth, which he places in the middle of the table for the company, called the rejouissance. Upon this card any or all of the company, except the dealer, may stake their counter or money, either a limited or unlimited sum, as may be agreed on, which the dealer is obliged to answer, by staking a sum equal to the whole put upon it by different players. He continues dealing, and turning the cards upwards, one by one, till two of a sort appear: for instance, two aces, two deuces, &c, which, in order to separate, and that no person may mistake for single cards, he places on each side of his own card; and as often as two, three, or the fourth card of a sort comes up, he always places them, as before, on each side of his own. Any single card the company have a right to take and put their money upon, unless the dealer's own card happens to be double, which often occurs by this card being the same as one of the two cards which the dealer first of all dealt out on his left-hand. Thus he continues dealing till he brings either their cards, or his own. As long as his own card remains undrawn he wins; and whichever card comes up first, loses. If he draw or deal out the two cards on his left, which are called the hand-cards, before his own, he is entitled to deal again; the advantage of which is no other than being exempted from losing when he draws a similar card to his own, immediately after he has turned up one for himself. This game is often played more simply without the rejouissance card, giving every person round the table a card to put his money on. Sometimes it is played by dealing only two cards, one for the dealer, and another for the company. —Generally Lansquenet is played with counters instead of money. With counters at (say) a penny a dozen, it is a lively and amusing game.

A Lady in America Made a Quilt in 55,555 Pieces.

134.  Quinze or Fifteen

is played by two persons. The cards are shuffled by both players, and when they have cut for deal (which falls to the lot of him who cuts the lowest), the dealer has the liberty to shuffle them again. When this is done, the adversary cuts them; after which, the dealer gives one card to his opponent, and one to himself. Should the dealer's adversary not approve of his card, he is entitled to have as many cards given to him, one after the other, as will make fifteen, or come nearest to that number; which are usually given from the top of the, pack: for example—if he should have a deuce, and draw a five, which amounts to seven, he must continue going on, in expectation of coming nearer to fifteen. If he draw an eight, which will make just fifteen, he, as being eldest hand, is sure of winning the game. But if he overdraw himself, and make more than fifteen, he loses, unless the dealer should happen to do the same; which circumstance constitutes a drawn game; and the stakes are consequently doubled. In this manner they persevere, until one of them has won the game, by standing and being nearest to fifteen. At the end of each game the cards are packed and shuffled, and the players again cut for deal. The advantage is invariably or the side of the elder hand.

135.  Solitaire

This is a game for one person, played on a board pierced with thirty-seven holes, in each one of which is placed a marble or peg. The art or motive of the game is to remove one marble and then to shift the rest about, so as to bring the last marble to the hole whence the first was removed. One marble or man takes any other over which it can leap into a vacant hole beyond; or any number of men in succession, so long as there is a hole into which it can go. An example of a game played will better explain the method, than any amount of verbal instruction.

Remove the marble from the centre hole; then bring the marble from 1 in the upper limb of the diagram, to the centre, jumping over and taking the piece between. By following the direction of the figures, it will be found that the last place arrived at will be the centre from which you started. With practice and patience the Solitaire player will be able to start from and return to any hole on the board.

solitaire diagram

Many variations of the game will suggest themselves as you proceed; but the above will suffice to show the plan and system of Solitaire.

136.  Backgammon

A game of mingled chance and skill, played on a board marked with points, and generally to be found inside the box draughtboard. The board has twenty-four points, coloured alternately red and blue; the implements of play are fifteen draught-men on each side, and the movements of the men are determined by the throw of two dice; each player being provided with a dice box and dies. It is an elaborate game to explain on paper, and would occupy too much space to be given in detail in this work. Those, however, who desire to be fully informed as to its various intricacies, may consult "Bohn's Handbook of Games," or the cheaper and more concise treatise by Captain Crawley.

137.  Dominoes

This game is played by two or four persons, with twenty-eight pieces of oblong ivory, plain at the back, but on the face divided by a black line in the middle, and indented with spots, from one to a double-six, which pieces are a double-blank, ace-black, double-ace, deuce-blank, deuce-ace, double-deuce, trois-blank, trois-ace, trois-deuce, double-trois, four-blank, four-ace, four-deuce, four-trois, double-four, five-blank, five-ace, five-deuce, five-trois, five-four, double-five, six-blank, six-ace, six-deuce, six-trois, six-four, six-five, and double-six. Sometimes a double set is played with, of which double-nine is the highest.

138.  Method of Play

At the commencement of the game the dominoes are well mixed together, with their faces upon the table. Each player draws one, and if four play, those who choose the two highest are partners against these who take the two lowest. Drawing the latter also serves to determine who is to lay down the first piece—a great advantage. Afterwards each player takes seven pieces at random. The eldest hand having laid down one, the next must pair him at either end of the piece he may choose, according to the number of pips, or the blank in the compartment of the piece; but whenever any one cannot match the part, either of the domino last put down, or of that unpaired at the other end of the row, then he says, "Go;" and the next is at liberty to play. Thus they play alternately, either until one party has played all his pieces, and thereby won the game, or till the game be blocked; that is, when neither party can play, by matching the pieces where unpaired at either end; then that player wins who has the smallest number of pips on the pieces remaining in his hand. It is to the advantage of every player to dispossess himself as early as possible of the heavy pieces, such as a double-six, five, four, &c Sometimes, when two persons play, they take each only three or five pieces, and agree to play or draw, i.e., when one cannot come in, or pair the pieces upon the board at the end unmatched, he draws from the pieces in stock till he finds one to suit. There are various other ways of playing dominoes, but they are all dependent on the matching of the pips.

139.  Quadrilles

The First Set:

Figure Name Actions Repeat
First Figure Le Pantalon Right and left. Balancez to partners; turn partners. Ladies' chain. Half promenade; half right and left. four times
Second Figure L'Été Leading lady and opposite gentleman advance and retire; chassez to right and left; cross over to each other's places; chassez to right and left. Balancez and turn partners. four times
or Double L'Été Both couples advance and retire at the same time; cross over; advance and retire again; cross to places. Balancez and turn partners. four times
Third Figure La Poule Leading lady and opposite gentleman cross over, giving right hands; recross, giving left hands, and fall in a line. Set four in a line; half promenade. Advance two, and retire (twice). Advance four, and retire; half right and left. four times
Fourth Figure Trenise The first couple advance and retire twice, the lady remaining on the opposite side; the two ladies go round the first gentleman, who advances up the centre; balancez and turn hands. four times
Fifth Figure La Pastorale The leading couple advance twice, leaving the lady opposite the second time. The three advance and retire twice. The leading gentleman advance and set. Hands four half round; half right and left1. four times
Sixth Figure Galop Finale Top and bottom couples galopade quite round each other. Advance and retire; four advance again, and change the gentlemen. Ladies' chain. Advance and retire four, and regain your partners in your places. The fourth time all galopade for an unlimited period. four times
or All galopade or promenade, eight bars. Advance four en galopade oblique, and retire, then half promenade, eight bars. Advance four, retire, and return to places with the half promenade, eight bars. Ladies' chain, eight bars. Repeated by the side couples, then by the top and bottom, and lastly by the side couples, finishing with grand promenade.

In different companies the Quadrille varies slightly. For instance, in the last figure, sometimes called Flirtation, the four couples set in a circle, the gentlemen turn their partners, the ladies advance to the centre and retire, the gentlemen advance and retire; the gentlemen turn the ladies to the left and promenade: the whole figure being repeated four times.

Footnote 1:   This or the Trenise must be omitted.
return to footnote mark

140.  Lancers

  1. La Rose.—First gentleman and opposite lady advance and set—turn with both hands, retiring to places—return, leading outside—set and turn at corners.
  1. La Lodoiska.—First couple advance twice, leaving the lady in the centre—set in the centre—turn to places—all advance in two lines—all turn partners.
  1. La Dorset.—First lady advance and stop, then the opposite gentleman—both retire, turning round—ladies' hands across half round, and turn the opposite gentlemen with left hands—repeat back to places, and turn partners with left hands.
  1. L'Étoile.—First couple set to couple at right—set to couple at left—change places with partners, and set, and pirouette to places—right and left with opposite couple,
  1. Les Lanciers.—The grand chain. The first couple advance and turn facing the top; then the couple at right advance behind the top couple; then the couple at left and the opposite couple do the same, forming two lines. All change places with partners and back again. The ladies turn in a line on the right, the gentlemen in a line on the left. Each couple meet up the centre. Set in two lines, the ladies in one line, the gentlemen in the other. Turn partners to places. Finish with the grand chain.

141.  The Caledonians

Figure Actions Repeat
First Figure The first and opposite couples hands across round the centre and back to places—set and turn partners. Ladies' chain. Half promenade—half right and left. by the side couples
Second Figure The first gentleman advance and retire twice. All set at corners, each lady passing into the next lady's place on the right. Promenade by all. by the other couples
Third Figure The first lady and opposite gentleman advance and retire, bending to each other. First lady and opposite gentleman pass round each other to places. First couple cross over, having hold of hands, while the opposite couple cross on the outside of them—the same reversed. All set at corners, turn, and resume partners. All advance and retire twice, in a circle with hands joined—turn partners.
Fourth Figure The first lady and opposite gentleman advance and stop; then their partners advance; turn partners to places. The four ladies move to right, each taking the next lady's place, and stop—the four gentlemen move to left, each taking the next gentleman's place, and stop—the ladies repeat the same to the right—then the gentlemen to the left. All join hands and promenade round to places, and turn partners. by the other couples
Fifth Figure The first couple promenade or waltz round inside the figure. The four ladies advance, join hands round, and retire—then the gentlemen perform the same—all set and turn partners. Chain figure of eight half round, and set. All promenade to places and turn partners. All change sides, join right hands at corners, and set—back again to places. Finish with grand promenade.

These three are the most admired of the quadrilles: the First Set invariably takes precedence of every other dance.

Coffee was First Brought to England in 1641.

142.  Spanish Dance

Danced in a circle or a line by sixteen or twenty couples. The couples stand as for a Country Dance, except that the first gentleman must stand on the ladies' side, and the first lady on the gentlemen's side. First gentleman and second lady balancez to each other, while first lady and second gentleman do the same, and change places. First gentleman and partner balancez, while second gentleman and partner do the same, and change places. First gentleman and second lady balancez, while first lady and second gentleman do the same, and change places. First gentleman and second lady balancez to partners, and change places with them. All four join hands in the centre, and then change places, in the same order as the foregoing figure, four times. All four poussette, leaving the second lady and gentleman at the top, the same as in a Country Dance. The first lady and gentleman then go through the same figure with the third lady and gentleman, and so proceed to the end of the dance. This figure is sometimes danced in eight bars time, which not only hurries and inconveniences the dancers, but also ill accords with the music.

143.  Waltz Cotillon.

Places the same as quadrille. First couple waltz round inside; first and second ladies advance twice and cross over, turning twice; first and second gentlemen do the same; third and fourth couples the same; first and second couples waltz to places, third and fourth do the same; all waltz to partners, and turn half round with both hands, meeting the next lady; perform this figure until in four places; form two side lines, all advance twice and cross over, turning twice; the same, returning; all waltz round; the whole repeated four times.

144.  La Galopade

is an extremely graceful and spirited dance, in a continual chassez. An unlimited number may join; it is danced in couples, as waltzing.

145.   The Galopade Quadrilles.

1st. Galopade.
2nd. Right and left, sides the same.
3rd. Set and turn, hands all eight.
4th. Galopade.
5th. Ladies' chain, sides the same.
6th. Set and turn partners all eight.
7th. Galopade.
8th. Tirois, sides the same.
9th. Set and turn partners all eight.
10th. Galopade.
11th Top lady and bottom gentleman advance and retire, the other six do the same.
12th. Set and turn partners all eight.
13th. Galopade.
14th. Four ladies advance and retire, gentlemen the same.
15th. Double ladies' chain.
16th. Set and turn partners all eight.
17th. Galopade.
18th. Poussette, sides the same.
19th. Set and turn.
20th. Galopade waltz.

146.  The Mazurka.

This dance is of Polish origin—first introduced into England by the Duke of Devonshire, on his return from Russia. It consists of twelve movements; and the first eight bars are played (as in quadrilles) before the first movement commences.

147.  The Redowa Waltz

is composed of: three parts, distinct from each other. 1st, The Pursuit. 2nd, The waltz called Redowa. 3rd, The waltz a Deux Temps, executed to a peculiar measure, and which, by a change of the rhythm, assumes a new character. The middle of the floor must he reserved for the dancers who execute the promenade, called the pursuit, while those who dance the waltz turn in a circle about the room. The position of the gentleman is the same as for the waltz. The gentleman sets out with the left foot, and the lady with the right. In the pursuit the position is different, the gentleman and his partner face, and take each other by the hand. They advance or fall back at pleasure, and balance in advance and backwards. To advance, the step of the pursuit is made by a glissade forward, without springing, coupé with the hind foot, and jeté on it. You recommence with the other foot, and so on throughout. The retiring step is made by a sliding step of the foot backwards, without spring, jeté with the front foot, and coupé with the one behind. It is necessary to advance well upon the sliding step, and to spring lightly in the two others, sur place, balancing equally in the pas de poursuite, which is executed alternately by the left in advance, and the right backwards. The lady should follow all the movements of her partner, falling back when he advances, and advancing when he falls back. Bring the shoulders a little forward at each sliding step, for they should always follow the movement of the leg as it advances or retreats; but this should not be too marked. When the gentleman is about to waltz, he should take the lady's waist, as in the ordinary waltz. The step of the Redowa, in turning, may be thus described. For the gentleman—jete of the left foot, passing before the lady. Glissade of the right foot behind to the fourth position aside—the left foot is brought to the third position behind—then the pas de basque is executed by the right foot, bringing it forward, and you recommence with the left. The pas de basque should be made in three very equal beats, as in the Mazurka. The lady performs the same steps as the gentleman, beginning by the pas de basque with the right foot. To waltz à deux temps to the measure of the Redowa, we should make each step upon each beat of the bar, and find ourselves at every two bars, the gentleman with his left foot forwards, and the lady with her right, that is to say, we should make one whole and one half step to every bar. The music is rather slower than for the ordinary waltz.

Phosphorus was Discovered in 1677.

148.  Valse Cellarius

The gentleman takes the lady's left hand with his right, moving one bar to the left by glissade, and two hops on his left foot, while the lady does the same to the right, on her right foot; at the second bar they repeat the same with the other foot—this is repeated for sixteen bars; they then waltz sixteen bars, glissade and two hops, taking care to occupy the time of two bars to get quite round. The gentleman now takes both hands of the lady, and makes the grand square—moving three bars to his left—at the fourth bar making two beats while turning the angle; his right foot is now moved forward to the other angle three bars—at the fourth, beat again while turning the angle; the same repeated for sixteen bars—the lady having her right foot forward when the gentleman has his left toot forward; the waltz is again repeated; after which several other steps are introduced, but which must needs be seen to be understood.

149.  Circular Waltz.

The dancers form a circle, then promenade during the introduction—all waltz sixteen bars—set, holding partner's right hand, and turn—waltz thirty-two bars—rest, and turn partners slowly—face partner and chassez to the right and left—pirouette lady twice with the right hand, all waltz sixteen bars—set and turn—all form a circle, still retaining the lady by the right hand, and move round to the left, sixteen bars—waltz for finale.

150.  Polka Waltzes

The couples take hold of hands as in the usual waltz.

First Waltz. The gentleman hops the left foot well forward, then hack; and glissades half round. He then hops the right foot forward and back, and glissades the other half round. The lady performs the same steps, beginning with the right foot.

Second. The gentleman, hopping, strikes the left heel three times against the right heel, and then jumps half round on the left foot; he then strikes the right heel three times against the left, and jumps on the right foot, completing the circle. The lady does the same steps with reverse feet.

Third. The gentleman raises up the left foot, steps it lightly on the ground forward, then strikes the right heel smartly twice, and glissades half round. The same is then done with the other foot. The lady begins with the right foot.

151.  Valse a Deux Temps.

This waltz contains, like the common waltz, three times, but differently divided. The first time consists of a gliding step; the second a chassez, including two times in one. A chassez is performed by bringing one leg near the other, then moving it forward, backward, right, left, and round. The gentleman begins by sliding to the left with his left foot, then performing a chassez towards the left with his right foot without turning at all during the first two times. He then slides backwards with his right leg, turning half round; after which he puts his left leg behind, to perform a chassez forward, turning then half round for the second time. The lady waltzes in the same manner, except that the first time she slides to the right with the right foot, and also performs the chassez on the right, and continues the same as the gentleman, except that she slides backwards with her right foot when the gentleman slides with his left foot to the left; and when the gentleman slides with his right foot backwards, she slides with the left foot to the left. To perform this waltz gracefully, care must be taken to avoid jumping, but merely to slide, and keep the knees slightly bent.

Average Weight of Man's Brain, 3-1/2lbs, Woman's 2lbs. 11oz.

152.  Circassian Circle

The company is arranged in couples round the room—the ladies being placed on the right of the gentlemen,—after which, the first and second couples lead off the dance.

Figure. Eight and left, set and turn partners—ladies' chain, waltz.

At the conclusion, the first couple with fourth, and the second with the third couple, recommence the figure,—and so on until they go completely round the circle, when the dance is concluded.

153.  Polka

In the polka there an but two principal steps, all others belong to fancy dances, and much mischief and inconvenience is likely to arise from their improper introduction into the ball-room.

First step. The gentleman raises the left foot slightly behind the right, the right foot is then hopped with, and the left brought forward with a glissade. The lady commences with the right, jumps on the left, and glissades with the right. The gentleman during his step has hold of the lady's left hand with his right.
Second step. The gentleman lightly hops the left foot forward on the heel, then hops on the toe, bringing the left foot slightly behind the right. He then glissades with the left foot forward; the same is then done, commencing with the right foot. The lady dances the same step, only beginning with the right foot.

There are a variety of other steps of a fancy character, but they can only be understood with the aid of a master, and even when well studied, must be introduced with care. The polka should be danced with grace and elegance, eschewing all outré and ungainly steps and gestures, taking care that the leg is not lifted too high, and that the dance is not commenced in too abrupt a manner. Any number of couples may stand up, and it is the privilege of the gentleman to form what figure he pleases, and vary it as often as his fancy and taste may dictate.

First Figure. Four or eight bars are devoted to setting forwards and backwards, turning from and towards your partner, making a slight hop at the commencement of each set, and holding your partner's left hand; you then perform the same step (forwards) all round the room.
Second Figure. The gentleman faces his partner, and does the same step backwards all round the room, the lady following with the opposite foot, and doing the step forwards.
Third Figure. The same as the second figure, only reversed, the lady stepping backwards, and the gentleman forwards, always going the same way round the room.
Fourth Figure. The same step as figures two and three, but turning as in a waltz.

Man's Heart Beats 92,160 Times in a Day.

154.  The Gorlitza

is similar to the polka, the figures being waltzed through.

155.  The Schottische

The gentleman holds the lady precisely as in the polka. Beginning with the left foot, he slides it forward, then brings up the right foot to the place of the left, slides the left foot forward, and springs or hops on this foot. This movement is repeated to the right. He begins with the right foot, slides it forward, brings up the left foot to the place of the right foot, slides the right foot forward again, and hops upon it. The gentleman springs twice on the left foot, turning half round; twice on the right foot; twice encore on the left foot, turning half round; and again twice on the right foot, turning half round. Beginning again, he proceeds as before. The lady begins with the right foot, and her step is the same in principle as the gentleman's. Vary, by a reverse turn; or by going in a straight line round the room. Double, if you like, each part, by giving four bars to the first part, and four bars to the second part. The time may be stated as precisely the same as in the polka; but let it not be forgotten that La Schottische ought to be danced much slower.

156.  Country Dances.  Sir Roger de Coverley

First lady and bottom gentleman advance to centre, salute, and retire; first gentleman and bottom lady, same. First lady and bottom gentleman advance to centre, turn, and retire; first gentleman and bottom lady the same. Ladies promenade, turning off to the right down the room, and back to places, while gentlemen do the same, turning to the left; top couple remain at bottom; repeat to the end of dance.

157.  La Polka Country Dances.

All form two lines, ladies on the right, gentlemen on the left.

Figure Top lady and second gentleman heel and toe (polka step) across to each other's place—second lady and top gentleman the same. Top lady and second gentleman retire back to places—second lady and top gentleman the same. Two couples polka step down the middle and back again—two first couples polka waltz. First couple repeat with the third couple, then with fourth, and so on to the end of dance.

158.  The Highland Reel

This dance is performed by the company arranged in parties of three, along the room in the following manner: a lady between two gentlemen, in double rows. All advance and retire—each lady then performs the reel with the gentleman on her right hand, and retires with the opposite gentleman to places—hands three round and back again—all six advance and retire— then lead through to the next trio, and continue the figure to the end of the room. Adopt the Highland step, and music of three-four time.

159.  Terms used to Describe the Movements of Dances.

Balancez Set to partners.
Chaine Anglaise The top and bottom couples right and left.
Chaine Anglaise double The right and left double.
Chaine des Dames The ladies' chain.
Chaine des Dames double The ladies' chain double, which is performed by all the ladies commencing at the same time.
Chassez Move to the right and left.
Chassez croisez Gentlemen change places with partners, and back again.
Demie Chaine Anglaise The four opposite persons half right and left.
Demie Promenade All eight half promenade.
Dos-à-dos The two opposite persons pass round each other.
Demie Moulinet The ladies all advance to the centre, giving hands, and return to places.
La Grande Chaine All eight chassez quite round, giving alternately right and left hands to partners, beginning with the right.
Le Grand Rond All join hands and advance and retire twice.
Pas d'Allemande The gentlemen turn the partners under their arms.
Traversez The two opposite persons change places.
Vis-à-vis The opposite partner.

The Human Body has 240 Bones.

160.  Scandal—Live it down.

Should envious tongues some malice frame,
To soil and tarnish your good name,
Live it down!

Grow not disheartened; 'tis the lot
Of all men, whether good or not:
Live it down!

Him not in answer, but be calm;
For silence yields a rapid balm:
Live it down!

Go not among your friends and say,
Evil hath fallen on my way:
Live it down!

Far better thus yourself alone
To suffer, than with friends bemoan
The trouble that is all your own:
Live it down!

What though men evil call your good!
So Christ Himself, misunderstood,
Was nailed unto a cross of wood!
And now shall you for lesser pain,
Your inmost soul for ever stain,
By rendering evil back again?
Live it down!

161.  Errors in Speaking

There are several kinds of errors in speaking. The most objectionable of them are those in which words are employed that are unsuitable to convey the meaning intended. Thus, a person wishing to express his intention of going to a given place, says, "I propose going," when, in fact, he purposes going. The following affords an amusing illustration of this class of error:—A venerable matron was speaking of her son, who, she said, was quite stage-struck. "In fact," remarked the old lady, "he is going to a premature performance this evening!" Considering that most amateur performances are premature, it cannot be said that this word was altogether misapplied; though, evidently, the maternal intention was to convey quite another meaning.

162.  Other Errors

arise from the substitution of sounds similar to the words which should be employed; that is, spurious words instead of genuine ones. Thus, some people say "renumerative," when they mean "remunerative." A nurse, recommending her mistress to have a perambulator for her child, advised her to purchase a preamputator!

163.  Other Errors (2)

are occasioned by imperfect knowledge of the English grammar: thus, many people say, "Between you and I," instead of "Between you and me." And there are numerous other departures from the rules of grammar, which will be pointed out hereafter.

164.  By the Misuse of the Adjective:

"What beautiful butter!" "What a nice landscape! "They should say, "What a beautiful landscape!" "What nice butter!" Again, errors are frequently occasioned by the following causes:

165.  By the Mispronunciation of Words.

Many persons say pronounciation instead of pronunciation; others say pro-nun'-she-a-shun, instead of pro-nun-ce-a-shun.

166.  By the Misdivision of Words and syllables.

This defect makes the words an ambassador sound like a nam-bassador, or an adder like a nadder.

167.  By Imperfect Enunciation,

as when a person says hebben for heaven, ebber for ever, jocholate for chocolate, &c

168.  By the Use of Provincialisms

or words retained from various dialects, of which we give the following examples:

169.  Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Suffolk, &c

Foyne, twoyne, for fine, twine; ineet for night; a-mon for man; poo for pull.

170.  Cumberland, Scotland, &c

Cuil, bluid, for cool, blood; spwort, seworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, home; a-theere for there; e-reed, seeven, for red, seven; bleedin' for bleeding; hawf for half; saumon for salmon.

171.  Devonshire, Cornwall, &c

F-vind for find; fet for fetch; wid for with; zee for see; tudder for the other; drash, droo, for thrash, and through; gewse for goose, &c

172.  Essex, London, &c

V-wiew for view; vent for went; vite for white; ven for when; vot for what. Londoners are also prone to say Toosday for Tuesday; noomerous for numerous; noospaper for newspaper, &c

The Musical Scale was Invented in 1022.

173.  Hereford, &c

Clom for climb; hove for heave; puck for pick; rep for reap; sled for sledge.

174.  Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Lancashire, &c

Housen for houses; a-ioyne for lane; mon for man; thik for this; brig for bridge; thack, pick, for thatch, pitch.

175.  Yorkshire, &c

Foyt for foot; foight for fight; o-noite, foil, coil, hoil, for note, foal, coal, hole; loyne for lane; o-nooin, gooise, fooil, tooil, for noon, goose, fool, tool; spwort, scworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, home; g-yet for gate.

176.  Examples of Provincial Dialects

The following will be found very amusing:

177.  The Cornish Schoolboy

An ould man found, one day, a young gentleman's portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar; he took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and said, "Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase some poor ould shoemaker or other have los'en; tak'en, and put'en a top of the teaster of tha bed; he'll be glad to hab'en agin sum day, I dear say." The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es work as before. Mally then opened the portmantle, and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, "Jan, I'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to scool" (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He went but a very short time, and comed hoam one day and said, "Mally, I waint go to scool no more, 'caase the childer do be laffen at me: they can tell their letters, and I caan't tell my A, B, C, and I wud rayther go to work agen." "Do as thee wool," ses Mally. Jan had not been out many days, afore the young gentleman came by that lost the portmantle, and said, "Well, my ould man, did'ee see or hear tell o' sich a thing as a portmantle?" "Port-mantle, sar, was't that un, sumthing like thickey?" (pointing to one behind es saddle). "I vound one the t'other day zackly like that." "Where es, et?" "Come along, I carr'd'en and gov'en to my ould 'ooman, Mally; thee sha't av'en, nevr vear.—Mally, where es that roul of lither I broft en tould thee to put en a top o' the teaster of the bed, afore I go'd to scool?" "Drat thee emperance," said the young gentleman; "thee art bewattled; that were afore I were born." So he druv'd off, and left all the three hunderd pounds with Jan and Mally.

178.  Yorkshire

Men an' women is like so monny cards, played wi' be two oppoanents, Time an' Eternity: Time gets a gam' noo an' then, and hez t' pleasure o' keepin' his cards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better hand, an' proves, day be day, an' hoor be hoor, 'at he's winnin incalcalably fast.—"Hoo sweet, hoo varry sweet is life!" as t' fiee said when he wur stuck i' treacle!

179.  Effect of Provincialisms

Persons bred in these localities, and in Ireland and Scotland, retain more or less of their provincialisms; and, therefore, when they move into other districts, they become conspicuous for their peculiarities of speech. Often they appear vulgar and uneducated, when they are not so. It is, therefore, desirable for all persons to approach the recognised standard of correctness as nearly as possible.

180.  Correction of Errors in Speaking

To correct these errors by a systematic course of study would involve a closer application than most persons could afford, and require more space than we can devote to the subject. We will therefore give numerous Rules and Hints, in a concise and simple form, which will be of great assistance to inquirers. These Rules and Hints will be founded upon the authority of scholars, the usages of the bar, the pulpit, and the senate, and the authority of societies formed for the purpose of collecting and diffusing knowledge pertaining to the language of this country.

A Salmon has been Known to Produce 10,000,000 Eggs.

181.  Rules and Hints for Correct Speaking.

  1. Who and whom are used in relation to persons, and which in relation to things. But it was once common to say, "the man which." This should now be avoided. It is now usual to say, "Our Father who art in heaven," instead of "which art in heaven."
  1. Whose is, however, sometimes applied to things as well as to persons. We may therefore say, "The country whose inhabitants are free." Grammarians differ in opinion upon this subject, but general usage justifies the rule.
  1. Thou is employed in solemn discourse, and you in common language. Ye (plural) is also used in serious addresses, and you in familiar language.
  1. The uses of the word It are various, and very perplexing to the uneducated. It is not only used to imply persons, but things, and even, ideas, and therefore, in speaking or writing, its assistance is constantly required. The perplexity respecting this word arises from the fact that in using it in the construction of a long sentence, sufficient care is not taken to ensure that when it is employed it really points out or refers to the object intended. For instance, "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the market, and he was delayed so long that it was over before he arrived." Now what is to be understood by this sentence? Was the rain over? or the market? Either or both might be inferred from the construction of the sentence, which, therefore, should be written thus:— "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the market, and he was delayed so long that the market was over before he arrived."
  1. Rule.—After writing a sentence always look through it, and see that wherever the word It is employed, it refers to or carries the mind back to the object which it is intended to point out.
  1. The general distinction between This and That may be thus defined: this denotes an object present or near, in time or place, that something which is absent.
  1. These refers, in the same manner, to present objects, while those refers to things that are remote.
  1. Who changes, under certain conditions, into whose and whom. But that and which always remain the same.
  1. That may be applied to nouns or subjects of all sorts; as, the girl that went to school, the dog that bit me, the ship that went to London, the opinion that he entertains.
  1. The misuse of these pronouns gives rise to more errors in speaking and writing than any other cause.
  1. When you wish to distinguish between two or more persons, say, "Which is the happy man?"—not who—"Which of those ladies do you admire?"
  1. Instead of "Who do you think him to be?"—say, "Whom do you think him to be?"
  1. Whom should I see?
  1. To whom do you speak?
  1. Who said so?
  1. Who gave it to you?
  1. Of whom did you procure them?
  1. Who was he?
  1. Who do men say that I am?
  1. Whom do they represent me to be1?
  1. In many instances in which who is used as an interrogative, it does not become whom; as "Who do you speak to?" "Who do you expect?" "Who is she married to?" "Who is this reserved for?" "Who was it made by?" Such sentences are found in the writings of our best authors, and it would be presumptuous to consider them as ungrammatical. If the word whom should be preferred, then it would be best to say, "For whom is this reserved?" &c
  1. Instead of "After which hour," say "After that hour."
  1. Self should never be added to his, their, mine, or thine.
  1. Each is used to denote every individual of a number.
  1. Every denotes all the individuals of a number.
  1. Either and or denote an alternative: "I will take either road, at your pleasure;" "I will take this or that."
  1. Neither means not either; and nor means not the other.
  1. Either is sometimes used for each—"Two thieves were crucified, on either side one."
  1. "Let each esteem others as good as themselves," should be, "Let each esteem others as good as himself."
  1. "There are bodies each of which are so small," should be, "each of which is so small."
  1. Do not use double superlatives, such as most straightest, most highest, most finest.
  1. The term worser has gone out of use; but lesser is still retained.
  1. The use of such words as chiefest, extremest, &c, has become obsolete, because they do not give any superior force to the meanings of the primary words, chief, extreme, &c
  1. Such expressions as more impossible, more indispensable, more universal, more uncontrollable, more unlimited, &c, are objectionable, as they really enfeeble the meaning which it is the object of the speaker or writer to strengthen. For instance, impossible gains no strength by rendering it more impossible. This class of error is common with persons who say, "A great large house," "A great big animal," "A little small foot," "A tiny little hand."
  1. Here, there, and where, originally denoting place, may now, by common consent, he used to denote other meanings; such as, "There I agree with you," "Where we differ," "We find pain where we expected pleasure," "Here you mistake me."
  1. Hence, whence, and thence, denoting departure, &c, may be used without the word from. The idea of from is included in the word whence—therefore it is unnecessary to say "From whence."
  1. Hither, thither, and whither, denoting to a place, have generally been superseded by here, there, and where. But there is no good reason why they should not be employed. If, however, they are used, it is unnecessary to add the word to, because that is implied—"Whither are you going?" "Where are you going?" Each of these sentences is complete. To say, "Where are you going to?" is redundant.
  1. Two negatives destroy each other, and produce an affirmative. "Nor did he not observe them," conveys the idea that he did observe them.
  1. But negative assertions are allowable. "His manners are not unpolite," which implies that his manners are, in some degree, marked by politeness.
  1. Instead of "I had rather walk," say "I would rather walk."
  1. Instead of "I had better go," say "It were better that I should go."
  1. Instead of "I doubt not but I shall be able to go," say "I doubt not that I shall be able to go."
  1. Instead of "Let you and I," say "Let you and me."
  1. Instead of "I am not so tall as him," say "I am not so tall as he."
  1. When asked "Who is there?" do not answer "Me," but "I."
  1. Instead of "For you and I," say "For you and me."
  1. Instead of "Says I," say "I said."
  1. Instead of "You are taller than me," say "You are taller than I."
  1. Instead of "I ain't," or "I arn't," say "I am not."
  1. Instead of "Whether I be present or no," say "Whether I be present or not."
  1. For "Not that I know on," say "Not that I know."
  1. Instead of "Was I to do so," say "Were I to do so."
  1. Instead of "I would do the same if I was him," say "I would do the same if I were he."
  1. Instead of "I had as lief go myself," say "I would as soon go myself," or "I would rather."
  1. It is better to say "Bred and born," than "Born and bred."
  1. It is better to say "Six weeks ago," than "Six weeks back."
  1. It is better to say "Since which time," than "Since when."
  1. It is better to say "I repeated it," than "I said so over again."
  1. It is better to say "A physician," or "A surgeon," than "A medical man."
  1. Instead of "He was too young to have suffered much," say "He was too young to suffer much."
  1. Instead of "Less friends," say "Fewer friends." Less refers to quantity.
  1. Instead of "A quantity of people," say "A number of people."
  1. Instead of "He and they we know," say "Him and them."
  1. Instead of "As far as I can see," say "So far as I can see."
  1. Instead of "If I am not mistaken," say "If I mistake not."
  1. Instead of "You are mistaken," say "You mistake."
  1. Instead of "What beautiful tea!" say "What good tea!"
  1. Instead of "What a nice prospect!" say "What a beautiful prospect!"
  1. Instead of "A new pair of gloves," say "A pair of new gloves."
  1. Instead of saying "He belongs to the house," say "The house belongs to him."
  1. Instead of saying "Not no such thing," say " Not any such thing."
  1. Instead of "I hope you'll think nothing on it," say "I hope you'll think nothing of it."
  1. Instead of "Restore it back to me," say "Restore it to me."
  1. Instead of "I suspect the veracity of his story," say "I doubt the truth of his story."
  1. Instead of "I seldom or ever see him," say " I seldom see him."
  1. Instead of "Rather warmish" or "A little warmish," say "Rather warm."
  1. Instead of "I expected to have found him," say "I expected to find him."
  1. Instead of "Shay," say "Chaise."
  1. Instead of "He is a very rising person," say "He is rising rapidly."
  1. Instead of "Who learns you music?" say "Who teaches you music?"
  1. Instead of "I never sing whenever I can help it," say "I never sing when I can help it."
  1. Instead of "Before I do that I must first ask leave," say "Before I do that I must ask leave."
  1. Instead of "To get over the difficulty," say "To overcome the difficulty."
  1. The phrase "get over" is in many cases misapplied, as, to "get over a person," to "get over a week," to "get over an opposition."
  1. Instead of saying "The observation of the rule," say "The observance of the rule."
  1. Instead of "A man of eighty years of age," say "A man eighty years old."
  1. Instead of "Here lays his honoured head," say "Here lies his honoured head."
  1. Instead of "He died from negligence," say " He died through neglect," or "in consequence of neglect."
  1. Instead of "Apples are plenty," say "Apples are plentiful."
  1. Instead of "The latter end of the year," say "The end, or the close of the year."
  1. Instead of "The then government," say "The government of that age, or century, or year, or time."
  1. Instead of "For ought I know," say "For aught I know."
  1. Instead of "A couple of chairs," say "Two chairs."
  1. Instead of "Two couples," say "Four persons."
  1. But you may say "A married couple," or, "A married pair," or, "A couple of fowls," &c, in any case where one of each sex is to be understood.
  1. Instead of "They are united together in the bonds of matrimony," say "They are united in matrimony," or, "They are married."
  1. Instead of "We travel slow," say "We travel slowly."
  1. Instead of "He plunged down into the river," say "He plunged into the river."
  1. Instead of "He jumped from off of the scaffolding," say "He jumped off from the scaffolding."
  1. Instead of "He came the last of all," say "He came the last."
  1. Instead of "universal," with reference to things that have any limit, say "general;" "generally approved," instead of "universally approved;" "generally beloved," instead of "universally beloved."
  1. Instead of "They ruined one another," say "They ruined each other."
  1. Instead of "If in case I succeed," say "If I succeed."
  1. Instead of "A large enough room," say "A room large enough."
  1. Instead of "This villa to let," say "This villa to be let."
  1. Instead of "I am slight in comparison to you," say "I am slight in comparison with you."
  1. Instead of "I went for to see him," say "I went to see him."
  1. Instead of "The cake is all eat up," say "The cake is all eaten."
  1. Instead of "It is bad at the best," say "It is very bad."
  1. Instead of "Handsome is as handsome does," say "Handsome is who handsome does."
  1. Instead of "As I take it," say "As I see," or, "As I under stand it."
  1. Instead of "The book fell on the floor," say "The book fell to the floor."
  1. Instead of "His opinions are approved of by all," say "His opinions are approved by all."
  1. Instead of "I will add one more argument," say "I will add one argument more," or "another argument."
  1. Instead of "Captain Reilly was killed by a bullet," say "Captain Reilly was killed with a bullet."
  1. Instead of "A sad curse is war," say "War is a sad curse."
  1. Instead of "He stands six foot high," say "He measures six feet," or "His height is six feet."
  1. Instead of "I go every now and then," say "I go often, or frequently."
  1. Instead of "Who finds him in clothes," say "Who provides him with clothes."
  1. Say "The first two," and "the last two," instead of "the two first," "the two last;" leave out all expletives, such as "of all," "first of all," "last of all," "best of all," &c, &c
  1. Instead of "His health was drank with enthusiasm," say "His health was drunk enthusiastically."
  1. Instead of "Except I am prevented," say "Unless I am prevented."
  1. Instead of "In its primary sense," say "In its primitive sense."
  1. Instead of "It grieves me to see you," say "I am grieved to see you."
  1. Instead of "Give me them papers," say "Give me those papers."
  1. Instead of "Those papers I hold in my hand," say "These papers I hold in my hand."
  1. Instead of "I could scarcely imagine but what," say "I could scarcely imagine but that."
  1. Instead of "He was a man notorious for his benevolence," say "He was noted for his benevolence."
  1. Instead of "She was a woman celebrated for her crimes," say "She was notorious on account of her crimes."
  1. Instead of "What may your name be?" say "What is your name?"
  1. Instead of "Bills are requested not to be stuck here," say "Billstickers are requested not to stick bills here."
  1. Instead of "By smoking it often becomes habitual," say "By smoking often it becomes habitual."
  1. Instead of "I lifted it up," say "I lifted it."
  1. Instead of "It is equally of the same value," say "It is of the same value," or "equal value."
  1. Instead of "I knew it previous to your telling me," say "I knew it previously to your telling me."
  1. Instead of "You was out when I called," say "You were out when I called."
  1. Instead of "I thought I should have won this game," say "I thought I should win this game."
  1. Instead of "This much is certain," say "Thus much is certain," or, "So much is certain."
  1. Instead of "He went away as it may be yesterday week," say "He went away yesterday week."
  1. Instead of "He came the Saturday as it may be before the Monday," specify the Monday on which he came.
  1. Instead of "Put your watch in your pocket," say "Put your watch into your pocket."
  1. Instead of "He has got riches," say "He has riches."
  1. Instead of "Will you set down?" say "Will you sit down?"
  1. Instead of "The hen is setting," say "The hen is sitting."
  1. Instead of "It is raining very hard," say "It is raining very fast."
  1. Instead of "No thankee," say "No thank you."
  1. Instead of "I cannot do it without farther means," say "I cannot do it without further means."
  1. Instead of "No sooner but," or "No other but," say "than."
  1. Instead of "Nobody else but her," say "Nobody but her."
  1. Instead of "He fell down from the balloon," say "He fell from the balloon."
  1. Instead of "He rose up from the ground," say "He rose from the ground."
  1. Instead of "These kind of oranges are not good," say "This kind of oranges is not good."
  1. Instead of "Somehow or another," say "Somehow or other."
  1. Instead of "Undeniable references required," say "Unexceptionable references required."
  1. Instead of "I cannot rise sufficient funds," say "I cannot raise sufficient funds."
  1. Instead of "I cannot raise so early in the morning," say "I cannot rise so early in the morning."
  1. Instead of "Well, I don't know," say "I don't know."
  1. Instead of "Will I give you some more tea?" say "Shall I give you some more tea?"
  1. Instead of "Oh dear, what will I do?" say "Oh dear, what shall I do?"
  1. Instead of "I think indifferent of it," say "I think indifferently of it."
  1. Instead of "I will send it conformable to your orders," say "I will send it conformably to your orders."
  1. Instead of "Give me a few broth," say "Give me some broth."
  1. Instead of "Her said it was hers," say "She said it was hers."
  1. Instead of "To be given away gratis," say "To be given away."
  1. Instead of "Will you enter in?" say "Will you enter?"
  1. Instead of "This three days or more," say "These three days or more."
  1. Instead of "He is a bad grammarian," say " He is not a grammarian."
  1. Instead of "We accuse him for," say "We accuse him of."
  1. Instead of "We acquit him from," say "We acquit him of."
  1. Instead of "I am averse from that," say "I am averse to that."
  1. Instead of "I confide on you," say "I confide in you."
  1. Instead of "I differ with you," say "I differ from you."
  1. Instead of "As soon as ever," say "As soon as."
  1. Instead of "The very best" or "The very worst," say "The best or the worst."
  1. Instead of "A winter's morning," say "A winter morning," or "A wintry morning."
  1. Instead of "Fine morning, this morning," say "This is a fine morning."
  1. Instead of "How do you do?" say "How are you?"
  1. Instead of "Not so well as I could wish," say "Not quite well."
  1. Avoid such phrases as "No great shakes," "Nothing to boast of," "Down in my boots," "Suffering from the blues." All such sentences indicate vulgarity.
  1. Instead of "No one cannot prevail upon him," say "No one can prevail upon him."
  1. Instead of "No one hasn't called," say "No one has called."
  1. Avoid such phrases as "If I was you," or even, "If I were you." Better say, "I advise you how to act."
  1. Instead of "You have a right to pay me," say "It is right that you should pay me."
  1. Instead of "I am going on a tour," say "I am about to take a tour," or "going."
  1. Instead of "I am going over the bridge," say "I am going across the bridge."
  1. Instead of "He is coming here," say "He is coming hither."
  1. Instead of "He lives opposite the square," say "He lives opposite to the square."
  1. Instead of "He belongs to the Reform Club," say "He is a member of the Reform Club."
  1. Avoid such phrases as "I am up to you," "I'll be down upon you," "Cut," or "Mizzle."
  1. Instead of "I should just think I could," say "I think I can."
  1. Instead of "There has been a good deal," say "There has been much."
  1. Instead of "Following up a principle," say "Guided by a principle."
  1. Instead of "Your obedient, humble servant," say "Your obedient," or, "Your humble servant."
  1. Instead of saying "The effort you are making for meeting the bill," say "The effort you are making to meet the bill."
  1. Instead of saying "It shall be submitted to investigation and inquiry," say "It shall be submitted to investigation," or "to inquiry."
  1. Dispense with the phrase "Conceal from themselves the fact;" it suggests a gross anomaly.
  1. Never say "Pure and unadulterated," because the phrase embodies a repetition.
  1. Instead of saying "Adequate for," say "Adequate to."
  1. Instead of saying "A surplus over and above," say "A surplus."
  1. Instead of saying "A lasting and permanent peace," say "A permanent peace."
  1. Instead of saying "I left you behind at London," say "I left you behind me at London."
  1. Instead of saying "Has been followed by immediate dismissal," say "Was followed by immediate dismissal."
  1. Instead of saying "Charlotte was met with Thomas," say "Charlotte was met by Thomas." But if Charlotte and Thomas were walking together, "Charlotte and Thomas were met by," &c
  1. Instead of "It is strange that no author should never have written," say "It is strange that no author should ever have written."
  1. Instead of "I won't never write," say "I will never write."
  1. To say "Do not give him no more of your money," is equivalent to saying "Give him some of your money." Say "Do not give him any of your money."
  1. Instead of saying "They are not what nature designed them," say "They are not what nature designed them to be."
  1. Instead of "By this means," say "By these means."
  1. Instead of saying "A beautiful seat and gardens," say "A beautiful seat and its gardens."
  1. Instead of "All that was wanting," say "All that was wanted."
  1. Instead of saying "I had not the pleasure of hearing his sentiments when I wrote that letter," say "I had not the pleasure of having heard," &c
  1. Instead of "The quality of the apples were good," say "The quality of the apples was good."
  1. Instead of "The want of learning, courage, and energy are more visible," say "Is more visible."
  1. Instead of "We are conversant about it," say "We are conversant with it."
  1. Instead of "We called at William," say "We called on William."
  1. Instead of "We die for want," say "We die of want."
  1. Instead of "He died by fever," say "He died of fever."
  1. Instead of "I enjoy bad health," say "My health is not good."
  1. Instead of "Either of the three," say "Any one of the three."
  1. Instead of "Better nor that," say "Better than that."
  1. Instead of "We often think on you," say "We often think of you."
  1. Instead of "Though he came, I did not see him," say "Though he came, yet I did not see him."
  1. Instead of "Mine is so good as yours," say "Mine is as good as yours."
  1. Instead of "He was remarkable handsome," say "He was remarkably handsome."
  1. Instead of "Smoke ascends up the chimney,'I say "Smoke ascends the chimney."
  1. Instead of "You will some day be convinced," say "You will one day be convinced."
  1. Instead of saying "Because I don't choose to," say "Because I would father not."
  1. Instead of "Because why?" say "Why?"
  1. Instead of "That there boy," say "That boy."
  1. Instead of "Direct your letter to me," say "Address your letter to me."
  1. Instead of "The horse is not much worth," say "The horse is not worth much."
  1. Instead of "The subject-matter of debate," say "The subject of debate."
  1. Instead of saying "When he was come back," say "When he had come back."
  1. Instead of saying "His health has been shook," say "His health has been shaken."
  1. Instead of "It was spoke in my presence," say "It was spoken in my presence."
  1. Instead of "Very right," or "Very wrong," say "Right," or "Wrong."
  1. Instead of "The mortgager paid him the money," say "The mortgagee paid him the money." The mortgagee lends; the mortgager borrows.
  1. Instead of "This town is not as large as we thought," say "This town is not so large as we thought."
  1. Instead of "I took you to be another person," say "I mistook you for another person."
  1. Instead of "On either side of the river," say "On each side of the river."
  1. Instead of "There's fifty," say "There are fifty."
  1. Instead of "The best of the two," say "The better of the two."
  1. Instead of "My clothes have become too small for me," say "I have grown too stout for my clothes."
  1. Instead of "Is Lord Lytton in?" say "Is Lord Lytton within?"
  1. Instead of "Two spoonsful of physic," say "Two spoonfuls of physic."
  1. Instead of "He must not do it." say "He need not do it."
  1. Instead of "She said, says she," say "She said."
  1. Avoid such phrases as "I said, says I," "Thinks I to myself, thinks I," &c
  1. Instead of "I don't think so," say "I think not."
  1. Instead of "He was in eminent danger," say "He was in imminent danger."
  1. Instead of "The weather is hot," say "The weather is very warm."
  1. Instead of "I sweat," say "I perspire."
  1. Instead of "I only want two shillings," say "I want only two shillings."
  1. Instead of "Whatsomever," always take care to say "Whatever," or "Whatsoever."
  1. Avoid such exclamations as "God bless me!" "God deliver me!" "By God!" "By Gor'!" "My Lor'!" "Upon my soul," &c, which are vulgar on the one hand, and savour of impiety on the other, for:
  1. "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain."

Footnote 1:   Persons who wish to become well acquainted with the principles of English Grammar by an easy process, are recommended to procure "The Useful Grammar," price 3d., published by Houlston and Sons.
return to footnote mark

Some Female Spiders Produce 2,000 Eggs.

182.  Pronunciation

Accent is a particular stress or force of the voice upon certain syllables or words. This mark ' in printing denotes the syllable upon which the stress or force of the voice should he placed.

There are 9,000 Cells in a Square Foot of Honeycomb.

183.  A Word may have more than One Accent.

Take as an instance aspiration. In uttering this word we give a marked emphasis of the voice upon the first and third syllables, and therefore those syllables are said to be accented. The first of these accents is less distinguishable than the second, upon which we dwell longer, therefore the second accent in point of order is called the primary, or chief accent of the word.

A Cow Consumes 100 lbs. of Green Food Daily.

184.  When the full Accent falls on a Vowel

that vowel should have a long sound, as in vo'cal; but when it, falls on or after a consonant, the preceding vowel has a short sound, as in hab'it.

2,300 Silkworms Produce 1lb of Silk.

185.  To obtain a Good Knowledge of Pronunciation

it is advisable for the reader to listen to the examples given by good speakers, and by educated persons. We learn the pronunciation of words, to a great extent, by imitation, just as birds acquire the notes of other birds which may be near them.

A Queen Bee Produces 100,000 Eggs in a Season.

186.  Double Meaning

But it will be very important to bear in mind that there are many words having a double meaning or application, and that the difference of meaning is indicated by the difference of the accent. Among these words, nouns are distinguished from verbs by this means: nouns are mostly accented on the first syllable, and verbs on the last.

A Cow Yields 168 lbs. of Butter per Annum.

187.  Noun signifies Name

Nouns are the names of persons and things, as well as of things not material and palpable, but of which we have a conception and knowledge, such as courage, firmness, goodness, strength; and verbs express actions, movements, &c If the word used signifies that anything has been done, or is being done, or is, or is to be done, then that word is a verb.

It would Take 27,600 Spiders to Produce 1 lb. of Web

188.  Examples of the above.

Thus when we say that anything is "an in'sult," that word is a noun, and is accented on the first syllable; but when we say he did it "to insultsult' another person," the word insult' implies acting, and becomes a verb, and should be accented on the last syllable. The effect is, that, in speaking, you should employ a different pronunciation in the use of the same word, when uttering such sentences as these:—"What an in'sult!" "Do you mean to insult' me?" In the first sentence the stress of voice must be laid upon the first syllable, in', and in the latter case upon the second syllable, sult'.

189.  Meaning varied by Accentuation.

A list of nearly all the words that are liable to this variation is given in the following page. It will be noticed that those in the first column, having the accent on the first syllable, are mostly nouns; and that those in the second column, which have the accent on the second and final syllable, are mostly verbs:

noun verb noun verb noun verb
abject abject contrast contrast inlay inlay
absent absent converse converse inlay inlay
abstract abstract convert convert object object
accent accent convict convict outleap outleap
afsix affix convoy convoy perfect perfect
aspect aspect decrease decrease perfume perfume
attribute attribute descant descant permit permit
augment augment desert desert prefix prefix
august august detail detail premise premise
bombard bombard digest digest presage presage
colleague colleague discord discord present present
collect collect discount discount produce produce
comment comment efflux efflux project project
compact compact escort escort protest protest
complot complot essay essay rebel rebel
comport comport exile exile record record
compound compound export export refuse refuse
compresss compress extract extract retail retail
concert concert ferment ferment subject subject
concrete concrete forecast forecast supine supine
conduct conduct foretaste foretaste survey survey
confine confine frequent frequent torment torment
conflict conflict impart impart traject traject
conserve conserve import import transfer transfer
consort consort impress impress transport transport
contest contest imprint imprint undress undress
context context incense incense upcast upcast
contract contract increase increase upstart upstart

190.  Exceptions

Cement is an Exception to the above rule, and should always be accented on the last syllable. So also the word Consols.

191.  Hints to "Cockney Speakers."

The most objectionable error of the Cockney, that of substituting the v for the w, and vice versâ, is, we believe, pretty generally abandoned. Such sentences as "Are you going to Vest Vickkam?" "This is wery good weal," &c, were too intolerable to be retained. Moreover, there has been a very able schoolmaster at work during the past forty years. This schoolmaster is no other than the loquacious Mr. Punch, from whose works we quote a few admirable exercises:
  1. Low Cockney.—"Seen that party lately?" "What! the party with the wooden leg, as come with—" "No, no—not that party. The party, you know, as—" "Oh! ah! I know the party you mean, now." "Well, a party told me as he can't agree with that other party, and he says that if another party can't be found to make it all square, he shall look out for a party as will."—(And so on for half an hour.)
  1. Police.—"Lor, Soosan, how's a feller to eat meat such weather as this! Now, a bit o' pickled salmon and cowcumber, or a lobster salid, might do."
  1. Cockney Yachtsman.—(Example of affectation.) Scene: the Regatta Ball.—"I say, Tom, what's that little craft with the black velvet flying at the fore, close under the lee scuppers of the man-of-war?" "Why, from her fore-and-aft rig, and the cut of her mainsail, I should say she's down from the port of London; but I'll signal the commodore to come and introduce us!"
  1. Omnibus Driver.—Old acquaintance. "'Ave a drop, Bill?" Driver. "Why, yer see, Jim, this 'ere young hoss has only been in 'arness once afore, and he's such a beggar to bolt, ten to one if I leave 'im he'll be a-runnin' hoff, and a smashin' into suthun. Howsoever—here—(handing reins to a timid passenger)—lay hold, sir, I'll Chance It!"
  1. Costermonger (to extremely genteel person).—"I say, guv'ner, give us a hist with this 'ere bilin' o' greens!' (A large hamper of market stuff.)
  1. Genteel Cockney (by the seaside).—Blanche. "How grand, how solemn, dear Frederick, this is! I really think the ocean is more beautiful under this aspect than under any other!" Frederick.—"H'm—ah! Per-waps. By the way, Blanche, there's a fella shwimping. S'pose we ask him if he can get us some pwawns for breakfast to-mowaw mawning?"
  1. Stuck-up Cockney.—(Small Swell enters a tailor's shop.) "A—Brown, A—want some more coats!" Snip. "Yes, sir. Thank you, sir. How many would you please to want?" Small Swell. "A—let me see; A—ll have eight. A—no, I'll have nine; and look here! A—shall want some trousers." Snip. "Yes, sir, thank you, sir. How many would you like?" Small Swell.—"A— don't know exactly. S'pose we say twenty-four pairs; and look here! Show me some patterns that won't be worn by any snobs!"
  1. Cockney Flunkey,—(Country Footman meekly inquires of London Footman)—"Pray, sir, what do you think of our town? A nice place, ain't it" London Footman (condescendingly). "Vell, Joseph, I likes your town well enough. It's clean: your streets are hairy; and you have lots of rewins. But I don't like your champagne, it's all gewsberry!"
  1. Cockney Cabby (with politeness). — "Beg pardon, sir; please don't smoke in the keb. sir; ladies do complain o' the 'bacca uncommon. Better let me smoke it for yer outside, sir!"
  1. Military Cockney.—Lieutenant Blazer (of the Plungers).—"Gwood wacious! Here's a howible go! The ifan [?word illegible] v's going to gwow a moustache! Cornet Huffey (whose face is whiskerless). "Yaw don't mean that! Wall! there's only one alternative for us. We must shave!"
  1. Juvenile Low Cockney.—"Jack; Whereabouts is Amstid-am?" Jack. "Well, I can't say exackerley, but I know it's somewhere near "Ampstid-'eath!"
  1. Cockney Domestic.—Servant girl—" Well, mam—Heverythink considered, I'm afraid you won't suit me. I've always bin brought up genteel: and I couldn't go nowheres where there ain't no footman kep'."
  1. Another.—Lady. "Wish to leave! why, I thought, Thompson, you were very comfortable with me!" Thompson (who is extremely refined). "Ho yes, mum! I don't find no fault with you, mum—nor yet with master—but the truth his, mum—the hother servants is so orrid vulgar and hignorant, and speaks so hungrammaticai, that I reely cannot live in the same 'ouse with 'em—and I should like to go this day month, if so be has it won't illconvenience you!"
  1. Cockney Waiter.—"'Am, sir? Yessir? Don't take anything with your 'am, do you, sir?" Gentleman. "Yes, I do; I take the letter H!"
  1. Cockney Hairdresser.—"They say, sir, the cholera is in the Hair, sir!" Gent (very uneasy). "Indeed! Ahem! Then I hope you're very particular about the brushes you use." Hairdresser. "Oh, I see you don't nunderstand me, sir; I don't mean the 'air of the 'ed, but the hair hof the hatmosphere?"
  1. Cockney Sweep (seated upon a donkey).—"Fitch us out another penn'orth o' strawberry hice, with a dollop o' lemon water in it."
  1. Feminine Cookney (by the sea-side.)—"Oh, Harriet, dear, put on your hat and let us thee the stheamboat come in. The thea is tho rough!—and the people will be tho abthurdly thick!"

Alum First Discovered A.D. 1300.

192.  Correction

Londoners who desire to correct the defects of their utterance cannot do better than to exercise themselves frequently upon those words respecting which they have been in error.

193.  Hints for the Correction of the Irish Brogue

According to the directions given by Mr. B. H. Smart, an Irishman wishing to throw off the brogue of his mother country should avoid hurling out his words with a superfluous quantity of breath. It is not broadher and widher that he should say, but the d, and every other consonant, should be neatly delivered by the tongue, with as little riot, clattering, or breathing as possible. Next let him drop the roughness or rolling of the r in all places but the beginning of syllables; he must not say stor-rum and far-rum, but let the word be heard in one smooth syllable. He should exercise himself until he can convert plaze into please, planty into plenty, Jasus into Jesus, and so on. He should modulate his sentences, so as to avoid directing his accent all in one manner—from the acute to the grave. Keeping his ear on the watch for good examples, and exercising himself frequently upon them, he may become master of a greatly improved utterance.

Tea First Used In England A. D. 1698.

194.  Hints for Correcting the Scotch Brogue.

The same authority remarks that as an Irishman uses the closing accent of the voice too much, so a Scotchman has the contrary habit, and is continually drawling his tones from the grave to the acute, with an effect which, to southern ears, is suspensive in character. The smooth guttural r is as little heard in Scotland as in Ireland, the trilled r taking its place. The substitution of the former instead of the latter must be a matter of practice. The peculiar sound of the u, which in the north so of ten borders on the French u, must be compared with the several sounds of the letter as they are heard in the south; and the long quality which a Scotchman is apt to give to the vowels that ought to be essentially short, must he clipped. In fact, aural observation and lingual exercise are the only sure means to the end; so that a Scotchman going to a well for a bucket of water, and finding a countryman bathing therein, would not exclaim, "Hey, Colin, dinna ye ken the water's for drink, and nae for bathin'?"

195.  Of Provincial Brogues

it is scarcely necessary to say much, as the foregoing advice applies to them. One militiaman exclaimed to another, "Jim, you hain't in step" "Bain't I?" exclaimed the other; "well, change yourn!" Whoever desires knowledge must strive for it. It must not be dispensed with after the fashion of Tummus and Jim, who held the following dialogue upon a vital question:—Tummus. "I zay, Jim, be you a purtectionist?" Jim. "E'as I be." Tummus. "Wall, I zay, Jim, what be purtection?" Jim. " Loa'r, Tummus, doan't 'ee knaw? " Tummus. "Naw, I doan't." Jim. "Wall, I doan't knaw as can tell 'ee, Tummus, vur I doan't exakerly knaw mysel'!"

196.  Rules of Pronunciation.

  1. C before a, o, and u, and in some other situations, is a close articulation, like k. Before e, i, and y, c is precisely equivalent to s in same, this; as in cedar, civil, cypress, capacity.
  1. E final indicates that the preceding vowel is long; as in hate, mete, sire, robe, lyre, abate, recede, invite, remote, intrude.
  1. E final indicates that c preceding has the sound of s; as in lace, lance; and that g preceding has the sound of j, as in charge, page, challenge.
  1. E final, in proper English words, never forms a syllable, and in the most-used words, in the terminating unaccented syllable it is silent. Thus, motive, genuine, examine, granite, are pronounced motiv, genuin, examin, granit.
  1. E final, in a few words of foreign origin, forms a syllable; as syncope, simile.
  1. E final is silent after l in the following terminations,—ble, cle, dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, tle, zle; as in able, manacle, cradle, ruffle, mangle, wrinkle, supple, rattle, puzzle, which are pronounced a'bl, mana'cl, cra'dl, ruf'fl man'gl, wrin'kl, sup'pl, puz'zl.
  1. E is usually silent in the termination en; as in token, broken; pronounced tokn, brokn.
  1. ous, in the termination of adjectives and their derivatives, is pronounced us; as in gracious, pious, pompously.
  1. ce, ci, ti before a vowel, have the sound of sh; as in cetaceous, gracious, motion, partial, ingratiate; pronounced cetashus, grashus, moshun, parshal, ingrashiate.
  1. si, after an accented vowel, is pronounced like zh; as in Ephesian, confusion; pronounced Ephezhan, confuzhon
  1. When ci or ti precede similar combinations, as in pronunciation, negotiation, they should be pronounced ze instead of she, to prevent a repetition of the latter syllable; as pronunceashon instead of pronunsheashon.
  1. gh, both in the middle and at the end of words ia silent; as in caught, bought, fright, nigh, sigh; pronounced caut, baut, frite, ni, si. In the following exceptions, however, gh are pronounced as f:—cough, chough, clough, enough, laugh, rough, slough, tough, trough.
  1. When wh begins a word, the aspirate h precedes w in pronunciation; as in what, whiff, whale; pronounced hwat, hwiff, hwale, w having precisely the sound of oo, French ou. In the following words w is silent:—who, whom, whose, whoop, whole.
  1. h after r has no sound or use; as in rheum, rhyme; pronounced reum, ryme.
  1. h should be sounded in the middle of words; as in forehead, abhor, behold, exhaust, inhabit, unhorse.
  1. H should always be sounded except in the following words:—heir, herb, honest, honour, hospital, hostler, hour, humour, and humble, and all their derivatives,—such as humorously, derived from humour.
  1. k and g are silent before n; as know, gnaw; pronounced no, naw.
  1. w before r is silent; as in wring, wreath; pronounced ring, reath.
  1. b after m is silent; as in dumb, numb; pronounced dum, num.
  1. L before k is silent; as in balk, walk, talk; pronounced bauk, wauk, tauk.
  1. ph has the sound of f; as in philosophy; pronounced filosofy.
  1. ng has two sounds, one as in anger, the other as in fin-ger.
  1. nafter m, and closing a syllable, is silent; as in hymn, condemn.
  1. pbefore s and t is mute; as in psalm, pseudo, ptarmigan; pronounced sarm, sudo, tarmigan.
  1. r has two sounds, one strong and vibrating, as at the beginning of words and syllables, such as robber, reckon, error; the other as at the terminations of words, or when succeeded by a consonant, as farmer, morn.
  1. Before the letter r, there is a slight sound of e between the vowel and the consonant. Thus, bare, parent, apparent, mere, mire, more, pure, pyre, are pronounced nearly baer, paerent, appaerent, me-er,mier, moer,puer, pyer. This pronunciation proceeds from the peculiar articulation of r, and it occasions a slight change of the sound of a, which can only be learned by the ear.
  1. There are other rules of pronunciation affecting the combinations of vowels, &c; but as they are more difficult to describe, and as they do not relate to errors which are commonly prevalent, we shall content ourselves with giving examples of them in the following list of words. When, a syllable in any word in this list is printed in bold, the accent or stress of voice should be laid on that syllable.

Auctions Commenced in Britain in A.D. 1779.

197.  Proper Pronunciations of Words often Wrongly Pronounced.

Again usually pronounced a-gen, not as spelled.
Alien á-li-en not ale-yen.
Antipodes an-tip-o-dees.
Apostle as a-pos'l, without the t.
Arch- artch in compounds of our own language, as in archbishop, archduke; but ark in words derived from the Greek, as archaic, ar-ka-ik; archaeology, ar-ke-ol-o-gy; archangel, ark-ain-gel; archetype, ar-ke-type; archiepiscopal, ar-ke-e-pis-co-pal; archipelago, ar-ke-pel-a-go; ar-chives, ar-kivz, &c
Asia a-sha.
Asparagus as spelled, not asparagrass.
Aunt ant, not aunt.
Awkward awk-wurd, not awk-urd.
Bade bad
Because be-cawz, not ba-cos
Been bin
Beloved as a verb, be-luvd; as an adjective, be-luv-ed. Blessed, cursed, &c, are subject to the same rule.
Beneath with the th in breath, not with the th in breathe.
Bio'graphy as spelled, not beography.
Buoy boy, not bwoy.
Canal' as spelled, not ca-nel.
Caprice capreece
Catch as spelled, not ketch.
Chaos ka-oss.
Charlatan shar-latan.
Chasm kazm
Chasten chasn
Chivalry shiv-alry.
Chemistry kem'-is-tre, not kim-is-tre.
Choir kwire
Clerk klark
Combat kum-bat.
Conduit kun-dit.
Corps kor: the plural corps is pronounced korz.
Covetous cuv-e-tus, not cov-e-tus.
Courteous curt-yus.
Courtesy 1. (politeness), cur-te-sey.
2. (a lowering of the body), curt-sey.
Cresses as spelled, not cree-ses.
Cu'riosity cu-re-os-e-ty, not curosity.
Cushion coosh-un, not coosh-in.
Daunt dawnt, not dant or darnt, as some erroneously pronounce it.
Design and Desist have the sound of s, not of z.
Desire should have the sound of z.
Despatch de-spatch, not dis-patch.
Dew due, not doo.
Diamond as spelled, not dimond.
Diploma de-plo-ma, not dip-lo-ma.
Diplomacy de-plo-ma-cy, not dip-lo-ma-cy.
Direct de-reckt, not di-rect.
Divers (several), di-verz; but diverse (different), di-verse.
Dome as spelled, not doom.
Drought drowt, not drawt.
Duke as spelled, not dook.
Dynasty dyn-as-te, not dy-nas-ty.
Edict e-dickt, not ed-ickt.
E'en and e'er een and air.
Egotism eg-o-tizm, not e-go-tism.
Either e-ther or i-ther.
Engine en-jin, not in-jin.
Ensign en-sign; ensigncy, en-sin-se.
Epistle without the t.
Epitome e-pit-o-me
Epoch e-pock, not ep-ock.
Equinox e-qui-nox, not eck-wi-nox.
Europe U-rope, not U-rup. Euro-pean not Eu-ro-pean.
Every ev-er-y, not ev-ry.
Executor egz-ec-utor, not with the sound of x.
Extraordinary as spelled, not ex-tror—di-ner-i, or ex-traordinary, nor extrornarey
February as spelled, not Febuary.
Finance fe-nance, not finance.
Foundling as spelled, not fond-ling.
Garden gar-dn, not gar-den, nor gard-ing.
Gauntlet gawnt-let, not gant-let.
Geography as spelled, not jography, or gehography.
Geometry as spelled, not jom-etry.
Haunt hawnt, not hant.
Height hite, not highth.
Heinous hay-nuss, not hee-nus.
Highland hi-land, not hee-land.
Horizon ho-ri-zn, not hor-i-zon.
Housewife pronounced in the ordinary way when it means the mistress of a house who is a good manager, but huz-wif, when it means a small case for needles.
Hymeneal hy-men-e-al, not hy-menal.
Instead in-sted, not instid.
Isolate i-so-late; not iz-o-late, nor is-olate.
Jalap jal-ap, not jolup.
January as spelled, not Jenuary nor Janewary.
Leave as spelled, not leaf.
Legend lej-end, not le-gend.
Lieutenant lef-ten-ant, not leu-ten-ant.
Many men-ney, not man-ny.
Marchioness mar-shun-ess, not as spelled.
Massacre mas-sa-ker, not mas-sa-cre.
Mattress as spelled, not mat-trass.
Matron ma-trun, not mat-ron.
Medicine med-e-cin, not med-cin.
Minute 1.   (sixty seconds), min-it.
2.   (small), mi-nute.
Miscellany mis-cel-lany, not mis-cellany.
Mischievous mis-chiv-us, not mis-cheev-us.
Ne'er for never, nare.
Neighbourhood nay-bur-hood, not nay-burwood.
Nephew nev-u, not nefu.
New nu, not noo.
Notable (worthy of notice), no-tu-bl.
Obilge as spelled, not obleege.
Oblique ob-leek, not o-blike.
Odorous o-der-us, not od-ur-us.
Of ov, except when compounded with the here, and where, which should be pronounced here-of, there-of, and where-of.
Off as spelt, not awf.
Organization or-gan-i-za-shun, not or-ga-ne-za-shun.
Ostrich os-tr'ch, not os-tridge.
Pageant paj-ent, not pa-jant.
Parent pare-ent, not par-ent.
Partisan par-te-zan, not par-te-zan, nor par—ti-zan.
Patent pa-tent, not pat-ent.
Physiognomy as fiz-i-ognomy, not phy-sionnomy.
Pincers pin-cerz, not pinch-erz.
Plaintiff as spelled, not plan-tiff.
Pour pore, not so as to rhyme with our.
Precedent (an example), pres-e-dent; pre-ce-dent (going before in point of time, previous, former), is the pronunciation of the adjective.
Prologue pro-log, not prol-og.
Quadrille ka-dril, not quod-ril.
Quay key, not as spelled.
Radish as spelled, not red-ish.
Raillery rail'-er-y, or ral-er y, not as spelled.
Rather rar-ther, not ray-ther.
Resort re-sort.
Resound re-zound.
Respite res-pit, not as spelled.
Rout (a party; and to rout), should be pronounced rowt.
Route (a road), root.
Saunter saun-ter, not sarn-ter or san-ter.
Sausage saw-sage not sos-sidge, nor sassage.
Schedule shed-ule, not shed-dle.
Seamstress is pronounced seem-stress, but semp-stress, as the word is now commonly spelt, is pronounced sem-stress.
Sewer soo-er or su-er, not shore, nor shure.
Shire as spelled, when uttered as a single word, but shortened into shir in composition.
Shone shon, not shun, nor as spelled.
Soldier sole-jer.
Solecism sol-e-cizm, not sole-cizm.
Soot as spelled, not sut.
Sovereign sov-er-in, not suv-er-in.
Specious spe-shus, not spesh-us.
Stomacher stum-a-cher.
Stone (weight), as spelled, not stun.
Synod sin-od, not sy-nod.
Tenure ten-ure, not te-nure.
Tenet ten-et, not te-net.
Than as spelled, not thun.
Tremor trem-ur, not tre-mor.
Twelfth should have the th sounded.
Umbrella as spelled, not um-ber-el-la.
Vase vaiz or varz, not vawze.
Was woz, not wuz.
Weary weer-i, not wary.
Were wer, not ware.
Wont wunt, not as spelled.
Wrath rawth, not rath: as an adjective it is spelled wroth, and pronounced with the vowel sound shorter, as wrath-ful, &c
Yacht yot, not yat.
Yeast as spelled, not yest.
Zenith zen-ith, not ze-nith.
Zodiac zo-de-ak.
Zoology should have both o's sounded,as zo-ol-o-gy, not zoo-lo-gy.

Note.—The tendency of all good elocutionists is to pronounce as nearly in accordance with the spelling as possible.


ace not iss, as furnace, not furniss.
age not idge, as cabbage, courage, postage, village.
ain, ane not in, as certain, certane, not certin.
ate not it, as moderate, not moderit.
ect not ec, as aspect, not aspec; subject, not subjec.
ed not id, or ud, as wicked, not wickid, or wickud.
el not l, model, not modl; novel,not novl.
en not n, as sudden, not suddn.—Burden, burthen, garden, lengthen, seven, strengthen, often, and a few others,have the e silent.
ence not unce, as influence, not influ-unce.
es not is, as pleases, not pleasis.
ile should be pronounced il, as fertil, not fertile, in all words except chamomile (cam), exile, gentile, infantile, reconcile and senile, which should be pronounce ile.
in not n, as Latin, not Latn.
nd not n, as husband, not husban, thousand, not thousan.
ness not niss, as carefulness, not carefulniss.
ng not n, as singing, not singin; speaking, not speakin.
ngth not nth, as strength, not strenth.
son the o should be silent; as in treason; tre-zn, not tre-son.
tal not tle, as capital, not capitle; metal, not mettle; mortal, not mortle; periodical; not periodicle.
xt not x, as next, not nex.

Publication of Banns of Marriage Commenced A.D.1210.

198.  Punctuation

Punctuation teaches the method of placing Points, in written or printed matter, in such a manner as to indicate the pauses which would be made by the author if he were communicating his thoughts orally instead of by written signs.

Silk First Brought From India A.D. 274.

199.  Writing and Printing

are substitutes for oral communication; and correct punctuation is essential to convey the meaning intended, and to give due force to such passages as the author may wish to impress upon the mind of the person to whom they are being communicated.

Wines were First Made in Britain A.D. 276.

200.  The Points are as follows:

comma ,
semi-colon ;
colon :
Period, or Full Point .
Apostrophe '
Hyphen -
Note of Interrogation ?
Note of Exclamation !
Parenthesis ( )
Asterisk, or Star *

As these are all the points required in simple epistolary composition, we will confine our explanations to the rules which should govern the use of them.

201.  The Other Points

however, are:

the paragraph
the section §
the dagger
the double dagger
the parallel ||
the bracket [ ]

and some others.

These, however, are quite unnecessary, except for elaborate works, in which they are chiefly used for notes or marginal references. The rule — is sometimes used as a substitute for the bracket or parenthesis.

202.   Pauses

The comma , denotes the shortest pause
the semi-colon ; a little longer pause than the comma
the colon : a little longer pause than the semicolon
The period . or full point, the longest pause.

203.  The Relative Duration

of these pauses is described as:

Comma while you count One
Semicolon while you count Two
Colon while you count Three
Period while you count Four

This, however, is not an infallible rule, because the duration of the pauses should be regulated by the degree of rapidity with which the matter is being read. In slow reading the duration of the pauses should be increased.

204.  The Other Points

are rather indications of expression, and of meaning and connection, than of pauses, and therefore we will notice them separately.

205.  Misplacing

of even so slight a point, or pause, as the comma, will often alter the meaning of a sentence. The contract made for lighting the town of Liverpool, during the year 1819, was thrown void by the misplacing of a comma in the advertisements, thus:
"The lamps at present are about 4,050, and have in general two spouts each, composed of not less than twenty threads of cotton."
The contractor would have proceeded to furnish each lamp with the said twenty threads, but this being but half the usual quantity, the commissioners discovered that the difference arose from the comma following instead of preceding the word each. The parties agreed to annul the contract, and a new one was ordered.

206.  Without Punctuation

The Following Sentence shows how difficult it is to read without the aid of the points used as pauses:
Death waits not for storm nor sunshine within a dwelling in one of the upper streets respectable in appearance and furnished with such conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank among the higher clashes of society a man of middle age lay on his last bed momently awaiting the final summons all that the most skillful medical attendance all that love warm as the glow that even an angel's bosom could do had been done by day and night for many long weeks had ministering spirits such as a devoted wife and loving children are done all within their power to ward off the blow but there he lay his raven hair smoothed off from his noble brow his dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness and contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which marked him as an expectant of the dread messenger.

Coals First Brought to London A.D. 1357.

207.  With Punctuation

The same sentence, properly pointed, and with capital letters placed; after full-points, according to the adopted rule, may be easily read and understood:
Death waits not for storm nor sunshine. Within a dwelling in one of the upper streets, respectable in appearance, and furnished with such conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank among the higher classes of society, a man of middle age lay on his last bed, momently awaiting the final summons. All that the most skilful medical attendance—all that love, warm as the glow that fires an angel's bosom, could do, had been done; by day and night, for many long weeks, had ministering spirits, such as a devoted wife; and loving children are, done all within their power to ward off the blow. But there he lay, his raven hair smoothed off from his noble brow, his dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness, and contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which marked him as an expectant of the dread messenger.

208.  The Apostrophe '

is used to indicate the combining of two words in one,—as John's book, instead of John, his book; or to show the omission of parts of words, as Glo'ster, for Gloucester—tho' for though. These abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Cobbett says the apostrophe "ought to be called the mark of laziness and vulgarity." The first use, however, of which we gave an example, is a necessary and proper one.

209.  The Hyphen -

or conjoiner, is used to unite words which, though they are separate and distinct, have so close a connection as almost to become one word, as water-rat, wind-mill, &c. It is also used in writing and printing, at the end of a line, to show where a word is divided and continued in the next line. Look down the ends of the lines in this column [in the original printed text], and you will notice the hyphen in several places.

210.  The Note of Interrogation ?

indicates that the sentence to which it is put asks a question; as, "What is the meaning of that assertion? What am I to do?"

211.  The Note of Exclamation !

or of admiration, indicates surprise, pleasure, or sorrow; as "Oh! Ah! Goodness! Beautiful! I am astonished! Woe is me!"

Sometimes, when an expression of strong surprise or pleasure is intended, two notes of this character are employed, thus!!

212.  The Parenthesis ( )

is used to prevent confusion by the introduction to a sentence of a passage not necessary to the sense thereof. "I am going to meet Mr. Smith (though I am not an admirer of him) on Wednesday next." It is better, however, as a rule, not to employ parenthetical sentences.

213.  The Asterisk *

or star, may be employed to refer from the text to a note of explanation at the foot of a column, or at the end of a letter. [***] Three stars are sometimes used to call particular attention to a paragraph.

Paper Made of Cotton Rags A.D. 1000.

214.  Hints upon Spelling

The following rules will be found of great assistance in writing, because they relate to a class of words about the spelling of which doubt and hesitation are frequently felt:

  1. All words of one syllable ending in l, with a single vowel before it, have double l at the close; as, mill, sell.

  1. All words of one syllable ending in l, with a double vowel before it, have one l only at the close: as, mail, sail.

  1. Words of one syllable ending in l, when compounded, retain but one l each; as, fulfil, skilful.

  1. Words of more than one syllable ending in l have one l only at the close; as, delightful, faithful; except befall, downfall, recall, unwell, &c.

  1. All derivatives from words ending in l have one l only; as, equality, from equal; fulness, from full; except they end in er or ly; as, mill, miller; full, fully.

  1. All participles in ing from verbs ending in e lose the e final; as have, having; amuse, amusing; unless they come from verbs ending in double e, and then they retain, both; as, see, seeing; agree, agreeing.

  1. All adverbs in ly and nouns in ment retain the e final of the primitives; as, brave, bravely; refine, refinement; except acknowledgment, judgment, &c.

  1. All derivatives from words ending in er retain the e before the r; as, refer, reference; except hindrance, from hinder; remembrance from remember; disastrous from disaster; monstrous from monster; wondrous from wonder; cumbrous from cumber, &c.

  1. Compound words, if both end not in i, retain their primitive parts entire; as, millstone, changeable, graceless; except always, also, deplorable, although, almost, admirable, &c.

  1. All words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a single vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives; as, sin, sinner; ship, shipping; big, bigger; glad, gladder, &c.

  1. Words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a double vowel before it, do not double the consonant in derivatives: as, sleep, sleepy; troop, troopers.

  1. All words of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant in derivatives; as, commit, committee; compel, compelled; appal, appalling; distil, distiller.

  1. Nouns of one syllable ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into ies in the plural; and verbs ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change y into ies in the third person singular of the present tense, and into ied in the past tense and past participle, as, fly, flies; I apply, he applies; we reply, we replied, or have replied. If the y be preceded by a vowel, this rule is not applicable; as key, keys; I play, he plays; we have enjoyed ourselves.

  1. Compound words whose primitives end in y change y into i; as, beauty, Beautiful; lovely, loveliness.

215.  H or no H? That is the Question.

Few things point so directly to the want of cultivation as the misuse of the letter H by persons in conversation. We hesitate to assert that this common defect in speaking indicates the absence of education—for, to our surprise, we have heard even educated persons frequently commit this common, and vulgar error. Now, for the purpose of assisting those who desire to improve their mode of speaking, we intend to tell a little story about our next door neighbour, Mrs. Alexander Hitching,—or, as she frequently styled herself, with an air of conscious dignity, Mrs. Halexander 'Itching. Her husband was a post-captain of some distinction, seldom at home, and therefore Mrs. A. H. (or, as she rendered it, Mrs. H. I.) felt it incumbent upon herself to represent her own dignity, and the dignity of her husband also. Well, this Mrs. Hitching was a next-door neighbour of ours—a most agreeable lady in many respects, middle aged, good looking, uncommonly fond of talking, of active, almost of fussy habits, very good tempered and good natured, but with a most unpleasant habit of misusing the letter H to such a degree that our sensitive nerves have often been shocked when in her society. But we must beg the reader, if Mrs. H. should be an acquaintance of his, not to breathe a word of our having written this account of her—or there would be no limit to her "hindignation." And, as her family is very numerous, it will be necessary to keep the matter as quiet as can be, for it will scarcely be possible to mention the subject anywhere, without "'orrifying" some of her relations, and instigating them to make Mrs. H. become our "henemy," instead of remaining, as we wish her to do, our intimate friend.

One morning, Mrs. H. called upon me, and asked me to take a walk, saying that it was her hobject to look out for an 'ouse, as her lease had nearly terminated; and as she had often heard her dear 'Itching say that he would like to settle in the neighbourhood of 'Ampstead 'Eath, she should like me to assist her by my judgment in the choice of a residence. "I shall he most happy to accompany you," I said.

"I knew you would," said she; "and I am sure a hour or two in your society will give me pleasure. It's so long since we've 'ad a gossip. Besides which, I want a change of hair."

I glanced at her peruke, and for a moment laboured under the idea that she intended to call at her hairdresser's; but I soon recollected.

"I suppose we had better take the homnibus," she remarked, "and we can get out at the foot of the 'ill."

I assented, and in a few minutes we were in the street, in the line of the omnibus, and one of those vehicles soon appearing—

"Will you 'ail it?" inquired she.

So I hailed it at once, and we got in. Now Mrs. H. was so fond of talking that the presence of strangers never restrained her—a fact which I have often had occasion to regret. She was no sooner within the omnibus than she began remarking upon hinconveaience of such vehicles, because of their smallness, and the hinsolence of many of the conductors. She thought that the proprietors ought only to 'ire men upon whose civility they could depend. Then she launched out into larger topics—said she thought that the Hemperor of Haustria—(here I endeavoured to interrupt her by asking whether she had any idea of the part of Hampstead she would like; but she would complete her remarks by saying) —must be as 'appy as the days are long, now that the Hempress had presented him with a hare to the throne! (Some of the passengers smiled, and turning round, looked out of the windows.)

I much wished for our arrival at the spot where we should alight, for she commenced a story about an 'andsome young nephew of hers, who was a distinguished hofficer of the harmy. This was suggested to her, no doubt, by the presence in the omnibus of a fine-looking young fellow with a moustache. She said that at present her nephew was stationed in hireland; but he expected soon to be hordered to South Hafrica.

The gentleman with the moustache seemed much amused, and smilingly asked her whether her nephew was at all hambitious? I saw that he (the gentleman with the moustache) was jesting, and I would have given anything to have been released from the unpleasant predicament I was in. But what was more annoyance when Mrs. H. proceeded to say to this youth, whose face was radiant with humour, that it was the 'ight of her nephew's hambition to serve his country in the hour of need; and then she proceeded to ask her fellow-traveller his opinion, of the hupshot of the war—remarking that she 'oped it would soon be hover!

At this moment I felt so nervous that I pulled out my handkerchief, and endeavoured to create a diversion by making a loud nasal noise, and remarking that I thought the wind very cold, when an accident happened which took us all by surprise: one of the large wheels of the minibus dropped off, and all the passeigers were jostled down into a corner but, fortunately without serious injury. Mrs. H., however, happening to be under three or four persons, raised a loud cry for "'elp! 'elp!" She was speedily got out, when she assured us that she was not 'urt; but she was in such a state of hagitation that she wished to be taken to a chemist's shop, to get some haromatic vinegar, or some Hoe de Cologne! The chemist was exceedingly polite to her, for which she said she could never express her hobligations—an assertion which seemed to me to be literally true. It was some time before she resumed her accustomed freedom of conversation; but as we ascended the hill she explained to me that she should like to take the house as tenant from 'ear to 'ear!—but she thought landlords would hobject to such an agreement, as when they got a good tenant they liked to 'old 'im as long as they could. She expressed an opinion that 'Amstead must be very 'ealthy, because it was so 'igh hup.

We soon reached the summit of the hill, and turned through a lane which led towards the Heath, and in which villas and cottages were smiling on each side. "Now, there's a helegant little place!" she exclaimed, "just suited to my hideas—about height rooms and a horiel hover the hentrance." But it was not to let—so we passed on.

Presently, she saw something likely to suit her, and as there was a bill in the window, "To be let—Enquire Within," she gave a loud rat-a-tat-tat at the door.

The servant opened it.

"I see this 'ouse is to let."

"Yes, ma'am, it is; will you walk in?"

"'Ow many rooms are there?"

"Eleven, ma'am; but if you will step in, mistress will speak to you."

A very graceful lady made her appearance at the parlour door, and invited us to step in. I felt exceedingly nervous, for I at once perceived that the lady of the house spoke with that accuracy and taste which is one of the best indications of refinement.

"The house is to let—and a very pleasant residence we have found it."

"'Ave you hoccupied it long?"

"Our family has resided here for more than nine years."

"Then, I suppose, your lease 'as run hout!"

"No! we have it for five years longer: but my brother, who is a clergyman, has been appointed to a living in Yorkshire, and for his sake, and for the pleasure of his society, we desire to remove."

"Well—there's nothing like keeping families together for the sake of 'appiness. Now there's my poor dear 'Itching" [There she paused, as if somewhat affected, and some young ladies who were in the room drew their heads together, and appeared to consult about their needlework; but I saw, by dimples upon their cheeks, which they could not conceal, that they were smiling], "'e's 'itherto been hat 'ome so seldom, that I've 'ardly hever known what 'appiness his."

I somewhat abruptly broke in upon the conversation, by suggesting that she had better look through the house, and inquire the conditions of tenancy. We consequently went through the various rooms, and in every one of them she had "an hobjection to this," or "a 'atred for that," or would give "an 'int which might be useful" to the lady when she removed. The young ladies were heard tittering very much whenever Mrs. H. broke out, in a loud voice, with her imperfect elocution, and I felt so much annoyed, that I determined to cure her of her defective speaking.

In the evening, after returning home, we were sitting by the fire, feeling comfortable and chatty, when I proposed to Mrs. Hitching the following enigma from the pen of the late Henry Mayhew:
The Vide Vorld you may search, and my fellow not find;
I dwells in a Wacuum, deficient in Vind;
In the Wisage I'm seen—in the Woice I am heard,
And yet I'm inwisible, gives went to no Vurd.
I'm not much of a Vag, for I'm vanting in Vit;
But distinguished in Werse for the Wollums I've writ.
I'm the head of all Willains, yet far from the Vurst—
I'm the foremost in Wice, though in Wirtue the first.
I'm not used to Veapons, and ne'er goes to Vor;
Though in Walour inwincible—in Wictory sure;
The first of all Wiands and Wictuals is mine—
Rich in Wen'son and Weal, but deficient in Vine.
To Wanity given, I in Welwets abound;
But in Voman, in Vife, and in Vidow ain't found:
Yet conspicuous in Wirgins, and I'll tell you, between us,
To persons of taste I'm a bit of a Wenus;
Yet none take me for Veal—or for Voe in its stead,
For I ranks not among the sweet Voo'd, Vun, and Ved!
Before the recital of the enigma was half completed, Mrs. Hitching laughed heartily—she saw, of course, the meaning of it—that it was a play upon the Cockney error of using the V instead of the W, and the latter instead of the V. Several times, as I proceeded, she exclaimed "Hexcellent! hexcellent!" and when I had finished, she remarked that is was very "hingenious," and enough to "hopen the heyes" of the Cockneys to their stupid and vulgar manner of speaking.

A more difficult and delicate task lay before me. I told her that as she was so much pleased with the first enigma, I would submit another by the same author. I felt very nervous, but determined to proceed:
I dwells in the Herth, and I breathes in the Hair;
If you searches the Hocean, you'll find that I'm there.
The first of all Hangels, in Holympus am Hi,
Yet I'm banished from 'Eaven, expelled from on 'Igh.
But though on this Horb I am destined to grovel,
I'm ne'er seen in an 'Ouse, in an 'Ut, nor an 'Ovel;
Not an 'Oss nor an 'Unter e'er bears me, alas!
But often I'm found on the top of a Hass.
I resides in a Hattic, and loves not to roam,
And yet I'm invariably absent from 'Ome.
Though 'ushed in the 'Urricane, of the Hatmosphere part,
I enters no 'Ed, I creeps into no 'Art.
Only look, and you'll see in the Heye I appear,
Only 'ark, and you'll 'ear me just breathe in the Hear;
Though in sex not an 'E, I am (strange paradox!)
Not a bit of an 'Eifer, but partly a Hox.
Of Heternity Hi'm the beginning! And, mark,
Though I goes not with Noah, I am first in the Hark.
I'm never in 'Ealth—have with Fysic no power;
I dies in a Month, but comes back In a Hour!
In re-citing the above I strongly emphasized the misplaced h's. After a brief pause, Mrs. Hitchings exclaimed, "Very good; very clever." I then determined to complete my task by repeating the following enigma upon the same letter written by Miss Catherine Fanshawe and often erroneously attributed to Byron:
'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas muttered in hell,
And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell;
On the confines of earth 'twas permitted to rest,
And the depths of the ocean its presence confessed.
'Twill be found in the sphere when 'tis riven asunder,
Be seen in the lightning, and heard in the thunder.
'Twas allotted to man with his earliest breath,
Attends at his birth, and awaits him in death;
It presides o'er his happiness, honour, and health,
Is the prop of his house, and the end of his wealth.
In the heaps of the miser 'tis hoarded with care,
But is sure to be lost on his prodigal heir.
It begins every hope, every wish it must bound,
With the husbandman toils, with the monarch is crowned.
Without it the soldier and seaman may roam,
But woe to the wretch who expels it from home.
In the whispers of conscience its voice will be found,
Nor e'en in the whirlwind of passion be drowned.
'Twill not soften the heart, and though deaf to the ear,
'Twill make it acutely and instantly hear.
But in shade let it rest, like a delicate flower—
Oh, breathe on it softly—it dies in an hour.
She was much pleased, but seemed thoughtful, and once or twice in conversation checked herself, and corrected herself in the pronunciation of words that were difficult to her.

A few days afterwards., I called upon her, and upon being introduced to the parlour to wait for her appearance, I saw lying upon her table the following:
Memorandum on the Use of the Letter H.

Pronounce Herb 'Erb
Pronounce Heir 'Eir
Pronounce Honesty 'Onesty
Pronounce Honour Onour
Pronounce Hospital Ospital
Pronounce Hostler 'Ostler
Pronounce Hour 'Our
Pronounce Humour 'Umour
Pronounce Humble 'Umble
Pronounce Humility 'Umility

In all other cases the H is to be sounded when it begins a word.

Mem.—Be careful to sound the H slightly in such words as where, when, what, why—don't say were, wen, wat, wy.
I am happy to say that it is now a pleasure to hear Mrs. Hitching's conversation. I only hope that others may improve as she has done.

Glass Manufacturing in England A.D. 1457.

216.  Conversation

There are many talkers, but few who know how to converse agreeably. Speak distinctly, neither too rapidly nor too slowly. Accommodate the pitch of your voice to the hearing of the person with whom you are conversing. Never speak with your mouth full. Tell your jokes, and laugh afterwards. Dispense with superfluous words—such as, "Well, I should think," etc.

Tabacco Brought to England from Virginia A.D. 1588.

217.  The Woman who wishes her conversation to be agreeable

will avoid conceit or affectation, and laughter which is not natural and spontaneous, Her language will be easy and unstudied, marked by a graceful carelessness, which, at the same time, never oversteps the limits of propriety. Her lips will readily yield to a pleasant smile; she will not love to hear herself talk; her tones will bear the impress of sincerity, and her eyes kindle with animation as she speaks. The art of pleasing is, in truth, the very soul of good breeding; for the precise object of the latter is to render us agreeable to all with whom we associate—to make us, at the same time, esteemed and loved.

Telescopes Invented in Germany A.D. 1590.

218.  Rudeness

We need scarcely advert to the rudeness of interrupting any one who is speaking, or to the impropriety of pushing, to its full extent, a discussion which has become unpleasant.

219.  Pedantry

Some Men have a Mania for Greek and Latin quotations: this is peculiarly to be avoided. It is like pulling up the stones from a tomb wherewith to kill the living. Nothing is more wearisome than pedantry.

220.  Proportion

If you feel your Intellectual Superiority to any one with whom you are conversing, do not seek to bear him down: it would be an inglorious triumph, and a breach of good manners. Beware, too, of speaking lightly of subjects which bear a sacred character.

221.  Writing and Talking

It is a Common Idea that the art of writing and the art of conversation are one; this is a great mistake. A man of genius may be a very dull talker.

222.  Interesting Conversation

The two grand modes of making your conversation interesting, are to enliven it by recitals calculated to affect and impress your hearers, and to intersperse it with anecdotes and smart things. Count Antoine Rivarol, who lived from 1757 to 1801, was a master in the latter mode.

223.  Composition

If you would write to any purpose, you must be perfectly free from without, in the first place, and yet more free from within. Give yourself the natural rein; think on no pattern, no patron, no paper, no press, no public; think on nothing, but follow your own impulses. Give yourself as you are, what you are, and how you see it. Everyman sees with his own eyes, or does not see at all. This is incontrovertibly true. Bring out what you have. If you have nothing, be an honest beggar rather than a respectable thief. Great care and attention should be devoted to epistolary correspondence, as nothing exhibits want of taste and judgment so much as a slovenly letter. Since the establishment of the penny postage it is recognised as a rule that all letters should be prepaid; indeed, many persons make a point of never taking in an unpaid letter. The following hints may be worthy of attention:

224.  Stamps

Always put a Stamp on your envelope, at the top, in the right-hand corner.

225.  Direction

Let the Direction be written very plain; this will save the postman trouble, and facilitate business by preventing mistakes.

226.  Postal District

If the Address be in London add the letters of the postal district in which it happens to be, for this also saves trouble in the General Post Office. Thus in writing to the publishers of "Enquire Within," whose house of business is in the East Central (E.C.) postal district, address your letter to Messrs. Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square, London, E.C.

227.  Heading

At the head of your Letter, in the right-hand corner, put your address in full, with the day of the month underneath; do not omit this, though you may be writing to your most intimate friend for the third or even the fourth time in the course of a day.

228.  Subject

What you have to say in your Letter, say as plainly as possible, as if you were speaking; this is the best rule. Do not revert three or four times to one circumstance, but finish as you go on.

229.  Signature

Let your signature be written as plainly as possible (many mistakes will be avoided, especially in writing to strangers), and without any flourishes, as these do not add in any way to the harmony of your letter. We have seen signatures that have been almost impossible to decipher, being a mere mass of strokes, without any form to indicate letters. This is done chiefly by the ignorant, and would lead one to suppose that they were ashamed of signing what they had written.

230.  Crossing the Page

Do not cross your letters: surely paper is cheap enough now to admit of using an extra half-sheet, in case of necessity.

231.  Return Envelope

If you write to a stranger for information, or on your own business, be sure to send a stamped envelope with your address plainly written; this will not fail to procure you an answer.

232.  Good Materials

If you are not a good writer it is advisable to use the best ink, paper, and pens. For although they may not alter the character of your handwriting, yet they will assist to make your writing look better.

233.  Clean and Neat

The paper on which you write should be clean, and neatly folded.

234.  Stains

There should not be stains on the envelope; if otherwise, it is only an indication of your own slovenliness.

235.  Individual Respect

Care must be taken in giving titled persons, to whom you write, their proper designations.

236.  Addresses of Letters.

As this branch of epistolary correspondence is one of the most important, we subjoin a few additional hints which letter writers generally would do well to attend to.

  1. When writing several letters, place each in its envelope, and address it as soon as it is written. Otherwise awkward mistakes may occur, your correspondents receiving letters not intended for them. If there be a town of the same name as that to which you are writing existing in another county, specify the county which you mean or, the address. Thus, Richmond, Yorkshire.

  1. When the person to whom you are writing is visiting or residing at the house of another person, it is considered vulgar to put "at Mr. So-and-So's," but simply "Mr. So-and-So's," at being understood.

  1. It is more respectful to write the word "Esquire" in full. The —— substituted for initials is vulgar, and pardonable only in extreme cases; if the Christian name or initials of your correspondent do not occur to you at the moment, endeavour to ascertain them by inquiry.

  1. When addressing a gentleman with the prefix "Mr.," the Christian name or initials should always follow, being more polite, as well as avoiding confusion where persons of the same surname may reside in one house.

  1. In addressing a letter to two or more unmarried ladies, write "The Misses Johnson," and not "The Miss Johnsons;" and, lastly, always write an address clearly and legibly, so that it may not be delayed in delivery, nor be missent.

237.   Addresses of Persons of Rank and Distinction1

238.  The Royal Family.

Superscription.—To the Queen's (King's) Most Excellent Majesty.

Commencement.—Most Gracious Sovereign; May it please your Majesty.

Conclusion.—I remain, with the profoundest veneration, Your Majesty's most faithful subject and dutiful servant.

239.  Princes of the Blood Royal

  1. The Sons and Daughters, Brothers and Sisters, Uncles and Aunts of the Sovereign.—Sup.—To His (Her) Royal Highness the Prince of Wales (Princess Beatrice).
Comm.—Your Royal Highness.

Con.—I remain, with the greatest respect (I have the honour to be), your Royal Highness's most obedient servant.

  1. Other branches of the Royal Family.—Sup.—To His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge.
Comm.—Your Royal Highness.

Con.—I remain, with the greatest respect, your Royal Highness's most humble and obedient servant.

240.  Nobility and Gentry.

  1. Duke or Duchess.—Sup.—To His Grace the Duke (Her Grace the Duchess) of Northumberland.
Comm.—My Lord Duke (Madam).

Con.—I have the honour to be, My Lord Duke (Madam), Your Grace's most devoted and obedient servant.

  1. Marquis or Marchioness.—Sup.—To the Most Honourable the Marquis (Marchioness) of Salisbury.
Comm.—My Lord Marquis (Madam).

Con.—I have the honour to be, My Lord Marquis, Your Lordship's (Madam, Your Ladyship's) most obedient and most humble servant.

  1. Earl or Countess.—Sup.—To the Right Honourable the Earl (Countess) of Aberdeen.
Comm.—My Lord (Madam).

Con.—I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your Lordship's (Madam, Your Ladyship's) most obedient and very, humble servant.

  1. Viscount or Viscountess.—Sup.—To the Right Honourable Lord Viscount (Lady Viscountess) Gough.
Comm. and Con. same as Earl's.

  1. Baron or Baroness.—Sup.—To the Right Honourable Lord (Lady) Rowton.
Comm. and Con. same as Earl's.

  1. Younger Sons of Earls, and all the Sons of Viscounts and Barons.—Sup.—To the Honourable Arthur Hamilton Gordon.
Comm.—Honoured Sir.

Con.—I have the honour to be, Honoured Sir, Your most obedient and very humble servant.

  1. Baronet and His Wife.—Sup.—To Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart. (Lady Northcote).
Comm.—Sir (Madam). Con.—I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most humble and obedient (Madam, Your Ladyship's most obedient and very humble) servant.

  1. Knight and his Wife.—Sup.—To Sir Francis Wyatt Truscott (Lady Truscott).
Comm. and Con. as preceding.

  1. Esquire.—This title is now accorded to every man of position and respectability, but persons entitled to superior consideration are distinguished by "&c., &c., &c.," added to their superscription.
The wives of Gentlemen, when several of the same name are married, are distinguished by the Christian name of their husbands, as Mrs. John Harvey, Mrs. William Temple.

  1. Privy Councillors.—These have the title of Right Honourable, which is prefixed to their name thus:
Sup.—To the Right Honourable William Ewart Gladstone, M. P.


Con.—I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient very humble servant.

Footnote 1:  Adapted from the "Dictionary of Daily Wants," published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster Square, E.C., in one volume, half bound, at 7s. 6d., or in three separate volumes, cloth, each 2s. 6d.
return to footnote mark

241.  The Clergy

  1. Archbishop.—Sup.—To His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Comm.—Your Grace.

Con.—I remain, Your Grace's most devoted obedient servant.

  1. Bishop.—Sup.—To the Right Reverend the Bishop of Winchester.
Comm.—Right Reverend Sir.

Con.—I remain, Right Reverend Sir, Your most obedient humble servant.

  1. Doctor of Divinity.—Sup.—To the Reverend James William Vivian, D.D., or, To the Reverend Dr. Vivian.
Comm.—Reverend Sir.

Con.—I have the honour to be, Reverend Sir, Your most obedient servant.

  1. Dean.Sup.—To the Very Reverend The Dean of St. Paul's; or, To the Very Reverend Richard William Church, M.A., D.C.L., D.D., Dean of St. Paul's.
Comm.—Mr. Dean; or, Reverend Sir.

Con.—I have the honour to be, Mr. Dean (or Reverend Sir), Your most obedient servant.

  1. Archdeacon.—Sup.—To the Venerable Archdeacon Hessey, D.C.L.
Comm.—Reverend Sir.

Con.—I have the honour to remain, Reverend Sir, Your most obedient servant.

  1. Clergymen.—Sup.—To the Reverend Thomas Dale.
Com. and Con. same as the preceding.

  1. Clergymen with Titles.—When a Bishop or other Clergyman possesses the title of Right Honourable or Honourable, it is prefixed to his Clerical title, but Baronets and Knights have their clerical title placed first, as in the following examples:
Sup.—To the Right Honourable and Rigt Reverend the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Sup.—To the Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Norwich.

Sup.—To the Right Honourable and Reverend Lord Wriothesley Russell, M.A.

Sup.—To the Honourable and Reverend Baptist Wriothesley Noel, M.A.

Sup.—To the Reverend Sir Henry R. Dukinfield, Bart, M.A.

No clerical dignity confers a title or rank on the wife of the dignitary, who is simply addressed Mistress, unless possessing a title in her own right, or through her husband, independently of his clerical rank.

242.  Judges &c.

  1. Lord Chancellor. —Sup.—To the Right Honourable Roundell Palmer, Lord Selborne, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.

  1. Master of the Rolls.Sup.—To the Right Honourable the Master of the Rolls.

  1. Chief Justice.—Sup.—To the Right Honourable the Lord Chief Justice; or, the Right Honourable Lord Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice of England.
The Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas is addressed in the same form, and are all styled My Lord.

  1. Lords Justices of Appeal.—The Lords Justices of Appeal are Knights, and should be addressed thus:
Sup.—To the Right Honourable Sir W. Milbourne James, Knt.

  1. Judge of County Courts.Sup.—To His Honour John James Jeffreys, Judge of County Courts.

A Dirty Grate Makes Dinner Late.

243.  Officers of the Navy and Army.

  1. Naval Officers.—Admirals have the rank of their flag added to their own name and title thus:
Sup.—To the Honourable Sir Richard Saunders Dundas, Admiral of the White.

If untitled, they are simply styled Sir.

Commodores are addressed in the same way as admirals.

Captains are addressed either to "Captain William Smith, R.N.;" or if on service, "To William Smith, Esquire, Commander of H.M.S.—"

Lieutenants are addressed in the same way.

  1. Military Officers.—All officers in the army above Lieutenants, Cornets, and Ensigns, have their military rank prefixed to their name and title.
Sup.—To General Sir Frederick Roberts.

Subalterns are addressed as Esquire, with the regiment to which they belong, if on service.

244.  Municipal Officers.

  1. Lord Mayor.—Sup.—To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor (The Lady Mayoress) of London, York, Dublin; The Lord Provost (The Lady Provost) of Edinburgh.
Comm.—My Lord (Madam).

Con.—I have the honour to be, my Lord, Your Lordship's (Madam, Your Ladyship's) most obedient humble servant.

  1. The Mayors of all Corporations, with the Sheriffs, Aldermen, and Recorder of London, are styled Right Worshipful; and the Aldermen and Recorder of other Corporations, as well as Justices of the Peace, Worshipful.

245.  Ambassadors

Ambassadors have Excellency prefixed to the other titles, and their accredited rank added.

Sup.—To His Excellency Count Karolyi, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary from H.I.M. (His Imperial Majesty) The Emperor of Austria.

Sup.—To His Excellency The Right Honourable Earl of Dufferin, K.P., G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte.

Comm.—My Lord.

Con.—I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your Excellency's Most humble obedient servant.

The wives of Ambassadors have also Excellency added to their other titles.

Envoys and Chargés d'Affaires are generally styled Excellency, but by courtesy only.

Consuls have only their accredited rank added to their names or titles, if they have any.

246.   Addresses of Petitions

  1. Queen in Council.—All applications to the Queen in Council, the Houses of Lords and Commons, &c., are by Petition, as follows, varying only the title:
To the Queen's most Excellent Majesty in Council, The humble Petition of M.N., &c., showeth That your Petitioner.... Wherefore Your Petitioner humbly prays that Your Majesty will be graciously pleased to.... And Your Petitioner, as in duty bound, will ever pray.

  1. Lords and Commons.—To the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal (To the Honourable the Commons) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament assembled.
The humble Petitioner &c. And your Petitioner [or Petitioners] will ever pray, &c.

247.  To those who Write for the Press

It would be a great service to editors and printers if all who write for the press would observe the following rules. They are reasonable, and correspondents will regard them as such:

  1. write with black ink, on white paper, wide ruled.

  1. Make the pages or folios small, one-fourth of a foolscap sheet is large enough.

  1. Leave the second page of each leaf blank; or, in other words, write on one side of the paper only.

  1. Give to the written page an ample margin all round; or fold down the left hand side to the extent of one-fourth the width of the entire paper so as to leave a broad margin on the left side of the paper.

  1. Number the pages; in the order of their succession.

  1. Write in a plain, bold, legible hand, without regard to beauty of appearance.

  1. Use no abbreviations which are not to appear in print.

  1. Punctuate the manuscript as it should be printed.

  1. For italics underscore one line; for small capitals, two; capitals, three.

  1. Never interline without the caret (^) to show its place.

  1. Take special pains with every letter in proper names.

  1. Review every word, to be sure that none is illegible.

  1. Put directions to the printer at the head of the first page.

  1. Never write a private letter to the editor on the printer's copy, but always on a separate sheet.

248.  Hints to those who have Pianofortes

  1. Damp is very injurious to a pianoforte; it ought therefore to be placed in a dry place, and not exposed to draughts.

  1. Keep your piano free from dust, and do not allow needles, pins, or bread to be placed upon it, especially if the key-board is exposed, as such articles are apt to get inside and produce a jarring or whizzing sound.

  1. Do not load the top of a piano with books, music, &c., as the tone is thereby deadened, and the disagreeable noise alluded to in the last paragraph is often produced likewise.

  1. Have your piano tuned about every two months; whether it is used or not, the strain is always upon it, and if it is not kept up to concert pitch it will not stand in tune when required, which it will do if it be attended to regularly.

  1. An upright instrument sounds better if placed about two inches from the wall.

  1. When not in use keep the piano locked.

  1. To make the polish look nice, rub it with an old silk handkerchief, being careful first of all to dust off any small particles, which otherwise are apt to scratch the surface.

  1. Should any of the notes keep down when struck, it is a sure sign that there is damp somewhere, which has caused the small note upon which the key works to swell.

249.  Gardening Operations for the Year

250.  January.—Flowers of the Month.

Christmas Rose, Crocus, Winter Aconite, Alyssum, Primrose, Snowdrop.

251.  Gardening Operations

In-door preparations for future operations must be made, as in this month there are only five hours a day available for out-door work, unless the season be unusually mild. Mat over tulip beds, begin to force roses. Place pots over seakale and surround them with manure, litter, dried leaves, &c. Plant dried roots of border flowers in mild weather. Take strawberries in pots into the greenhouse. Take cuttings of chrysanthemums and strike them under glass. Prune and plant gooseberry, currant, fruit, and deciduous trees and shrubs. Cucumbers and melons to be sown in the hot-bed. Apply manures to the soil.

252.  February.—Flowers of the Month.

Snowdrop, Violet, Alyssum, Primrose.

253.  Gardening Operations

Transplant pinks, carnations, sweet-williams, candy-tuft, campanulas, &c. Sow sweet and garden peas and lettuces, for succession of crops, covering the ground with straw, &c. Sow also Savoys, leeks, and cabbages. Prune and nail fruit trees, and towards the end of the month plant stocks for next year's grafting; also cuttings of poplar, elder, willow trees, for ornamental shrubbery. Sow fruit and forest tree seeds.

254.  March.—Flowers of the Month

Primrose, Narcissus, Hyacinth, Wallflower, Hepatica, Daisy, Polyanthus.

255.  Gardening Operations

Seeds of "spring flowers" to be sown. Border flowers to be planted out. Tender annuals to be potted out under glasses. Mushroom beds to be made. Sow artichokes, Windsor beans, and cauliflowers for autumn; lettuces and peas for succession of crops, onions, parsley, radishes, Savoys, asparagus, red and white cabbages, and beet; turnips, early brocoli, parsnips and carrots. Plant slips and parted roots of perennial herbs. Graft trees and protect early blossoms. Force rose-tree cuttings under glasses.

256.  April.—Flowers of the Month.

Cowslip, Anemone, Ranunculus, Tulip, Polyanthus, Auricula, Narcissus, Jonquil, Wallflower, Lilac, Laburnum.

257.  Gardening Operations

Sow for succession peas, beans, and carrots; parsnips, celery, and seakale. Sow more seeds of "spring flowers." Plant evergreens, dahlias, chrysanthemums, and the like, also potatoes, slips of thyme, parted roots, lettuces, cauliflowers, cabbages, onions. Lay down turf, remove caterpillars. Sow and graft camelias, and propagate and graft fruit and rose trees by all the various means in use. Sow cucumbers and vegetable marrows for planting out. This is the most important month in the year for gardeners.

258.  May.—Flowers of the Month

Hawthorn, Gentianella, Anemone, Ranunculus, Columbine, Honeysuckle, Laburnum, Wistaria.

259.  Gardening Operations

Plant out your seedling flowers as they are ready, and sow again for succession larkspur, mignonette, and other spring flowers. Pot out tender annuals. Remove auriculas to a north-east aspect. Take up bulbous roots as the leaves decay. Sow kidney beans, broccoli for spring use, cape for autumn, cauliflowers for December; Indian corn, cress, onions to plant out as bulbs next year, radishes, aromatic herbs, turnips, cabbages, savoys, lettuces, &c. Plant celery, lettuces, and annuals; thin spring crops; stick peas, &c. Earth up potatoes, &c. Moisten mushroom beds.

260.  June.—Flowers of the Month

Water-lily, Honeysuckle, Sweet-william, Pinks, Syringa, Rhododendron, Delphinium, Stock.

261.  Gardening Operations

Sow giant stocks to flower next spring. Take slips of myrtles to strike, pipings of pinks, and make layers of carnation. Put down layers and take cuttings of roses and evergreens. Plant annuals in borders, and place auriculas in pots in shady places. Sow kidney beans, pumpkins, cucumbers for pickling, and (late in the month) endive and lettuces. Plant out cucumbers, marrows, leeks, celery, broccoli, cauliflowers, savoys, and seedlings, and plants propagated by slips. Earth up potatoes, &c. Cut herbs for drying when in flower.

262.  July.—Flowers of the Month

Rose, Carnation, Picotee, Asters, Balsams.

263.  Gardening Operations

Part auricula and polyanthus roots. Take up summer bulbs as they go out of flower, and plant saffron crocus and autumn bulbs. Gather seeds. Clip evergreen borders and edges, strike myrtle slips under glasses. Net fruit trees. Finish budding by the end of the month. Head down espaliers. Sow early dwarf cabbages to plant out in October for spring; also endive, onions, kidney beans for late crop, and turnips. Plant celery, endive, lettuces, cabbages, leeks, strawberries, and cauliflowers. Tie up lettuces. Earth celery. Take up onions, &c., for drying.

264.  August.—Flowers of the Month

Geranium, Verbena, Calceolaria, Hollyhock.

265.  Gardening Operations

Sow annuals to bloom indoors in winter, and pot all young stocks raised in the greenhouse. Sow early red cabbages, cauliflowers for spring and summer use, cos and cabbage lettuce for winter crop. Plant out winter crops. Dry herbs and mushroom spawn. Plant out strawberry roots, and net currant trees, to preserve the fruit through the winter.

266.  September.—Flowers of the Month

Clematis, or Traveller's Joy, Jasmine, Passion Flower, Arbutus.

267.  Gardening Operations

Plant crocuses, scaly bulbs, and evergreen shrubs. Propagate by layers and cuttings of all herbaceous plants, currant, gooseberry, and other fruit trees. Plant out seedling pinks. Sow onions for spring plantation, carrots, spinach, and Spanish radishes in warm spots. Earth up celery. House potatoes and edible bulbs. Gather pickling cucumbers. Make tulip and mushroom beds.

268.  October.—Flowers of the Month

Asters, Indian Pink, Chrysanthemum, Stock.

269.   Gardening Operations

Sow fruit stones for stocks for future grafting, also larkspurs and the hardier annuals to stand the winter, and hyacinths and smooth bulbs in pots and glasses. Plant young trees, cuttings of jasmine, honeysuckle, and evergreens. Sow mignonette for pots in winter. Plant cabbages, &c., for spring. Cut down asparagus, separate roots of daisies, irises, &c. Trench, drain, and manure.

270.  November.—Flowers of the Month

Laurestinus, Michaelmas Daisy, Chrysanthemum.

271.  Gardening Operations

Sow sweet peas and garden peas for early flowers and crops. Take up dahlia roots. Complete beds for asparagus and artichokes. Plant dried roots of border flowers, daisies, &c. Take potted mignonette indoors. Make new plantations of strawberries, though it is better to do this in October. Sow peas, leeks, beans, and radishes. Plant rhubarb in rows. Prune hardy trees, and plant stocks of fruit trees. Store carrots, &c. Shelter from frost where it may be required. Plant shrubs for forcing. Continue to trench and manure vacant ground.

272.  December.—Flowers of the Month

Cyclamen and Winter Aconite Holly berries are now available for floral decoration.

273.  Gardening Operations

Continue in open weather to prepare vacant ground for spring, and to protect plants from frost. Cover bulbous roots with matting. Dress flower borders. Prepare forcing ground for cucumbers, and force asparagus and seakale. Plant gooseberry, currant, apple, and pear trees. Roll grass-plats if the season be mild and not too wet. Prepare poles, stakes, pea-sticks, &c., for spring.

274.  Kitchen Garden

This is one of the most important parts of general domestic economy, whenever the situation of a house and the size of the garden will permit the members of a family to avail themselves of the advantages it offers. It is, indeed, much to be regretted that small plots of ground, in the immediate vicinity of the metropolis more especially, are too often converted into flower gardens and shrubberies, or used as mere play-grounds for children, when they might more usefully be employed in raising vegetables for the family. With a little care and attention, a kitchen garden, though small, might be rendered not only useful, but, in fact, as ornamental as a modern grass lawn; and the same expense incurred to make the ground a laboratory of sweets, might suffice to render it agreeable to the palate as well as to the olfactory nerves, and that even without offending the most delicate optics. It is only in accordance with our plan to give the hint and to put before the reader such novel points as may facilitate the proposed arrangement.

It is one objection to the formation of a kitchen garden in front of the dwelling, or in sight of the drawing-room and parlour, that its very nature makes it rather an eyesore than otherwise at all seasons. This, however, may be readily got over by a little attention to neatness and good order, for the vegetables themselves, if properly attended to, may be made really ornamental; but then, in cutting the plants for use, the business must be done neatly—all useless leaves cleared from the ground, the roots no longer wanted taken up, and the ravages of insects guarded against by sedulous extirpation. It will also be found a great improvement, where space will admit of it, to surround the larger plots of ground, in which the vegetables are grown, with flower borders stocked with herbaceous plants and others, such as annuals and bulbs in due order of succession, or with neat espaliers, with fruit trees, or even gooseberry and currant bushes, trained along them, instead of being suffered to grow in a state of ragged wildness, as is too often the case.

A Waiting Appetite Kindles Many a Spite.

275.  Artificial Mushroom Beds

Mushrooms may be grown in pots, boxes, or hampers. Each box may be about three feet long, one and a half broad, and seven inches in depth. Let each box be half filled with manure in the form of fresh horse-dung from the stables, the fresher the better, but if wet, it should be allowed to dry for three or four days before it is put into the boxes. When the manure has been placed in the box it should be well beaten down. After the second or third day, if the manure has begun to generate heat, break each brick of mushroom spawn (which may be obtained from any seedsman) into pieces about three inches square, then lay the pieces about four inches apart upon the surface of the manure in the box; here they are to lie for six days, when it will probably be found that the side of the spawn next to the manure has begun to run in the manure below; then add one and a half inch more of fresh manure on the top of the spawn in the box, and beat it down as formerly. In the course of a fortnight, when you find that the spawn has run through the manure, the box will be ready to receive the mould on the top; this mould must be two and a half inches deep, well beaten down, and the surface made quite even.

In the space of five or six weeks the mushrooms will begin to come up; if the mould then seems dry, give it a gentle watering with lukewarm water. The box will continue to produce from six weeks to two months, if duly attended to by giving a little water when dry, for the mushrooms need neither light nor free air. If cut as button mushrooms each box will yield from twenty-four to forty-eight pints, according to the season and other circumstances. They may be kept in dry dark cellars, or any other places where the frost will not reach them. By preparing in succession of boxes, mushrooms may be had all the year through.—They may be grown without the manure, and be of a finer flavour. Take a little straw, and lay it carefully in the bottom of the mushroom box, about an inch thick, or rather more. Then take some of the spawn bricks and break them down—each brick into about ten pieces, and lay the fragments on the straw, as close to each other as they will lie. Cover them up with mould three and a half inches deep, and well pressed down. When the surface appears dry give a little tepid water, as directed for the mode of raising them described above, but this method needs about double the quantity of water that the former does, owing to having no moisture in the bottom, while the other has the manure. The mushrooms will begin to start in a month or five weeks, sometimes sooner, sometimes later, according to the heat of the place where the boxes are situated.

Some Hours We Should Find for the Pleasures of the Mind.

276.  Dwarf Plants

The following method of producing miniature trees is taken from an article on this subject in Gardening Illustrated.
"Take an orange, and having cut a hole in the peel about the size of a shilling, take out the juice and pulp. Fill the skin thus emptied with some cocoa-nut fibre, fine moss, and charcoal, just stiffened with a little loam, and then put an acorn or a date stone, or the seed or kernel of any tree that it is proposed to obtain in a dwarfed form in this mixture, just about the centre of the hollow orange peel. Place the orange peel in a tumbler or vase in a window, and occasionally moisten the contents with a little water through the hole in the peel, and sprinkle the surface apparent through the hole with some fine woodashes. In due time the tree will push up its stem through the compost and the roots will push through the orange peel. The roots must then be cut off flush with the peel, and this process must be repeated at frequent intervals for about two years and a half. The stem of the tree will attain the height of four or five inches and then assume a stunted gnarled appearance, giving it the appearance of an old tree. When the ends of the roots are cut for the last time, the orange peel, which, curiously enough, does not rot, must be painted black and varnished."
The writer of the article saw this process carried out by a Chinaman that he had in his service, and the trees thrived and presented a healthy appearance for eight years, when the Chinaman left his employ and took the trees with him. He tried the plan which has been described but failed, but he was successful with an acorn and a datestone which were planted each in a thumb-pot in a mixture of peat and loam. The dwarfing was effected by turning the plants out of the pots at intervals of six weeks and pinching off the ends of the roots that showed themselves behind the compost. This shows that the production of dwarf plants is chiefly due to a constant and systematic checking of the root growth.

277.  To Clear Rose Trees from Blight

Mix equal quantities of Sulphur and tobacco dust, and strew the mixture over the trees of a morning when the dew is on them. The insects will disappear in a few days. The trees should then be syringed with a decoction of elder leaves.

278.  To prevent Mildew on all sorts of Trees

The best preventive against mildew is to keep the plant subject to it occasionally syringed with a decoction of elder leaves, which will prevent the fungus growing on them.

279.  Your Friend the Toad

Toads are among the best friends the gardener has; for they live almost exclusively on the most destructive kinds of vermin. Unsightly, therefore, though they may be, they should on all accounts be encouraged; they should never be touched nor molested in any way; on the contrary, places of shelter should be made for them, to which they may retire from the burning heat of the sun. If you have none in your garden, it will be quite worth your while to search for them in your walks, and bring them home, taking care to handle them tenderly, for although they have neither the will nor the power to injure you, a very little rough treatment will injure them; no cucumber or melon frame should be without one or two.

280.  Slugs and Snails

Slugs and snails are great enemies to every kind of garden plant, whether flower or vegetable; they wander in the night to feed, and return at daylight to their haunts. In order to catch them lay cabbage leaves about the ground, especially on the beds which they frequent. Every morning examine these leaves, and you will find a great many taking refuge beneath, and these may be killed by sprinkling them with a little lime or salt. These minerals are very annoying to snails and slugs; a pinch of salt kills them, and they will not touch fresh lime. It is a common practice to sprinkle lime over young crops, and along the edges of beds, about rows of peas and beans, lettuces and other vegetables; but when it has been on the ground some days, or has been moistened by rain, it loses its strength.

Let the Ticking Clock Guide the Boiling Crock.

281.  Traps for Snails

Snails are particularly fond of bran; if a little is spread on the ground, and covered over with a few cabbage-leaves or tiles, they will congregate under them in great numbers, and by examining them every morning, and destroying them, their numbers will be materially decreased.

282.  Grubs

Grubs on orchard trees, and gooseberry and currant bushes, will sometimes be sufficiently numerous to spoil a crop; but if a bonfire be made with dry sticks and weeds on the windward side of the orchard, so that the smoke may blow among the trees, you will destroy thousands; for the grubs have such an objection to smoke, that very little of it makes them roll themselves up and fall off: they must be swept up afterwards and destroyed.

283.  Caterpillars and Aphides

A garden syringe or engine, with a cap on the pipe full of very minute holes, will wash away these disagreeable visitors very quickly. You must bring the pipe close to the plant, and pump hard, so as to have considerable force on, and the plant, however badly infested, will soon be cleared, without receiving any injury. Afterwards rake the earth under the trees, and kill the insects that have been dislodged, or many will recover and climb up the stems of the plants. Aphides may also be cleared by means of tobacco smoke, but after this has been applied the plant should be well syringed.

284.  Butterflies and Moths

Butterflies and moths however pretty, are the worst enemies one can have in a garden; a single insect of this kind may deposit eggs enough to overrun a tree with caterpillars, therefore they should be destroyed at any cost of trouble.

285.  Birds

To prevent destruction of fruit buds by birds.—Just before the buds are ready to burst, and again when they have begun to expand, give them a plentiful dusting with chimney soot. The soot is unpalatable to the birds, and they will attack no bush that is thus sprinkled. It in no way injures the nascent blossom or leaf, and is washed off in due course of time by the rain.

286.  Wasps

Wasps destroy a good deal of fruit, but every pair of wasps killed in spring saves the trouble and annoyance of a swarm in autumn.

287.  Cure for Sting of Wasp or Bee

A little ammonia applied to the puncture will speedily relieve the pain, and so will the juice of an onion obtained by cutting an onion in half and rubbing the cut part over the part affected. It is necessary, however, to be very careful in any attempt upon a wasp, for its sting, like that of the bee, causes much pain and frequently induces considerable swelling. In case of being stung, get the blue-bag from the laundry, and rub it well into the wound as soon as possible. Later in the season, it is customary to hang vessels of beer, or water and sugar, in the fruit-trees, to entice them to drown themselves. A wasp in a window may be killed almost instantaneously by the application of a little sweet oil on the tip of a feather.

288.  To protect Dahlias from Earwigs

Dip a piece of wool or cotton in oil, and slightly tie it round the stalk, about a foot from the earth. The stakes which you will put into the ground to support your plants must also be surrounded by the oiled cotton or wool, or the insects will climb up them to the blossoms and tender tops of the stems. Insects may be prevented from climbing up stakes, trees, &c., by encircling them with a broad ring of tar, which may be renewed as often as may be necessary. Small pots inverted and placed on the top of stakes form a useful trap for slugs, snails, earwigs, &c., which crawl into them for shelter in the early morning, and may thus be caught and destroyed. When it is sought to take earwigs by this means, the bottom of each pot should be filled with a wisp of hay or dried grass, or a little cotton wool.

289.  To free Plants from Leaf-Lice

The following is recommended as a cheap and easy mode of getting rid of this pest:—Mix one ounce of flowers of sulphur with one bushel of sawdust; scatter this over the plants infected with these insects: they will soon be freed, though a second application may possibly be necessary.

290.  A Moral

I had a little spot of ground,
Where blade nor blossom grew,
Though the bright sunshine all around
Life-giving radiance threw.
I mourned to see a spot so bare
Of leaves of healthful green,
And thought of bowers, and blossoms fair,
I frequently had seen.

Some seeds of various kinds lay by—
I knew not what they were—
But, rudely turning o'er the soil,
I strewed them thickly there;
And day by day I watched them spring
From out the fertile earth,
And hoped for many a lovely thing
Of beauty and of worth.

But as I marked their leaves unfold
As weeds before my view,
And saw how stubbornly and bold
The thorns and nettles grew—
I sighed to think that I had done,
Unwittingly, a thing
That, where a beauteous bower should thrive,
But worthless weeds did spring.

And thus I mused; the things we do,
With little heed or ken,
May prove of worthless growth, and strew
With thorns the paths of men;
For little deeds, like little seeds,
May flowers prove, or noxious weeds!

291.  Taking a House

Before taking a house, be careful to calculate that the rent is not too high in proportion to your means; for remember that the rent is a claim that must be paid with but little delay, and that the landlord has greater power over your property than any other creditor. It is difficult to assign any fixed proportion between income and rental to suit all cases, but a reasonable basis for the settlement of this point may be found in the assertion that while not less than one-tenth of a man's entire income need be set apart for rent, not more than a sixth, or at the very utmost a fifth should be devoted to this purpose, and this amount ought to include parochial rates and taxes.

292.  Having determined the Amount of Rent

Having determined the amount of rent which you can afford to pay, be careful to select the best and most convenient house which can be obtained for that sum. And in making that selection let the following matters be carefully considered:

293.  First—Carefully regard the Healthfulness of the Situation

Find out the nature of the sub-soil on which the house stands—for example, a gravel or chalk subsoil is better than a subsoil of clay, because the former admits of a speedy escape of the surplus water in time of heavy and continuous rain, while the latter does not. Avoid the neighbourhood of graveyards, and of factories giving forth unhealthy vapours. Avoid low and damp districts, the course of canals, and localities of reservoirs of water, gas works, &c. Make inquiries as to the drainage of the neighbourhood, and inspect the drainage and water supply of the premises. A house standing on an incline is likely to be better drained than one standing upon the summit of a hill, or on a level below a hill. Endeavour to obtain a position where the direct sunlight falls upon the house, for this is absolutely essential to health; and give preference to a house the openings of which are sheltered from the north and east winds.

294.  Second—Consider the Distance of the House

Consider the distance of the house from your place of occupation: and also its relation to provision markets, and shops in the neighbourhood.

295.  Examine the House in Detail

Having considered these material and leading features, examine the house in detail, carefully looking into its state of repair; notice the windows that are broken; whether the chimneys smoke; whether they have been recently swept; whether the paper on the walls is damaged, especially in the lower parts, and the corners, by the skirtings; whether the locks, bolts, handles of doors, and window fastenings are in proper condition; make a list of the fixtures; ascertain whether all rates and taxes have been paid by the previous tenant, and whether the person from whom you take the house is the original landlord, or his agent or tenant. And do not commit yourself by the signing of any agreement until you are satisfied upon all these points, and see that all has been done which the landlord may have undertaken to do, before you take possession of the house.

A Blunt Knife Shows a Dull Wife.

296.  If you are about to Furnish a House

If you are about to furnish a house, buy merely enough to get along with at first, and add other things by degrees. It is only by experience that you can tell what will be the wants of your family. If you spend all your money, you will find you have purchased many things you do not actually want, and have no means left to get many things which you do want. If you have enough, and more than enough, to get everything suitable to your situation, do not think you must spend all, you may be able to lay out in furniture, merely because you happen to have it. Begin humbly. As riches increase, it is easy and pleasant to increase in comforts; but it is always painful and inconvenient to decrease. Neatness, tastefulness, and good sense may be shown in the management of a small household, and the arrangement of a little furniture, as well as upon a larger scale. The consideration which many purchase by living beyond their income, and, of course, living upon others, is not worth the trouble it costs. It does not, in fact, procure a man valuable friends, or extensive influence.

297.  Carpets

In buying carpets, as in everything else, those of the best quality are cheapest in the end. As it is extremely desirable that they should look as clean as possible, avoid buying carpeting that has any white in it. Even a very small portion of white interspersed through the pattern will in a short time give a dirty appearance to the whole.

298.  A Carpet in which all the Colours are Light

A carpet in which all the colours are light never has a clean, bright effect, from the want of dark tints to contrast and set off the light ones.

299.  For a Similar Reason

carpets whose colours are all of what artists call middle tint (neither dark nor light), cannot fail to look dull and dingy, even when quite new.

300.  For a Carpet to be really Beautiful

and in good taste, there should be, as in a picture, a judicious disposal of light and shadow, with a gradation of very bright and of very dark tints; some almost white, and others almost or quite black.

301.  The Best Carpets

The most truly chaste, rich, and elegant carpets are those which are of one colour only, the pattern, if pattern it may be called, being formed by a judicious arrangement of every variety of shade of this colour. For instance, a Brussels carpet entirely red; the pattern formed by shades or tints varying from the deepest crimson (almost a black), to the palest pink (almost a white). Also one of green only, shaded from the darkest bottle-green, in some parts of the pattern, to the lightest pea-green in others. Or one in which there is no colour but brown, in all its various gradations, some of the shades being nearly black, others of a light buff.

302.  The Curtains, Sofas, &c.

The curtains, sofas, &c., must be of corresponding colours, that the effect of the whole may be satisfactory to the eye.

303.  Colours of Carpets.

Carpets of many gaudy colours are much less in demand than formerly. Two or three colours only, with the dark and light shades of each, make a very handsome carpet.

304.  Hearth-Rug

If you cannot obtain a Hearth-rug that exactly corresponds with the carpet, get one entirely different; for a decided contrast looks better than a bad match. The hearth-rug, however, should reflect the colour or colours of the carpet if possible.

305.  Sheepskin Rugs

Large rugs of sheepskin, in white, crimson, or black, form comfortable and effective hearth-rugs for a drawing-room or dining-room. In the winter these may be removed and an ordinary woollen rug laid down as long as fires are kept up.

A Bad Broom Leaves a Dirty Room.

306.  Wallpaper

In choosing paper for a room, avoid that which has a variety of colours, or a large showy figure, as no furniture can appear to advantage with such. Large figured papering makes a small room look smaller, but, on the contrary, a paper covered with a small pattern makes a room look larger, and a striped paper, the stripes running from ceiling to floor, makes a low room look higher.

307.  Kitchen Floors

The best covering for a kitchen floor is a thick unfigured oil-cloth, of one colour. Linoleum or kamptulicon is warmer to the feet than the ordinary painted oilcloth.

308.  Family Tool Chests

Much inconvenience and considerable expense might be saved if it were the general custom to keep in every house certain tools for the purpose of performing at home what are called small jobs, instead of being always obliged to send for a mechanic and pay him for executing little things that, in most cases, could be sufficiently well done by a man or boy belonging to the family, if the proper instruments were at hand.

309.  The Cost

The cost of these articles is very trifling, and the advantages of having them always in the house are far beyond the expense.

310.  Example Contents

For instance, there should be an axe, a hatchet, a saw (a large wood saw also, with a buck or stand, if wood is burned), a hammer, a tack-hammer, a mallet, three or four gimlets and bradawls of different sizes, two screw-drivers, a chisel, a small plane, one or two jack-knives, a pair of large scissors or shears, and a carpet fork or stretcher.

311.  Nails

Also an assortment of nails of various sizes, from large spikes down to small tacks, not forgetting some large and small brass-headed nails.

312.  Screws

An assortment of screws, likewise, will be found very convenient, and iron hooks of different sizes on which to hang things.

313.  Container

The nails and screws should be kept in a wooden box, made with divisions to separate the various sorts and sizes, for it is very troublesome to have them mixed.

314.  Maintain Supply

And let care be taken to keep up the supply, lest it should run out unexpectedly, and the deficiency cause delay and inconvenience at a time when some are wanted.

315.  Tool Closet

It is well to have somewhere, in the lower part of the house, a roomy light closet, appropriated entirely to tools, and things of equal utility, for executing promptly such little repairs as may be required from time to time, without the delay or expense of procuring an artisan. This closet should have at least one large shelf, and that about three feet from the floor.

316.  Drawer

Beneath this shelf may be a deep drawer, divided into two compartments. This drawer may contain cakes of glue, pieces of chalk, and balls of twine of different size and quality.

317.  Shelves

There may be shelves at the sides of the closet for glue-pots, paste-pots and brushes, pots for black, white, green, and red paint, cans of oil and varnish, paint-brushes, &c.

318.  Hanging Tools

Against the wall, above the large shelf, let the tools be suspended, or laid across nails or hooks of proper size to support them.

319.  More Effective.

This is much better than keeping them in a box, where they may be injured by rubbing against each other, and the hand may be hurt in feeling among them to find the thing that is wanted.

320.  Visible

But when hung up against the back wall of the closet, of course each tool can be seen at a glance.

321.  Organization

There is an excellent and simple contrivance for designating the exact places allotted to all these articles in a very complete tool closet.

322.  Outlined Tools

On the closet wall, directly under the large nails that support the tools, is drawn with a small brush dipped in black paint or ink, a representation in outline of the tool or instrument belonging to that particular place.

A Husband's Wrath Spoils the Best Broth.

323.  Examples of Outlining

For instance, under each saw is sketched the outline of that saw, under each gimlet a sketch of that gimlet, under the screw-drivers are slight drawings of screw-drivers.

324.  Place Shown

So that when any tool that has been taken away for use is brought back to the closet, the exact spot to which it belongs can be found in a moment; and the confusion which is occasioned in putting tools away in a box and looking for them again when they are wanted, is thus prevented.

325.  Wrapping Paper

Wrapping paper may be piled on the floor under the large shelf. It can be bought at a low price by the ream, at the large paper warehouses; and every house should keep a supply of it in several varieties. For instance, coarse brown paper for common purposes, which is strong, thick, and in large sheets, is useful for packing heavy articles; and equally so for keeping silks, ribbons, blondes, &c., as it preserves their colours.

326.  Printed Papers

Printed papers are unfit for wrapping anything, as the printing ink rubs off on the articles enclosed in them, and also soils the gloves of the person that carries the parcel.

327.  Waste Newspapers

Waste newspapers had best be used for lighting fires and singeing poultry. If you have accumulated more than you can use, your butcher or grocer will generally buy them of you if they are clean.

328.  Waste Paper

Waste paper that has been written on, cut into slips, and creased and folded, makes very good allumettes or lamp-lighters. These matters may appear of trifling importance, but order and regularity are necessary to happiness.

329.  Beds for the Poor.

Beech-tree leaves are recommended for filling the beds of poor persons. They should be gathered on a dry day in the autumn, and perfectly dried. It is said that the smell of them is pleasant and that they will not harbour vermin. They are also very springy.

330.  To Preserve Tables

A piece of oilcloth (about twenty inches long) is a useful appendage to a common sitting-room. Kept in the closet, it can be available at any time, in order to place upon it jars, lamps, &c., whose contents are likely to soil your table during the process of emptying or filling them. A wing and duster are harmonious accompaniments to the oilcloth.

331.  Protecting Gilt Frames

Gilt frames may be protected from flies and dust by pinning tarlatan over them. Tarlatan fit for the purpose may be purchased at the draper's. It is an excellent material for keeping dust from books, vases, wool work, and every description of household ornament.

332.   Damp Walls

The following method is recommended to prevent the effect of damp walls on paper in rooms:—Line the damp part of the wall with sheet lead, rolled very thin, and fastened up with small copper nails. It may be immediately covered with paper. The lead is not to be thicker than that which is used to line tea-chests.

333.  Another Method

Another mode of preventing the ill effects of damp in walls on wall-paper, is to cover the damp part with a varnish formed of naphtha and shellac, in the proportion of 1/4 lb. of the latter to a quart of the former. The smell of the mixture is unpleasant, but it wears off in a short time, and the wall is covered with a hard coating utterly impervious to damp, and to which the wall paper can be attached in the usual way.

334.  No Wet Scouring In Winter

Bedrooms should not be scoured in the winter time, as colds and sickness may be produced thereby. Dry scouring upon the French plan, which consists of scrubbing the floors with dry brushes, may be resorted to, and will be found more effective than can at first be imagined. If a bedroom is wet scoured, a dry day should be chosen—the windows should be opened, the linen removed, and a fire should be lit when the operation is finished.

A Wife's Art is Displayed in a Table Well Laid.

335.   To Get Rid of a Bad Smell in a Room Newly Painted.

Place a vessel full of lighted charcoal in the middle of the room, and throw on it two or three handfuls of juniper berries, shut the windows, the chimney, and the door close; twenty-four hours afterwards, the room may be opened, when it will be found that the sickly, unwholesome smell will be entirely gone. The smoke of the juniper berry possesses this advantage, that should anything be left in the room, such as; tapestry, &c., none of it will be spoiled.

336.  Smell of Paint

To get rid of the smell of oil paint, let a pailful of water stand in the room newly painted.

337.  Airing a Larder

If a larder, by its position, will not admit of opposite windows, a current of air should be admitted by means of a flue from the outside.

338.  Keeping a Door Open

To keep a door open, place a brick covered neatly with a piece of carpeting against it, when opened sufficiently.

339.  To Ascertain whether a Bed be Aired

Introduce a drinking glass between the sheets for a minute or two, just when the warming-pan is taken out; if the bed be dry, there will only be a slight cloudy appearance on the glass, but if not, the damp of the bed will collect in and on the glass and assume the form of drops—a warning of danger.

340.  To prevent the Smoking of a Lamp

Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before you use it; the flame will then burn clear and bright.

341.  Encrusted Tea-Kettles

Water of every kind, except rain water, will speedily cover the inside of a tea-kettle with an unpleasant crust; this may easily be guarded against by placing a clean oyster-shell or a piece of stone or marble in the tea-kettle. The shell or stone will always keep the interior of the kettle in good order, by attracting the particles of earth or of stone.

342.  To Soften Hard Water

To soften hard water. or purify river water, simply boil it, and then leave it exposed to the atmosphere.

343.  Cabbage Water

Cabbage water should be thrown away immediately it is done with, and the vessel rinsed with clean water, or it will cause unpleasant smells.

344.  Disinfectants

A little charcoal mixed with clear water thrown into a sink will disinfect and deodorize it. Chloride of lime and carbolic acid considerably diluted, if applied in a liquid form, are good disinfectants, and carbolic powder—a pink powder with a smell resembling tar, and sold at about 2d. per lb.—is both useful and effective. The air of a bedroom may be pleasantly sweetened by throwing some ground coffee on a fire shovel previously heated.

345.  Chimney Smoking

Where a chimney smokes only when a fire is first lighted, it may be guarded against by allowing the fire to kindle gradually, or by heating the chimney by burning straw or paper in the grate previous to laying in the fire.

346.  Ground Glass

The frosted appearance of ground glass may be very nearly imitated by gently dabbing the glass over with a paint brush dipped in white paint or any other oil colour. The paint should be thin, and but very little colour taken up at one time on the end of the bristles. When applied with a light and even touch the resemblance is considerable.

347.  Oiling Clocks

Family clocks ought only to be oiled with the very purest oil, purified by a quart of lime water to a gallon of oil, in which it has been well shaken, and suffered to stand for three or four days, when it may be drawn off.

348.  Neat Mode of Soldering

Cut out a piece of tinfoil the size of the surfaces to be soldered. Then dip a feather in a solution of sal ammoniac, and wet over the surfaces of the metal, then place them in their proper position with the tinfoil between. Put the metals thus arranged on a piece of iron hot enough to melt the foil. When cold the surfaces will be found firmly soldered together.

Who Never Tries Cannot Win the Prize.

349.  Maps and Charts

Maps, charts, or engravings may be effectually varnished by brushing a very delicate coating of gutta-percha solution over their surface. It is perfectly transparent, and is said to improve the appearance of pictures. By coating both sides of important documents they can be kept waterproof and preserved perfectly.

350.  Temperature of Furniture

Furniture made in the winter, and brought from a cold warehouse into a warm apartment, is very liable to crack.

351.  Paper Fire-Screens

Paper fire-screens should be sized and coated with transparent varnish, otherwise they will soon become soiled and discoloured.

352.  Pastilles for Burning

Cascarilla bark, eight drachms; gum benzoin, four drachms; yellow sanders, two drachms; styrax, two drachms; olibanum, two drachms; charcoal, six ounces; nitre, one drachm and a half; mucilage of tragacanth, sufficient quantity. Reduce the substances to a powder, and form into a paste with the mucilage, and divide into small cones; then put them into an oven, used quite dry.

353.  Breaking Glass

Easy method of breaking glass to any required Figure.—Make a small notch by means of a file on the edge of a piece of glass, then make the end of a tobacco-pipe, or of a rod of iron of the same size, red hot in the fire, apply the hot iron to the notch, and draw it slowly along the surface of the glass in any direction you please: a crack will follow the direction of the iron.

354.  Bottling and Fining

Corks should be sound, clean, and sweet. Beer and porter should be allowed to stand in the bottles a day or two before being corked. If for speedy use, wiring is not necessary. Laying the bottles on their sides will assist the ripening for use. Those that are to be kept should be wired, and put to stand upright in sawdust. Wines should be bottled in spring. If not fine enough, draw off a jugful and dissolve isinglass in it, in the proportion of half an ounce to ten gallons, and then pour back through the bung-hole. Let it stand a few weeks. Tap the cask above the lees. When the isinglass is put into the cask, stir it round with a stick, taking great care not to touch the lees at the bottom. For white wine only, mix with the isinglass a quarter of a pint of milk to each gallon of wine, some whites of eggs, beaten with some of the wine. One white of an egg to four gallons makes a good fining.

355.  To Sweeten Casks

Mix half a pint of vitriol with a quart of water, pour it into the barrel, and roll it about; next day add one pound of chalk, and roll again. Bung down for three or four days, then rinse well with hot water.

356.  Wrinkly Paintings

Oil paintings hung over the mantel-piece are liable to wrinkle with the heat.

357.  To Loosen Glass Stoppers of Bottles

With a feather rub a drop or two of salad oil round the stopper, close to the mouth of the bottle or decanter, which must then be placed before the fire, at the distance of about eighteen inches; the heat will cause the oil to insinuate itself between the stopper and the neck. When the bottle has grown warm, gently strike the stopper on one side, and then on the other, with any light wooden instrument; then try it with the hand: if it will not yet move, place it again before the fire, adding another drop of oil. After a while strike again as before; and, by persevering in this process, however tightly it may be fastened in, you will at length succeed in loosening it.

358.  The Best Oil for Lamps

The best oil for lamps, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, is that which is clear and nearly colourless, like water.

359.  China or Wedgwood Teapots

China teapots are the safest, and, in many respects, the most pleasant. Wedgwood ware is very apt, after a time, to acquire a disagreeable taste.

The Best Physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet and Dr. Merryman.

360.  Care of Linen

When linen is well dried and laid by for use, nothing more is necessary than to secure it from damp and insects. It may he kept free from the latter by a judicious mixture of aromatic shrubs and flowers, cut up and sewed in silken bags, which must be interspersed among the drawers and shelves. The ingredients used may consist of lavender, thyme, roses, cedar shavings, powdered sassafras, cassia, &c., into which a few drops of otto of roses, or other strong-scented perfume may be thrown.

361.  Repairing Linen

In all cases it will he found more consistent with economy to examine and repair all washable articles, more especially linen, that may stand in need of it, previous to sending them to the laundry. It will also be prudent to have every article carefully numbered, and so arranged, after washing, as to have their regular turn and term in domestic use.

362.  Mending

When you make a new article always save the pieces until "mending day," which may come sooner than expected. It will be well even to buy a little extra quantity for repairs. Read over repeatedly the "Domestic Hints" (pars. 1783-1807). These numerous paragraphs contain most valuable suggestions, that will be constantly useful if well remembered. They should be read frequently that their full value may be secured. Let your servants also read them, for nothing more conduces to good housekeeping than for the servant to understand the "system" which her mistress approves of.

363.  Cleansing of Furniture

The cleaning of furniture forms an important part of domestic economy, not only in regard to neatness, but also in point of expense.

364.  Method of Cleansing

The readiest mode indeed consists in good manual rubbing, or the application of a little elbow-grease, as it is whimsically termed; but our finest cabinet work requires something more, where brilliancy of polish is of importance.

365.  Italian Varnish

The Italian cabinet-work in this respect excels that of any other country. The workmen first saturate the surface with olive oil, and then apply a solution of gum arabic dissolved in boiling alcohol. This mode of varnishing is equally brilliant, if not superior, to that employed by the French in their most elaborate works.

366.  Another Method

But another mode may be substituted, which has less the appearance of a hard varnish, and may always be applied so as to restore the pristine beauty of the furniture by a little manual labour. Heat a gallon of water, in which dissolve one pound and a half of potash; and a pound of virgin wax, boiling the whole for half an hour, then suffer it to cool, when the wax will float on the surface. Put the wax into a mortar, and triturate it with a marble pestle, adding soft water to it until it forms a soft paste, which, laid neatly on furniture, or even on paintings, and carefully rubbed when dry with a woollen rag, gives a polish of great brilliancy, without the harshness of the drier varnishes.

367.  Marble Chimney-Pieces

Marble chimney-pieces may also be rubbed with it, after cleaning the marble with diluted muriatic acid, or warm soap and vinegar; but the iron or brass work connected with them requires other processes.

368.  Polished Iron Work

Polished iron work may be preserved from rust by an inexpensive mixture, consisting of copal varnish intimately mixed with as much olive oil as will give it a degree of greasiness, adding thereto nearly as much spirit of turpentine as of varnish.

369.  Cast Iron Work

Cast iron work is best preserved by the common method of rubbing with black-lead.

370.  Rust

If rust has made its appearance on grates or fire-irons, apply a mixture of two parts of tripoli to one of sulphur, intimately mingled on a marble slab, and laid on with a piece of soft leather. Or emery and oil may be applied with excellent effect; not laid on in the usual slovenly way, but with a spongy piece of fig wood fully saturated with the mixture. This will not only clean but impart a polish to the metal as well.

371.  Brass

Brass ornaments, when not gilt or lacquered, may be cleaned in the same way, and a fine colour given to them, by two simple processes.

372.  First Brass Process

The first is to beat sal ammoniac into a fine powder, then to moisten it with soft water, rubbing it on the ornaments, which must be heated over charcoal, and rubbed dry with bran and whiting.

373.  Second Brass Process

The second is to wash the brasswork with roche alum boiled in strong ley, in proportion of an ounce to a pint; when dry, rub it with fine tripoli. Either of these processes will give to brass the brilliancy of gold.

374.  Carpets

If the corner of a carpet becomes loose and prevents the door opening, or trips every one up that enters the room, nail it down at once. A dog's-eared carpet marks the sloven as well as the dog's-eared book. An English gentleman, travelling some years ago in Ireland, took a hammer and tacks with him, because he found dog's-eared carpets at all the inns where he rested. At one of these inns he tacked down the carpet, which, as usual, was loose near the door, and soon afterwards rang for his dinner. While the carpet was loose the door could not be opened without a hard push; so when the waiter came up, he just unlatched the door, and then going back a couple of yards, he rushed against it, as his habit was, with a sudden spring, to force it open. But the wrinkles of the carpet were no longer there to stop it, and not meeting with the expected resistance, the unfortunate waiter fell full length into the room. It had never entered his head that so much trouble might be saved by means of a hammer and half a dozen tacks, until his fall taught him that makeshift is a very unprofitable kind of shift. There are a good many houses in England where a similar practical lesson might be of service.

375.  Cleaning Carpets

Take a pail of cold water, and add to it three gills of ox-gall. Rub it into the carpet with a soft brush. It will raise a lather, which must be washed off with clear cold water. Rub dry with a clean cloth. Before nailing down a carpet after the floor has been washed, be certain that the floor is quite dry, or the nails will rust and injure the carpet. Fuller's earth is used for cleaning carpets, and weak solutions of alum or soda are used for reviving the colours. The crumb of a hot wheaten loaf rubbed over a carpet has been found effective.

376.  Carpet-Beating

Beat a carpet on the wrong side first; and then more gently on the right side. Beware of using sticks with sharp points, which may tear the carpet.

377.  Sweeping Carpets

Persons who are accustomed to use tea-leaves for sweeping their carpets, and find that they leave stains, will do well to employ fresh cut grass instead. It is better than tea-leaves for preventing dust, and gives the carpets a very bright, fresh look.

378.  Making a Carpet Last Longer

A half-worn carpet may be made to last longer by ripping it apart, and transposing the breadths.

379.  Sweeping a Stair-Carpet

A stair carpet should never be swept down with a long broom, but always with a short-handled brush, a dust-pan being held closely under each step of the stairs during the operation of sweeping.

380.  Cleaning Oilcloth

Oilcloth should never be scrubbed with a brush, but, after being first swept, it should be cleansed by washing with a large soft cloth and lukewarm or cold water. On no account use soap or hot water, as either will injure the paint, and in time remove it.

381.  Cleaning Straw Matting

Straw matting may be cleaned with a large coarse cloth dipped in salt and water, and then wiped dry. The salt prevents the matting from turning yellow.

Eat Not to Dulness — Drink Not To Elevation.

382.  Method of Cleaning Paper-Hangings

Cut into eight half quarters a quartern loaf, two days old; it must be neither newer nor staler. With one of these pieces, after having blown off all the dust from the paper to be cleaned, by the means of a good pair of bellows, begin at the top of the room, and, holding the crust in the hand, wipe lightly downward with the crumb, about half a yard at each stroke, till the upper part of the hangings is completely cleaned all round. Then go round again, with the like sweeping stroke downwards, always commencing each successive course a little higher than the upper stroke had extended, till the bottom be finished. This operation, if carefully performed, will frequently make very old paper look almost equal to new. Great care must be taken not to rub the paper hard, nor to attempt cleaning it the cross or horizontal way. The surface of the bread, too, must be always cut away as soon as it becomes dirty, and the pieces renewed as often as may be necessary.

383.  Cleaning Rosewood Furniture

Rosewood furniture should be rubbed gently every day with a clean soft cloth to keep it in order.

384.  Cleaning Ottomans and Sofas

Ottomans and sofas, covered with cloth, damask, or chintz, will look better for being cleaned occasionally with bran and flannel.

385.  Polishing Dining-Tables

Dining tables may be polished by rubbing them for some time with a soft cloth and a little linseed oil.

386.  Mahogany

Mahogany frames of sofas, chairs, &c., should be first well dusted, and then cleaned with a flannel dipped in sweet oil or linseed oil.

387.  To Clean Cane-bottom Chairs

Turn the chair bottom upwards, and with hot water and a sponge wash the canework well, so that it may become completely soaked. Should it be very dirty you must add soap. Let it dry in the open air, or in a place where there is a thorough draught, and it will become as tight and firm as when new, provided none of the strips are broken.

388.  Alabaster

Stains may be removed by washing with soap and water, then whitewashing the stained part, letting it stand some hours, then washing off the whitewash, and rubbing the stained part with a flannel moistened with lukewarm soap and water.

389.  To Clean Marble

Take two parts of common soda, one part of pumice stone, and one part of finely powdered chalk; sift it through a fine sieve, and mix it with water. Rub the marble well all over with the mixture, and the stains will be removed; then wash the marble with soap and water, and it will be as clean as it was at first.

390.  Glass

Glass should be washed in cold water, which gives it a brighter and clearer look than when cleansed with warm water; or, what is better, wash in warm water and rinse in cold water.

391.  Using Charcoal (1)

Glass vessels, and other utensils, may be purified and cleaned by rinsing them out with powdered charcoal.

392.  Bottles

There is no easier method of cleaning glass bottles than putting into them fine coal-ashes, and well shaking, either with water or not, hot or cold, according to the substance that fouls the bottle. Charcoal left in a bottle or jar for a little time will take away disagreeable smells.

393.  Cleaning Japanned Waiters, Urns, &c.

Rub on with a sponge a little white soap and some lukewarm water, and wash the waiter or urn quite clean. Never use hot water, as it will cause the japan to scale off. Having wiped it dry, sprinkle a little flour over it; let it remain untouched for a short time, and then rub it with a soft dry cloth, and finish with a silk handkerchief. White heat marks on the waiters are difficult to remove; but rubbing them with a flannel dipped in sweet oil, and afterwards in spirits of wine, may be tried. Waiters of papier maché should be washed with a sponge and cold water only, and dredged with flour while damp. After the lapse of a few minutes the flour must be wiped off, and the article polished with a silk handkerchief.

Disease is Soon Shaken by Physic Soon Taken.

394.  Papier Maché

Papier Maché articles of all kinds should be washed with a sponge and cold water, without soap, dredged with flour while damp, and polished with a flannel or a silk handkerchief.

395.  Brunswick Black for Varnishing Grates

Melt four pounds of common asphaltum, and add two pints of linseed oil, and one gallon of oil of turpentine. This is usually put up in stoneware bottles for sale, and is used with a paint brush. If too thick, more turpentine may be added.

396.  Blacking for Stoves

may be made with half a pound of black-lead finely powdered, and (to make it stick) mix with it the whites of three eggs well beaten; then dilute it with sour beer or porter till it becomes as thin as shoe-blacking; after stirring it, set it over hot coals to simmer for twenty minutes; when cold it may be kept for use.

397.  To Clean Knives and Forks

Wash the blades in warm (but not hot) water, and afterwards rub them lightly over with powdered rotten-stone mixed to a paste with a little cold water; then polish them with a clean cloth.

398.  For Cleaning Painted Wainscot or Other Woodwork

For cleaning painted wainscot or other woodwork, fuller's earth will be found cheap and useful: on wood not painted it forms an excellent substitute for soap.

399.  To Scour Boards

Lime, one part; sand, three parts; soft soap, two parts. Lay a little on the boards with the scrubbing brush, and rub thoroughly. Rinse with clean water, and rub dry. This will keep the boards of a good colour, and keep away vermin.

400.  Charcoal (2)

All sorts of glass vessels and other utensils may be purified from long-retained smells of every kind, in the easiest and most perfect manner, by rinsing them out well with charcoal powder, after the grosser impurities have been scoured off with sand and potash. Rubbing the teeth and washing out the mouth with fine charcoal powder, will render the teeth beautifully white, and the breath perfectly sweet, where an offensive breath has been owing to a scorbutic disposition of the gums. Putrid water is immediately deprived of its bad smell by charcoal. When meat, fish, &c., from intense heat, or long keeping, are likely to pass into a state of corruption, a simple and pure mode of keeping them sound and healthful is by putting a few pieces of charcoal, each about the size of an egg, into the pot or saucepan wherein the fish or flesh is to be boiled. Among others, an experiment of this kind was tried upon a turbot, which appeared to be too far gone to be eatable; the cook, as advised, put three or four pieces of charcoal, each the size of an egg, under the strainer in the fish-kettle; after boiling the proper time, the turbot came to the table sweet and firm.

401.  To take Stains out of Mahogany Furniture

Stains and spots may be taken out of mahogany with a little aquafortis or oxalic acid and water, rubbing the part with a cork dipped in the liquid till the colour is restored. Then wash the wood well with water, and dry and polish as usual.

402.  To take Ink-Stains out of Mahogany

Put a few drops of spirits of nitre in a teaspoonful of water; touch the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and as soon as the ink disappears, rub it over with a rag wetted in cold water, or there will be a white mark, which will not be easily effaced.

403.  To remove Ink-Stains from Silver

Ink-stains on the tops and other portions of silver ink-stands may be completely eradicated by making a little chloride of lime into a paste with water, and rubbing it upon the stains. Chloride of lime has been misnamed "The general bleacher," but it is a great enemy to all metallic surfaces.

Disease is the Punishment of Neglect.

404.  To take Ink-Stains out of a Coloured Table-Cover

Dissolve a teaspoonful of oxalic acid in a teacup of hot water; rub the stained part well with a flannel or linen rag dipped in the solution.

405.  Ink Stains

Very frequently, when logwood has been used in manufacturing ink, a reddish stain still remains, after the use of oxalic acid, as in the former directions. To remove it, procure a solution of the chloride of lime, and apply it in the same manner as directed for the oxalic acid.

406.  To take Ink out of Boards

Apply strong muriatic acid, or spirits of salts, with a piece of cloth; afterwards wash well with water.

407.  Oil or Grease

Oil or grease may be removed from a hearth by covering it immediately with hot ashes, or with burning coals.

408.  Marble may be Cleaned

Marble may be cleaned by mixing up a quantity of the strongest soap-lees with quick-lime, to the consistence of milk, and laying it on the marble for twenty-four hours; clean it afterwards with soap and water.

409.  Silver and Plated Ware

Silver and plated ware should be washed with a sponge and warm soapsuds every day after using, and wiped dry with a clean soft towel.

410.  Bronzed Chandeliers, Lamps, &c.

Bronzed chandeliers, lamps, &c., should be merely dusted with a feather-brush, or with a soft cloth, as washing them will take off the bronzing.

411.  To clean Brass Ornaments

Wash the brasswork with roche alum boiled to a strong ley, in the proportion of an ounce to a pint. When dry it must be rubbed with fine tripoli.

412.  For Cleaning Brasses Belonging to Mahogany Furniture

For cleaning brasses belonging to mahogany furniture, use either powdered whiting or scraped rotten-stone, mixed with sweet oil and rubbed on with chamois leather.

413.  Brasses, Britannia Metal, Tins, Coppers, &c.

Brasses, Britannia metal, tins, coppers, &c., may be cleaned with a mixture of rotten-stone, soft soap, and oil of turpentine, mixed to the consistency of stiff putty. The stone should be powdered very fine and sifted. The articles should first be washed with hot water, to remove grease; then a little of the above mixture, mixed with water, should be rubbed over the metal; then rub off briskly with dry, clean rag or leather, and a beautiful polish will be obtained.

414.  To preserve Steel Goods from Rust

After bright grates have been thoroughly cleaned, they should be dusted over with unslacked lime, and thus left until wanted. Coils of piano wires, thus sprinkled, will keep from rust for many years. Table-knives which are not in constant use ought to be put in a case in which sifted quicklime is placed, about eight inches deep. They should be plunged to the top of the blades, but the lime should not touch the handles.

415.  To keep Iron and Steel Goods from Rust

Dissolve half an ounce of camphor in one pound of hog's lard; take off the scum: mix as much black lead as will give the mixture an iron colour. Iron and steel goods, rubbed over with this mixture, and left with it on twenty-four hours, and then dried with a linen cloth, will keep clean for months. Valuable articles of cutlery should be wrapped in zinc foil, or be kept in boxes lined with zinc. This is at once an easy and most effective method.

416.  Iron Wipers

Old soft towels, or pieces of old sheets or tablecloths, make excellent wipers for iron and steel goods.

417.  To Clean Looking-Glasses

First wash the glass all over with lukewarm soapsuds and a sponge. When dry, rub it bright with a chamois leather on which a little prepared chalk, finely powdered, has been sprinkled.

Keep the Blood Pure and Spare the Leech.

418.  To Clean Mirrors, &c.

If they should be hung so high that they cannot be conveniently reached, have a pair of steps to stand upon; but mind that they stand steady. Then take a piece of soft sponge, well washed, and cleaned from everything gritty, dip it into water and squeeze it almost dry, dip it into some spirit of wine, and then rub it over the glass. Next, dust the glass over with some powder blue or whiting sifted through muslin; wipe the powder lightly and quickly off again with a cloth; then take a clean cloth, and rub the glass well once more, and finish by rubbing it with a silk handkerchief. If the glass be very large, clean one-half at a time, as otherwise the spirit of wine will dry before it can be rubbed off. If the frames are not varnished, the greatest care is necessary to keep them quite dry, so as not to touch them with the sponge, as this will discolour or take off the gilding. To clean the frames, take a little raw cotton in the state of wool, and rub the frames with it; this will take off all the dust and dirt without injuring the gilding. If the frames are well varnished, rub them with spirit of wine, which will take out all spots, and give them a fine polish. Varnished doors may be done in the same manner. Never use any cloth to frames or drawings, or oil paintings, when cleaning and dusting them.

419.  China and Glass

The best material for cleansing either porcelain or glass, is fuller's earth: but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and carefully cleared from all rough or hard particles, which might endanger the polish of the surface.

420.  Porcelain

In cleaning porcelain, it must also be observed that some species require more care and attention than others, as every person must have observed that chinaware in common use frequently loses some of its colours.

421.  Red Fading

he red, especially of vermilion, is the first to go, because that colour, together with some others, is laid on by the Chinese after burning.

422.  Modern Porcelain Fades Less

The modern Chinese porcelain is not, indeed, so susceptible of this rubbing or wearing off, as vegetable reds are now used by them instead of the mineral colour.

423.  Temperature with China and Glass

It ought to be taken for granted that all china or glass ware is well tempered: yet a little careful attention may not be misplaced, even on that point; for though ornamental china or glassware is not exposed to the action of hot water in common domestic use, yet it may be injudiciously immersed therein for the purpose of cleaning; and as articles intended solely for ornament are not so highly annealed as others, it will be proper never to apply water beyond a tepid temperature.

424.  Annealing Glass

An ingenious and simple mode of annealing glass has been some time in use by chemists. It consists in immersing the vessel in cold water, gradually heated to the boiling point, and suffered to remain till cold, when it will be fit for use. Should the glass be exposed to a higher temperature than that of boiling water, it will be necessary to immerse it in oil.

425.  To take Marking-Ink out of Linen

Use a solution of cyanide of potassium applied with a camel-hair brush. After the marking ink disappears, the linen should be well washed in cold water.

426.  To take Stains of Wine out of Linen

Hold the articles in milk while it is boiling on the fire, and the stains will soon disappear.

427.  Fruit Stains in Linen

To remove them, rub the part on each side with yellow soap, then tie up a piece of pearlash in the cloth, &c., and soak well in hot water, or boil; afterwards expose the stained part to the sun and air until the stain is removed.

428.  Mildewed Linen

may be restored by soaping the spots while wet, covering them with fine chalk scraped to powder, and rubbing it well in.

429.  To keep Moths, Beetles, &c., from Clothes

Put a piece of camphor in a linen bag, or some aromatic herbs, in the drawers, among linen or woollen clothes, and no insects will come near them.

Loose Habits Lead to Tight Bandages.

430.  Moths

Clothes closets that have become infested with moths, should be well rubbed with a strong decoction of tobacco, and repeatedly sprinkled with spirits of camphor.

431.  To Remove Stains from Floors

For removing spots of grease from boards, take fuller's earth and pearlash, of each a quarter of a pound, and boil in a quart of soft water. While hot lay the mixture on the greased parts, allowing it to remain on them from ten or twelve hours; after which it may be scoured off with sand and water. A floor much spotted with grease should be completely washed over with this mixture the day before it is scoured. Fuller's earth and ox-gall, boiled together, form a very powerful cleansing mixture for floors or carpets. Stains of ink are removed by the application of strong vinegar, or salts of lemon.

432.  Scouring Drops for removing Grease

There are several preparations of this name; one of the best is made as follows:—Camphine, or spirit of turpentine, three ounces: essence of lemon, one ounce; mix and put up in a small phial for use when required.

433.  To take Grease out of Velvet or Cloth

Pour some turpentine over the part that is greasy; rub it till quite dry with a piece of clean flannel; if the grease be not quite removed, repeat the application, and when done, brush the part well, and hang up the garment in the open air to take away the smell.

434.  Medicine Stains

Medicine stains may be removed from silver spoons by rubbing them with a rag dipped in sulphuric acid, and washing it off with soapsuds.

435.  To Extract Grease Spots from Books or Paper

Gently warm the greased or spotted part of the book or paper, and then press upon it pieces of blotting-paper, one after another, so as to absorb as much of the grease as possible. Have ready some fine clear essential oil of turpentine heated almost to a boiling state, warm the greased leaf a little, and then, with a soft clean brush, apply the heated turpentine to both sides of the spotted part. By repeating this application, the grease will be extracted. Lastly, with another brush dipped in rectified spirit of wine, go over the place, and the grease will no longer appear, neither will the paper be discoloured.

436.  Stains and Marks from Books.

A solution of oxalic acid, citric acid, or tartaric acid, is attended with the least risk, and may be applied to paper and prints without fear of damage. These acids, which take out writing ink, and do not touch the printing, can be used for restoring books where the margins have been written upon, without injuring the text.

437.  To take Writing Ink out of Paper

Solution of muriate of tin, two drachms; water, four drachms. To be applied with a camel-hair brush. After the writing has disappeared, the paper should be passed through water, and dried.

438.  A Hint on Household Management

Have you ever observed what a dislike servants have to anything cheap? They hate saving their master's money. I tried this experiment with great success the other day. Finding we consumed a vast deal of soap, I sat down in my thinking chair, and took the soap question into consideration, and I found reason to suspect we were using a very expensive article, where a much cheaper one would serve the purpose better. I ordered half a dozen pounds of both sorts, but took the precaution of changing the papers on which the prices were marked before giving them into the hands of Betty. "Well, Betty, which soap do you find washes best?" "Oh, please sir, the dearest, in the blue paper; it makes a lather as well again as the other." "Well, Betty, you shall always have it then;" and thus the unsuspecting Betty saved me some pounds a year, and washed the clothes better—Rev. Sydney Smith.

Bottles of Brandy are Followed by Bottles of Physic.

439.  Domestic Rules

Mrs Hamilton, in her "Cottagers of Glenburnie," gives three simple rules for the regulation of domestic affairs, which deserve to be remembered, and which would, if carried into practice, be the means of saving time, labour, and patience, and of making every house a "well-ordered" one. They are as follows:

  1. Do everything in its proper time.
  1. Keep everything to its proper use.
  1. Put everything in its proper place.

440.  An Ever-dirty Hearth

An ever-dirty hearth, and a grate always choked with cinders and ashes, are infallible evidences of bad housekeeping.

441.  Economy

If you have a strip of land, do not throw away soapsuds. Soapsuds are good manure for bushes and young plants.

442.  Washing Woollens

Woollen clothes should be washed in very hot suds, and not rinsed. Lukewarm water shrinks them.

443.  Keeping Coffee and Tea

Do not let coffee and tea stand in tin.

444.  Freshness of Surfaces

Scald your wooden-ware often, and keep your tin-ware dry.

445.  Re-using Letters

Preserve the backs of old letters to write upon.
446.  Make Writing-Books

If you have children who are learning to write, buy coarse white paper by the quantity, and make it up into writing-books. This does not cost half so much as it does to buy them ready made at the stationer's.

447.  No Waste

See that nothing is thrown away which might have served to nourish your own family or a poorer one.

448.  Bread

As far as possible, have pieces of bread eaten up before they become hard: spread those that are not eaten, and let them dry, to be pounded for puddings, or soaked for brewis.

449.  Brewis

Brewis is made of crusts and dry pieces of bread, soaked a good while in hot milk, mashed up, and eaten with salt. Above all, do not let crusts accumulate in such quantities that they cannot be used. With proper care, there is no need of losing a particle of bread.

450.  Regular Mending

All the Mending in the house should be done once a week if possible.

451.  Never put out Sewing.

If it be not possible to do it in your own family, hire some one to come to the house and work with them.

452.  White Spots on Furniture

A warming-pan full of coals, or a shovel of coals, held over varnished furniture, will take out white spots. Care should be taken not to hold the pan near enough to scorch; the place to which heat has thus been applied, should be rubbed with a flannel while warm.

453.  Acid Fading

Sal-Volatile or hartshorn will restore colours taken out by acid. It may be dropped upon any garment without doing harm.

454.  New Iron

New iron should be very gradually heated at first. After it has become inured to the heat, it is not as likely to crack.

455.  Before Using a Brass Kettle

Clean a brass kettle, before using it for cooking, with salt and vinegar.

456.  Shaking Carpets

The oftener carpets are shaken the longer they wear; the dirt that collects under them grinds out the threads.

457.  Saving Rags

All linen rags should be saved, for they are useful in sickness. If they have become dirty and worn by cleaning silver, &c., wash them and scrape them into lint.

458.  Softening Washing-Water

If you are troubled to get soft water for washing, fill a tub or barrel half full of wood ashes, and fill it up with water, so that you may have ley whenever you want it. A gallon of strong ley, put into a great kettle of hard water, will make it as soft as rain water. Some people use pearlash, or potash; but this costs something, and is very apt to injure the texture of the cloth.

459.  Protecting Knife-Handles

Do not let knives be dropped into hot dish-water. It is a good plan to have a large tin pot to wash them in, just high enough to wash the blades without wetting the handles.

460.  Do It Well

It is better to accomplish perfectly a very small amount of work, than to half do ten times as much.

Be Temperate in All Things.

461.  Polishing Knives with Charcoal

Charcoal Powder will be found a very good thing to give knives a first-rate polish.

462.  Preventing Wear

A bonnet and trimmings may be worn a much longer time, if the dust be brushed well off after walking.

463.  Good Examples

Much knowledge may be obtained by the good housewife observing how things are managed in well-regulated families.

464.  Apple Pips

Apples intended for dumplings should not have the core taken out of them, as the pips impart a delicious flavour to the dumpling.

465.  Rice Pudding

A rice pudding is excellent without either eggs or sugar, if baked gently: it keeps better without eggs.

466.  "Wilful Waste makes Woeful Want."

Do not cook a fresh joint whilst any of the last remains uneaten —hash it up, and with gravy and a little management, eke out another day's dinner.

467.  Shanks of Mutton

The shanks of mutton make a good stock for nearly any kind of gravy, and they are very cheap—a dozen may be had for a penny, enough to make a quart of delicious soup.

468.  Lack of Fresh Air

Thick curtains, closely drawn around the bed, are very injurious, because they not only confine the effluvia thrown off from our bodies whilst in bed, but interrupt the current of pure air.

469.  Regular Accounting

Regularity in the payment of accounts is essential to housekeeping. All tradesmen's bills should be paid weekly, for then any errors can be detected whilst the transactions are fresh in the memory.

470.  Enough Talk

Allowing children to talk incessantly is a mistake. We do not mean to say that they should be restricted from talking in proper seasons, but they should be taught to know when it is proper for them to cease.

471.  Blacking for Leather Seats, &c.

Beat well the yolks of two eggs and the white of one: mix a tablespoonful of gin and a teaspoonful of sugar, thicken it with ivory black, add it to the eggs, and use as common blacking; the seats or cushions being left a day or two to harden. This is good for dress boots and shoes

472.  Black Reviver for Black Cloth

Bruised galls, one pound; logwood, two pounds; green vitriol, half a pound; water, five quarts. Boil for two hours, and strain. Use to restore the colour of black cloth.

473.  Enamel Paint

Special preparations of paint, styled "enamel," are now made, suitable for both useful and decorative purposes—garden stands, indoor furniture or ornaments, baths, &c. They are ready mixed in a variety of shades, can be easily applied, and dry with a hard glossy surface.

Keep the Head Cool and the Feet Warm.

474.  Hints for Home Comfort

  1. Eat slowly and you will not overeat.

  1. Keeping the feet warm will prevent headaches.

  1. Late at breakfast—hurried for dinner—cross at tea.

  1. A short needle makes the most expedition in plain sewing.

  1. Between husband and wife little attentions beget much love.

  1. Always lay your table neatly, whether you have company or not.

  1. Put your balls or reels of cotton into little bags, leaving the ends out.

  1. Whatever you may choose to give away, always be sure to keep your temper.

  1. Dirty windows speak to the passer-by of the negligence of the inmates.

  1. In cold weather a leg of mutton improves by being hung three, four, or five weeks.

  1. When meat is hanging, change its position frequently, to equally distribute the juices.

  1. There is much more injury done by admitting visitors to invalids than is generally supposed.

  1. Matches, out of the reach of children, should be kept in every bedroom. They are cheap enough.

  1. Apple and suet dumplings are lighter when boiled in a net than a cloth. Skim the pot well.

  1. When sheets or chamber towels get thin in the middle, cut them in two, sew the selvedges together, and hem the sides.

  1. When you are particular in wishing to have precisely what you want from a butcher, go and buy it yourself.

  1. A flannel petticoat will wear as nearly as long again, if turned hind part before, when the front begins to wear thin.

  1. People in general are not aware how very essential to the health of the inmates is the free admission of light into their houses.

  1. When you dry salt for the table, do not place it in the salt cellars until it is cold, otherwise it will harden into a lump.

  1. Never put away plate, knives and forks, &c., uncleaned, or great inconvenience will arise when the articles are wanted.

  1. Feather beds should be opened every third year, the ticking well dusted, soaped, and waxed, the feathers dressed and returned.

  1. Persons of defective sight, when threading a needle, should hold it over something white, by which the sight will be assisted.

  1. In mending sheets and shirts, put in pieces sufficiently large, or in the first washing the thin parts give way, and the work done is of no avail.

  1. When reading by candle-light, place the candle behind you, that the rays may pass over your shoulder on to the book. This will relieve the eyes.

  1. A wire fire-guard, for each fire-place in a house, costs little, and greatly diminishes the risk to life and property. Fix them before going to bed.

  1. In winter, get the work forward by daylight, to prevent running about at night with candles. Thus you escape grease spots, and risks of fire.

  1. Be at much pains to keep your children's feet dry and warm. Don't bury their bodies in heavy flannels and wools, and leave their arms and legs naked.

  1. Apples and pears, cut into quarters and stripped of the rind, baked with a little water and sugar, and eaten with boiled rice, are capital food for children.

  1. A leather strap, with a buckle to fasten, is much more commodious than a cord for a box in general use for short distances; cording and uncording is a tedious job.

  1. After washing, overlook linen, and stitch on buttons, hooks and eyes, &c.; for this purpose keep a "house-wife's friend," full of miscellaneous threads, cottons, buttons: hooks, &c.

  1. For ventilation open your windows both at top and bottom. The fresh air rushed in one way, while the foul escapes the other. This is letting in your friend and expelling your enemy.

  1. There is not any real economy in purchasing cheap calico for night-shirts. Cheap calico soon wears into holes, and becomes discoloured in washing.

  1. Sitting to sew by candle-light at a table with a dark cloth on it is injurious to the eyesight. When no other remedy presents itself, put a sheet of white paper before you.

  1. Persons very commonly complain of indigestion; how can it be wondered at, when they seem, by their habit of swallowing their food wholesale, to forget for what purpose they are provided with teeth.

  1. Never allow your servants to put wiped knives on your table, for, generally speaking, you may see that that have been wiped with a dirty cloth. If a knife is brightly cleaned, they are compelled to use a clean cloth.

  1. There is not anything gained in economy by having very young and inexperienced servants at low wages; the cost of what they break, waste, and destroy, is more than an equivalent for higher wages, setting aside comfort and respectability.

  1. No article in dress tarnishes so readily as black crape trimmings, and few things injure it more than damp; therefore, to preserve its beauty on bonnets, a lady in nice mourning should in her evening walks, at all seasons of the year, take as her companion an old parasol to shade her crape.

Guard the Foot, and the Head will Seldom Harm.

475.  Domestic Pharmacopœia

In compiling this part of our hints, we have endeavoured to supply that kind of information which is so often wanted in the time of need, and cannot be obtained when a medical man or a druggist is not near. The doses are all fixed for adults, unless otherwise specified. The various remedies are arranged in sections, according to their uses, as being more easy for reference,

476.  Collyria, or Eye Washes

477.  Alum

Dissolve half a drachm of alum in eight ounces (half a pint) of water. Use as astringent wash. When twice as much alum and only half the quantity of water are used, it acts as a discutient, but not as an eye-water.

Note that this and the following washes are for outward application only.

478.  Common

Add half an ounce of diluted acetic acid to three ounces of decoction of poppy heads.

Use as anodyne wash.

479.  Compound Alum

Dissolve alum and white vitriol, of each one drachm, in one pint of water, and filter through paper.

Use as astringent wash.

480.  Zinc and Lead

Dissolve white vitriol and acetate of lead, of each seven grains, in four ounces of elder-flower water; add one drachm of laudanum (tincture of opium), and the same quantity of spirit of camphor, then strain.

Use as detergent wash.

481.  Acetate of Zinc

Dissolve half a drachm of white vitriol in five ounces of water. Dissolve two scruples of acetate of lead in five ounces of water. Mix these solutions, then set aside for a short time, and afterwards filter.

Use as astringent wash; this forms a most valuable collyrium.

482.  Sulphate of Zinc

Dissolve twenty grains of white vitriol in a pint of water or rose water.

Use for weak eyes.

483.  Zinc and Camphor

Dissolve a scruple of white vitriol in ten ounces of water; add one drachm of spirit of camphor, and strain.

Use as a stimulant.

484.  Compound Zinc

Dissolve fifteen grains of white vitriol in eight ounces of camphor water (Mistura camphoræ), and the same quantity of decoction of poppy heads.

Use as anodyne and detergent wash: it is useful for weak eyes.

485.  Confections and Electuaries

486.  Purpose

Confections are used as vehicles for the administration of more active medicines, and Electuaries are made for the purpose of rendering some remedies palatable. Both should be kept in closely covered jars.

487.  Almond Confection

Remove the outer coat from an ounce of sweet almonds, and beat them well in a mortar with one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and half an ounce of white sugar.

Use to make a demulcent mixture known as "almond emulsion."

488.  Alum Confection

Mix two scruples of powdered alum with four scruples of treacle.

Dose, half a drachm.

Use as astringent in sore throat, relaxed uvula, and ulcerations of mouth.

489.  Orange Confection

Take one ounce of the freshly rasped rind of orange, and mix it with three ounces of white sugar, and beat together till perfectly incorporated.

Dose, from one drachm to one ounce.

Use as a gentle stomachic and tonic, and as a vehicle for administering tonic powders.

490.  Black Pepper Confection

Take of black pepper and elecampane root, each one ounce; fennel seeds, three ounces; honey and sugar, of each two ounces. Rub the dry ingredient to a fine powder, and when the confection is wanted, add the honey, and mix well.

Dose, from one to two drachms.

Use in hæmorrhoids, or piles.

Better Pay the Cook than the Doctor.

491.  Cowhage

Mix in treacle as much of the fine hairs or spiculæ of cowhage as the treacle will take up.

Dose, a teaspoonful every morning and evening.

Use as an anthelmintic.

492.   Senna Confection. No. 1.

Take of senna, powdered, four ounces; figs, half a pound, viassia pulp, tamarind pulp, and the pulp of prunes, each four ounces; coriander seeds, powdered, two ounces; liquorice root, one ounce and a half; sugar, one pound and a quarter; water, one pint and a half. Rub the senna with the coriander, and separate, by sifting, five ounces of the mixture. Boil the water, with the figs and liquorice added, until it is reduced to one half; then press out and strain the liquor. Evaporate the strained liquor in a jar by boiling until twelve fluid ounces remain; then add the sugar, and make a syrup. Now mix the pulps with the syrup, add the sifted powder, and mix well.

Use as a purgative.

493.  Senna Confection. No. 2.

A more simple confection, but equally efficacious, may be made in the following manner. Infuse an ounce of senna leaves in a pint of boiling water, pouring the water on the leaves in a covered mug or jug, or even an old earthenware teapot. Let the infusion stand till it is cold, then strain off the liquor, and place it in a saucepan or stewpan, adding to it one pound of prunes. Let the prunes stew gently by the side of the fire till the liquor is entirely absorbed.

Use as a purgative or laxative, giving half a teaspoonful to little children and a teaspoonful to children over ten years of age.

494.  Castor Oil and Senna Confection

Take one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and two ounces of confection of senna, and mix, by gradually rubbing together in a mortar, with half an ounce of castor oil.

Dose, from half an ounce to an ounce.

Use as a purgative.

495.  Sulphur and Senna Confection

Take of sulphur and sulphate of potash, each half an ounce; confection of senna, two ounces; oil of aniseed, twenty minims; mix well.

Dose, from one to two drachms.

Use as a purgative.

496.  Cream of Tartar Confection

Take one ounce of cream of tartar, one drachm of jalap, and half a drachm of powdered ginger; mix into a thick paste with treacle.

Dose, two drachms.

Use as a purgative.

497.  Antispasmodic Electuary

Take six drachms of powdered valerian and orange leaves, mixed and made into an electuary, with a sufficient quantity of syrup of wormwood.

Dose, from one to two drachms, to be taken two or three times a day.

498.  Decoctions

These should only be made as they are wanted; pipkins or tin saucepans should be used for the purpose; and no decoction should be boiled longer than ten minutes.

499.  Chimaphila

Take one ounce of pyrola (chimaphila, or winter-green), and boil it in a pint and a half of water until the water is reduced to one pint; then strain.

Dose, from one to two ounces, four times a day.

Use in dropsies, as a diuretic.

500.  Logwood

Boil one ounce and a half of bruised logwood in two pints of water until the water is reduced to one pint; then add one drachm of bruised cassia, and strain.

Dose, from one to two ounces.

Use as an astringent.

501.  Dandelion

Take two ounces of the freshly-sliced root, and boil in a quart of water until it comes to a pint.

Dose, from two to four ounces, that is to say, from an eighth of a pint to a quarter of a pint.

Use for sluggish state of the liver.

502.  Embrocations and Liniments

These remedies are used externally as local stimulants, to relieve deep seated inflammations when other means cannot he employed, as they are more easily applied locally.

503.  Anodyne and Discutient

Take two drachms of scraped white soap, half a drachm of extract of henbane, and dissolve them by a gentle heat in six ounces of olive oil.

Use for glandular enlargements which are painful and stubborn, about half an ounce to be well rubbed into the part twice a day.

504.  Strong Ammoniated

Add one ounce of strong liquid ammonia to two ounces of olive oil, shake well together until properly mixed.

Use as a stimulant in rheumatic pains, paralytic numbnesses, chronic glandular enlargements, lumbago, sciatica, &c.

Note that this embrocation must be used with care, and only employed in very obstinate cases.

505.  Compound Ammoniated

Add six drachms of oil of turpentine to the strong ammoniated liniment above.

Use for the diseases mentioned in the preceding paragraph and chronic affections of the knee and ankle joints.

506.  Lime and Oil

Take equal parts of common linseed oil and lime water and shake well.

Use for burns, scalds, sun peelings, &c.

507.  Camphorated

Take half an ounce of camphor and dissolve it in two ounces of olive oil.

Use as a stimulating and soothing application for stubborn breasts, glandular enlargements, dropsy of the belly, and rheumatic pains.

508.   Soap Liniment with Spanish Flies

Take three ounces and a half of soap liniment, and half an ounce of tincture of Spanish flies, mix and shake well.

Use as stimulant to chronic bruises, sprains, rheumatic pains, and indolent swellings.

509.  Turpentine

Take two ounces and a half of resin cerate, and melt it by standing the vessel in hot water, then add one ounce and a half of oil of turpentine, and mix.

Use as stimulant to ulcers, burns, scalds, &c.

510.  Enemas

These are a peculiar kind of medicines, administered by injecting them into the rectum or outlet of the body. The intention is either to empty the bowels, kill worms, protect the lining membrane of the intestines from injury, restrain copious discharges, allay spasms in the bowels, or to nourish the body. These clysters, or glysters, are administered by means of bladders and pipes, or a proper apparatus.

511.  Laxative

Take two ounces of Epsom salts, and dissolve in three quarters of a pint of gruel, or thin broth, with an ounce of olive oil.

512.  Nutritive

Take twelve ounces of strong beef tea, and thicken with hartshorn shavings or arrowroot.

513.  Turpentine

Take half an ounce of oil of turpentine, the yolk of one egg, and half a pint of gruel. Mix the turpentine and egg, and then add the gruel.

Use as an anthelmintic.

514.  Common

Dissolve one ounce of salt in twelve ounces of gruel.

515.  Castor Oil

Mix two ounces of castor oil with one drachm of starch, then rub them together, and add fourteen ounces of thin gruel.

Use as a purgative.

516.  Opium

Rub three grains of opium with two ounces of starch, then add two ounces of warm water.

Use as an anodyne in colic, spasms, &c.

517.  Oil

Mix four ounces of olive oil with half an ounce of mucilage and half a pint of warm water.

Use as a demulcent.

518.  Asafœtida

Mix one drachm of the tincture of asafœtida in a pint of barley water.

Use as an anthelmintic, or in convulsions from teething.

519.  Gargles

These are remedies used to stimulate chronic sore throats, or a relaxed state of the swallow, or uvula.

520.  Acidulated

Mix one part of white vinegar with three parts of honey of roses, and twenty-four of barley water. Use in chronic inflammation of the throat, malignant sore throat, &c.

521.  Astringent

Take two drachms of roses and mix with eight ounces of boiling water, infuse for one hour, strain, and add one drachm of alum and one ounce of honey of roses.

Use for severe sore throat, relaxed uvula, &c.

Violent Passions Lead to Great Depressions.

522.  For Salivation

Mix from one to four drachms of bruised gall-nuts with a pint of boiling water, and infuse for two hours, then strain and sweeten.

523.  Tonic and Stimulant

Mix six ounces of decoction of bark with two ounces of tincture of myrrh, and half a drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use in scorbutic affections.

524.  Alum

Dissolve one drachm of alum in fifteen ounces of water, then add half an ounce of treacle, and one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use as an astringent.

525.  Myrrh

Add six drachms of tincture of myrrh to seven ounces of infusion of linseed, and then add one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use as a detergent.

526.  For Slight Inflammation of the Throat

Add one drachm of sulphuric ether to half an ounce of syrup of marsh-mallows, and six ounces of barley water. This may be used frequently.

527.  Lotions

Lotions are usually applied to the parts required by means of a piece of linen rag or piline, wetted with them, or by wetting the bandage itself.

They are for outward application only.

528.  Emollient

Use decoction of marsh-mallow or linseed.

529.  Elder Flowers

Add two drachms and a half of elder flowers to one quart of boiling water, infuse for one hour, and strain.

Use as a discutient.

530.  Sedative

Dissolve one drachm of extract of henbane in twenty-four drachms of water.

531.  Opium

Mix two drachms of bruised opium with half a pint of boiling water.

Use, when cold, for painful ulcers, bruises, &c.

532.  Stimulant

Dissolve one drachm of caustic potash in one pint of water, and then gradually pour it upon twenty-four grains of camphor and one drachm of sugar, previously bruised together in a mortar.

Use for fungoid and flabby ulcers.

533.  Ordinary

Mix one drachm of salt with eight ounces of water.

Use for foul ulcers and flabby wounds.

534.  Cold Evaporating

Add two drachms of Goulard's extract, and the same quantity of sulphuric ether to a pint of cold water.

Use as lotion for contusions, sprains, inflamed parts, &c.

535.  Hydrochlorate of Ammonia

Dissolve two drachms of sal ammoniac in six ounces of water, then add an ounce of distilled vinegar and the same quantity of rectified spirit.

Use as a refrigerant.

536.  Yellow Lotion

Dissolve one grain of corrosive sublimate in an ounce of lime water, taking care to bruise the crystals of the salt in order to assist its solution.

Use as a detergent.

Note, that corrosive sublimate is a violent and deadly poison.

537.  Black Wash

Add half a drachm of calomel to four ounces of lime water, or eight grains to an ounce of lime water; shake well.

Use as a detergent.

538.  Acetate of Lead with Opium

Take twenty grains of acetate of lead, and a drachm of powdered opium, mix, and add an ounce of vinegar and four ounces of warm water, set aside for an hour, then filter.

Use as an astringent.

539.  Creosote

Add a drachm of creosote to a pint of water, and mix by shaking.

Use as an application in cutaneous diseases.

540.  Galls

Boil one drachm of bruised galls in twelve ounces of water until only half a pint remains, then strain, and add one ounce of laudanum.

Use as an astringent and sedative.

541.  Ointments and Cerates

These remedies are used as local applications to parts, generally ulcers. They are usually spread upon linen or other materials.

542.  Camphorated

Mix half an ounce of camphor with one ounce of lard, having, of course, previously powdered the camphor, by adding a few drops of spirits of wine.

Use as a discutient and stimulant in indolent tumours.

543.  Chalk

Mix as much prepared chalk as you can into some lard, so as to form a thick ointment.

Use as an application to burns and scalds.

544.  For Itch

Mix four drachms of sublimed sulphur, two ounces of lard, and half a drachm of diluted sulphuric acid together.

Use as an ointment to be rubbed into the body.

545.  For Scrofulous Ulcerations

Mix one drachm of ioduret of zinc and one ounce of lard together.

Use twice a day to the ulcerations.

546.  Catechu

Mix one ounce of powdered catechu, two drachms and a half of powdered alum, one ounce of powdered white resin, and two ounces and a half of olive oil, together.

Use for flabby and indolent ulcerations.

547.  Tartar Emetic

Mix twenty grains of tartar emetic and ten grains of white sugar with one drachm and a half of lard.

Use as a counter-irritant in white swellings, &c.

548.  Pills

549.   Strong Purgative

Take of powdered aloes, scammony, and gamboge, each fifteen grains, mix, and add sufficient Venice turpentine to make into a mass, then divide into twelve pills.

Dose, one or two occasionally.

550.  Milder Purgative

Take four grains of powdered scammony and the same quantity of compound extract of colocynth, and two grains of calomel; mix well, and add two drops of oil of cloves, or thin gum-water, to enable the ingredients to combine properly, and divide into two pills.

Dose, one or two when necessary.

551.  Common Purgative

Take of powdered jalap and compound extract of colocynth each four grains, of calomel two grains, mix as usual, and divide into two pills.

Dose, one or two occasionally.

552.  Tonic

Mix twenty-four grains of extract of gentian and the same of purified green vitriol (sulphate of iron) together, and divide into twelve pills.

Dose, one or two when necessary. Use in debility.

553.  Cough

Mix one drachm of compound powder of ipecacuanha with one scruple of gum ammoniacum and one of dried squill bulb in powder. Make into a mass with mucilage, and divide into twenty pills.

Dose, one, three times a day.

554.  Astringent

Mix sixteen grains of acetate of lead (sugar of lead) with four grains of opium, and make into a mass with extract of dandelion, so as to make eight pills.

Dose, from one to two. Use as an astringent in obstinate diarrhœa, dysentery, and spitting of blood.

555.  Mixtures

556.  Fever, Simple

Add three ounces of spirit of mindererus (Liquor ammonia acetatis), three drachms of spirits of sweet nitre, four drachms of antimonial wine, and a drachm of syrup of saffron, to four ounces of water, or medicated water, such as cinnamon, aniseed, &c.

Dose, for an adult, one or two tablespoonfuls every three hours. Use as a diaphoretic.

557.  Aromatic

Mix two drachms of aromatic confection with two drachms of compound tincture of cardamoms, and eight ounces of peppermint water.

Dose, from one ounce to one and a half. Use in flatulent colic and spasms of the bowels.

558.  Cathartic

Dissolve two ounces of Epsom salts in six ounces of compound infusion of senna, then add two ounces of peppermint water.

Dose, from one and a half to two ounces. Use as a warm and active cathartic.

559.  Diuretic

Dissolve one drachm of powdered nitre in three ounces of camphor mixture; add five ounces of the decoction of broom, with six drachms of sweet spirits of nitre, and three drachms of tincture of squills; mix.

Dose, one teaspoonful every two hours, or two tablespoonfuls every three hours. Use, excellent in dropsies

560.  Cough

Dissolve three grains of tartar emetic and fifteen grains of opium in one pint of boiling water, then add four ounces of treacle, two ounces of vinegar, and one pint more of boiling water.

Dose, from two teaspoonfuls to two tablespoonfuls, according to circumstances, every three hours, or three times a day. Use in common catarrh, bronchitis, and irritable cough.

561.  Cough (for Children)

Mix three drachms of ipecacuanha wine with half an ounce of oxymel of squills, the same quantity of spirits of tolu, one ounce of mucilage, and two ounces of water.

Dose, one teaspoonful for children under one year, two teaspoonfuls from one to five years, and a tablespoonful from five years, every time the cough is troublesome.

562.  Antispasmodic

Dissolve fifty grains of camphor in two drachms of chloroform, and then add two drachms of compound tincture of lavender, six drachms of mucilage of gum arabic, eight ounces of aniseed, cinnamon, or some other aromatic water, and two ounces of distilled water; mix well.

Dose, one tablespoonful every half hour if necessary. Use in cholera in the cold stage, when cramps are severe, or exhaustion very great; and as a general antispasmodic in doses of one dessert spoonful when the spasms are severe.

563.  Tonic and Stimulant

Dissolve one drachm of extract of bark, and half a drachm of powdered gum arabic, in six ounces of water, and then add one ounce of syrup of marshmallow, and the same quantity of syrup of tolu.

Dose, one tablespoonful every three hours. Use after fevers and catarrhs.

564.  Stomachic

Take twenty grains of powdered rhubarb, and rub it down in three ounces and a half of peppermint water, then add sal volatile and compound tincture of gentian, each one drachm and a half; mix.

Dose, from one to one ounce and a half. Use this mixture as a tonic, stimulant, and stomachic.

565.  Drinks

566.  Tamarind (1)

Boil two ounces of the pulp of tamarinds in two pints of milk, then strain. Use as cooling drink.

567.   Tamarind (2)

Boil two ounces of the pulp in two pints of warm water, and allow it to get cold, then strain. Use as cooling drink.

568.  Powders

569.  Compound Soda

Mix twenty-four grains of calomel, thirty-six grains of sesquicarbonate of soda, and one drachm of compound chalk powder, together. Divide into twelve powders. One of the powders to be given for a dose when required. Use as a mild purgative for children during teething.

570.  Tonic

Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with the same quantity of dried carbonate of soda, then add two drachms of powdered calumba root.

Dose, from ten to twenty grains as a tonic after fevers, in all cases of debility, and dyspepsia attended with acidity.

571.  Rhubarb and Magnesia

Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with two drachms of carbonate of magnesia, and half a drachm of ginger.

Dose, from fifteen grains to one drachm. Use as a purgative for children.

572.  Sulphur and Potash

Mix one drachm of sulphur with four scruples of bicarbonate of potash, and two scruples of nitre.

Dose, from half a drachm to one drachm. Use as a purgative, diuretic, and refrigerant.

573.  Anti-Diarrhœal

Mix one grain of powdered ipecacuanha, and one grain of powdered opium, with the same quantity of camphor.

Dose, one of these powders to be given in jam, treacle, &c., once or twice a day; but to adults only.

574.  Antispasmodic

Mix four grains of subnitrate of bismuth, forty-eight grains of carbonate of magnesia, and the same quantity of white sugar, and then divide in four equal parts.

Dose, one-fourth part. Use in obstinate pain in the stomach with cramps, unattended by inflammation.

575.  Antipertussal, or against Whooping-Cough

Mix one drachm of powdered belladonna root, and two ounces of white sugar, together.

Dose, six grains morning and evening for children under one year; nine grains for those under two and three years of age; fifteen grains for those between five and ten; and thirty grains for adults.

Caution, this should be prepared by a chemist, as the belladonna is a poison, and occasional doses of castor oil should be given while it is being taken.

576.  Purgative (Common)

Mix ten grains of calomel, with one drachm of powdered jalap, and twenty grains of sugar.

Dose, one-half of the whole for adults.

577.  Sudorific

Mix six grains of compound antimonial powder, two grains of ipecacuanha, and two grains of sugar together.

Dose, as mixed, to be taken at bed-time. Use in catarrh and fever.

578.  Miscellaneous

579.  Anthelmintic, or Vermifuge

For ridding the bowels of tape-worms, an excellent medicine exists in the male fern—Aspidium felix mas. A decoction may be made of the fresh roots, or the root may be dried and powdered.

Dose, of the powdered root, from ten to thirty grains; of the decoction, from a tablespoonful to a wineglassful, according to age. Use to kill tape-worm.

580.  Another Anthelmintic

For thread-worms, which infest the rectum and especially the lower portion, near the orifice of the body, an injection of salt and water, in the proportion of one ounce and a half of salt to a pint, or twenty ounces of water, or of quassia chips, will generally prove effectual, and obviate the necessity of administering medicine.

581.  Emulsion, Laxative

Rub down an ounce of castor oil in two drachms of mucilage of gum arabic, add three ounces of dill water, and a drachm of tincture of jalap, gradually.

Dose, as prepared, the whole to be taken while fasting in the morning.

582.  Emulsion, Purgative

Rub down six grains of scammony with six drachms of white sugar in a mortar, and gradually add four ounces of almond emulsion, and two drops of oil of cloves.

Dose, as prepared, early in the morning.

583.  To Prevent Pitting after Small Pox

Spread a sheet of thin leather with the ointment of ammoniacum with mercury, and cut out a place for the mouth, eyes, and nostrils. This forms what is called a mask, and, after anointing the eyelids with a little blue ointment, it should be applied to the face, and allowed to remain for three days for the distinct kind, and four days for the running variety. Apply before the spots fill with matter, although it will answer sometimes even after they have become pustulous. It may be applied to any part in the same way.

584.  Another Method

Another method, and one more reliable, is that of touching every pustule, or poc, on the face or bosom with a camel-hair pencil dipped in a weak solution of lunar caustic (nitrate of silver), made in the proportion of two grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce of distilled water. The time for application is about the seventh day, while each pustule is filled with a limpid fluid, or before suppuration takes place, the lotion arresting that action, and by preventing the formation of matter, saving the skin from being pitted; a result that follows from the conversion of the adipose tissue into pus.

585.  A Third Method

of effecting the same purpose is by passing a fine needle through each poc, when fully distended with lymph; the escape of the fluid averting, as in the other mode, the suppuration which would otherwise ensue.

A Fool or a Physician at Forty.

586.  Another Method (4)

A fourth and much more simple method of preventing pitting from small-pox is to lightly touch every part of the face with a feather dipped in sweet oil. It also tends to prevent this disfigurement to cause the light in the patient's apartment by day to assume a yellow tinge or colour, which may be easily managed by fitting the room with yellow or brownish yellow linen blinds.

587.  Mucilage of Gum Arabic

Rub one ounce of gum arabic in a mortar, with four ounces of warm water. Use for coughs, &c.

588.  Mucilage of Starch

Rub one drachm of starch with a little water, and gradually add five ounces of water, then boil until it forms a mucilage. Use for enemas, topical applications, and demulcents.

589.  Diseases

For the proper Remedies and their Doses see "Prescriptions" (par. 650).

590.  Seek Medical Advice

It should be clearly understood, that in all cases of disease, the advice of a skilful physician is of the first importance. It is not, therefore, intended by the following information to supersede the important and necessary practice of the medical man; but rather, by exhibiting the treatment required, to show in what degree his aid is imperative. In cases, however, where the disorder may be simple and transient, or in which remote residence, or other circumstances, may deny the privilege of medical attendance, the following particulars will be found of the utmost value. Moreover, the hints given upon what should be avoided will be of great service to the patient, since the physiological is no less important than the medical treatment of disease.

591.  Apoplexy

Immediate and large bleeding from the arm, cupping at the back of the neck, leeches to the temples, aperients Nos. 1 and 7, one or two drops of croton oil rubbed or dropped on the tongue. Avoid excesses, intemperance, animal food.

592.  Bile, Bilious, or Liver Complaints

Abstinence from malt liquors, cool homœopathic cocoa for drink, no tea or coffee, few vegetables, no broths or soups; lean juicy meat not over-cooked for dinner, with stale bread occasionally and a slice of toasted bacon for breakfast. Nos. 44 and 45.

593.  Chicken Pox

Mild aperients, No. 4, succeeded by No. 7, and No. 8, if much fever accompany the eruption.

594.  Chilblains

Warm, dry woollen clothing to exposed parts in cold weather, as a preventive. In the first stage, friction with No. 48, used cold. When ulcers form they should be poulticed with bread and water for a day or two, and then dressed with calamine cerate. Or, chilblains in every stage, whether of simple inflammation or open ulcer, may always he successfully treated by Goulard's extract, used pure or applied on lint twice a day.

595.  Common Continued Fever

Aperients in the commencement, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then diaphoretics, No. 8, and afterwards tonics, No. 13, in the stage of weakness. Avoid all excesses.

596.  Common Cough

The linctus, No. 42 or No. 43, abstinence from malt liquor, and protection from cold damp air. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

597.  Constipation

The observance of a regular period of evacuating the bowels, which is most proper in the morning after breakfast. The use of mild aperients, No. 47, and brown bread instead of white. There should be an entire change in the dietary for a few days while taking opening medicine.

598.  Consumption

The disease may be complicated with various morbid conditions of the lungs and heart, which require appropriate treatment. To allay the cough, No. 42 is an admirable remedy. Avoid cold, damp, excitement, and over exertion.

599.  Convulsions (Children)

If during teething, free lancing of the gums, the warm bath, cold applications to the head, leeches to the temples, an emetic, and a laxative clyster, No. 20.

600.  Croup

Leeches to the throat, with hot fomentations as long as the attack lasts; the emetic, No. 16, afterwards the aperient, No. 5. Avoid cold and damp.

Despise School and Remain a Fool.

601.  Dropsy

Evacuate the water by means of No. 10, and by rubbing camphorated oil into the body night and morning.

602.  Epilepsy

If accompanied or produced by fulness of the vessels of the head, leeches to the temples, blisters, and No. 1 and No. 7. If from debility or confirmed epilepsy, the mixture, No. 18. Avoid drinking and excitement.

603.  Eruptions on the Face

The powder, No. 30, internally, sponging the face with the lotion, No. 31. Avoid excesses in diet.

604.  Erysipelas

Aperients, if the patient be strong, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then tonics, No. 27. No. 27 may be used from the commencement for weak subjects.

605.  Faintness

Effusion of cold water on the face, stimulants to the nostrils, pure air, and the recumbent position; afterwards, avoidance of the exciting cause. Avoid excitement.

606.  Frost-Bite and Frozen Limbs

No heating or stimulating liquors must be given. Rub the parts affected with ice, cold, or snow water, and lay the patient on a cold bed.

607.  Gout

The aperients No. 1, followed by No. 24, bathing the parts with gin-and-water; for drink, weak tea or coffee. Warmth by flannels. Abstain from wines, spirits, and animal food.

608.  Gravel

No. 5, followed by No. 7, the free use of magnesia as an aperient. The pill No. 22. Abstain from fermented drinks and hard water. Another form of gravel must be treated by mineral acids, given three times a day.

609.  Whooping Cough

Whooping cough may be complicated with congestion or inflammation of the lungs, or convulsions, and then becomes a serious disease. If uncomplicated, No. 43.

610.  Hysterics

The fit may be prevented by the administration of thirty drops of laudanum, and as many of ether. When it has taken place open the windows, loosen the tight parts of the dress, sprinkle cold water on the face, &c. A glass of wine or cold water when the patient can swallow. Avoid excitement and tight lacing.

611.  Indigestion

The pills No. 2, with the mixture No. 18, at the same time abstinence from veal, pork, mackerel, salmon, pastry, and beer; for drink, homœopathic cocoa, a glass of cold spring water the first thing every morning. Avoid excesses.

612.  Inflammation of the Bladder

Bleeding, aperients No. 5 and No. 7, the warm bath, afterwards opium; the pill No. 11, three times a day till relieved. Avoid fermented liquors, &c.

613.  Inflammation of the Bowels

Leeches, blisters, fomentations, hot baths, iced drinks, the pills No. 19; move the bowels with clysters, if necessary, No. 20. Avoid cold, indigestible food, &c.

614.  Inflammation of the Brain

Application of cold to the head, bleeding from the temples or back of the neck by leeches or cupping; aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7; mercury to salivation, No. 15. Avoid excitement, study, intemperance.

615.  Inflammation of the Kidneys

Bleeding from the arm, leeches over the seat of pain, aperients No. 5, followed by No. 49, the warm bath. Avoid violent exercise, rich living.

616.  Inflammation of the Liver

Leeches over the right side, the seat of pain, blisters, aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7, afterwards the pills No. 19, till the gums are slightly tender. Avoid cold, damp, intemperance, and anxiety.

617.  Inflammation of the Lungs

Bleeding from the arm or over the painful part of the chest by leeches, succeeded by a blister; the demulcent mixture, No. 14, to allay the cough, with the powders No. 15. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

618.  Inflammation of the Stomach

Leeches to the pit of the stomach, followed by fomentations, cold iced water for drink, bowels to be evacuated by clysters; abstinence from all food except cold gruel, milk and water, or tea. Avoid excesses, and condiments.

619.  Inflammatory Sore Throat

Leeches and blisters externally, aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7, gargle to clear the throat, No. 17. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

620.  Inflamed Eyes

The bowels to be regulated by No. 5, a small blister behind the ear or on the nape of the neck—the eye to be bathed with No. 35.

621.  Influenza

No 4 as an aperient and diaphoretic. No. 14 to allay fever and cough. No. 27 as a tonic, when weakness only remains. Avoid cold and damp, use clothing suited to the change of temperature.

622.  Intermittent Fever, or Ague

Take No. 13 during the intermission of the paroxysm of the fever; keeping the bowels free with a wine-glass of No. 7. Avoid bad air, stagnant pools, &c.

623.  Itch

The ointment of No. 28, or lotion No. 29.

624.  Jaundice

The pills No. 1, afterwards the mixture No. 7, drinking freely of dandelion tea.

625.  Looseness of the Bowels (English Cholera)

One pill No. 19, repeated if necessary; afterwards the mixture No. 21. Avoid unripe fruits, acid drinks, ginger beer; wrap flannel around the abdomen.

626.  Measles

A well-ventilated room, aperients No. 4, with No. 14 to allay the cough and fever.

627.  Menstruation (Excessive)

No. 40 during the attack, with rest in the recumbent position; in the intervals, No. 39.

628.  Menstruation (Scanty)

In strong patients, cupping the loins, exercise in the open air, No. 40, the feet in warm water before the expected period, the pills No. 38; in weak subjects, No. 39. Gentle and regular exercise. Avoid hot rooms, and too much sleep. In cases of this description it is desirable to apply to a medical man for advice. It may be useful to many to point out that pennyroyal tea is a simple and useful medicine for inducing the desired result.

629.  Menstruation (Painful)

No. 41 during the attack; in the intervals, No. 38 twice a week, with No. 39. Avoid cold, mental excitement, &c.

630.  Mumps

Fomentation with a decoction of camomiles and poppy heads; No. 4 as an aperient, and No. 9 during the stage of fever. Avoid cold and attend to the regularity of the bowels.

631.  Nervousness

Cheerful society, early rising, exercise in the open air, particularly on horseback, and No. 12. Avoid excitement, study, and late meals.

632.  Palpitation of the Heart

The pills No 2, with, the mixture No. 12.

633.  Piles

The paste No. 34, at the same time a regulated diet. When the piles are external, or can be reached, one or two applications of Goulard's extract, with an occasional dose of lenitive electuary, will generally succeed in curing them.

634.  Quinsey

A blister applied all round the throat: an emetic, No. 16, commonly succeeds in breaking the abscess; afterwards the gargle No. 17. Avoid cold and damp.

635.  Rheumatism

Bathe the affected parts with No. 23, and take internally No. 24, with No. 25 at bedtime, to ease pain, &c. Avoid damp and cold, wear flannel.

636.  Rickets

The powder No. 33, a dry, pure atmosphere, a nourishing diet.

637.  Ringworm

The lotion No. 32, with the occasional use of the powder No. 5. Fresh air and cleanliness.

638.  Scarlet Fever

Well-ventilated room, sponging the body when hot with cold or tepid vinegar, or spirit and water; aperients, No 4; diaphoretics No. 8. If dropsy succeed the disappearance of the eruption, frequent purging with No. 5, succeeded by No. 7.

639.  Scrofula

Pure air, light but warm clothing, diet of fresh animal food; bowels to be regulated by No. 6 and No. 26, taken regularly for a considerable time.

640.  Scurvy

Fresh animal and vegetable food, and the free use of ripe fruits and lemon juice. Avoid cold and damp.

641.  Small Pox

A well-ventilated apartment, mild aperients; if fever be present, No. 7, succeeded by diaphoretics No. 8, and tonics No. 13 in the stage of debility, or decline of the eruption.

642.  St. Vitus's Dance

The occasional use, in the commencement, of No. 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards No. 46.

643.  Thrush

One of the powders No. 6 every other night; in the intervals a dessertspoonful of the mixture No. 18 three times a day; white spots to be dressed with the honey of borax.

644.  Tic Doloreux

Regulate the bowels with No. 3, and take in the intervals of pain, No. 27. Avoid cold, damp, and mental anxiety.

645.  Toothache

Continue the use of No. 3 for a few alternate days. Apply liquor ammoniæ to reduce the pain, and when that is accomplished, fill the decayed spots with silver succedaneum without delay, or the pain will return. A drop of creosote, or a few drops of chloroform on cotton, applied to the tooth, or a few grains of camphor placed in the decayed opening, or camphor moistened with turpentine, will often afford instant relief.

646.  Typhus Fever

Sponging the body with cold or tepid water, a well-ventilated apartment, cold applications to the head and temples. Aperients No. 4, with refrigerants No. 9, tonics No. 13 in the stage of debility.

647.  Water on the Brain

Local bleeding by means of leeches, blisters, aperients No. 5, and mercurial medicines, No. 15.

648.  Whites

The mixture No. 36, with the injection No. 37. Clothing light but warm, moderate exercise in the open air, country residence.

649.  Worms in the Intestines

The aperient No. 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards the free use of lime water and milk in equal parts, a pint daily. Avoid unwholesome food.

650.  Prescriptions

To be used in the Cases enumerated under the head "Diseases" (page 112).

651.  List of Prescriptions

The following prescriptions, originally derived from various prescribers' Pharmacopœias, embody the favourite remedies employed by the most eminent physicians:

652.  Medicines, Aperient

  1. Take of powdered aloes, nine grains; extract of colocynth, compound, eighteen grains; calomel, nine grains; tartrate of antimony, two grains; mucilage, sufficient to make a mass, which is to be divided into six pills; two to be taken every twenty-four hours, till they act thoroughly on the bowels: in cases of inflammation, apoplexy, &c.

  1. Powdered rhubarb, Socotrine aloes, and gum mastic, each one scruple; make into twelve pills: one before and one after dinner.

  1. Compound extract of colocynth, extract of jalap, and Castile soap, of each one scruple; make into twelve pills.

  1. James's powder, five grains; calomel, three grains: in fevers, for adults. For children, the following:—Powdered camphor, one scruple; calomel and powdered scammony, of each nine grains; James's powder, six grains; mix, and divide into six powders. Half of one powder twice a day for an infant a year old; a whole powder for two years: and for four years, the same three times a day.

  1. James's powder, six grains; powdered jalap, ten grains; mix, and divide into three or four powders, according to the child's age: in one powder if for an adult.

  1. Powdered rhubarb, four grains; mercury and chalk, three grains; ginger in powder, one grain: an alterative aperient for children.

  1. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of soda, three drachms; infusion of senna, seven ounces; tincture of jalap, and compound tincture of cardamoms, each half an ounce: in acute diseases generally; take two tablespoonfuls every four hours till it operates freely.

  1. Nitrate of potass, one drachm and a half; spirits of nitric ether, half an ounce; camphor mixture, and the spirit of mindererus, each four ounces: in fevers, &c.; two tablespoonfuls, three times a day, and for children a dessertspoonful every four hours.

  1. Spirit of nitric ether, three drachms; dilute nitric acid, two drachms; syrup, three drachms; camphor mixture, seven ounces; in fevers, &c., with debility; dose as in preceding prescription.

  1. Decoction of broom, half a pint; cream of tartar, one ounce, tincture of squills, two drachms: in dropsies; a third part three times a day.

  1. Pills of soap and opium, five grains for a dose, as directed.

  1. Ammoniated tincture of valerian, six drachms; camphor mixture, seven ounces; a fourth part three times a day; in spasmodic and hysterical disorders.

  1. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid, twenty drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two tablespoonfuls every four hours, in intermittent and other fevers, during the absence of the paroxysm.

  1. Almond mixture seven ounces and a half; wine of antimony and ipecacuanha, of each one drachm and a half: a tablespoonful every four hours; in cough with fever, &c.

  1. Calomel, one grain; powdered white sugar, two grains; to make a powder to be placed on the tongue every two or three hours. Should the calomel act on the bowels, powdered kino is to be substituted for the sugar.

  1. Antimony and ipecacuanha wines, of each an ounce; a teaspoonful every ten minutes for a child till vomiting is produced; but for an adult a large tablespoonful should be taken.

  1. Compound infusion of roses, seven ounces; tincture of myrrh, one ounce.

  1. Infusion of orange peel, seven ounces; tincture of hops, half an ounce; and a drachm of carbonate of soda: two tablespoonfuls twice a day. Or, infusion of valerian, seven ounces; carbonate of ammonia, two scruples; compound tincture of bark, six drachms; spirits of ether, two drachms: one tablespoonful every twenty-four hours.

  1. Blue pill, four grains; opium, half a grain: to be taken three times a day.

  1. For a Clyster.—A pint and a half of gruel or fat broth, a tablespoonful of castor oil, one of common salt, and a lump of butter; mix, to be injected slowly. A third of this quantity is enough for an infant.

  1. Chalk mixture, seven ounces; aromatic and opiate confection, of each one drachm; tincture of catechu, six drachms: two tablespoonfuls every two hours.

  1. Carbonate of soda, powdered rhubarb, and Castile soap, each one drachm; make thirty-six pills; three twice a day.

  1. Lotion.—Common salt, one ounce, distilled water, seven ounces; spirit of wine, one ounce: mix.

  1. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; heavy carbonate of magnesia, two drachms; wine of colchicum, two drachms; water, eight ounces: take two tablespoonfuls every four hours.

  1. Compound powder of ipecacuanha, ten grains; powdered guaiacum, four grains: in a powder at bedtime.

  1. Brandish's solution of potash; thirty drops twice a day in a wineglass of beer.

  1. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid, ten drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two tablespoonfuls every four hours, and as a tonic in the stage of weakness succeeding fever.

  1. Flowers of sulphur, two ounces; hog's lard, four ounces; white hellebore powder, half an ounce: oil of lavender, sixty drops.

  1. Hydriodate of potass, two drachms; distilled water, eight ounces.

  1. Flowers of sulphur, half a drachm; carbonate of soda, a scruple; tartarized antimony, one-eighth of a grain: one powder, night and morning, in eruptions of the skin or face.

  1. Milk of bitter almonds, seven ounces; bichloride of mercury, four grains; spirits of rosemary, one ounce: bathe the eruption with this lotion three times a day.

  1. Sulphate of zinc, two scruples; sugar of lead, fifteen grains; distilled water, six ounces: the parts to be washed with the lotion two or three times a day.

  1. Carbonate of iron, six grains; powdered rhubarb, four grains: one powder night and morning.

  1. Elecampane powder, two ounces; sweet fennel-seed powder, three ounces; black pepper powder, one ounce; purified honey, and brown sugar, of each two ounces; the size of a nutmeg, two or three times a day.

  1. Sulphate of zinc, twelve grains; wine of opium, one drachm; rose water, six ounces.

  1. Sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of iron, ten grains; diluted sulphuric acid, forty drops; tincture of cardamoms (compound), half an ounce; water, seven ounces: a fourth part night and morning.

  1. Decoction of oak bark, a pint; dried alum, half an ounce: for an injection, a syringeful to be used night and morning.

  1. Compound gamboge pill, and a pill of assafœtida and aloes, of each half a drachm: make twelve pills; two twice or three times a week.

  1. Griffiths' mixture—one tablespoonful three times a day.

  1. Ergot of rye, five grains; in a powder, to be taken every four hours. This should only be taken under medical advice and sanction.

  1. Powdered opium, half a grain; camphor, two grains in a pill; to be taken every three or four hours whilst in pain.

  1. Syrup of balsam of tolu, two ounces; the muriate of morphia, two grains; muriatic acid, twenty drops: a teaspoonful twice a day.

  1. Salts of tartar, two scruples, twenty grains of powdered cochineal; 1/4 lb. of honey; water, half a pint; boil, and give a tablespoonful three times a day.

  1. Calomel, ten grains; Castile soap, extract of jalap, extract of colocynth, of each one scruple; oil of juniper, five drops: make into fifteen pills; one three times a day.

  1. Infusion of orange peel, eight ounces; carbonate of soda, one drachm; and compound tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce: take a tablespoonful three times a day, succeeding the pills.

  1. Carbonate of iron, three ounces; syrup of ginger, sufficient to make an electuary: a teaspoonful three times a day.

  1. Take of Castile soap, compound extract of colocynth, compound rhubarb pill, and the extract of jalap, each one scruple; oil of caraway, ten drops; make into twenty pills, and take one after dinner every day whilst necessary.

  1. Spirit of rosemary, five parts; spirit of wine, or spirit of turpentine, one part.

  1. Take of thick mucilage, one ounce; castor oil, twelve drachms; make into an emulsion: add mint water, four ounces; spirit of nitre, three drachms; laudanum, one drachm; mixture of squills, one drachm; and syrup, seven drachms; mix; two tablespoonfuls every six hours.

652.  Medicines (Aperient)

In the spring time of the year, the judicious use of aperient medicines is much to be commended.

653.  Spring Aperients

For children, an excellent medicine is

  1. Brimstone and treacle, prepared by mixing an ounce and a half of sulphur, and half an ounce of cream of tartar, with eight ounces of treacle; and, according to the age of the child, giving from a small teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful, early in the morning, two or three times a week.

As this sometimes produces sickness, the following may be used:

  1. Take of powdered Rochelle salts one drachm and a half, powdered jalap and powdered rhubarb each fifteen grains, ginger two grains, mix. Dose, for a child above five years, one small teaspoonful; above ten years, a large teaspoonful; above fifteen, half the whole, or two teaspoonfuls: and for a person above twenty, three teaspoonfuls, or the whole, as may be required by the habit of the person.

This medicine may be dissolved in warm water, mint, or common tea. The powder can be kept for use in a wide-mouthed bottle, and be in readiness for any emergency. The druggist may be directed to treble or quadruple the quantities, as convenient.

654.  Aperient Pills.

To some adults all liquid medicines produce such nausea that pills are the only form in which aperients can be exhibited; the following is a useful formula:

  1. Take of compound rhubarb pill a drachm and one scruple, of powdered ipecacuanha ten grains, and of extract of hyoscyamus one scruple; mix, and beat into a mass, and divide into twenty-four pills; take one or two, or if of a very costive habit, three at bedtime.

  1. For persons requiring a more powerful aperient, the same formula, with twenty grains of compound extract of colocynth, will form a good purgative pill. The mass receiving this addition must be divided into thirty, instead of twenty-four pills.

655.  Black Draught

The common aperient medicine known as black draught is made in the following manner:

  1. Take of senna leaves six drachms, bruised ginger half a drachm, sliced liquorice root four drachms, Epsom salts two and a half ounces, boiling water half an imperial pint. Keep this standing on the hob or near the fire for three hours, then strain, and after allowing it to grow cool, add of sal volatile one drachm and a half, of tincture of senna, and of tincture of cardamoms, each half an ounce. This mixture will keep a long time in a cool place. Dose, a wineglassful for an adult; and two tablespoonfuls for young persons about fifteen years of age. It is not a suitable medicine for children.

656.  Tonic Aperient

The following will be found a useful medicine for persons of all ages.

  1. Take of Epsom salts one ounce, diluted sulphuric acid one drachm, infusion of quassia chips half an imperial pint, compound tincture of rhubarb two drachms. Dose, half a wineglassful twice a day.

657.  Infants' Aperient

The following may be used with safety for young children.

  1. Take of rhubarb five grains, magnesia three grains, white sugar a scruple, grey powder five grains; mix. Dose, for an infant from twelve to eighteen months of age, from one-third to one-half of the whole.

  1. A useful laxative for children is composed of calomel five grains, and sugar a scruple, made into five powders. Dose, half of one of these for a child from birth to one year, and a whole one from that age to three years.

658.  Flour of Brimstone

Flour of brimstone is a mild aperient in doses of about a quarter of an ounce; it is best taken in milk. Flour of brimstone, which is also called sublimed sulphur, is generally put up in ounce packets at 7d.; its wholesale price is 4d. per pound.

A Spark may Raise an Awful Blaze.

659.  Medicines

Preparations of them.—The following directions are of the utmost value in connection with the Domestic Pharmacopœia, Diseases, Prescriptions, and Poisons.

They will be found most important to emigrants, attendants upon the sick, and persons who reside out of the reach of medical aid, sailors, &c., &c. They contain instructions not only for the compounding of medicines, but most useful hints and cautions upon the application of leeches, blisters, poultices, &c.

660.  Articles Required for Mixing Medicines

661.  Medicine Weights and Measures.—Weights

When you open your box containing the scales and weights, you will observe that there are several square pieces of brass, of different sizes and thicknesses, and stamped with a variety of characters. These are the weights, which may now be explained.

662.  Troy Weight

Medicines are made up by troy weight, although drugs are bought by avoirdupois weight. There are twelve ounces to the pound troy, which is marked lb.; the ounce, which contains eight drachms, is marked ounce i; the drachm, containing three scruples, is marked drachm i; and the scruple of twenty grains is marked scruple i. The grain weights are marked by little circles, thus:
five grains
Each of the grain weights, in addition to the circles denoting their several weights, bears also the stamp of a crown. Care must be taken not to mistake this for one of the numerals. Besides these weights there are others marked scruple ss, which means half a scruple; drachm ss, meaning half a drachm; and ounce ss, meaning half an ounce. When there are ounces, drachms, or scruples, the number of them is shown by Roman figures, thus:—i. ii. iii. iv. v., &c., and prescriptions are written in this style.

663.   Measures—Liquid

Liquid medicines are always measured by the following table:

60 minims are contained in 1 fluid drachm
8 fluid drachms are contained in 1 fluid ounce
20 fluid ounces are contained in a pint
8 pints are contained in 1 gallon

And the signs which distinguish each are as follows:

c a gallon
o a pint
fl. ounce a fluid ounce
fl. drachm a fluid drachm
m a minim, or drop

Formerly drops used to be ordered, but as the size of a drop must necessarily vary, minims are always directed to be employed now for any particular medicine, although for such medicines as oil of cloves, essence of ginger, &c., drops are frequently ordered.

664.  Specific Measuring Vessels

In order that medicines may be measured accurately, there are graduated glass vessels for measuring ounces, drachms, and minims.

665.  Approximate Measures

When proper measures are not at hand, it is necessary to adopt some other method of determining the quantities required, and therefore the following table has been drawn up for that purpose:

A tumbler usually contains about 10 ounces
A cup usually contains about 6 ounces
A wineglass usually contains about 2 ounces
A tablespoon usually contains about 4 drachms
A dessertspoon usually contains about 2 drachms
A teaspoon usually contains about 1 drachm

These quantities refer to ordinary sized spoons and vessels. Some cups hold half as much more, and some tablespoons contain six drachms. A medicine glass, which is graduated so as to show the number of spoonfuls it contains, should be kept in every family.

To-day, Man Lives in Pleasure, Wealth and Pride.

666.  Process of Making Medicines

To powder substances.—Place the substance in the mortar, and strike it gently with direct perpendicular blows of the pestle, until it separates into several pieces, then remove all but a small portion, which bruise gently at first, and rub the pestle round and round the mortar, observing that the circles described by the pestle should gradually decrease in diameter, and then increase again, because by this means every part of the powder is subjected to the process of pulverization. In powdering substances, making emulsions, and whenever using a mortar, the pestle should always travel from the right to the left.

667.  Preparation and Assistance

Some substances require to be prepared in a particular manner before they can be powdered, or to be assisted by adding some other body. For example, camphor powders more easily when a few drops of spirits of wine are added to it; mace, nutmegs, and such oily aromatic substances are better for the addition of a little white sugar; resins and gum-resins should be powdered in a cold place, and if they are intended to be dissolved, a little fine well-washed white sand mixed with them assists the process of powdering. Tough roots, like gentian and calumba, should be cut into thin slices; and fibrous roots, like ginger, cut slanting, otherwise the powder will be full of small fibres. Vegetable matter, such as peppermint, loosestrife, senna, &c., requires to be dried before it is powdered.

668.  Care of the Mortar

Be careful not to pound too hard in glass, porcelain, or Wedgwood-ware mortar; they are intended only for substances that pulverize easily, and for the purpose of mixing or incorporating medicines. Never use acids in a marble mortar, and be sure that you do not powder galls or any other astringent substances in any but a brass mortar.

669.  Sifting

Sifting is frequently required for powdered substances, and this is usually done by employing a fine sieve, or tying the powder up in a piece of muslin, and striking it against the left hand over a piece of paper.

670.  Filtering

Filtering is frequently required for the purpose of obtaining clear fluids, such as infusions, eye-washes, and other medicines; and it is, therefore, highly important to know how to perform this simple operation. First of all take a square piece of white blotting paper, and double it over so as to form an angular cup. Open out this filter paper very carefully, and having placed it in a funnel, moisten it with a little water. Then place the funnel in the neck of the bottle, and pour the liquid gently down the side of the paper, otherwise the fluid is apt to burst the paper.

671.  Maceration

Maceration is another process that is frequently required to be performed in making up medicines, and consists simply in immersing the medicines in cold water or spirits for a certain time.

672.  Digestion

Digestion resembles maceration, except that the process is assisted by a gentle heat. The ingredients are placed in a flask, such as salad oil is sold in, which should be fitted with a plug of tow or wood, and have a piece of wire twisted round the neck. The flask is held by means of the wire over the flame of a spirit lamp, or else placed in some sand warmed in an old iron saucepan over the fire, care being taken not to place more of the flask below the sand than the portion occupied by the ingredients.

673.  Infusion

Infusion is one of the most frequent operations required in making up medicines, its object being to extract the aromatic and volatile principles of substances, that would be lost by decoction, or digestion; and to extract the soluble from the insoluble parts of bodies. Infusions may be made with cold water, in which case they are weaker, but more pleasant. The general method employed consists in slicing, bruising, or rasping the ingredients first, then placing them in a common jug (which should be as globular as possible), and pouring boiling water over them. Cover the jug with a cloth folded six or eight times, but if there be a lid to the jug so much the better. When the infusion has stood the time directed, hold a piece of very coarse linen over the spout, and pour the liquid through it into another jug.

To-morrow, Poor—or Life Itself Denied.

674.  Decoction

Decoction, or boiling, is employed to extract the mucilaginous or gummy parts of substances, their bitter, astringent, or other qualities, and is nothing more than boiling the ingredients in a saucepan with the lid slightly raised. Be sure never to use an iron saucepan for astringent decoctions, such as oak-bark, galls, &c., as they will turn the saucepan black, and spoil the decoction. The enamelled saucepans are very useful for decoctions, but an excellent plan is to put the ingredients into a jar and boil the jar, thus preparing it by a water bath, as it is technically termed; or by using a common pipkin, which answers still better. No decoction should be allowed to boil for more than ten minutes.

675.  Extracts

Extracts are made by evaporating the liquors obtained by infusion or decoction, but these can be bought much cheaper and better of chemists and druggists, and so can tinctures, confections, cerates and plasters, and syrups: but as every one is not always in the neighbourhood of druggists, we shall give recipes for those most generally useful, and the method of making them.

676.  Precautions to be Observed in Giving Medicines.

677.  Sex

Medicines for females should not be so strong as those for males, therefore it is advisable to reduce the doses about one-third.

678.  Temperament

Persons of a phlegmatic temperament bear stimulants and purgatives better than those of a sanguine temperament, therefore the latter require smaller doses.

679.  Habits

Purgatives never act so well upon persons accustomed to take them as upon those who are not, therefore it is better to change the form of purgative from pill to potion, powder to draught, or aromatic to saline. Purgatives should never be given when there is an irritable state of the bowels.

680.  Use of Alcohol

Stimulants and narcotics never act so quickly upon persons accustomed to use spirits freely as upon those who live abstemiously.

681.  Climate

The action of medicines is modified by climate and seasons. In summer, certain medicines act more powerfully than in winter, and the same person cannot bear the dose in July that he could in December.

682.  General Health

Persons whose general health is good bear stronger doses than the debilitated and those who have suffered for a long time.

683.  Idiosyncrasy

By this is meant a peculiar temperament or disposition not common to people generally. For example, some persons cannot take calomel in the smallest dose without being salivated, or rhubarb without having convulsions; others cannot take squills, opium, senna, &c.; and this peculiarity is called the patient's idiosyncrasy, therefore it is wrong to insist upon their taking these medicines.

684.  Forms best suited for Administration

Fluids act quicker than solids, and powders sooner than pills.

685.  Best Method of Preventing the Nauseous Taste of Medicines

Castor oil may be taken in milk, coffee, or spirit, such as brandy; but the best method of covering the nauseous flavour is to put a tablespoonful of strained orange juice in a wineglass, pour the castor oil into the centre of the juice, and then squeeze a few drops of lemon juice upon the top of the oil. The wineglass should first be dipped, rim downwards, into water, so that the interior may be wetted. Cod liver oil may be taken, like castor oil, in orange juice. Peppermint water neutralizes, to a great extent, the nauseous taste of Epsom salts; a strong solution of extract of liquorice, that of aloes; milk, that of cinchona bark; and cloves that of senna.

To-day, Lays Plans for Many Years to Come.

686.  An Excellent Way to Prevent the Taste of Medicines

An excellent way to prevent the taste of medicines is to have the medicine in a glass, as usual, and a tumbler of water by the side of it; take the medicine, and retain it in the mouth, which should be kept closed, and if drinking the water be then commenced, the taste of the medicine is washed away. Even the bitterness of quinine and aloes may be prevented by this means. If the nostrils are firmly compressed by the thumb and finger of the left hand, while taking a nauseous draught, and so retained till the mouth has been washed out with water, the disagreeable taste of the medicine will be almost imperceptible.

687.  Giving Medicines to Persons

Medicines should be given in such a manner that the effect of the first dose shall not have ceased when the next dose is given, therefore the intervals between the doses should be regulated accordingly.

688.  Doses of Medicine for Different Ages

It must be plain to every one that children do not require such powerful medicine as adults or old people, and therefore it is desirable to have some fixed method of determining or regulating the administration of doses of medicine. Now let it be supposed that the dose for a full-grown person is one drachm, then the following proportions will be suitable for the various ages given; keeping in view other circumstances, such as sex, temperament, habits, climate, state of general health, and idiosyncrasy.

Age Proportion Proportionate Dose
7 weeks one-fifteenth or grains 4
7 months one-twelfth or grains 5
under 2 years one-eighth or grains 7.5
under 3 years one-sixth or grains 10
under 4 years one-fourth or grains 15
under 7 years one-third or scruple 1
under 14 years one-half or drachm 1/2
under 20 years two-fifths or scruples 2
above 21 years the full dose
above 65 years the inverse gradation

689.  Drugs, with their Properties and Doses

The various drugs have been arranged according to their properties, and the doses of each have been given. Many, however, have been necessarily omitted from each class, because they cannot be employed except by a medical man. The doses are meant for adults.

690.  Classes of Drugs

Medicines have been divided into four grand classes

  1. General stimulants;
  2. Local stimulants;
  3. Chemical remedies;
  4. Mechanical remedies.

691.  General Stimulants

General stimulants are subdivided into two classes, diffusible and permanent stimulants: the first comprising narcotics and antispasmodics, and the second tonics and astringents.

692.  Narcotics

Narcotics are medicines which stupefy and diminish the activity of the nervous system. Given in small doses, they generally act as stimulants, but an increased dose produces a sedative effect. Under this head are included alcohol, camphor, ether, the hop, and opium.

693.  Alcohol

Alcohol, or rectified spirit, is a very powerful stimulant, and is never used as a remedy without being diluted to the degree called proof spirit; and even then it is seldom used internally. It is used externally in restraining bleeding, when there is not any vessel of importance wounded. It is also used as a lotion to burns, and is applied by dipping a piece of lint into the spirit, and laying it over the part. Freely diluted (one part to eighteen) with water, it forms a useful eye-wash in the last stage of ophthalmia.

Used internally, it acts as a very useful stimulant when diluted and taken moderately, increasing the general excitement, and giving energy to the muscular fibres; hence it becomes very useful in certain cases of debility, especially in habits disposed to create acidity; and in the low stage of typhus fevers.

Dose.—It is impossible to fix anything like a dose for this remedy, as much will depend upon the individual; but diluted with water and sweetened with sugar, from half an ounce to two ounces may be given three or four times a day. In cases of extreme debility, however, much will depend upon the disease.

Caution.—Remember that alcohol is an irritant poison, and that daily indulgence in its use originates dyspepsia, or indigestion, and many other serious complaints. Of all kinds of spirits the best as a tonic and stomachic is brandy.

To-morrow, Sinks into the Silent Tomb.

694.  Camphor

Camphor is not a very steady stimulant, as its effect is transitory; but in large doses it acts as a narcotic, abating pain and inducing sleep. In moderate doses it operates as a diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic, increasing the heat of the body, allaying irritation and spasm.

It is used externally as a liniment when dissolved in oil, alcohol, or acetic acid, being employed to allay rheumatic pains; and it is also useful as an embrocation in sprains, bruises, chilblains, and, when combined with opium, it has been advantageously employed in flatulent colic, and severe diarrhœa, being rubbed over the bowels.

When reduced to a fine powder, by the addition of a little spirit of wine and friction, it is very useful as a local stimulant to indolent ulcers, especially when they discharge a foul kind of matter; a pinch is taken between the finger and thumb, and sprinkled into the ulcer, which is then dressed as usual.

When dissolved in oil of turpentine, a few drops placed in a hollow tooth and covered with jeweller's wool, or scraped lint, give almost instant relief to toothache.

Used internally, it is apt to excite nausea, and even vomiting, especially when given in the solid form.

As a stimulant it is of great service in all low fevers, malignant measles, malignant sore throat, and confluent small-pox; and when combined with opium and bark, it is extremely useful in checking the progress of malignant ulcers, and gangrene.

As a narcotic it is very useful, because it allays pain and irritation, without increasing the pulse very much.

When powdered and sprinkled upon the surface of a blister, it prevents the cantharides acting in a peculiar and painful manner upon the bladder.

Combined with senna, it increases its purgative properties; and it is also used to correct the nausea produced by squills, and the irritating effects of drastic purgatives and mezereon.

Dose, from four grains to half a scruple, repeated at short intervals when used in small doses, and long intervals when employed in large doses.

Doses of the various preparations.—Camphor mixture, from half an ounce to three ounces; compound tincture of camphor (paregoric elixir), from fifteen minims to two drachms.

Caution.—When given in an overdose it acts as a poison, producing vomiting, giddiness, delirium, convulsions, and sometimes death. Opium is the best antidote for camphor, whether in excess or taken as a poison.

Mode of exhibition.—It may be rubbed up with almond emulsion, or mucilage, or the yolk of eggs, and by this means suspended in water, or combined with chloroform as a mixture, in which form it is a valuable stimulant in cholera and other diseases. (See Mixtures, 556-564).

695.  Ether

Ether is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and antispasmodic.

696.  Sulphuric Ether

Sulphuric Ether is used externally both as a stimulant and a refrigerant. In the former case its evaporation is prevented by covering a rag moistened with it with oiled silk, in order to relieve headache; and in the latter case it is allowed to evaporate, and thus produce coldness: hence it is applied over scalded surfaces by means of rags dipped in it.

As a local application, it has been found to afford almost instant relief in earache, when combined with almond oil, and dropped into the ear.

It is used internally as a stimulant and narcotic in low fevers and cases of great exhaustion.

Dose, from fifteen minims to half a drachm, repeated at short intervals, as its effects soon pass off. Give in a little camphor julep, or water.

697.  Nitric Ether

Nitric Ether is a refrigerant, diuretic, and antispasmodic, well known as "sweet spirit of nitre."

Used externally, its evaporation relieves headache, and it is sometimes applied to burns. It is used internally to relieve nausea, flatulence, and thirst in fevers; also as a diuretic.

Dose, from ten minims to one drachm. The smaller dose taken in a little warm water or gruel is useful as a sudorific in cases of cold and chill, to induce and promote the proper action of the skin which has been checked. If a larger dose be taken, it acts as a diuretic and not as a sudorific, and so fails to produce the desired effect.

To-day, His Food is Dressed in Dainty Forms.

698.  Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether

Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether is a very useful stimulant, narcotic, and antispasmodic.

Used internally in cases of great exhaustion, attended with irritability.

Dose, from half a drachm to two drachms, in camphor julep. When combined with laudanum, it prevents the nauseating effects of the opium, and acts more beneficially as a narcotic.

699.  The Hop

The Hop is a narcotic, tonic, and diuretic; it reduces the frequency of the pulse, and does not affect the head, like most anodynes.

Used externally, it acts as an anodyne and discutient, and is useful as a fomentation for painful tumours, rheumatic pains in the joints, and severe contusions. A pillow stuffed with hops acts as a narcotic. When the powder is mixed with lard, it acts as an anodyne dressing in painful ulcers.

Dose, of the extract, from five grains to one scruple; of the tincture, from half a drachm to two drachms; of the powder, from three! grains to one scruple; of the infusion, half an ounce to one and a half ounce.

700.  Opium

Opium is a stimulant, narcotic, and anodyne.

Used externally it acts almost as well as when taken into the stomach, and without affecting the head or causing nausea. Applied to irritable ulcers in the form of tincture, it promotes their cure, and allays pain. Cloths dipped in a strong solution, and applied over painful bruises, tumours, or inflamed joints, allay pain. A small piece of solid opium stuffed into a hollow tooth relieves toothache. A weak solution of opium forms a valuable collyrium in ophthalmia. Two drops of the wine of opium dropped into the eye acts as an excellent stimulant in bloodshot eye; or after long-continued inflammation, it is useful in strengthening the eye. Applied as a liniment, in combination with ammonia and oil, or with camphorated spirit, it relieves muscular pain. When combined with oil of turpentine, it is useful as a liniment in spasmodic colic.

Used internally, it acts as a very powerful stimulant: then as a sedative, and finally as an anodyne and narcotic, allaying pain in the most extraordinary manner, by acting directly upon the nervous system. In acute rheumatism it is a most excellent medicine when combined with calomel and tartrate of antimony; but its exhibition requires the judicious care of a medical man.

Doses of the various preparations.—. Confection of opium, from five grains to half a drachm; extract of opium, from one to five grains (this is a valuable form, as it does not produce so much after derangement of the nervous system as solid opium); pills of soap and opium, from five to ten grains; compound ipecacuanha powder ("Dover's Powder"), from ten to fifteen grains; compound kino powder, from five to fifteen grains; wine of opium, from ten minims to one drachm.

Caution.—Opium is a powerful poison when taken in too large a quantity (See Poisons, pars. 1340-1367), and thus should be used with extreme caution. It is on this account that we have omitted some of its preparations. The best antidote for opium is camphor.

701.  Antispasmodics

Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming the spasms of the muscles, or allaying any severe pain which is not attended by inflammation. The class includes a great many, but the most safe and serviceable are ammonia, assafœtida, galbanum, valerian, bark, ether, camphor, opium, and chloroform; with the minerals, oxide of zinc and calomel.

702.  Ammonia

Ammonia, or Sal Volatile, is an antispasmodic antacid, stimulant and diaphoretic.

Used externally, combined with oil, it forms a cheap and useful liniment, but it should be dissolved in proof spirit before the oil is added. One part of this salt, and three parts of extract of belladonna, mixed and spread upon leather, makes an excellent plaster for relieving rheumatic pains. As a local stimulant it is well known, as regards its effects in hysterics, faintness, and lassitude, when applied to the nose, as common smelling salts.

It is used internally as an adjunct to infusion of gentian in dyspepsia or indigestion, and in moderate doses in gout.

Dose, from five to fifteen grains.

Caution.—Overdoses act as a narcotic and irritant poison.

To-morrow, is Himself a Feast for Worms.

703.  Bicarbonate of Ammonia

Bicarbonate of Ammonia is used internally the same as sal volatile.

Dose, from six to twelve grains. It is frequently combined with Epsom salts.

704.  Solution of Sesquicarbonate of Ammonia

Solution of Sesquicarbonate of Ammonia, used the same as sal volatile.

Dose, from half a drachm to one drachm, combined with some milky fluid, like almond emulsion.

705.  Asafœtida

Asafœtida is an antispasmodic, expectorant, excitant, and anthelmintic.

Used internally, it is extremely useful in dyspepsia, flatulent colic, hysteria, and nervous diseases; and where there are no inflammatory symptoms, it is an excellent remedy in hooping cough and asthma.

Used locally as an enema, it is useful in flatulent colic, and convulsions that come on through teething.

Doses of various preparations.—Solid gum, from five to ten grains as pills; mixture, from half an ounce to one ounce; tincture, from fifteen minims to one drachm; ammoniated tincture, from twenty minims to one drachm.

Caution. —Never give this drug when inflammation exists.

706.  Galbanum

Galbanum is stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, and deobstruent.

Used externally, it assists in dispelling tumours when spread upon indolent leather as a plaster, and is useful in weakness of the legs from rickets, being applied as a plaster to the loins.

Employed internally, it is useful in chronic or old-standing rheumatism and hysteria.

Doses of preparations.—Of the gum, from ten to fifteen grains as pills; tincture, from fifteen minims to one drachm. It may be made into an emulsion with mucilage and water.

707.  Valerian

Valerian is a powerful antispasmodic, tonic, and excitant, acting chiefly on the nervous centres.

Used internally, it is employed in hysteria, nervous languors, and spasmodic complaints generally. It is useful in low fevers.

Doses of various preparations. —Powder, from ten grains to half a drachm, three or four times a day; tincture, from two to four drachms; ammoniated tincture, from one to two drachms; infusion, from two to three ounces, or more.

708.  Peruvian Bark

Bark, or, as it is commonly called, Peruvian bark, is an antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, and stomachic.

Used externally, it is an excellent detergent for foul ulcers, and those that heal slowly.

Used internally, it is particularly valuable in intermittent fever or ague, malignant measles, dysentery, diarrhœa, intermittent rheumatism, St. Vitus's dance, indigestion, nervous affections, malignant sore throat, and erysipelas; its use being indicated in all cases of debility.

Doses of its preparations.—Powder, from five grains to two drachms, mixed in wine, water, milk, syrup, or solution of liquorice; infusion, from one to three ounces; decoction, from one to three ounces; tincture and compound tincture, each from one to three drachms.

Caution.—If it causes oppression at the stomach, combine it with an aromatic; if it causes vomiting, give it in wine or soda water; if it purges, give opium; and if it constipates give rhubarb.

709.  Sulphuric Ether

Sulphuric Ether is given internally as an antispasmodic in difficult breathing and spasmodic asthma; also in hysteria, cramp of the stomach, hiccough, locked jaw, and cholera. It is useful in checking sea-sickness.

Dose, from twenty minims to one drachm.

Caution.—An overdose produces apoplectic symptoms.

To-day He's Clad in Gaudy, Rich Array

710.  Camphor (2)

Camphor is given internally as an antispasmodic in hysteria, cramp in the stomach, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.

Dose, from two to twenty grains.

711.  Opium (2)

Opium is employed internally in spasmodic affections, such as cholera, spasmodic asthma, whooping cough, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.

Dose, from one-sixth of a grain to two grains of the solid opium, according to the disease.

712.  Oxide of Zinc

Oxide of Zinc is an antispasmodic, astringent, and tonic.

Used externally, as an ointment, it forms an excellent astringent in affections of the eyelids, arising from relaxation; or as a powder, it is an excellent detergent for unhealthy ulcers.

Used internally, it has proved efficacious in St. Vitus's dance, and some other spasmodic affections.

Dose, from one to six grains twice a day.

713.  Calomel

Calomel is an antispasmodic, alterative deobstruent, purgative, and errhine.

Used internally, combined with opium, it acts as an antispasmodic in locked jaw, cholera, and many other spasmodic affections. As an alterative and deobstruent, it has been found useful in leprosy and itch, when combined with antimonials and guaiacum, and in enlargement of the liver and glandular affections. It acts beneficially in dropsies, by producing watery motions. In typhus it is of great benefit when combined with antimonials; and it may be given as a purgative in almost any disease, provided there is not any inflammation of the bowels, irritability of the system, or great debility.

Dose, as a deobstruent and alterative, from one to five grains, daily; as a cathartic, from five to fifteen grains; to produce ptyalism, or salivation, from one to two grains, in a pill, with a quarter of a grain of opium, night and morning.

Caution.—When taking calomel, exposure to cold or dampness should be guarded against, as such an imprudence would bring out an eruption of the skin, attended with fever. When this does occur, leave off the calomel, and give bark, wine, and purgatives; take a warm bath twice a day, and powder the surface of the body with powdered starch.

714.  Tonics

Tonics are given to improve the tone of the system, and restore the natural energies and general strength of the body. They consist of bark, quassia, gentian, camomile, wormwood, and angostura bark.

715.  Quassia

Quassia is a simple tonic, and can be used with safety by any one, as it does not increase the animal heat, or quicken the circulation.

Used internally, in the form of infusion, it has been found of great benefit in indigestion and nervous irritability, and is useful after bilious fevers and diarrhœa.

Dose, of the infusion, from one and a half to two ounces, three times a day.

716.  Gentian

Gentian is an excellent tonic and stomachic; but when given in large doses, it acts as an aperient.

It is used internally in all cases of general debility, and when combined with bark is used in intermittent fevers. It has also been employed in indigestion, and it is sometimes used, combined with sal volatile, in that disease; but, at other times alone, in the form of infusion. After diarrhœa, it proves a useful tonic. Its infusion is sometimes applied externally to foul ulcers.

Dose, of the infusion, one and a half to two ounces; of the tincture, one to four drachms; of the extract, from ten to thirty grains.

717.  Camomile

The flowers of the camomile are tonic, slightly anodyne, antispasmodic, and emetic.

They are used externally as fomentations, in colic, faceache, and tumours, and to unhealthy ulcers.

They are used internally in the form of infusion, with carbonate of soda, ginger, and other stomachic remedies, in dyspepsia, flatulent colic, debility following dysentery and gout. Warm infusion of the flowers acts as an emetic; and the powdered flowers are sometimes combined with opium or kino, and given in intermittent fevers.

Dose, of the powdered flowers, from ten grains to one drachm, twice or thrice a day; of the infusion, from one to two ounces, as a tonic, three times a day: and from six ounces to one pint as an emetic; of the extract, from five to twenty grains.

To-morrow, Shrouded for a Bed of Clay.

718.  Wormwood

Wormwood is a tonic and anthelmintic.

It is used externally as a discutient and antiseptic.

It is used internally in long-standing cases of dyspepsia, in the form of infusion, with or without aromatics. It has also been used in intermittents.

Dose, of the infusion, from one to two ounces, three times a day; of the powder, from one to two scruples.

719.  Angostura Bark

Angostura Bark, or Cusparia, is a tonic and stimulant. It expels flatulence, increases the appetite, and produces a grateful warmth in the stomach.

It is used internally in intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, hysteria, and all cases of debility, where a stimulating tonic is desirable, particularly after bilious diarrhœa.

Dose, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains, combined with cinnamon powder, magnesia, or rhubarb; of the extract, from three to ten grains; of the infusion, from one to two ounces.

Caution. —This drug should never be given in inflammatory diseases or hectic fever.

720.  Astringents

Astringents are medicines given for the purpose of diminishing excessive discharges, and to act indirectly as tonics. This class includes catechu, kino, oak bark, log wood, rose leaves, chalk, and white vitriol.

721.  Catechu

Catechu is a most valuable astringent.

It is used externally, when powdered, to promote the contraction of flabby ulcers. As a local astringent it is useful in relaxed uvula, a small piece being dissolved in the mouth; small, spotty ulcerations of the mouth and throat, and bleeding gums, and for these two affections it is used in the form of infusion to wash the parts.

It is given internally in diarrhœa, dysentery, and hemorrhage from the bowels.

Dose, of the infusion, from one to three ounces; of the tincture, from one to four drachms; of the powder, from ten to thirty grains.

Caution.—It must not be given with soda or any alkali; nor metallic salts, albumen, or gelatine, as its property is destroyed by this combination.

722.  Kino

Kino is a powerful astringent.

It is used externally to ulcers, to give tone to them when flabby, and discharging foul and thin matter.

It is used internally in the same diseases as catechu.

Dose, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains; of the tincture, from one to two drachms; of the compound powder, from ten to twenty grains; of the infusion, from a half to one and a half ounce.

Caution.—Kino is used in combination with calomel, when salivation is intended, to prevent, by its astringency, the action of the calomel on the bowels, and thereby insure its affecting the constitution.— (See Catechu).

723.  Oak Bark

Oak Bark is an astringent and tonic.

It is used externally in the form of decoction, to restrain bleeding from lacerated surfaces. As a local astringent, it is used in the form of decoction, as a gargle in sore throat and relaxed uvula.

It is used internally in the same diseases as catechu, and when combined with aromatics and bitters, in intermittent fevers.

Dose of the powder, from fifteen to thirty grains; of the decoction, from two to eight drachms.

724.  Logwood

Logwood is not a very satisfactory astringent.

It is used internally in diarrhœa, the last stage of dysentery, and a lax state of the intestines.

Dose, of the extract, from ten grains to one drachm; of the decoction from one to three ounces, three or four times a day.

725.  Rose Leaves

Rose Leaves are stringent and tonic.

They are used internally in spitting of blood, hemorrhage from the stomach, intestines, &c., as a gargle for sore throat, and for the night sweats of consumption. The infusion is frequently used as a tonic with diluted sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), after low fevers, or in combination with Epsom salts and sulphuric acid in certain states of the bowels.

Dose of infusion, from two to four ounces.

To-day, Enjoys his Halls, Built to his Mind.

726.  Chalk

Chalk, when prepared by washing, becomes an astringent as well as antacid.

It is used internally in diarrhœa, in the form of mixture, and externally as an application to burns, scalds, and excoriations.

Dose of the mixture, from one to two ounces.

727.  White Vitriol

White Vitriol, or Sulphate of Zinc, is an astringent, tonic, and emetic.

It is used externally as a collyrium for ophthalmia (See Domestic Pharmacopœia,), and as a detergent for scrofulous ulcers, in the proportion of three grains of the salt to one ounce of water.

It is used internally in indigestion, and many other diseases; but it should not be given unless ordered by a medical man, as it is a poison.

728.  Local Stimulants

Local stimulants comprise emetics, cathartics, diuretics, diaphoretics, expectorants, sialogogues, errhines, and epispastics.

729.  Emetics

Emetics are medicines given for the purpose of causing vomiting, as in cases of poisoning. They consist of ipecacuanha, camomile, antimony, copper, zinc, and several others.

730.  Ipecacuanha

Ipecacuanha is an emetic, diaphoretic, and expectorant.

It is used internally to excite vomiting, in doses of from ten to twenty grains of the powder, or one to one and a half ounce of the infusion, every half hour until vomiting takes place. To make it act well and easily, the patient should drink half pints of warm water after each dose of the infusion. As a diaphoretic, it should be given in doses of three grains, mixed with some soft substance, such as crumbs of bread, and repeated every four hours.

Dose of the wine, from twenty minims to one drachm as a diaphoretic, and from one drachm to one and a half ounces as an emetic.

Caution.—Do not give more than the doses named above, because, although a safe emetic, yet it is an acrid narcotic poison.

731.  Mustard

Mustard is too well known to require describing. It is an emetic, diuretic, stimulant, and rubefacient.

It is used externally as a poultice. Mustard poultices are made of the powder, bread crumbs, and water; or of one part of mustard to two of flour; or, especially for children, of linseed meal, mixed with a little of the powder, or having some of the powder slightly sprinkled on the surface. Sometimes a little vinegar is added under the idea that it increases the strength of the poultice, but this is not necessary. In all cases where a stimulant is required, such as sore throats, rheumatic pains in the joints, cholera, cramps in the extremities, diarrhœa, and many other diseases. When applied it should not he left on too long, as it is apt to cause ulceration of the part. From ten to thirty minutes is quite long enough.

When used internally as an emetic, a large teaspoonful mixed with a tumbler of warm water generally operates quickly and safely, frequently when other emetics have failed. In dropsy it is sometimes given in the form of whey, which is made by boiling half an ounce of the bruised seeds in a pint of milk, and straining off the curd.

From three to four ounces of this is to be taken for a dose three times a day.

732.  Cathartics

Cathartics are divided into laxatives and purgatives. Manna, tamarinds, castor oil, sulphur, and magnesia are laxatives; senna, rhubarb, jalap, colocynth, buckthorn, aloes, cream of tartar, scammony, calomel, Epsom salts, Glauber's salts, sulphate of potash, and Venice turpentine are purgatives.

733.  Manna

Manna is a very gentle laxative, and therefore used for children and delicate persons.

Dose for children, from one to two drachms; and for adults, from one to two ounces, combined with rhubarb and cinnamon water.

734.  Tamarinds

Tamarinds are generally laxative and refrigerant. As it is agreeable, this medicine will generally be eaten by children when they will not take other medicines.

Dose, from half to one ounce. As a refrigerant beverage in fevers it is extremely grateful.

To-morrow, in a Coffin is Confined.

735.  Castor Oil

Castor Oil is a most valuable medicine, as it generally operates quickly and mildly.

It is used externally, combined with citron ointment, as a topical application in common leprosy.

It is used internally as an ordinary purgative for infants, as a laxative for adults, and in diarrhœa and dysentery. In colic it is very useful and safe; and also after delivery.

Dose for infants, from forty drops to two drachms; for adults, from half an ounce to one and a half ounces.

736.  Sulphur

Sublimed sulphur is laxative and diaphoretic.

It is used externally in skin diseases, especially itch, both in the form of ointment and as a vapour bath.

It is used internally in hemorrhoids, combined with magnesia, as a laxative for children, and as a diaphoretic in rheumatism.

Dose, from one scruple to two drachms, mixed in milk or with treacle. When combined with an equal proportion of cream of tartar, it acts as a purgative.

737.  Magnesia

Calcined magnesia possesses the same properties as the carbonate.

Dose, from ten to thirty grains, in milk or water.

Carbonate of magnesia is an antacid and laxative, and is very useful for children when teething, and for heartburn in adults.

Dose, from a half to two drachms, in water or milk.

Fluid Magnesia is a useful preparation by whose use is avoided the grittiness that is inseparable from magnesia when taken in the form of powder.

738.  Senna

Senna is a purgative, but is apt to gripe when given alone; therefore it is combined with some aromatic, such as cloves or ginger, and the infusion should be made with cold instead of hot water. It usually acts in about four hours, but its action should be assisted by drinking warm fluids.

Dose, of the confection, commonly called "lenitive electuary," from one to three or four drachma at bedtime; of the infusion, from one to two ounces; of the tincture, from one to two drachms; of the syrup (used for children), from one drachm to one ounce.

Caution.—Do not give senna, in any form except confection, in hæmorrhoids, and never in irritability of the intestines.

739.  Rhubarb

Rhubarb is a purgative, astringent and stomachic.

It is used externally in the form of powder to ulcers, to promote a healthy action.

It is given internally in diarrhœa, dyspepsia, and a debilitated state of the bowels. Combined with a mild preparation of calomel, it forms an excellent purgative for children.

Dose, of the infusion, from one to two ounces; of the powder, from one scruple to half a drachm as a purgative, and from six to ten grains as a stomachic; of the tincture and compound tincture, from one to four drachms; of the compound pill, from ten to twenty grains.

740.  Jalap

Jalap is a powerful cathartic and hydrogogue, and is therefore apt to gripe.

Dose, of the powder, from ten to thirty grains, combined with a drop or two of aromatic oil; of the compound powder, from fifteen to forty grains; of the tincture, from one to three drachms; of the extract, from ten to twenty grains. The watery extract is better than the alcoholic.

741.  Colocynth

Colocynth is a powerful drastic cathartic, and should never be given alone, unless ordered by a medical man, as its action is too violent for some constitutions.

Dose, of the extract, from five to fifteen grains; of the compound extract, from five to fifteen grains; of the compound colocynth pill, the best of all its preparations, from ten to twenty grains.

742.  Buckthorn

Buckthorn is a brisk purgative for children in the form of syrup.

Dose of the syrup, from one to six drachms.

743.  Aloes

Aloes is a purgative and cathartic in large, and tonic in smaller doses.

Dose, of powder, from two to ten grains, combined with soap, bitter extracts, or other purgative medicines, and given in the form of pills; of the compound pill, from five to twenty grains; of the pill of aloes and myrrh from five to twenty grains; of the tincture, from four drachms to one ounce; of the compound tincture, from one to four drachms; of the extract, from six to ten grains; of the compound decoction, from four drachms to two ounces.

To-day, He Floats on Honour's Lofty Wave.

744.  Cream of Tartar

Cream of Tartar is a purgative and refrigerant. It is used internally in dropsy, especially of the belly, in doses of from one scruple to one drachm. As a refrigerant drink it is dissolved in hot water, and sweetened with sugar, and is used in febrile diseases, care being taken not to allow it to rest too much upon the bowels.

Dose, as a purgative, from two to four drachms, as a hydrogogue, from four to six drachms, mixed with honey or treacle.

Caution.—Its use should be followed by tonics, especially gentian and angostura.

745.  Scammony

Scammony is a drastic purgative, generally acting quickly and powerfully; sometimes producing nausea, and even vomiting, and being very apt to gripe.

It is used internally, to produce watery evacuations in dropsy, to remove intestinal worms, and correct the slimy motions of children.

Dose, of the powder, from five to sixteen grains, given in liquorice water, treacle, or honey; of the confection, from twenty to thirty grains.

Caution.—Do not give it in an irritable or inflamed state of the bowels.

746.  Epsom Salts

Epsom Salts is a purgative and diuretic. This medicine generally operates quickly, and therefore is extremely useful in acute diseases. It is found to be beneficial in dyspepsia when combined with infusion of gentian and a little ginger. It forms an excellent enema with olive oil.

Dose, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm tea or water. Infusion of roses partially covers its taste and assists its action.

Note, that with regard to Epsom salts, the larger in reason is the amount of water in which they are taken, the smaller the dose of salts required: thus, half an ounce properly dissolved may be made a strong dose. The action and efficacy of Epsom salts may be greatly increased by adding one grain of tartar emetic to a dose of salts.

747.  Glauber's Salt

Glauber's Salt is a very good purgative.

Dose, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm water

748.  Sulphate of Potash

Sulphate of Potash is a cathartic and deobstruent. It is used internally, combined with aloes or rhubarb, in obstructions of the bowels, and is an excellent saline purgative in dyspepsia and jaundice.

Dose, from ten grains to one drachm.

749.  Venice Turpentine

Venice Turpentine is cathartic, diuretic, stimulant, and anthelmintic.

It is used externally as a rubefacient, and is given internally in flatulent colic, in tapeworm, rheumatism, and other diseases.

Dose, as a diuretic, from ten grains to one drachm; as a cathartic, from ten to twelve drachms; as an anthelmintic, from one to two ounces every eight hours, till the worm be ejected.

750.  Diuretics

Diuretics are medicines which promote an increased secretion of urine. They consist of nitre, acetate of potassa, squills, juniper, oil of turpentine, and others, vegetable and mineral.

751.  Nitre

Nitre is a diuretic and refrigerant.

It is used externally as a detergent when dissolved in water, and as a lotion to inflamed and painful rheumatic joints.

It is given internally in doses of from ten grains to half a drachm, or even one drachm; in spitting blood it is given in one drachm doses with great benefit. It is beneficial in sore throat, a few grains being allowed to dissolve in the mouth.

752.  Acetate of Potassa

Acetate of Potassa is diuretic and cathartic.

It is given internally as a diuretic, in combination with infusion of quassia; in dropsy, in doses of from one scruple to one drachm, every three or four hours.

Dose, as a cathartic, from two to three drachms.

753.  Squills

Squills is diuretic and expectorant when given in small doses; and emetic and purgative when given in large doses.

It is used internally in dropsy, in combination with calomel and opium; in asthma, with ammoniacum; in catarrh, in the form of oxymel.

Dose, of the dried bulb powdered, from one to two grains every six hours; of the compound pill, from ten to fifteen grains; of the tincture, from ten minims to half a drachm; of the oxymel, from a half to two drachms; of the vinegar, from twenty minims to two drachms.

To-morrow, Leaves his Title for a Grave.

754.  Juniper

Juniper is diuretic and stomachic.

It is given internally in dropsy.

Dose, of the infusion, from two to three ounces every four hours, of the oil, from one to five minims.

755.  Oil of Turpentine

Oil of Turpentine is a diuretic, anthelmintic, and rubefacient.

It is used externally in flatulent colic, sprinkled over flannels dipped in hot water and wrung out dry.

It is used internally in the same diseases as Venice turpentine.

Dose, from five minims to two drachms.

756.  Diaphoretics

Diaphoretics are medicines given to increase the secretion from the skin by sweating. They comprise acetate of ammonia, calomel, antimony, opium, camphor, sarsaparilla.

757.  Solution of Acetate of Ammonia

Solution of Acetate of Ammonia is a most useful diaphoretic.

It is used externally as a discutient, as a lotion to inflamed milk-breasts, as an eye-wash, and a lotion in scald head.

It is given internally to promote perspiration in febrile diseases, which it does most effectually, especially when combined with camphor mixture. This is the article so frequently met with in prescriptions, and called spirits of mindercrus.

Dose, from a half to one and a half ounces every three or four hours.

758.  Antimony.—Tartar emetic

Tartar emetic is diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, alterative, and rubefacient.

It is used externally as an irritant in white swellings and deep-seated inflammations, in the form of an ointment.

It is given internally in pleurisy, bilious fevers, and many other diseases, but its exhibition requires the skill of a medical man, to watch its effects.

Dose, from one-sixth of a grain to four grains.

Caution. —It is a poison, and therefore requires great care in its administration.

759.  Antimonial Powder

Antimonial Powder is a diaphoretic, emetic, and alterative.

It is given internally, in febrile diseases, to produce determination to the skin, and is useful in rheumatism, when combined with opium or calomel.

Dose, from three to ten grains every four hours, taking plenty of warm fluids between each dose.

760.  Sarsiparilla

Sarsiparilla is diaphoretic, alterative, diuretic, and tonic.

It is given internally in cutaneous diseases, old-standing rheumatism, scrofula, and debility.

Dose, of the decoction, from four to eight ounces; of the compound decoction, from four to eight ounces; of the extract, from five grains to one drachm.

761.  Expectorants

Expectorants are medicines given to promote the secretion from the windpipe, &c. They consist of antimony, ipecacuanha, squills, ammoniacum, and tolu.

762.  Ammoniacum

Ammoniacum is an expectorant, antispasmodic, diuretic, and deobstruent.

It is used externally as a discutient, and is given internally, with great benefit in asthma, hysteria, and chronic catarrh.

Dose, from ten to twenty grains.

763.  Tolu

Tolu is an excellent expectorant, when there are no inflammatory symptoms.

It is given internally in asthma and chronic catarrh.

Dose, of the balsam, from five to thirty grains, combined with mucilage and suspended in water; of the tincture, from a half to one drachm; of the syrup, from a half to four drachms.

764.  Sialogogues

These are given to increase the flow of saliva or spittle. They consist of ginger and calomel, pellitory of Spain, tobacco, the acids, and some others.

765.  Ginger

Ginger ia a sialogogue, carminative, and stimulant.

It is used internally in flatulent colic, dyspepsia, and to prevent the griping of medicines. When chewed, it acts as a sialogogue, and is therefore useful in relaxed uvula.

Dose, from ten to twenty grains of the powder; of the tincture, from ten minims to one drachm.

To-day, his Beauteous Visage we Extol.

766.  Epispastics and Rubefacients

These are remedies which are applied to blister and cause redness of the surface. They consist of cantharides, ammonia, Burgundy pitch, and mustard.

767.   Cantharides, or Spanish flies

Cantharides, or Spanish flies, when used internally, are diuretic and stimulant; and epispastic and rubefacient when applied externally.

Mode of application.—A portion of the blistering plaster is spread with the thumb upon brown paper, linen, or leather, to the size required; its surface then slightly moistened with olive oil and sprinkled with camphor, and the plaster applied by a light bandage: or it is spread on adhesive plaster, and attached to the skin by the adhesive margin of the plaster.

Caution.—If a blister is to be applied to the head, shave it at least ten hours before it is put on; it is better to place a thin piece of gauze, wetted with vinegar, between the skin and the blister. If a distressing feeling be experienced about the bladder, give warm and copious draughts of linseed tea, milk, or decoction of quince seeds, and apply warm fomentations of milk and water to the blistered surface. The period required for a blister to remain on varies from eight to ten hours for adults, and from twenty minutes to two hours for children: as soon as it is removed, if the blister is not raised, apply a "spongio-piline" poultice, and it will then rise properly. When it is required to act as a rubefacient, the blister should remain on from one to three hours for adults, and from fifteen to forty minutes for children.

To dress a blister.—Cut the bag of cuticle containing the scrum at the lowest part, by snipping it with the scissors, so as to form an opening like this—V; and then apply a piece of calico, spread with spermaceti or some other dressing. Such is the ordinary method; but a much better and more expeditious plan, and one that prevents all pain and inconvenience in the healing, is, after cutting the blister as directed above, to immediately cover it with a warm bread and water poultice for about an hour and a half, and on the removal of the poultice to dust the raw surface with violet powder; apply a handkerchief to retain the powder, and lastly dust the part every two hours. It will be healed in twelve hours.

Caution.—Never attempt to take cantharides internally, except under the advice of a medical man, as it is a poison, and requires extreme caution in its use.

768.  Burgundy Pitch

Burgundy Pitch is warmed and spread upon linen or leather, and applied over the chest in cases of catarrh, difficult breathing, and hooping cough; over the loins in debility or lumbago; and over any part that it is desirable to excite a mild degree of inflammation in.

769.  Chemical Remedies

These comprise refrigerants, antacids, antalkalies, and escharotics.

770.  Refrigerants

These are medicines given for the purpose of suppressing an unnatural heat of the body. They are Seville oranges, lemons, tamarinds, nitre, and cream of tartar.

771.  Seville Oranges

Seville Oranges and sweet oranges are formed into a refrigerant beverage, which is extremely grateful in febrile diseases.

The rind is an agreeable mild tonic, carminative, and stomachic.

Dose, of the tincture, from one to four drachms; of the infusion, from one to two ounces.

To-morrow, Loathsome in the Sight of All.

772.  Lemons

Lemons are used to form a refrigerant beverage, which is given to quench thirst in febrile and inflammatory diseases,

Lemon juice given with carbonate of potash (half an ounce of the juice to twenty grains of the salt), and taken while effervescing, allays vomiting; a tablespoonful, taken occasionally, allays hysterical palpitations of the heart, it is useful in scurvy caused by eating too much salt food, but requires to be taken with sugar.

The rind forms a nice mild tonic and stomachic in certain forms of dyspepsia.

Dose of the infusion (made the same as orange peel), from one to two ounces.

773.  Antacids

These are given to correct acidity in the system. They are soda, ammonia, chalk, and magnesia.

774.  Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda

Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda, are antacids and deobstruents.

They are used internally in acidity of the stomach and dyspepsia.

Dose of both preparations, from 10 grains to half a drachm.

775.  Antalkalies

These are given to neutralize an alkaline state of the system. They are citric acid, lemon juice, and tartaric acid.

776.  Citric Acid

Citric Acid is used to check profuse sweating, and as a substitute for lemon juice when it cannot be procured.

Dose, from ten to thirty grains.

777.  Tartaric Acid

Tartaric Acid, when largely diluted, forms an excellent refrigerant beverage and antalkali. It enters into the composition of extemporaneous soda and Seidlitz waters.

Dose, from ten to thirty grains.

778.  Escharotics

These are remedies used to destroy the vitality of a part. They comprise lunar caustic, bluestone, and solution of chloride of zinc.

779.  Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper

Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper, is used in a solution of from four to fifteen grains to the ounce of water, and applied to foul and indolent ulcers, by means of rag dipped in it. It is rubbed in substance on fungous growths, warts, &c., to destroy them.

Caution.—It is a poison.

780.  Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver

Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver, is an excellent remedy in erysipelas when applied in solution (one drachm of the salt to one ounce of water), which should be brushed all over the inflamed part, and for an inch beyond it. This blackens the skin, but it soon peels off. To destroy warts, proud flesh, and unhealthy edges of ulcers, &c., it is invaluable; and as an application to bed sores, pencilled over with a solution of the same strength, and in the same manner as for erysipelas.

Caution.—It is a poison.

781.  Solution of Chloride of Zinc

Solution of Chloride of Zinc, more commonly known as Sir William Burnett's "Disinfecting Fluid," is a valuable escharotic in destroying the parts of poisoned wounds, such as the bite of a mad dog. It is also very useful in restoring the hair after the scalp has been attacked with ringworm; but its use requires extreme caution, as it is a powerful escharotic. In itch, diluted (one part to thirty-two) with water, it appears to answer very well.

Caution.—It is a most powerful poison.

782.  Mechanical Remedies

These comprise anthelmintics, demulcents, diluents, and emollients.

783.  Anthelmintics

These are medicines given for the purpose of expelling or destroying worms. They are cowhage, scammony, male fern root, calomel, gamboge, tin, and turpentine.

784.  Cowhage

Cowhage is used to expel the round worm, which it does by wounding it with the fine prickles.

Dose of the confection, for a child three or four years old, a teaspoonful early, for three mornings, followed by a dose of castor oil. (See par 491.)

The mechanical anthelmintics are strictly confined to those agents which kill the worm in the body by piercing its cuticle with the sharp darts or spiculae of the cowhage hairs, or the fine metallic points of powdered tin (pulvis stanni). When these drops are employed, they should be given in honey or treacle for ten or fifteen days, and an aperient powder every fourth morning, to expel the killed worms.

785.  Male Fern Root

Male Fern Root is a powerful anthelmintic, and an astringent. It is used to kill tapeworm.

Dose, three drachms of the powdered root mixed in a teacupful of water, to be taken in the morning while in bed, and followed by a brisk purgative two hours afterwards; or from a tablespoonful to a wineglassful, according to age, to be taken early in the morning. (See par 569).

786.  Gamboge

Gamboge is a powerful drastic and anthelmintic.

It is used internally in dropsy, and for the expulsion of tapeworm; but its use requires caution, as it is an irritant poison.

Dose, from two to six grains, in the form of pills, combined with colocynth, soap, rhubarb, or bread-crumbs.

787.  Demulcents

These are used to diminish irritation, and soften parts by protecting them with a viscid matter. They are tragacanth, linseed, marsh-mallow, mallow, liquorice, arrowroot, isinglass, suet, wax, and almonds.

788.  Tragacanth

Tragacanth is used to allay tickling cough, and lubricate abraded parts. It is usually given in the form of mucilage.

Dose, from ten grains to one drachm, or more.

789.  Linseed

Linseed is emollient and demulcent.

It is used externally, in the form of powder or "meal," as a poultice; and the oil, combined with lime water, is applied to burns and scalds.

It is used internally as an infusion in diarrhœa, dysentery, and irritation of the intestines after certain poisons, and in catarrh. The best form of linseed meal is that which is obtained from seed from which the oil has not been extracted.

Dose, of the infusion, as much as the patient pleases.

790.  Marsh-Mallow

Marsh-Mallow is used internally in the same diseases as linseed.

The leaves are used externally as a fomentation, and the boiled roots are bruised and applied as an emollient poultice.

Dose, the same as for linseed.

791.  Mallow

Mallow is used externally as a fomentation and poultice in inflammation, and the infusion is used internally in dysentery, diseases of the kidneys, and the same diseases as marsh-mallow and linseed. It is also used as an enema.

Dose, same as for linseed and marsh-mallow.

792.  Liquorice

Liquorice is an agreeable demulcent, and is given in the form of decoction in catarrh, and some forms of dyspepsia, and the extract is used in catarrh.

Dose, of the extract, from ten grains to one drachm; of the decoction, from two to four ounces.

793.  Arrowroot etc.

Arrowroot, islinglass, almonds, suet, and wax, are too well known to require descriptions. (See par 487, for "Almond Confection" for preparations.)

794.  Diluents

These are chiefly watery compounds, such as weak tea, water, thin broth, gruel, weak infusions of balm, hore-hound, pennyroyal, ground ivy, mint, and sage.

795.  Emollients

These consist of unctuous remedies, such as cerates and ointments, and any materials that combine heat with moisture, —poultices of bread, bran, linseed meal, carrots, and turnips. (See par 809.)

796.  Domestic Surgery

This will comprise such hints and advice as will enable any one to act on an emergency, or in ordinary trivial accidents requiring simple treatment: and also to distinguish between serious and simple accidents, and the best means to adopt in all cases that are likely to fall under a person's notice.

These hints will be of the utmost value to heads of families, to emigrants, and to persons who are frequently called upon to attend the sick. We strongly recommend the Parent, Emigrant, and Nurse, to read over these directions occasionally, —to regard it as a duty to do so at least three or four times a year, so as to be prepared for emergencies whenever they may arise. When accidents occur, people are too excited to acquire immediately a knowledge of what they should do; and many lives have been lost for want of this knowledge.

Study, therefore, at moderate intervals, the Domestic Surgery, Treatment of Poisons, Rules for the Prevention of Accidents, How to Escape from Fires, the Domestic Pharmacopœia, &c., which will he found in various pages of Enquire Within.

And let it be impressed upon your mind that The Index will enable you to refer to anything you may require In A Moment. Don't trouble to hunt through the pages; but when you wish to Enquire Within, remember that the Index is the knocker, by which the door of knowledge may be opened.

To-morrow, Cries Too Late to be Forgiven.

797.  Dressings

These are substances usually applied to parts for the purpose of soothing, promoting their reunion when divided, protecting them from external injuries, absorbing discharges, protecting the surrounding parts, insuring cleanliness, and as a means of applying various medicines.

798.  Certain Instruments

Certain Instruments are required for the application of dressings in domestic surgery, viz.—scissors, a pair of tweezers or simple forceps, a knife, needles and thread, a razor, a lancet, a piece of lunar caustic in a quill, and a sponge.

799.  Materials for dressings

These consist of lint, scraped linen, carded cotton, tow, ointment spread on calico, adhesive plaster, compresses, pads, bandages, poultices, old rags of linen or calico, and water.

800.  Rules

The following rules should be attended to in applying dressings:

  1. Always prepare the new dressing before removing the old one.

  1. Always have hot and cold water at hand, and a vessel to place the foul dressings in.

  1. Have one or more persons at hand ready to assist, and, to prevent confusion, tell each person what they are to do before you commence; thus, one is to wash out and hand the sponges, another to heat the adhesive plaster, or hand the bandages and dressings, and, if requisite, a third to support the limb, &c.

  1. Always stand on the outside of a limb to dress it.

  1. Place the patient in as easy a position as possible, so as not to fatigue him.

  1. Arrange the bed after changing the dressings; but in some cases you will have to do so before the patient is placed on it.

  1. Never be in a hurry when applying dressings, do it quietly.

  1. When a patient requires moving from one bed to another, the best way is for one person to stand on each side of the patient, and each to place an arm behind his back, while he passes his arms over their necks, then let their other arms be passed under his thighs, and by holding each other's hands, the patient can be raised with ease, and removed to another bed. If the leg is injured, a third person should steady it; and if the arm, the same precaution should be adopted. Sometimes a stout sheet is passed under the patient, and by several people holding the sides, thy patient is lifted without any fatigue or much disturbance.

801.  Lint, how made

Lint, how made. This may be quickly made by nailing a piece of old linen on a board, and scraping its surface with a knife. It is used either alone or spread with ointment. Scraped lint is the fine filaments from ordinary lint, and is used to stimulate ulcers and absorb discharges; it is what the French call charpie.

802.  Uses of Scraped Lint

This is made into various shapes for particular purposes. When it is screwed up into a conical or wedge-like shape, it is called a tent, and is used to dilate fistulous openings, so as to allow the matter to escape freely; and to plug wounds, so as to promote the formation of a clot of blood, and thus arrest bleeding. When rolled into little balls, called boulettes, it is used for absorbing matter in cavities, or blood in wounds. Another useful form is made by rolling a mass of scraped lint into a long roll, and then tying it in the middle with a piece of thread; the middle is then doubled and pushed into a deep-seated wound, so as to press upon the bleeding vessel, while the ends remain loose and assist in forming a clot; or it is used in deep-seated ulcers to absorb the matter and keep the edges apart. This form is called the bourdonnet. Another form is called the pelote, which is merely a ball of scraped lint tied up in a piece of linen rag, commonly called a dabber. This is used in the treatment of protrusion of the navel in children.

803.  Carded Cotton

Carded cotton is used as a dressing for superficial burns, and care should be taken to free it from specks, as flies are apt to lay their eggs there, and generate maggots.

804.  Tow

Tow is chiefly employed as a padding for splints, as a compress, and also as an outer dressing where there is much discharge from a surface.

805.  Ointments

Ointments are spread on calicoes, lint, or even thin layers of tow, by means of a knife; they should not be spread too thick. Sometimes ointment is applied to discharging surfaces on a piece of linen, folded over on itself several times, and then cut at the corners with scissors, in order to make small holes in it. The matter discharged passes out freely through these holes, and is received in a layer of tow spread over the linen.

806.  Adhesive Plaster

Adhesive plaster is cut into strips, ranging in width, according to the nature of the wound, &c., but the usual width is about three-quarters of an inch. Isinglass plaster is not so irritating as diachylon, and is more easily removed.

807.  Compresses

Compresses are made of pieces of linen, calico, lint, or tow, doubled or cut into various shapes, according to the purposes for which they are required. They are used to confine dressings in their places, and to apply an equal pressure on parts. They should be free from darns, hems, and knots. Ordinary compresses are square, oblong, and triangular. Compresses are also graduated by placing square pieces of folded cloth on one another, so arranged that they decrease in size each time. They are used for keeping up pressure upon certain parts.

808.  Pads

Pads are made by sewing tow inside pieces of linen, or folding linen and sewing the pieces together. They are used to keep off pressure from parts such as that caused by splints in fractures.

809.  Poultices

Poultices are usually made of linseed meal, oatmeal, or bread, either combined with water or other fluids; sometimes they are made of carrots, charcoal, potatoes, yeast, and linseed meal, mustard, &c., but the best and most economical kind of poultice is a fabric made of sponge and wool felted together, and backed by Indian rubber, called "spongio piline."

The method of using this poultice is as follows:— A piece of the material of the required form and size is cut off, and the edges are pared or bevelled off with a pair of scissors, so that the caoutchouc may come in contact with the surrounding skin, in order to prevent evaporation of the fluid used; for, as it only forms the vehicle, the various poultices generally used can be employed with much less expenditure of time and money, and increased cleanliness.

For example,—a vinegar poultice is made by moistening the fabric with distilled vinegar; an alum poultice, by using a strong solution of alum; a charcoal poultice, by sprinkling powdered charcoal on the moistened surface of the material; a yeast poultice, by using warmed yeast, and moistening the fabric with hot water, which is to be well squeezed out previous to the absorption of the yeast; a beer poultice, by employing warm porter-dregs or strong beer as the fluid; and a carrot poultice, by using the expressed and evaporated liquor of boiled carrots.

Spongio-piline costs about one farthing a square inch, and may be obtained of the chemist. As a fomentation it is most invaluable, and by moistening the material with compound camphor liniment or hartshorn, it acts the same as a mustard poultice.

To-morrow, Dies in Anguish and Despair.

810.  Mustard Poultices

These may be made of the mustard powder alone, or in combination with bread crumbs, or linseed meal. When mustard only is used, the powder should be moistened with water, and the paste thus produced spread on a piece of linen, and covered with muslin to intervene between the mustard and the skin. When mixed with linseed the powder and the meal may be incorporated before water is added, or the meal may be moistened and spread on linen for application, and the mustard be then strewn on the surface, more or less thickly according to the age of the patient. Rigollot's Mustard leaves, which can be procured from any chemist, are now much used in the place of mustard poultices. They only require wetting before application, and are both clean and economical.

811.  Bandages

Bandages are strips of calico, linen, flannel, muslin, elastic webbing, bunting, or some other substance, of various lengths, and from one to six inches wide, free from hems or darns, soft and unglazed. They are better after they have been washed. Their uses are to retain dressings, apparatus, or parts of the body in their proper positions, support the soft parts, and maintain equal pressure.

812.   Simple and Compound Bandages

Bandages are simple and compound; the former are simple slips rolled up tightly like a roll of ribbon. There is also another simple kind, which is rolled from both ends—this is called a double-headed bandage. The compound bandages are formed of many pieces.

813.  Bandages for Different Parts of the Body

Bandages for the head should be two inches wide and five yards long; for the neck, two inches wide, and three yards long; for the arm, two inches wide, and seven yards long; for the leg, two inches and a half wide and seven yards long; for the thigh three inches wide, and eight yards long; and for the body, four or six inches wide and ten or twelve yards long.

814.  To Apply a Single-Headed Bandage

To apply a single-headed bandage, lay the outside of the end near to the part to be bandaged, and hold the roll between the little, ring and middle fingers, and the palm of the left hand, using the thumb and forefinger of the same hand to guide it, and the right hand to keep it firm, and pass the bandage partly round the leg towards the left hand. It is sometimes necessary to reverse this order, and therefore it is well to be able to use both hands.

Particular parts require a different method of applying bandages, and therefore it is necessary to describe the most useful separately; and there are different ways of putting on the same bandage, which consist in the manner the folds or turns are made. For example, the circular bandage is formed by horizontal turns, each of which overlaps the one made before it; the spiral consists of spiral turns; the oblique follows a course oblique or slanting to the centre of the limb; and the recurrent folds back again to the part whence it started.

815.  Circular Bandages

Circular bandages are used for the neck, to retain dressings on any part of it, or for blisters, setons, &c.; for the head, to keep dressings on the forehead or any part contained within a circle passing round the head; for the arm, previous to bleeding; for the leg, above the knee; and for the fingers, &c.

816.  To Confine the Ends of Bandages

To confine the ends of bandages some persons use pins, others slit the end for a short distance, and tie the two strips into a knot, and some use a strip of adhesive plaster. Always place the point of a pin in such a position that it cannot prick the patient, or the person dressing the limb, or be liable to be drawn out by using the limb; therefore, as a general rule, turn the head of the pin from the free end of the bandage, of towards the upper part of the limb. The best mode is to sew the bandage on. A few stitches will hold it more securely than pins can.

Little Deeds are Like Little Seeds.

817.  The Oblique Bandage

The oblique bandage is generally used for arms and legs, to retain dressings.

818.  The Spiral Bandage

The spiral bandage is generally applied to the trunk and extremities, but is apt to fall off even when very carefully applied; therefore the recurrent bandage, which folds back again, is generally used.

819.  The Recurrent Bandage

The recurrent bandage is the best kind of bandage that we can employ for general purposes. The method of putting it on the leg is as follows: —Apply the end of the bandage that is free, with the outside of it next the skin, and hold this end with the finger and thumb of the left hand, while some one supports the heel of the patient; then with the right hand pass the bandage over the piece you are holding, and keep it crossed thus, until you can place your right forefinger upon the spot where it crosses the other bandage, where it must be kept firm. Now hold the roll of the bandage in your left hand, with the palm turned upwards, and taking care to keep that part of the bandage between your right forefinger, and the roll in your left hand, quite slack; turn your left hand over, and bring the bandage down upon the leg; then pass the roll under the leg towards your right hand, and repeat this until the leg is bandaged up to the knee, taking care not to drag the bandage at any time during the process of bandaging. When you arrive at the knee, pass the bandage round the leg in circles just below the knee, and pin it as usual.

Bandaging is very easy, and if you once see any one apply a bandage properly, and attend to these rules, there will not be any difficulty; but bear one thing in mind, without which you will never put on a bandage even decently; and that is, never to drag or pull at a bandage, but make the turns while it is slack, and you have your right forefinger placed upon the point where it is to be folded down. When a limb is properly bandaged, the folds should run in a line corresponding to the shin-bone. Use, to retain dressings, and for varicose veins.

820.   A Bandage for the Chest

A bandage for the chest is always placed upon the patient in a sitting posture; and it may be put on in circles, or spirally. Use, in fractures of the ribs, to retain dressings, and after severe contusions.

821.  A Bandage for the Belly

A bandage for the belly is placed on the patient as directed for the chest, carrying it spirally from above downwards. Use, to compress belly after dropsy, or retain dressings.

822.  Bandaging the Hand

The hand is bandaged by crossing the bandage over the back of the hand Use, to retain dressings.

823.  Different Bandages for the Head

For the head, a bandage may be circular, or spiral, or both; in the latter case, commence by placing one circular turn just over the ears; then bring down from left to right, and round the head again, so as to alternate a spiral with a circular turn. Use, to retain dressings on the head or over the eye; but this form soon gets slack. The circular bandage is the best, crossing it over both eyes.

824.  For the Foot

Place the end just above the outer ankle, and make two circular turns, to prevent its slipping: then bring it down from the inside of the foot over the instep towards the outer part; pass it under the sole of the foot, and upwards and inward over the instep towards the inner ankle, then round the ankle and repeat again. Use, to retain dressings to the instep, heel, or ankle.

825.  For the Leg and Foot

For the leg and foot, commence and proceed as directed in the preceding paragraph; then continue if up the leg as ordered in the Recurrent Bandage.

826.  Substitutes

As it sometimes happens that it is necessary to apply a bandage at once, and the materials are not at hand it is desirable to know how to substitute something else that any one may apply with ease. This can be readily done with handkerchiefs.

They Grow to Flowers, or to Weeds.

827.  Handkerchiefs

Any ordinary handkerchief will do; but a square of linen folded into various shapes answers better. The shapes generally required are as follows:—The triangle, the long square, the cravat, and the cord.

828.  The Triangular Handkerchief

The triangular handkerchief is made by folding it from corner to corner. Use, as a bandage for the head.

Application.—Place the base round the head, and the short part hanging down behind, then tie the long ends over it.

829.  The Long Square

The long square is made by folding the handkerchief in three. Use, as a bandage to the ribs, belly, &c. If one handkerchief is not long enough, sew two together.

830.  The Cravat

The cravat is folded as usual with cravats. Use, as a bandage for the head, arms, legs, feet, neck, &c.

831.  The Cord

The cord is used to compress vessels, when a knot is made in it, and placed over the vessel to be compressed. It is merely a handkerchief twisted in its diagonal.

832.  Multiple Handkerchiefs

Two or more handkerchiefs must sometimes be applied, as in a broken collar-bone, or when it is necessary to keep dressings under the arm. The bandage is applied by knotting the opposite comers of one handkerchief together, and passing the left arm through it, then passing another handkerchief under the right arm, and tying it. By this means we can brace the shoulders well back, and the handkerchief will press firmly over the broken collar-bone: besides, this form of bandage does not readily slip or get slack, but it requires to be combined with the sling, in order to keep the arm steady.

833.  For an Inflamed Breast

For an inflamed breast that requires support, or dressings to be kept to it, pass one corner over the shoulder, bring the body of it over the breast, and pass it upwards and backwards under the arm of that side, and tie the opposite corners together.

834.  An Excellent Sling

An excellent sling is formed by placing one handkerchief around the neck, and knotting opposite corners ever the breast bone, then placing the other in triangle under the arm, to be supported with the base near to the hand; tie the ends over the handkerchief, and pin the top to the other part, after passing it around the elbow.

835.  Apparatus

When a person receives a severe contusion of the leg or foot, or breaks his leg, or has painful ulcers over the leg, or is unable from some cause to bear the pressure of the bedclothes, it is advisable to know how to keep them from hurting the leg. This may be done by bending up a fire-guard, or placing a chair, resting upon the edge of its back and front of the seat, over the leg, or putting a box on each side of it, and placing a plank ever them; but the best way is to make a cradle, as it is called. This is done by getting three pieces of wood, and three pieces of iron wire, and passing the wire or hoop through the wood. This can be placed to any height, and is very useful in all cases where pressure cannot be borne. Wooden hoops cut in halves answer better than the wire.

836.  When a Person Breaks his Leg

When a person breaks his leg, and splints cannot he had directly, get bunches of straw or twigs, roll them up in handkerchiefs, and placing one on each side of the leg or arm, bind another handkerchief firmly around them; or make a long bag about three inches in diameter, or even more, of coarse linen duck, or carpet, and stuff this full of bran, sawdust, or sand, sew up the end, and use this the same as the twigs. It forms an excellent extemporaneous splint. Another good plan is to get a hat-box made of chip, and cut it into suitable lengths; or for want of all these, take some bones out of a pair of stays, and run them through a stout piece of rug, protecting the leg with a fold of rug, linen, &c. A still better splint or set of splints can be extemporized by cutting a sheet of thick pasteboard into proper sized slips, then passing each piece through a basin of hot water to soften it. It is then applied to the fractured limb like an ordinary splint, when it hardens as it dries, taking the exact shape of the part to which it is applied.

Good-Nature Collects Honey from Every Herb.

837.  Applying Dry Warmth

When dry warmth is required to be applied to any part of the body, fry a flour pancake and lay it over the part; or warm some sand and place in the patient's socks, and lay it to the part; salt put into a paper bag does as well; or warm water put into a stone jar, and rolled up in flannel.

838.  Minor Operations.

839.  Bleeding

Bleeding is sometimes necessary at once in certain accidents, such as concussion, and therefore it is well to know how to do this. First of all, bind up the arm above the elbow with a piece of bandage or a handkerchief pretty firmly, then place your finger over one of the veins at the bend of the arm, and feel if there is any pulsation; if there is, try another vein, and if it does not pulsate or beat, choose that one. Now rub the arm from the wrist towards the elbow, place the left thumb upon the vein, and hold the lancet as you would a pen, and nearly at right angles to the vein, taking care to prevent its going in too far, by keeping the thumb near to the point, and resting the hand upon the little finger. Now place the point of the lancet on the vein, push it suddenly inwards, depress the elbow, and raise the hand upwards and outwards, so as to cut obliquely across the vein.

When sufficient blood is drawn off, which is known by feeling the pulse at the wrist, and near the thumb, bandage the arm. If the pulse feel like a piece of cord, more blood should be taken away, but if it is soft, and can be easily pressed, the bleeding should be stopped. When you bandage the arm, place a piece of lint over the opening made by the lancet, and pass a bandage lightly but firmly around the arm, so as to cross it over the bend of the elbow, in form of a figure 8.

840.  Dry Cupping

Dry cupping is performed by throwing a piece of paper dipped into spirit of wine, and ignited, into a wineglass, and placing it over the part, such as the neck, temples, &c. It thus draws the flesh into the glass, and causes a determination of blood to the part, which is useful in headache, and many other complaints. This is an excellent method of extracting the poison from wounds made by adders, mad dogs, fish, &c.

841.  Ordinary Cupping

Ordinary cupping is performed the same as dry cupping, with this exception, that the part is scarified or scratched with a lancet, so as to cause the blood to flow; or by the application of a scarificator, which makes by one action from seven to twenty-one light superficial cuts. Then the glass is placed over it again with the lighted paper in it, and when sufficient blood has been taken away, the parts are then sponged, and a piece of sticking plaster placed over them.

842.  Leeches and their Application

The leech used for medical purposes is called the hirudo medicinalis to distinguish it from other varieties, such as the horse-leech and the Lisbon leech. It varies from two to four inches in length, and is of a blackish brown colour, marked on the back with six yellow spots, and edged with a yellow line on each side. Formerly leeches were supplied by Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and other fenny countries, but latterly most of the leeches are procured from France, where they are now becoming scarce.

843.  When Leeches are Applied

When leeches are applied to a part, it should be thoroughly freed from down or hair by shaving, and all liniments, &c., carefully and effectually cleaned away by washing. If the leech is hungry it will soon bite, but sometimes great difficulty is experienced in getting them to fasten. When this is the case, roll the leech into a little porter, or moisten the surface with a little blood, or milk, or sugar and water. Leeches may be applied by holding them over the part with a piece of linen cloth, or by means of an inverted glass, under which they must be placed.

844.  When applied to the Gums

When applied to the gums, care should be taken to use a leech glass, as they are apt to creep down the patient's throat: a large swan's quill will answer the purpose of a leech glass. When leeches are gorged they will drop off themselves; never tear them off from a person, but just dip the point of a moistened finger into some salt and touch them with it.

Ill-Nature Sucks Poison from the Sweetest Flower.]

845.  Quantity Removed

Leeches are supposed to abstract about two drachms of blood, or six leeches draw about an ounce; but this is independent of the bleeding after they have come off, and more blood generally flows then than during the time they are sucking. The total amount of blood drawn and subsequently lost by each leech-bite, is nearly half an ounce.

846.  After Leeches Come Away

After leeches come away, encourage the bleeding by flannels dipped in hot water and wrung out dry, and then apply a warm spongiopiline poultice. If the bleeding is not to be encouraged, cover the bites with a rag dipped in olive oil, or spread with spermaceti ointment, having previously sponged the parts clean.

847.  When Bleeding Continues

When bleeding continues from leech-bites, and it is desirable to stop it, apply pressure with the fingers over the part, or dip a rag in a strong solution of alum and lay over them, or use the tincture of sesquichloride of iron, or apply a leaf of matico to them, placing the under surface of the leaf next to the skin, or touch each bite with a finely-pointed piece of lunar caustic, or lay a piece of lint soaked in the extract of lead over the bites; and if all these tried in succession fail, pass a fine needle through a fold of the skin so as to include the bite, and twist a piece of thread round it. Be sure never to allow any one to go to sleep with leech-bites bleeding, without watching them carefully; and never apply too many to children; or place them where their bites can be compressed if necessary. In other words, never apply leeches to children except over a bone.

848.  After Leeches have been Used

After leeches have been used they should be placed in water containing sixteen per cent. of salt, which facilitates the removal of the blood they contain; and they should afterwards be placed one by one in warm water, and the blood forced out by _gentle_ pressure. The leeches should then be thrown into fresh water, which is to be renewed every twenty-four hours: they may then be re-applied after an interval of eight or ten days, and be disgorged a second time. The best plan, however, is to empty the leech by drawing the thumb and forefinger of the right hand along its body from the tail to the mouth, the leech being firmly held at the sucker extremity by the fingers of the left hand. By this means, with a few minutes' rest between each application, the same leech may be used four or five times in succession.

849.  If a Leech be Accidentally Swallowed

If a leech be accidentally swallowed, or by any means should get into the body, employ an emetic, or enema of salt and water.

850.  Scarification

Scarification is useful in severe contusions, and inflammation of parts. It is performed by scratching or slightly cutting through the skin with a lancet, holding the lancet as you would a pen when you are ruling lines on paper.

851.  Terms used to express the Properties of Medicines

852.  Absorbents

Absorbents are medicines which destroy acidity in the stomach and bowels, such as magnesia, prepared chalk, &c.

853.  Alteratives

Alteratives are medicines which restore health to the constitution, without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur, &c.

854.  Analeptics

Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost by sickness, such as gentian, bark, &c.

855.  Anodynes

Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided into three kinds, sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics (see these terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.

856.  Antacids

Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia, soda, &c.

One Watch Set Right will Do to Set Many by.

857.  Antalkalies

Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the system, such as citric, nitric, and sulphuric, acids, &c.

858.  Anthelmintics

Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c.

859.  Antibilious

Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections, such as calomel, &c.

860.  Antirheumatics

Antirheumatics are medicines used for the cure of rheumatism, such as colchicum, iodide of potash, &c.

861.  Antiscorbutics

Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, &c.

862.  Antiseptics

Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark, camphor, charcoal, vinegar, and creosote.

863.  Antispasmodics

Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, opium, and camphor.

864.  Aperients

Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as rhubarb, manna, and grey powder.

865.  Aromatics

Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably-flavoured, medicines, such as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c.

866.  Astringents

Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body, diminish excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as oak bark, galls, &c.

867.  Attenuants

Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as ammoniated iron, &c.

868.  Balsamics

Balsamics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as tolu, Peruvian balsam, &c.

869.  Carminatives

Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels, and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, &c.

870.  Cathartics

Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, &c.

871.  Cordials

Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic confection, &c.

872.  Corroborants

Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such as iron, gentian, meat, and wine.

873.  Demulcents

Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by covering their surfaces with a mild and viscid matter, such as linseed-tea, gum, mucilage, honey, and marsh-mallow.

874.  Deobstruents

Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide of potash, &c.

875.  Detergents

Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, &c.

876.  Diaphoretics

Diaphoretics produce perspiration, such as tartrate of antimony, James's powder, and camphor.

877.  Digestives

Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the formation of matter, such as resin, ointments, warm poultices, &c.

878.  Discutients

Discutients possess the power of repelling or resolving tumours, such as galbanum, mercury, and iodine.

879.  Diuretics

Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the flow of urine, such as nitre, squills, cantharides, camphor, antimony, and juniper.

880.  Drastics

Drastics are violent purgatives, such as gamboge, &c.

881.  Emetics

Emetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the stomach, such as mustard and hot water, tartar-emetic, ipecacuanha, sulphate of zinc, and sulphate of copper.

882.  Emmenagogues

Emmenagogues are medicines which exercise a direct action on the uterus or womb, provoking the natural periodical secretion, such as castor, asafœtida, galbanum, iron, mercury, aloes, hellebore, savine, ergot of rye, juniper, and pennyroyal.

883.  Emollients

Emollients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are applied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, &c.

884.  Epispastics

Epispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, Burgundy pitch, rosin, and galbanum.

885.  Errhines

Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c.

886.  Escharotics

Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitality of the part to which they are applied, such as lunar caustic, &c.

One that Goes Wrong may Mislead a Whole Neighbourhood.

887.  Expectorants

Expectorants are medicines which increase expectoration, or the discharge from the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, squills, opium, ammoniacum.

888.  Febrifuges

Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as all the antimonials, bark, quinine, mineral acids, arsenic.

889.  Hydragogues

Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid of dropsy, by producing watery evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel, &c.

890.  Hypnotics

Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as hops, henbane, morphia, poppy.

891.  Laxatives

Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than natural, such as manna, &c.

892.  Narcotics

Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain, such as opium, &c.

893.  Nutrients

Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, &c.

894.  Paregorics

Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage pain, such as compound tincture of camphor, henbane, hops, opium.

895.  Prophylactics

Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any particular disease, such as quinine, &c.

896.  Purgatives

Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels, such as senna, aloes, jalap, salts.

897.  Refrigerants

Refrigerants are medicines which suppress an unusual heat of the body, such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c.

898.  Rubefacients

Rubefacients are medicaments which cause redness of the skin, such as mustard, &c.

899.  Sedatives

Sedatives are medicines which depress the nervous energy, and destroy sensation, so as to compose, such as foxglove. (See Paregorics.)

900.  Sialogogues

Sialogogues are medicines which promote the flow of saliva or spittle, such as salt, calomel, &c.

901.  Soporifics

Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, such as hops, &c.

902.  Stimulants

Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such as food, wine, spirits, ether, sassafras, which is an internal stimulant, and savine, which is an external one.

903.  Stomachics

Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, &c.

904.  Styptics

Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of a part, and prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, Friar's balsam, extract of lead, and ice.

905.  Sudorifics

Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as ipecacuanha, antimony, James's powder, ammonia.

906.  Tonics

Tonics give general strength to the constitution, restore the natural energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as all the vegetable bitters, most of the minerals, also some kinds of food, wine, and beer.

907.  Vesicants

Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid ammonia, &c.

908.  Special Rules for the Prevention of Cholera

  1. It is impossible to urge too strongly the necessity, in all cases of cholera, of instant recourse to medical aid, and also in every form and variety of indisposition; for all disorders are found to merge in the dominant disease.

  1. Let immediate Relief be sought under disorder of the bowels especially, however slight. The invasion of cholera may thus be readily prevented.

  1. Let every Impurity, animal and vegetable, be quickly removed to a distance from the habitation, such as slaughterhouses, pig-sties, cesspools, necessaries, and all other domestic nuisances.

  1. Let all Uncovered Drains be carefully and frequently cleansed.

  1. Let the Grounds in and around the habitation be drained, so as effectually to carry off moisture of every kind.

  1. Let all Partitions he removed from within and without habitations, which unnecessarily impede ventilation.

  1. Let every Room be daily thrown open for the admission of fresh air; this should be done about noon, when the atmosphere is most likely to be dry.

  1. Let Dry Scrubbing be used in domestic cleansing in place of water cleansing.

  1. Let excessive Fatigue, and exposure to damp and cold, especially during the night, be avoided.

  1. Let the Use of Cold Drinks and acid liquors, especially under fatigue, be avoided, or when the body is heated.

  1. Let the Use of Cold Acid Fruits and vegetables be avoided.

  1. Let Excess in the use of ardent and fermented liquors and tobacco be avoided.

  1. Let a Poor Diet, and the use of impure water in cooking, or for drinking, be avoided.

  1. Let the Wearing of wet and insufficient clothes be avoided.

  1. Let a Flannel or woollen belt be worn round the belly.

  1. Let Personal Cleanliness be carefully observed.

  1. Let every cause tending to depress the moral and physical energies be carefully avoided. Let exposure to extremes of heat and cold be avoided.

  1. Let Crowding of persons within houses and apartments be avoided.

  1. Let Sleeping in low or damp rooms be avoided.

  1. Let Fires be kept up during the night in sleeping or adjoining apartments, the night being the period of most danger from attack, especially under exposure to cold or damp.

  1. Let all Bedding and clothing be daily exposed during winter and spring to the fire, and in summer to the heat of the sun.

  1. Let the Dead be buried in places remote from the habitations of the living. By the timely adoption of simple means such as these, cholera, or other epidemic, will be made to lose its venom.

The Loveliest Bird has No Song.

909.  Rules for the Preservation of Health

910.  Fresh Air

Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a very small proportion of carbonic acid gas. Air once breathed has lost the chief part of its oxygen, and acquired a proportionate increase of carbonic acid gas.

Therefore, health requires that we breathe the same air once only.

911.  Diet and Exercise

The solid part of our Bodies is continually wasting, and requires to be repaired by fresh substances.

Therefore, food which is to repair the loss, should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.

912.  Water

The fluid part of our bodies also wastes constantly; there is but one fluid in animals, which is water.

Therefore, water only is necessary, and no artifice can produce a better drink.

913.  Proportion of Food and Drink

The fluid of our bodies is to the solid in proportion as nine to one.

Therefore, a like proportion should prevail in the total amount of food taken.

914.  Sunshine

Light exercises an important influence upon the growth and vigour of animals and plants.

Therefore, our dwellings should freely admit the solar rays.

915.  Bad Odours

Decomposing animal and vegetable substances yield various noxious gases which enter the lungs and corrupt the blood.

Therefore, all impurities should be kept away from our abodes, and every precaution be observed to secure a pure atmosphere.

916.  Warmth

Warmth is essential to all the bodily functions.

Therefore, an equal bodily temperature should be maintained by exercise, by clothing, or by fire.

917.  Exercise and Clothing

Exercise warms, invigorates and purifies the body; clothing preserves the warmth the body generates; fire imparts warmth externally.

Therefore, to obtain and preserve warmth, exercise and clothing are preferable to fire.

918.  Ventilation

Fire consumes the Oxygen of the air, and produces noxious gases.

Therefore, the air is less pure in the presence of candles, gas, or coal fire, than otherwise, and the deterioration should be repaired by increased ventilation.

So the Loveliest Woman may Lack Virtue.

919.  Clean Skin

The skin is a highly-organized membrane, full of minute pores, cells, bloodvessels, and nerves; it imbibes moisture or throws it off, according to the state of the atmosphere and the temperature of the body. It also "breathes," as do the lungs (though less actively). All the internal organs sympathize with the skin.

Therefore, it should be repeatedly cleansed.

920.  Over-Work

Late hours and anxious pursuits exhaust the nervous system, and produce disease and premature death.

Therefore, the hours of labour and study should be short.

921.  Body and Mind

Mental and bodily exercise are equally essential to the general health and happiness.

Therefore, labour and study should succeed each other.

922.  Over-Indulgence

Man will live most healthily upon simple solids and fluids, of which a sufficient but temperate quantity should be taken.

Therefore, over indulgence in strong drinks, tobacco, snuff, opium, and all mere indulgences, should be avoided.

923.  Moderate Temperature

Sudden alternations of heat and cold are dangerous (especially to the young and the aged).

Therefore, clothing, in quantity and quality, should be adapted to the alternations of night and day, and of the seasons; and drinking cold water when the body is hot, and hot tea and soups when cold, are productive of many evils.

924.  Summary

Moderation in eating and drinking, short hours of labour and study, regularity in exercise, recreation, and rest, cleanliness, equanimity of temper and equality of temperature, —these are the great essentials to that which surpasses all wealth, health of mind and body.

925.  Homœopathy

926.  Principle of Homœopathy

As homœopathy is now practised so widely and, indeed, preferred to the older system in many families, the Domestic Pharmacopœia could scarcely lay claim to be considered complete without a brief mention of the principal remedies used and recommended by homœopathic practitioners, and the disorders for which these remedies are specially applicable. The principle of homœopathy is set forth in the Latin words "similia similibus curantur," the meaning of which is "likes are cured by likes."

The meaning of this is simply that the homœopathist in order to cure a disease, administers a medicine which would produce in a perfectly healthy subject, symptoms like, but not identical with or the same as, the symptoms to counteract which the medicine is given. The homœopathic practitioner, therefore, first makes himself thoroughly acquainted with the symptoms that are exhibited by the sufferer; having ascertained these, in order to neutralize them and restore the state of the patient's health to a state of equilibrium, so to speak, he administers preparations that would produce symptoms of a like character in persons in good health.

It is not said, be it remembered, that the drug can produce in a healthy person the disease from which the patient is suffering: it is only advanced by homœopathists that the drug given has the power of producing in a person in health, symptoms similar to those of the disease under which the patient is languishing, and that the correct mode of treatment is to counteract the disease symptoms by the artificial production of similar symptoms by medicinal means, or in other words, to suit the medicine to the disorder, by a previously acquired knowledge of the effects of the drug, by experiment on a healthy person.

927.  Allopathy

Allopathy is the name given to the older treatment of disorders, and the name is obtained from the fact, that the drugs given, do not produce symptoms corresponding to those of the disease for whose relief they are administered as in homœopathy. The introduction of the term is contemporary with homœopathy itself. It was merely given to define briefly the distinction that exists between the rival modes of treatment, and it has been accepted and adopted by all medical men who have no faith in homœopathy, and the treatment that its followers prescribe.

Deep Rivers Flow with Silent Majesty.

928.  Comparison

Allopathic treatment is said to be experimental, while homeopathic treatment is based on certainty, resulting from experience. The allopathist tries various drugs, and if one medicine or one combination of drugs fails, tries another; but the homœopathist administers only such medicaments as may be indicated by the symptoms of the patient. If two drugs are given, as is frequently, and perhaps generally, the case, it is because the symptoms exhibited are of such a character that they cannot be produced in a healthy person by the action of one and the same drug, and, consequently cannot be counteracted or neutralized by the action of a single drug.

929.  Homœopathic Medicines

Homœopathic medicines are given in the form of globules or tinctures, the latter being generally preferred by homeopathic practitioners. When contrasted with the doses of drugs given by allopathists, the small doses administered by homœopathists must at first sight appear wholly in adequate to the purpose for which they are given; but homœopathists, whose dilution and trituration diffuse the drug given throughout the vehicle in which it is administered, argue that by this extension of its surface the active power of the drug is greatly increased; and that there is reason in this argument is shown by the fact that large doses of certain drugs administered for certain purposes will pass through the system without in any way affecting those organs, which will be acted on most powerfully by the very same drugs when administered in much smaller doses. Thus a small dose of sweet spirit of nitre will act on the skin and promote perspiration, but a large dose will act as a diuretic only, and exert no influence on the skin.

930.  Treatment of Ailments by Homœopathy

Great stress is laid by homœopathists on attention to diet, but not so much so in the present day as when the system was first introduced. The reader will find a list of articles of food that may and may not be taken in par. 961. For complete direction on this point, and on diseases and their treatment and remedies, he must be referred to works on this subject by Dr. Richard Epps and others. All that can be done here is to give briefly a few of the more common ailments "that flesh is heir to," with the symptoms by which they are indicated, and the medicines by which they may be alleviated and eventually cured.

931.  Asthma

Asthma, an ailment which should be referred in all cases to the medical practitioner.

Symptoms. Difficulty of breathing, with cough, either spasmodic and without expectoration, or accompanied with much expectoration.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially with congestion or slight spitting of blood; Antimonium tartaricum for wheezing and rattling in the chest; Arsenicum for chronic asthma; ipecacuanha; Nux vomica.

932.  Bilious Attacks

Bilious attacks, if attended with diarrhœa and copious evacuations of a bright yellow colour.

Medicines. Bryonia, if arising from sedentary occupations, or from eating and drinking too freely; or Nux vomica and Mercurius in alternation, the former correcting constipation and the latter nausea, fulness at the pit of the stomach, and a foul tongue.

933.  Bronchitis

Symptoms. Catarrh accompanied with fever, expectoration dark, thick, and sometimes streaked with blood; urine dark, thick, and scanty.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially in earlier stages; Bryonia for pain in coughing and difficulty of breathing; Antimonium tartaricum, loose cough with much expectoration and a feeling of, and tendency to, suffocation; Ipecacuanha, accumulation of phlegm in bronchial tubes and for children.

Shallow Brooks are Noisy.

934.  Bruises and Wounds

For all bruises, black eyes, etc., apply Arnica lotion; for slight wounds, after washing well with cold water, apply Arnica plaster; to stop bleeding when ordinary means fail, and for larger wounds, apply concentrated tincture of Calendula.

935.  Cold in the Head or Catarrh

Symptoms. Feverish feeling generally, and especially about the head, eyes, and nose, running from, and obstruction of, nose; soreness and irritation of the throat and bronchial tubes.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus for feverish symptoms; Belladonna for sore throat and headache with inclination to cough; Mercurius for running from nose and sneezing; Nux vomica for stoppage of nostrils; Chamomilla for children and women, for whom Pulsatilla is also useful in such cases.

936.  Chilblains

Symptoms. Irritation and itching of the skin, which assumes a bluish red colour.

Medicines. Arnica montana, taken internally or used as outward application, unless the chilblain be broken, when arsenicum should be used. If the swelling and irritation do not yield to these remedies use Belladona and Rhus toxicodendron.

937.  Cholera

  1. Bilious or English cholera.
Symptoms. Nausea, proceeding to vomiting, griping of the bowels, watery and offensive evacuations, in which much bile is present, accompanied with weakness and depression.

Medicines. Bryonia, with ipecacuanha at commencement of attack.

  1. Malignant or Asiatic cholera.
Symptoms as in English cholera, but in a more aggravated form, followed by what is called the "cold stage," marked by great severity of griping pain in the stomach, accompanied with frequent and copious watery evacuations, and presently with cramps in all parts of the body; after which the extremities become chilled, the pulse scarcely discernible, the result of which is stupor and ultimately death.

Medicines. Camphor, in the form of tincture, in frequent doses, until the sufferer begins to feel warmth returning to the body, and perspiration ensues. In the later stages, Cuprum and Veratrum.

938.  Tincture of Camphor

Tincture of camphor is one of the most useful of the homœopathic remedies in all cases of colic, diarrhœa, etc. In ordinary cases fifteen drops on sugar may be taken every quarter of an hour until the pain is allayed. In more aggravated cases, and in cases of cholera, a few drops may be taken at intervals of from two to five minutes. A dose of fifteen drops of camphor on sugar tends to counteract a chill if taken soon after premonitory symptoms show themselves, and act as a prophylactic against cold.

939.  Colic or Stomach-Ache

This disorder is indicated by griping pains in the bowels, which sometimes extends upwards into and over the region of the chest. Sometimes the pain is attended with vomiting and cold perspiration. A warm bath is useful, and hot flannels, or a jar or bottle filled with hot water should be applied to the abdomen.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially when the abdomen is tender to the touch, and the patient is feverish; Belladonna for severe griping and spasmodic pains; Bryonia for bilious colic and diarrhœa; Chamomilla for children.

940.  Constipation

Women are more subject than men to this confined state of the bowels, which will, in many cases yield to exercise, plain nutritious diet, with vegetables and cooked fruit, and but little bread, and an enema of milk and water, or thin gruel if it is some time since there has been any action of the bowels.

Medicines. Bryonia, especially for rheumatic patients, and disturbed state of the stomach; Nux vomica, for persons of sedentary habits, especially males; Pulsatilla, for women; Sulphur, for constipation that is habitual or of long continuance.

941.  Convulsions

For convulsions arising from whatever cause, a warm bath is desirable, and a milk and water enema, if the child's bowels are confined.

Medicines. Belladonna and Chamomilla, if the convulsions are caused by teething, with Aconitum napellus if the little patient be feverish; Aconitum napellus, Cina, and Belladonna, for convulsions caused by worms; Aconite and Coffœa, when they arise from fright; Ipecacuanha and Nux vomica, when they have been caused by repletion, or food that is difficult of digestion.

942.  Cough

For this disorder, a light farinaceous diet is desirable, with plenty of out-door exercise and constant use of the sponging-bath.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, for a hard, dry, hacking cough; Antimonium, for cough with wheezing and difficulty of expectoration; Belladonna, for spasmodic cough, with tickling in the throat, or sore throat; Bryonia, for hard, dry cough, with expectorations streaked with blood; ipecacuanha, for children.

943.  Croup

As this disorder frequently and quickly terminates fatally, recourse should be had to a duly qualified practitioner as soon as possible. The disease lies chiefly in the larynx and bronchial tubes, and is easily recognisable by the sharp, barking sound of the cough. A warm bath and mustard poultice will often tend to give relief.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, in the earlier stages of the disorder, and spongia and Hepar sulphuris, in the more advanced stages, the latter medicine being desirable when the cough is not so violent and the breathing easier.

944.  Diarrhœa

The medicines to be used in this disorder are those which are mentioned under colic and bilious attacks.

945.  Dysentery

Dysentery is somewhat similar to diarrhœa, but the symptoms are more aggravated in character, and the evacuations are chiefly mucus streaked with blood. As a local remedy hot flannels or a stone jar filled with hot water and wrapped in flannel, should be applied to the abdomen.

Medicines. Colocynthis and Mercurius in alternation.

946.  Dyspepsia

Dyspepsia or Indigestion arises from weakness of the digestive organs.

Symptoms. Chief among these are habitual costiveness, heartburn and nausea, disinclination to eat, listlessness and weakness, accompanied with fatigue after walking, &c., restlessness and disturbed sleep at night, bad taste in the mouth, with white tongue, especially in the morning, accompanied at times with fulness in the region of the stomach, and flatulence which causes disturbance of the heart.

The causes of indigestion are too numerous to be mentioned here, but they may be inferred when it is said that scrupulous attention must be paid to diet (see par. 961); that meals should be taken at regular and not too long intervals; that warm drinks, stimulants, and tobacco should be avoided; that early and regular hours should be kept, with a cold or chilled sponge bath every morning; and that measures should be taken to obtain a fair amount of exercise, and to provide suitable occupation for both body and mind during the day.

Medicines. Arnica montana for persons who are nervous and irritable, and suffer much from headache; Bryonia for persons who are bilious and subject to rheumatism, and those who are listless, disinclined to eat, and have an unpleasant bitter taste in the mouth; Hepar sulphuris for chronic indigestion and costiveness, attended with tendency to vomit in the morning; Mercurius in cases of flatulence, combined with costiveness; Nux vomica for indigestion that makes itself felt from 2 a.m. to 4 a.m., or thereabouts, with loss of appetite and nausea in the morning, and for persons with a tendency to piles, and those who are engaged in sedentary occupations; Pulsatilla for women generally, and Chamomilla for children.

947.  Fevers

For all fevers of a serious character, such as scarlet fever, typhus fever, typhoid fever, gastric fever, intermittent fever, or ague, &c., it is better to send at once for a medical man. In cases of ordinary fever, indicated by alternate flushes and shivering, a hot dry skin, rapid pulse, and dry foul tongue, the patient should have a warm bath, take but little nourishment, and drink cold water.

Medicine. Aconitum napellus.

And Faith be Our Staff.

948.  Flatulency

This disorder, which arises from, and is a symptom of, indigestion, frequently affects respiration, and causes disturbance and quickened action of the heart. The patient should pay attention to diet, as for dyspepsia.

Medicines. China and Nux vomica; Pulsatilla for women, and Chamomilla for children. See Dyspepsia (946).

949.  Headache

This disorder proceeds from so many various causes, which require different treatment, that it is wiser to apply at once to a regular homœopathic practitioner, and especially in headache of frequent occurrence.

Medicines. Nux vomica when headache is caused by indigestion; Pulsatilla being useful for women; Belladonna and Ignatia, for sick headache; Aconitum napellus and Arsenicum for nervous headache.

950.  Heartburn

For this unpleasant sensation of heat, arising from the stomach, accompanied by a bitter taste, and sometimes by nausea, Nux vomica is a good medicine. Pulsatilla may be taken by women.

951.  Indigestion

See Dyspepsia (946).

952.  Measles

This complaint, which seldom attacks adults, is indicated in its early stage by the usual accompaniments and signs of a severe cold in the head—namely, sneezing, running from the nose and eyelids, which are swollen. The sufferer also coughs, does not care to eat, and feels sick and restless. About four days after the first appearance of these premonitory symptoms, a red rash comes out over the face, neck, and body, which dies away, and finally disappears in about five days. The patient should be kept warm, and remain in one room during the continuance of the disorder, and especially while the rash is out, lest, through exposure to cold in any way, the rash may be checked and driven inwards.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, and Pulsatilla, which are sufficient for all ordinary cases. If there be much fever, Belladonna; and if the rash be driven in by a chill, Bryonia.

953.  Mumps

This disorder is sometimes consequent on measles. It is indicated by the swelling of the glands under the ears and lower jaw. It is far more painful than dangerous. Fomenting with warm water is useful.

Medicines. Mercurius generally; Belladonna may be used when mumps follow an attack of measles.

954.  Nettlerash

This rash, so called because in appearance it resembles the swelling and redness caused by the sting of a nettle, is generally produced by a disordered state of the stomach.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus, Nux vomica, or Pulsatilla, in ordinary cases; Arsenicum is useful if there be much fever; Belladonna if the rash is accompanied with headache.

955.  Piles

The ordinary homœopathic remedies for this painful complaint are Nux vomica and Sulphur.

956.  Sprains

Apply to the part affected a lotion formed of one part of tincture of Arnica to two of water. For persons who cannot use Arnica, in consequence of the irritation produced by it, a lotion of tincture of Calendula may be used in the proportion of one part of the tincture to four of water.
957.  Teething

Infants and very young children frequently experience much pain in the mouth during dentition, and especially when the tooth is making its way through the gum. The child is often feverish, the mouth and gums hot and tender, and the face flushed. There is also much running from the mouth, and the bowels are disturbed, being in some cases confined, and in others relaxed, approaching to diarrhœa.

Medicines. These are Aconitum napellus, in ordinary cases; Nux vomica, when the bowels are confined; Chamomilla, when the bowels are relaxed; Mercurius, if the relaxed state of the bowels has deepened into diarrhœa; Belladonna, if there be symptoms of disturbance of the brain.

958.  Whooping-Cough

This disease is sometimes of long duration, for if it shows itself in the autumn or winter months, the little patient will frequently retain the cough until May or even June, when it disappears with the return of warmer weather. Change of air when practicable is desirable, especially when the cough has been of long continuance.

In this cough there are three stages. In the first the symptoms are those of an ordinary cold in the head and cough. In the second the cough becomes hard, dry and rapid, and the inhalation of the air, after or during the paroxysm of coughing produces the peculiar sound from which the disease is named. In the final stage the cough occurs at longer intervals, and the paroxysms are less violent and ultimately disappear. In this stage the disease is subject to fluctuation, the cough again increasing in frequency of occurrence and intensity if the patient has been unduly exposed to cold or damp, or if the weather is very changeable.

Children suffering from whooping-cough should have a light nourishing diet and only go out when the weather is mild and warm.

Medicines. Aconitum napellus in the very commencement of the disorder, followed by Ipecacuanha and Nux vomica when the second stage is just approaching and during its continuance. These medicines may be continued if necessary during the third stage.

959.  Worms

The presence of worms is indicated by irritation of the membrane of the nose, causing the child to thrust its finger into the nostrils; by irritation of the lower part of the body; by thinness, excessive appetite and restlessness in sleep. Children suffering from worms should eat meat freely and not take so much bread, vegetables, and farinaceous food as children generally do. They should have as much exercise as possible in the open air, and be sponged with cold water every morning. The worms that mostly trouble children are the thread worms, which are present chiefly in the lower portion of the intestines, and the round worm.

Medicines, &c.. Administer an injection of weak salt-and-water, and give Aconitum napellus, to be followed by Ignatia and Sulphur in the order in which they are here given. These are the usual remedies for thread worms. For round worms, whose presence in the stomach is indicated by great thinness, sickness and discomfort, and pain in the stomach, Aconitum napellus, Cina, Ignatia and Sulphur are given.

960.  Extent of Doses in Homœopathy

Homœopathic medicines are given in the form of globules, pilules, or tincture, the last-named being generally preferred. The average doses for adults are from half a drop to one drop of the tincture given in a tablespoonful of water, from two to four pilules, or from three to six globules. In using the tincture it is usual to measure out a few tablespoonfuls of water and to add to it a certain number of drops regulated by the quantity of water that is used. For children medicine is mixed at the same strength, but a less quantity is given. The proper quantity for a dose is always given in books and manuals for the homœopathic treatment of disease. Small cases of the principal medicines used in homœopathy can be procured from most chemists, and with each case a little book showing the symptoms and treatment of all ordinary complaints is usually given.

961.  Diet in Homœopathy

The articles of food that are chiefly recommended when attention to diet is necessary are stale bread, beef, mutton, poultry, fresh game, fish, chiefly cod and flat fish, avoiding mackerel, &c., eggs and oysters. Rice, sago, tapioca, and arrowroot are permitted, as are also potatoes, carrots, turnips, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, French beans, and broad beans. Water, milk, cocoa, and chocolate may be drunk. It is desirable to avoid all things that are not specified in the foregoing list. Ripe fruit may be eaten, but unripe fruit, unless cooked should be scrupulously avoided.

Part 2

962.  Signs of the Weather

963.  Dew

If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, it is a sign of another fair day. If not, and there is no wind, rain must follow. A red evening portends fine weather; but if the redness spread too far upwards from the horizon in the evening, and especially in the morning, it foretells wind or rain, or both.
964.  Colour of Sky

When the sky, in rainy weather, is tinged with sea green, the rain will increase; if with deep blue, it will be showery.
965.  Clouds

Previous to much rain falling, the clouds grow bigger, and increase very fast, especially before thunder. When the clouds are formed like fleeces, but dense in the middle and bright towards the edges, with the sky bright, they are signs of a frost, with hail, snow, or rain. If clouds form high in air, in thin white trains like locks of wool, they portend wind, and probably rain. When a general cloudiness covers the sky, and small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they are a sure sign of rain, and probably will be lasting. Two currents of clouds always portend rain, and, in summer, thunder.
966.  Heavenly Bodies

A haziness in the air, which dims the sun's light, and makes the orb appear whitish, or ill-defined—or at night, if the moon and stars grow dim, and a ring encircles the former, rain will follow. If the sun's rays appear like Moses' horns—if white at setting, or shorn of his rays, or if he goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad weather is to be expected. If the moon looks pale and dim, we expect rain; if red, wind; and if of her natural colour, with a clear sky, fair weather. If the moon is rainy throughout, it will clear at the change, and, perhaps, the rain return a few days after. If fair throughout, and rain at the change, the fair weather will probably return on the fourth or fifth day.
967.  Weather Precautions

If the weather appears doubtful, always take the precaution of having an umbrella when you go out, as you thereby avoid the chance of getting wet—or encroaching under a friend's umbrella.—or being under the necessity of borrowing one, which involves the trouble of returning it, and possibly puts the lender to inconvenience.
968.  Leech Barometer

Take an eight ounce phial and three-parts fill it with water, and place in it a healthy leech, changing the water in summer once a week, and in winter once in a fortnight, and it will most accurately prognosticate the weather. If the weather is to be fine, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, and coiled together in a spiral form; if rain may be expected, it will creep up to the top of its lodgings, and remain there till the weather is settled; if we are to have wind, it will move through its habitation with amazing swiftness, and seldom goes to rest till it begins to blow hard; if a remarkable storm of thunder and rain is to succeed, it will lodge for some days before almost continually out of the water, and discover great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsive-like motions; in frost as in clear summer-like weather it lies constantly at the bottom; and in snow as in rainy weather it pitches its dwelling in the very mouth of the phial. The top should be covered over with a piece of muslin.
969.  The Chemical Barometer

Take a long narrow bottle, such as an old-fashioned Eau-de-Cologne bottle, and put into it two and a half drachms of camphor, and eleven drachms of spirit of wine; when the camphor is dissolved, which it will readily do by slight agitation, add the following mixture:—Take water, nine drachms; nitrate of potash (saltpetre), thirty-eight grains; and muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniæ), thirty-eight grains. Dissolve these salts in the water prior to mixing with the camphorated spirit; then shake the whole well together. Cork the bottle well, and wax the top, but afterwards make a very small aperture in the cork with a red-hot needle. The bottle may then be hung up, or placed in any stationary position. By observing the different appearances which the materials assume, as the weather changes, it becomes an excellent prognosticator of a coming storm or of fine weather.
970.   Signification of Names

971.  Christian Names of Men

name origin meaning
Aaron Hebrew a mountain, or lofty
Abel Hebrew vanity
Abraham Hebrew the father of many
Absalom Hebrew the father of peace
Adam Hebrew red earth
Adolphus Saxon happiness and help
Adrian Latin one who helps
Alan Celtic harmony; or Slavonic, a hound
Albert Saxon all bright
Alexander Greek a helper of men
Alfred Saxon all peace
Alonzo form of Alphonso, q. v.
Alphonso German ready or willing
Ambrose Greek immortal
Amos Hebrew a burden
Andrew Greek courageous
Anthony Latin flourishing
Archibald German a bold observer
Arnold German a maintainer of honour
Arthur British a strong man
Augustus / Augustin Latin venerable, grand
Baldwin German a bold winner
Bardulph German a famous helper
Barnaby Hebrew a prophet's son
Bartholemew Hebrew the son of him who made the waters to rise
Beaumont French a pretty mount
Bede Saxon prayer
Benjamin Hebrew the son of a right hand
Bennet Latin blessed
Bernard German bear's heart.
Bertram German fair, illustrious
Bertrand German bright raven
Boniface Latin a well-doer
Brian French having a thundering voice
Cadwallader British valiant in war
Cæsar Latin adorned with hair
Caleb Hebrew a dog
Cecil Latin dim-sighted
Charles German noble-spirited
Christopher Greek bearing Christ
Clement Latin mild-tempered
Conrad German able counsel
Constantine Latin resolute
Cornelius Latin meaning uncertain
Crispin Latin having curled locks
Cuthbert Saxon known famously
Dan Hebrew judgment
Daniel Hebrew God is judge
David Hebrew well-beloved
Denis Greek belonging to the god of wine.
Douglas Gaelic dark grey
Duncan Saxon brown chief
Dunstant Saxon most high
Edgar Saxon happy honour
Edmund Saxon happy peace
Edward Saxon happy keeper
Edwin Saxon happy conqueror
Egbert Saxon ever bright
Elijah Hebrew God the Lord
Elisha Hebrew the salvation of God
Emmanuel Hebrew God with us.
Enoch Hebrew dedicated
Ephraim Hebrew fruitful
Erasmus Greek lovely, worthy to be loved
Ernest Greek earnest, serious
Esau Hebrew hairy
Eugene Greek nobly descended
Eustace Greek standing firm.
Evan or Ivan British he same as John
Everard German well reported
Ezekiel Hebrew the strength of God.
Felix Latin happy
Ferdinand German pure peace
Fergus Saxon manly strength
Francis German free
Frederic German rich peace
Gabriel Hebrew the strength of God
Geoffrey German joyful
George Greek a husbandman
Gerard Saxon all towardliness.
Gideon Hebrew a breaker
Gilbert Saxon bright as gold
Giles Greek a little goat
Godard German a godly disposition
Godfrey German God's peace
Godwin German victorious in God
Griffith British having great faith
Guy French a leader
Hannibal Punic a gracious lord
Harold Saxon a champion
Hector Greek a stout defender
Henry German a rich lord
Herbert German a bright lord
Hercules Greek the glory of Hera, or Juno
Hezekiah Hebrew cleaving to the Lord
Horace / Horatio Latin / Italian worthy to be beheld
Howel British sound or whole
Hubert German a bright colour
Hugh Dutch high, lofty
Humphrey German domestic peace
Ignatius Latin fiery
Ingram German of angelic purity
Isaac Hebrew laughter
Jabez Hebrew one who causes pain
Jacob Hebrew a supplanter
James / Jacques Hebrew / French beguiling
Joab Hebrew fatherhood
Job Hebrew sorrowing
Joel Hebrew acquiescing
John Hebrew the grace of the Lord.
Jonah Hebrew a dove
Jonathon Hebrew the gift of the Lord
Joscelin German just
Joseph Hebrew addition
Joshua Hebrew a Saviour
Josiah / Josais Hebrew the fire of the Lord
Julius Latin soft-haired
Lambert Saxon a fair lamb
Lancelot Spanish a little lance
Laurence Latin crowned with laurels
Lazarus Hebrew destitute of help
Leonard German like a lion
Leopold German defending the people
Lewis / Louis French the defender of the people
Lionel Latin a little lion
Llewellin British like a lion
Llewellyn Celtic lightning
Lucius Latin shining
Luke Greek a wood or grove
Manfred German great peace
Mark Latin a hammer
Martin Latin martial
Matthew Hebrew a gift or present.
Maurice Latin sprung of a Moor
Meredith British the roaring of the sea
Michael Hebrew who is like God?
Morgan British a mariner
Moses Hebrew drawn out
Nathaniel Hebrew the gift of God
Neal French somewhat black
Nicholas Greek victorious over the people
Noel French belonging to one's nativity
Norman French one born in Normandy
Obadiah Hebrew the servant of the Lord
Oliver Latin an olive
Orlando Italian counsel for the land
Orson Latin a bear
Osmund Saxon house peace
Oswald Saxon ruler of a house
Owen British well-descended
Patrick Latin a nobleman
Paul Latin small, little
Paulinus Latin little Paul
Percival French a place in France
Percy English adaptation of "pierce eye"
Peregrine Latin outlandish
Peter Greek a rock or stone
Philip Greek a lover of horses
Ralph, contracted
from Randolph,
or Randal, or Ranulph
Saxon pure help
Raymond German quiet peace
Reuben Hebrew the son of vision
Reynold German a lover of purity
Richard Saxon powerful
Robert German famous in counsel
Roderick German rich in fame
Roger German strong counsel
Roland / Rowland
/ Rollo
German counsel for the land
Rufus Latin reddish
Samson Hebrew a little son
Samuel Hebrew heard by God
Saul Hebrew desired
Sebastian Greek to be reverenced
Seth Hebrew appointed
Silas Latin sylvan or living in the woods
Simeon Hebrew hearing
Simon Hebrew obedient
Solomon Hebrew peaceable
Stephen Greek a crown or garland
Swithin Saxon very high
Theobold Saxon bold over the people
Theodore Greek the gift of God
Theodosius Greek given of God
Theophilus Greek a lover of God
Thomas Hebrew a twin
Timothy Greek a fearer of God
Titus Greek meaning uncertain
Toby / Tobias Hebrew the goodness of the Lord
Valentine Latin powerful
Victor Latin conqueror
Vincent Latin conquering
Vivian Latin living
Walter German a conqueror
Walwin German a conqueror
Wilfred Saxon bold and peaceful
William German defending many
Zaccheus Syriac innocent
Zachary Hebrew remembering the Lord
Zebedee Syriac having an inheritance
Zechariah Hebrew remembered of the Lord
Zedekiah Hebrew the justice of the Lord

972.  Christian Names of Women

name origin meaning
Ada German same as Edith
Adela German same as Adeline
Adelaide German same as Adeline
Adeline German a princess
Agatha Greek good
Agnes German chaste
Alethea Greek the truth
Althea Greek hunting
Alice / Alicia German noble
Alma Latin benignant
Amabel Latin loveable
Amy / Amelia French a beloved
Angelina Greek lovely, angelic
Anna / Anne Hebrew gracious
Arabella Latin a fair altar
Aureola Latin like gold
Aurora Latin morning brightness
Barbara Latin foreign or strange
Beatrice Latin making happy
Bella Latin beautiful
Benedicta Latin blessed
Bernice Greek bringing victory
Bertha Greek bright or famous
Bessie short form of Elizabeth
Blanche French fair
Bona Latin good
Bridget Irish shining bright
Camilla Latin attendant at a sacrifice
Carlotta Italian same as Charlotte
Caroline Latin feminine of Carolus (Charles): noble-spirited
Cassandra Greek a reformer of men
Catherine Greek pure or clean.
Cecilia Latin from Cecil
Charity Greek love, bounty
Charlotte French all noble
Chloe Greek a green herb
Christiana Greek belonging to Christ
Cicely a corruption of Cecilia
Clara Latin clear or bright
Clarissa Latin clear or bright
Constance Latin constant
Dagmar German joy of the Danes
Deborah Hebrew a bee
Diana Greek Jupiter's daughter
Dorcas Greek a wild roe
Dorothy / Dorothea Greek the gift of God
Edith Saxon happiness
Eleanor Saxon all fruitful
Eliza / Elizabeth Hebrew the oath of God
Ellen another form of Helen
Emily corrupted from Amelia
Emma German a nurse
Esther / Hesther Hebrew secret
Eudoia Greek prospering in the way
Eudora Greek good gift
Eudosia Greek good gift or well-given
Eugenia French well-born
Eunice Greek fair victory
Eva / Eve Hebrew causing life
Fanny diminutive of Frances
Fenella Greek bright to look on
Flora Latin flowers
Florence Latin blooming, flourishing
Frances German free
Gertrude German all truth
Grace Latin favour
Hagar Hebrew a stranger
Hadassah Hebrew form of Esther
Hannah Hebrew gracious
Harriet German head of the house
Helen / Helena Greek alluring
Henrietta fem. and dim. of Henry
Hepzibah Hebrew my delight is in her
Hilda German warrior maiden
Honora Latin honourable
Huldah Hebrew a weazel
Isabella Spanish fair Eliza
Jane / Jeanne feminine of John
Janet / Jeannette little Jane
Jemima Hebrew a dove
Joan Hebrew fem. of John
Joanna / Johanna form of Joan
Joyce French pleasant
Judith Hebrew praising
Julia / Juliana feminine of Julian
Katherine form of Catherine
Keturah Hebrew incense
Keziah Hebrew cassia
Laura Latin a laurel
Lavinia Latin of Latium
Letitia Latin joy of gladness
Lilian / Lily Latin a lily
Lois Greek better
Louisa German fem. of Louis
Lucretia Latin a chaste Roman lady
Lucy Latin feminine of Lucius
Lydia Greek descended from Lud
Mabel Latin lovely or loveable
Madeline form of Magdalen
Magdalen Syriac magnificent
Margaret Greek a pearl
Maria / Marie forms of Mary
Martha Hebrew bitterness
Mary Hebrew bitter
Matilda German a lady of honour
Maud German form of Matilda
May Latin month of May, or dim. of Mary
Mercy English compassion
Mildred Saxon speaking mild
Minnie dim. of Margaret
Naomi Hebrew alluring
Nest British the same as Agnes
Nicola Greek feminine of Nicholas
Olive / Olivia Latin an olive
Olympic Greek heavenly
Ophelia Greek a serpent
Parnell / Petronilla little Peter
Patience Latin bearing patiently
Paulina Latin feminine of Paulinus
Penelope Greek a weaver
Persis Greek destroying
Philadelphia Greek brotherly love
Philippa Greek feminine of Philip
Phœbe Greek the light of life.
Phyllis Greek a green bough
Polly variation of Molly, dim. of Mary
Priscilla Latin somewhat old
Prudence Latin discretion
Psyche Greek the soul
Rachel Hebrew a lamb
Rebecca Hebrew fat or plump
Rhoda Greek a rose
Rosa / Rose Latin a rose
Rosalie / Rosaline Latin little rose
Rosalind Latin beautiful as a rose
Rosabella Italian a fair rose
Rosamund Saxon rose of peace
Roxana Persian dawn of day
Ruth Hebrew trembling, or beauty
Sabina Latin sprung from the Sabines
Salome Hebrew perfect
Sapphira Greek like a sapphire stone
Sarah Hebrew a princess
Selina Greek the moon
Sybilla Greek the counsel of God
Sophia Greek wisdom
Sophronia Greek of a sound mind
Susan / Susanna Hebrew a lily
Tabitha Syriac a roe
Temperance Latin moderation
Theodosia Greek given by God
Tryphena Greek delicate
Tryphosa Greek delicious
Victoria Latin victory
Vida Erse feminine of David
Ursula Latin a she bear
Walburga Saxon gracious
Winifred Saxon winning peace
Zenobia Greek the life of Jupiter

Nor break the ties of friendship needlessly.

973.  Hints on the Barometer

974.  Why does a Barometer indicate the Pressure of the Atmosphere?

Because it consists of a tube containing quicksilver, closed at one end and open at the other, so that the pressure of air upon the open end balances the weight of the column of mercury (quicksilver); and when the pressure of the air upon the open surface of the mercury increases or decreases, the mercury rises or falls in response thereto.
975.  Why is a Barometer called also a "Weather Glass"?

Because changes in the weather are generally preceded by alterations in the atmospheric pressure. But we cannot perceive those changes as they gradually occur; the alteration in the height of the column of mercury, therefore, enables us to know that atmospheric changes are taking place, and by observation we are enabled to determine certain rules by which the state of the weather may be foretold with considerable probability.
976.  Why docs the Hand of the Weather Dial change its Position when the Column of Mercury rises or falls?

Because a weight which floats upon the open surface of the mercury is attached to a string, having a nearly equal weight at the other extremity; the string is laid over a revolving pivot, to which the hand is fixed, and the friction of the string turns the hand as the mercury rises or falls.
977.  Why does Tapping the Face of the Barometer sometimes cause the Hand to Move?

Because the weight on the surface of the mercury frequently leans against the side of the tube, and does not move freely. And, also, the mercury clings to the sides of the tube by capillary attraction; therefore, tapping on the face of the barometer sets the weight free, and overcomes the attraction which impedes the rise or fall of the mercury.
978.  Why does the Fall of the Barometer denote the Approach of Rain?

Because it shows that as the air cannot support the full weight of the column of mercury, the atmosphere must be thin with watery vapours.
979.  Why does the Rise of the Barometer denote the Approach of Fine Weather?

Because the external air, becoming dense, and free from highly elastic vapours, presses with increased force upon the mercury upon which the weight floats; that weight, therefore, sinks in the short tube as the mercury rises in the long one, and in sinking, turns the hand to Change, Fair, &c.
980.  When does the Barometer stand highest?

When there is a duration of frost, or when north-easterly winds prevail.
981.  Why does the Barometer stand highest at these Times?

Because the atmosphere is exceedingly dry and dense, and fully balances the weight of the column of mercury.
982.  When does the Barometer stand lowest?

When a thaw follows a long frost, or when south-west winds prevail.
983.  Why does the Barometer stand lowest at these Times?

Because much moisture exists in the air, by which it is rendered less dense and heavy1.

Footnote 1:   From "The Reason Why—General Science, containing 1,400 Reasons for things generally believed but imperfectly understood." London: Houlston and Sons.
return to footnote mark
984.  Cheap Fuel

One bushel of small coal or sawdust, or both mixed together, two bushels of sand, one bushel and a half of clay. Let these be mixed together with common water, like ordinary mortar; the more they are stirred and mixed together the better; then make them into balls, or, with a small mould, in the shape of bricks, pile them in a dry place, and use when hard and sufficiently dry. A fire cannot be lighted with them, but when the fire is lighted, put two or three on behind with some coals in front, and the fire will be found to last longer than if made up in the ordinary way.
985.  Economy of Fuel

There is no part of domestic economy which everybody professes to understand better than the management of a fire, and yet there is no branch in the household arrangement where there is a greater proportional and unnecessary waste than arises from ignorance and mismanagement in this article.
986.  The Use of the Poker

The use of the poker should be confined to two particular points—the opening of a dying fire, so as to admit the free passage of the air into it, and sometimes, but not always, through it; or else, drawing together the remains of a half-burned fire, so as to concentrate the heat, whilst the parts still ignited are opened to the atmosphere.
987.  The Use of Bellows (1)

When using a pair of bellows to a fire only partially ignited, or partially extinguished, blow, at first, not into the part that is still alight, but into the dead coals close to it, so that the air may partly extend to the burning coal.
988.  The Use of Bellows (2)

After a few blasts blow into the burning fuel, directing the stream partly towards the dead coal, when it will be found that the ignition will extend much more rapidly than under the common method of blowing furiously into the flame at random.
989.  Ordering Coals

If the consumer, instead of ordering a large supply of coals at once, will at first content himself with a sample, he may with very little trouble ascertain who will deal fairly with him; and, if he wisely pays ready money, he will be independent of his coal merchant; a situation which few families, even in genteel life, can boast of.
990.  The Truest Economy (1)

To deal for ready money only in all the departments of domestic arrangement, is the truest economy. This truth cannot be repeated too often.
991.  The Truest Economy (2)

Ready money will always command the best and cheapest of every article of consumption, if expended with judgment; and the dealer, who intends to act fairly, will always prefer it.
992.   Cash vs. Credit (1)

Trust not him who seems more anxious to give credit than to receive cash.
993.   Cash vs. Credit (2)

The former hopes to secure custom by having a hold upon you in his books, and continues always to make up for his advance, either by an advanced price, or an inferior article, whilst the latter knows that your custom can only be secured by fair dealing.
994.  Buy at Proper Seasons

There is, likewise, another consideration, as far as economy is concerned, which is not only to buy with ready money, but to buy at proper seasons; for there is with every article a cheap season and a dear one; and with none more than coals, insomuch that the master of a family who fills his coal cellar in the middle of the summer, rather than the beginning of the winter, will find it filled at far less expense than it would otherwise cost him.
995.  Waste

It is now necessary to remind our readers that chimneys often smoke, and that coals are often wasted by throwing too much fuel at once upon a fire.
996.  Preventing Waste

To prove this it is only necessary to remove the superfluous coal from the top of the grate, when the smoking instantly ceases; as to the waste, that evidently proceeds from the injudicious use of the poker, which not only throws a great portion of the small coals among the cinders, but often extinguishes the fire it was intended to foster.
997.  The "Parson's" or Front Fire Grate

The construction of most of the grates of the present day tends very much to a great consumption of fuel without a proportionate increase in the heat of the room. The "Parson's" grate was suggested by the late Mr. Mechi, of Tiptree Hall, Kelvedon, Essex, in order to obtain increased heat from less fuel. Speaking of this grate, Mr. Mechi says:
"The tested gain by the use of this grate is an increase of 15 degrees of temperature, with a saving of one-third in fuel. I believe that there are several millions of grates on the wrong principle, hurrying the heat up the chimney instead of into the room, and thus causing an in-draught of cold air. This is especially the case with strong drawing registers. No part of a grate should be of iron, except the thin front bars; for iron is a conductor away of heat, but fire-bricks are not so."
The principle of the grate is thus explained by a writer in The Field, who says:
"If any of your readers are troubled with smoky fires and cold rooms, allow me to recommend them to follow Mr. Mechi's plan, as I have done. Remove the front and bottom bars from any ordinary grate; then lay on the hearth, under where the bars were, a large fire tile, three inches thick, cut to fit properly, and projecting about an inch further out than the old upright bars. Then get made by the blacksmith a straight hurdle, twelve inches deep, having ten bars, to fit into the slots which held the old bars, and allow it to take its bearing upon the projecting fire-brick. The bars should be round, of five-eighth inch rod, excepting the top and bottom, which are better flat, about 1-1/4 in. broad. My dining-room grate was thus altered at a total cost of eighteen shillings two years ago, the result being that a smoky chimney is cured, and that the room is always at a really comfortable temperature, with a smaller consumption of coal than before. The whole of the radiation is into the room, with perfect slow combustion."

998.  Oil Lighting

Whenever oil, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, is used for the purpose of artificial light, it should be kept free from all exposure to atmospheric air; as it is apt to absorb considerable quantities of oxygen. If animal oil is very coarse or tenacious, a very small quantity of oil of turpentine may be added.
999.  Improving Candles

Candles improve by keeping a few months. If wax candles become discoloured or soiled, they may be restored by rubbing them over with a clean flannel slightly dipped in spirits of wine.
1000.  Lighting Candles

In lighting candles always hold the match to the side of the wick, and not over the top of it, as is generally done.
1001.  Night Lights

Field's and Child's night lights are generally known and are easily obtainable. But under circumstances where they cannot be procured, the waste of candles may be thus applied. Make a fine cotton, and wax it with white wax. Then cut into the requisite lengths. Melt the grease and pour into pill boxes, previously either fixing the cotton in the centre, or dropping it in just before the grease sets. If a little white wax be melted with the grease, all the better. In this manner, the ends and drippings of candles may be used up. When set to burn, place in a saucer, with sufficient water to rise to the extent of the 16th of an inch around the base of the night light.
1002.  Revolving Ovens

These ovens may be easily made by any tin-man. They are not now manufactured for sale, which is to be regretted, on account of their obvious utility. When suspended in front of any ordinary fire by means of a bottle-jack or a common worsted string, the Revolving Oven will bake bread, cakes, pies, &c., in a much more equal and perfect manner than either a side oven or an American oven, without depriving the room of the heat and comfort of the fire. Before an ordinary fire, in any room in the house, it will bake a four-pound loaf in an hour and twenty minutes. It also bakes pastry remarkably well, and all the care it requires is merely to give it a look now and then to see that it keeps turning.

The bottom of the oven1, is made in the form of two saucers, the lower one of which is inverted, while the other stands on it in the ordinary position. A rim, from 1 in. to 2 in. in height, is fixed round the edge of the upper saucer, but a little within it, and over this rim fits a cylinder with a top, slightly domed, which also resembles a saucer turned upside-down. In the centre of the top is a circular ventilator, through which steam, generated in baking, can escape, and the ventilator is covered by a domed plate, as large as the top of the oven. This acts as a radiator to reflect heat on the top of the oven, and is furnished with a knob, by which the cylinder that covers the article to be baked may be removed, in order to view the progress of the baking. Two strong wires project from the bottom on either side, terminating in loops or eyes for the reception of the hooks of a handle, by which the entire apparatus may be suspended in front of the fire.

Footnote 1:   An illustration of this oven is given in the "Dictionary of Daily Wants," under the word "Oven." This work is published by Messrs. Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square, E.C.
return to footnote mark
1003.  Yeast (1)

Boil, say on Monday morning, two ounces of the best hops in four quarts of water for half an hour; strain it, and let the liquor cool to new-milk warmth; then put in a small handful of salt, and half a pound of sugar; beat up one pound of the best flour with some of the liquor, and then mix well all together. On Wednesday add three pounds of potatoes, boiled, and then mashed, to stand till Thursday; then strain it and put it into bottles, and it is ready for use. It must be stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near the fire. Before using, shake the bottle up well. It will keep in a cool place for two months, and is best at the latter part of the time. This yeast ferments spontaneously, not requiring the aid of other yeast; and if care be taken to let it ferment well in the earthen bowl in which it is made, you may cork it up tight when bottled. The quantity above given will fill four seltzer-water bottles.

Never spend your money before you have it.

1004.  Yeast (2)

The following is an excellent recipe for making yeast:—For 14 lbs. of flour (but a greater quantity does not require so much in proportion),—into two quarts of water put a quarter of an ounce of hops, two potatoes sliced, and a tablespoonful of malt or sugar; boil for twenty minutes, strain through a sieve, let the liquor stand till new-milk warm, then add the quickening; let it stand in a large jar or jug till sufficiently risen; first put into an earthen bottle from a pint to two quarts of the yeast, according to the size of the baking, for a future quickening. Let it stand uncorked an hour or two, and put into a cool place till wanted for a fresh baking. Put the remainder of it, and two quarts of warm water, to half or more of the flour; stir well, let it stand to rise, knead up with the rest of the flour, put it into or upon tins, and let it stand to rise. Then bake in a moderately quick oven. For a first quickening a little German yeast will do.
1005.  Economical Yeast

Boil one pound of good flour, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and a little salt, in two gallons of water, for one hour. When milk-warm, bottle it, and cork it close. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours. One pint of this yeast will make eighteen pounds of bread.
1006.  Pure and Cheap Bread

Whole meal bread may be made by any one who possesses a small hand mill that will grind about twenty pounds of wheat at a time. This bread is far more nutritious than ordinary bread made from flour from which the bran has been entirely separated. The meal thus obtained may be used for puddings, &c. There are mills which grind and dress the wheat at one operation. Such mills may be obtained at any ironmonger's. The saving in the cost of bread amounts to nearly one-third, which would soon cover the cost of the mill, and effect a most important saving, besides promoting health, by avoiding the evil effects of adulterated flour.
1007.  Home-made Bread

To one quartern of flour (three pounds and a half), add a dessertspoonful of salt, and mix them well; mix about two tablespoonfuls of good fresh yeast with half a pint of water a little warm, but not hot; make a hole with your hand in the middle of the flour, but not quite touching the bottom of the pan; pour the water and yeast into this hole, and stir it with a spoon till you have made a thin batter; sprinkle this over with flour, cover the pan over with a dry cloth, and let it stand in a warm room for an hour; not near the fire, except in cold weather, and then not too close; then add a pint of water a little warm, and knead the whole well together, till the dough comes clean through the hand (some flour will require a little more water; but in this, experience must be your guide); let it stand again for about a quarter of an hour, and then bake at pleasure.
1008.  Indian Corn Flour and Wheaten Bread

The peculiarity of this bread consists in its being composed in part of Indian corn flour, which will be seen by the following analysis by the late Professor Johnston, to be much richer in gluten and fatty matter than the flour of wheat, to which circumstance it owes its highly nutritive character:

English Fine
Wheaten Flour
Corn Flour
water 16 12
gluten 10 12
Fat 2 8
Starch, etc. 72 66
Total 100 100

Take of Indian corn flour seven pounds, pour upon it four quarts of boiling water, stirring it all the time; let it stand till about new-milk warm, then mix it with fourteen pounds of fine wheaten flour, to which a quarter of a pound of salt has been previously added. Make a depression on the surface of this mixture, and pour into it two quarts of yeast, which should be thickened to the consistence of cream with some of the flour; let it stand all night; on the following morning the whole should be well kneaded, and allowed to stand for three hours; then divide it into loaves, which are better baked in tins, in which they should stand for half an hour, then bake. Thirty-two pounds of wholesome, nutritive, and very agreeable bread will be the result. It is of importance that the flour of Indian corn should be procured, as Indian corn meal is that which is commonly met with at the shops, and the coarseness of the husk in the meal might to some persons be prejudicial.

Never trouble another for what you can do yourself.

1009.  To make Bread with German Yeast

To one quartern of flour add a dessertspoonful of salt as before; dissolve one ounce of dried German yeast in about three tablespoonfuls of cold water, add to this one pint and a half of water a little warm, and pour the whole into the flour; knead it well immediately, and let it stand as before directed for one hour: then bake at pleasure. It will not hurt if you make up a peck of flour at once, and bake three or four loaves in succession, provided you do not keep the dough too warm. German yeast may be obtained at almost any corn-chandler's in the metropolis and suburbs. In winter it will keep good for a week in a dry place, and in summer it should be kept in cold water, and the water changed every day. Wheat meal requires a little more yeast than fine flour, or a longer time to stand in the dough for rising.
1010.  Unfermented Bread

Three pounds wheat meal, or four pounds of white flour, two heaped tablespoonfuls of baking powder, a tablespoonful of salt, and about two and a half pints of lukewarm water, or just sufficient to bring the flour to a proper consistence for bread-making; water about a quart. The way of making is as follows:

First mix the baking powder, the salt, and about three fourths of the flour well together by rubbing in a pan; then pour the water over the flour, and mix well by stirring. Then add most of the remainder of the flour, and work up the dough with the hand to the required consistence, which is indicated by the smoothness of the dough, and its not sticking to the hands or the sides of the pan when kneaded. The rest of the flour must then be added to stiffen the dough, which may then be placed in tins or formed by the hand into any shape that may be preferred and placed on flat tins for baking.

The tins should be well floured. Put the loaves at once into a well-heated oven. After they have been in the oven about a quarter of an hour open the ventilator to slacken the heat and allow the steam to escape. In an hour the process of baking will be completed. Bread made in this way keeps moist longer than bread made with yeast, and is far more sweet and digestible. This is especially recommended to persons who suffer from indigestion, who will find the brown bread invaluable.
1011.  Baking Powders and Egg Powders

These useful preparations are now much used in making bread and pastry of all kinds, and have the merit of being both cheap and wholesome. They may be procured of all grocers and oilmen. The basis of all baking powders consists of carbonate of soda and tartaric acid or cream of tartar, and egg powders are made of the same materials, with a little harmless colouring matter such as turmeric. By the action of these substances, carbonic acid is generated in the dough, which causes it to rise in the same manner as the so-called "aërated bread " made on Dr. Dauglish's system, by which carbonic acid is forced into the dough before baking.

Never Put Off Till To-morrow What You Can Do To-day.

1012.  How to Use Baking Powder, &c.

Baking powder may be used instead of yeast in making all kinds of bread, cake, teacakes, &c., and for biscuits and pastry, either without or in combination with butter, suet, &c. Bread, &c., made with baking powder is never placed before the fire to rise as when made with yeast, but the dough may be shaped and put into the oven as soon as it is made. The chief points to bear in remembrance are that in making bread two teaspoonfuls of baking powder should be used to every pound of flour, but for pastry, cakes, buns, &c., three teaspoonfuls should be used. The ingredients should always be thoroughly incorporated by mixing; the tins on which or in which the dough is placed to bake should be well floured, and not greased; and the oven should always be very hot, so that the baking may be effected as rapidly as possible.
1013.  Bread (Cheap and Excellent)

Simmer slowly, over a gentle fire, a pound of rice in three quarts of water, till the rice has become perfectly soft, and the water is either evaporated or imbibed by the rice: let it become cool, but not cold, and mix it completely with four pounds of flour; add to it some salt, and about four tablespoonfuls of yeast. Knead it very thoroughly, for on this depends whether or not your good materials produce a superior article. Next let it rise well before the fire, make it up into loaves with a little of the flour—which, for that purpose, you must reserve from your four pounds—and bake it rather long. This is an exceedingly good and cheap bread.
1014.  Economical and Nourishing Bread

Suffer the miller to remove from the flour only the coarse flake bran. Of this bran, boil five or six pounds in four and a half gallons of water; when the goodness is extracted from the bran,—during which time the liquor will waste half or three-quarters of a gallon,—strain it and let it cool. When it has cooled down to the temperature of new milk, mix it with fifty-six pounds of flour and as much salt and yeast as would be used for other bread; knead it exceedingly well; let it rise before the fire, and bake it in small loaves: small loaves are preferable to large ones, because they take the heat more equally. There are two advantages in making bread with bran water instead of plain water; the one being that there is considerable nourishment in bran, which is thus extracted and added to the bread; the other, that flour imbibes much more of bran water than it does of plain water; so much more, as to give in the bread produced almost a fifth in weight more than the quantity of flour made up with plain water would have done. These are important considerations to the poor. Fifty-six pounds of flour, made with plain water, would produce sixty-nine and a half pounds of bread; made with bran water, it will produce eighty-three and a half pounds.
1015.  Use Bran-Water

A great increase on Home-made Bread, even equal to one-fifth, may be produced by using bran water for kneading the dough. The proportion is three pounds of bran for every twenty-eight pounds of flour, to be boiled for an hour, and then strained through a hair sieve.
1016.  Rye and Wheat Flour

Rye and wheat flour, in equal quantities, make an excellent and economical bread.
1017.  Potatoes in Bread

Place in a large dish fifteen pounds of flour near the fire to warm; take five pounds of good potatoes, those of a mealy kind being preferable, peel and boil them as if for the table, mash them fine, and then mix with them as much cold water as will allow all except small lumps to pass through a coarse sieve into the flour, which will now be ready to receive them; add yeast, &c., and mix for bread in the usual way. This plan has been followed for some years: finding that bread made according to it is much superior to that made of flour only, and on this ground alone we recommend its adoption; but in addition to this, taking the high price of flour, and moderately low price of potatoes, here is a saving of over twenty per cent., which is surely an object worth attending to by those of limited means.

All Things have a Beginning, God Excepted.

1018.  Use of Lime Water in making Bread

It has lately been found that water saturated with lime produces in bread the same whiteness, softness, and capacity of retaining moisture, as results from the use of alum; while the former removes all acidity from the dough, and supplies an ingredient needed in the structure of the bones, but which is deficient in the cerealia. The best proportion to use is, five pounds of water saturated with lime, to every nineteen pounds of flour. No change is required in the process of baking. The lime most effectually coagulates the gluten, and the bread weighs well; bakers must therefore approve of its introduction, which is not injurious to the system, like alum, &c.
1019.  Rice Bread

Take one pound and a half of rice, and boil it gently over a slow fire in three quarts of water about five hours, stirring it, and afterwards beating it up into a smooth paste. Mix this, while warm, into two gallons or four pounds of flour, adding at the same time the usual quantity of yeast. Allow the dough to work a certain time near the fire, after which divide it into loaves, and it will be found, when baked, to produce twenty-eight or thirty pounds of excellent white bread.
1020.  Apple Bread

A very light, pleasant bread is made in France by a mixture of apples and flour, in the proportion of one of the former to two of the latter. The usual quantity of yeast is employed, as in making common bread, and is beaten with flour and warm pulp of the apples after they have boiled, and the dough is then considered as set; it is then put in a proper vessel, and allowed to rise for eight or twelve hours, and then baked in long loaves. Very little water is requisite: none, generally, if the apples are very fresh.
1021.  Pulled Bread

Take from the oven an ordinary loaf when it is about half baked, and with the fingers, while the bread is yet hot, dexterously pull the half-set dough into pieces of irregular shape, about the size of an egg. Don't attempt to smooth or flatten them—the rougher their shapes the better. Set upon tins, place in a very slow oven, and bake to a rich brown. This forms a deliciously crisp crust for cheese. If you do not bake at home, your baker will prepare it for you, if ordered. Pulled bread may be made in the revolving ovens. It is very nice with wine instead of biscuits.
1022.  French Bread and Rolls

Take a pint and a half of milk; make it quite warm; half a pint of small-beer yeast; add sufficient flour to make it as thick as batter; put it into a pan; cover it over, and keep it warm: when it has risen as high as it will, add a quarter of a pint of warm water, and half an ounce of salt, —mix them well together,—rub into a little flour two ounces of butter; then make your dough, not quite so stiff as for your bread; let it stand for three-quarters of an hour, and it will be ready to make into rolls, &c.:—let them stand till they have risen, and bake them in a quick oven.
1023.  Rolls

Mix the salt with the flour. Make a deep hole in the middle. Stir the warm water into the yeast, and pour it into the hole in the flour. Stir it with a spoon just enough to make a thin batter, and sprinkle some flour over the top. Cover the pan, and set it in a warm place for several hours. When it is light, add half a pint more of lukewarm water, and make it, with a little more flour, into a dough. Knead it very well for ten minutes. Then divide it into small pieces, and knead each separately. Make them into round cakes or rolls. Cover them, and set them to rise about an hour and a half. Bake them, and, when done, let them remain in the oven, without the lid, for about ten minutes.

God is the First of All.

1024.  Sally Lunn Tea Cakes

Take one pint of milk quite warm, a quarter of a pint of thick small-beer yeast; put them into a pan with flour sufficient to make it as thick as batter, —cover it over, and let it stand till it has risen as high as it will, i. e., about two hours: add two ounces of lump sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of warm milk, a quarter of a pound of butter rubbed into the flour very fine, —then make the dough the same as for French rolls, &c.; let it stand half an hour; then make up the cakes, and put them on tins:—when they have stood to rise, bake them in a quick oven. Care should be taken never to mix the yeast with water or milk too hot or too cold, as either extreme will destroy the fermentation. In summer it should he lukewarm,—in winter a little warmer, —and in very cold weather, warmer still. When it has first risen, if you are not prepared, it will not harm if it stand an hour.
1025.  Cooking Instruments

1026.  The Gridiron

The gridiron, though the simplest of cooking instruments, is by no means to be despised. In common with all cooking utensils the Gridiron should be kept scrupulously clean; and when it is used, the bars should be allowed to get warm before the meat is placed upon it, otherwise the parts crossed by the bars will be insufficiently dressed. The fire should be sharp, clear, and free from smoke. The heat soon forms a film upon the surface of the meat, by which the juices are retained. Chops and steaks should not be too thick nor too thin. From a half to three-quarters of an inch is the proper thickness. Avoid thrusting the fork into the meat, by which you release the juice. There is a description of gridiron in which the bars are grooved to catch the juice of the meat, but a much better invention is the upright gridiron, which is attached to the front of the grate, and has a pan at the bottom to catch the gravy. Kidneys, rashers, &c., dressed in this manner will he found delicious.
1027.  The Frying-pan

The frying-pan is a noisy and a greasy servant, requiring much watchfulness. Like the Gridiron, the Frying-pan requires a clear but not a large fire, and the pan should be allowed to get thoroughly hot, and be well covered with fat, before meat is put into it. The excellence of frying very much depends upon the sweetness of the oil, butter, lard, or fat that may be employed. The Frying-pan is very useful in the warming of cold vegetables and other kinds of food, and in this respect may be considered a real friend of economy. All know the relish afforded by a pancake, to say nothing of eggs and bacon, and various kinds of fish, to which both the Saucepan and the Gridiron are quite unsuited, because they require that which is the essence of frying, boiling and browning in fat.
1028.  The Spit

The spit is a very ancient and very useful implement of cookery. Perhaps the process of roasting stands only second in the rank of excellence in cookery. The process is perfectly sound in its chemical effects upon the food, while the joint is kept so immediately under the eye of the cook, that it must be the fault of that functionary if it does not go to the table in the highest state of perfection. The process of roasting should be commenced very slowly, the meat being kept a good distance from the fire, and gradually brought forward, until it is thoroughly soaked within and browned without. The Spit has this advantage over the Oven, and especially over the common oven, that the meat retains its own flavour, not having to encounter the evaporation from fifty different dishes, and that the steam from its own substance passes entirely away, leaving the essence of the meat in its primest condition.

Virtue is the Fairest of All.

1029.  The Meat Hook

The meat hook has in the present day superseded the use of the Spit in middle class families. It is thrust into the meat, and the joint thereby suspended before the fire. For roasting in this manner the lintel of the mantel-piece is furnished with a brass or iron arm, turning on pivots in a plate fastened to the lintel, and notched along its upper edge. From this arm, which is turned back against the lintel when not in use, the meat is hung and turned by means of a bottle-jack or a skein of worsted, knotted in three or four places, which answers the purpose equally well, and may be replaced by a new one when required, at a merely nominal cost. Meat roasted in this manner should be turned occasionally, the hook being inserted first at one end and then at the other.
1030.  The Dutch Oven

The Dutch oven is of great utility for small dishes of various kinds, which the Spit would spoil by the magnitude of its operations, or the Oven destroy by the severity of its heat. It combines, in fact, the advantages of roasting and baking, and may be adopted for compound dishes, and for warming cold scraps: it is easily heated, and causes no material expenditure of fuel.
1031.  The Saucepan

When we come to speak of the Saucepan, we have to consider the claims of a very large, ancient, and useful family. There are large saucepans, dignified with the name of Boilers, and small saucepans, which come under the denomination of Stewpans. There are few kinds of meat or fish which the Saucepan will not receive, and dispose of in a satisfactory manner; and few vegetables for which it is not adapted.

When rightly used, it is a very economical servant, allowing nothing to be lost; that which escapes from the meat while in its charge forms broth, or may be made the basis of soups. Fat rises upon the surface of the water, and may be skimmed off; while in various stews it combines, in an eminent degree, what we may term the fragrance of cookery, and the piquancy of taste. The French are perfect masters of the use of the Stewpan. And we shall find that, as all cookery is but an aid to digestion, the operations of the Stewpan resemble the action of the stomach very closely. The stomach is a close sac, in which solids and fluids are mixed together, macerated in the gastric juice, and dissolved by the aid of heat and motion, occasioned by the continual contractions and relaxations of the coats of the stomach during the action of digestion. This is more closely resembled by the process of stewing than by any other of our culinary methods.
1032.   Various Processes of Cooking

1033.  Utility of the Kitchen

"In the hands of an expert cook," says Majendie, "alimentary substances are made almost entirely to change their nature, their form, consistence, odour, savour, colour, chemical composition, &c.; everything is so modified, that it is often impossible for the most exquisite sense of taste to recognise the substance which makes up the basis of certain dishes. The greatest utility of the kitchen consists in making the food agreeable to the senses, and rendering it easy of digestion."

1034.  Theory of Cooking

To some extent the claims of either process of cooking depend upon the taste of the individual. Some persons may esteem the peculiar flavour of fried meats, while others will prefer broils or stews. It is important, however, to understand the theory of each method of cooking, so that whichever may be adopted, may be done well. Bad cooking, though by a good method, is far inferior to good cooking by a bad method.
1035.  Roasting—Beef

A sirloin of about fifteen pounds (if much more in weight the outside will be done too much before the inner side is sufficiently roasted), will require to be before the fire about three and a half or four hours. Take care to spit it evenly, that it may not be heavier on one side than the other; put a little clean dripping into the dripping pan (tie a sheet of paper over it to preserve the fat) baste it well as soon as it is put down, and every quarter of an hour all the time it is roasting, till the last half-hour; then take off the paper and make some gravy for it, stir the fire and make it clear; to brown and froth it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it with butter, and dredge it with flour; let it go a few minutes longer, till the froth rises, take it up, put it on the dish, &c. Garnish it with horseradish, scraped as fine as possible with a very sharp knife.

Vice is the Most Hurtful of All.

1036.  Yorkshire Pudding

A Yorkshire Pudding is an excellent accompaniment to roast beef.
1037.  Ribs of Beef

The first three ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, will take three hours, or three and a half; the fourth and fifth ribs will take as long, managed in the same way as the sirloin. Paper the fat and the thin part, or it will be done too much, before the thick part is done enough.
1038.  Ribs of Beef boned and rolled

Keep two or three ribs of beef till quite tender, take out the bones, and skewer the meat as round as possible, like a fillet of veal. Some cooks egg it, and sprinkle it with veal stuffing before rolling it. As the meat is in a solid mass, it will require more time at the fire than ribs of beef with the bones: a piece of ten or twelve pounds weight will not be well and thoroughly roasted in less than four and a half or five hours. For the first half-hour it should not be less than twelve inches from the fire, that it may get gradually warm to the centre; the last half-hour before it is finished, sprinkle a little salt over it, and, if you like, flour it, to froth it.
1039.  Mutton

As beef requires a large sound fire, mutton must have a brisk and sharp one: if you wish to have mutton tender it should be hung as long as it will keep, and then good eight-tooth (i. e.,four years old) mutton, is as good eating as venison.
1040.  The Leg, Haunch, and Saddle

The leg, haunch, and saddle, will be the better for being hung up in a cool airy place for four or five days, at least; in temperate weather, a week: in cold weather, ten days, A leg of eight pounds will take about two hours; let it be well basted.
1041.  A Chine or Saddle

i. e. the two loins, of ten or eleven pounds —two hours and a half. It is the business of the butcher to take off the skin and skewer it on again, to defend the meat from extreme heat, and preserve its succulence. If this is neglected, tie a sheet of paper over it; baste the strings you tie it on with directly, or they will burn. About a quarter of an hour before you think it will be done, take off the skin or paper, that it may get a pale brown colour, and then baste it, and flour it lightly to froth it.
1042.  A Shoulder

A shoulder, of seven pounds, an hour and three-quarters, or even two hours. If a spit is used, put it in close to the shank-bone, and run it along the blade-bone.
1043.  A Loin of Mutton

A loin of mutton, from an hour and a half to an hour and three-quarters. The most elegant way of carving this is to cut it lengthwise, as you do a saddle. A neck, about the same time as a loin. It must be carefully jointed to prevent any difficulty in carving.
1044.  The Neck and Breast

The neck and breast are, in small families, commonly roasted together. The cook will then crack the bones across the middle before they are put down to roast. If this is not done carefully, the joint is very troublesome to carve. Time for a breast, an hour and a quarter. The breast when eaten by itself is better stewed. It may be boned, rolled, and then roasted. A belly of pork is excellent in this way, when boned, stuffed, and roasted.
1045.  A Haunch.

i. e., the leg and part of the loin of mutton. Send up two sauce-boats with it; one of rich-drawn mutton gravy, made without spice or herbs, and the other of sweet sauce. A haunch generally weighs about fifteen pounds, and requires about three hours and a half to roast it.

Thought is the Most Swift of All.

1046.  Mutton (Venison fashion)

Take a neck of good four or five-year-old Southdown wether mutton, cut long in the bones; let it hang in mild weather, at least a week. Two days before you dress it, take allspice and black pepper, ground and pounded fine, a quarter of an ounce each, rub them together and then rub your mutton well with this mixture twice a day. When you dress it, wash off the spice with warm water, and roast it in paste.
1047.  Veal

Veal requires particular care to roast it a nice brown. Let the fire be the same as for beef; a sound large fire for a large joint, and a brisker for a smaller; put it at some distance from the fire to soak thoroughly, and then draw it nearer to finish it brown. When first laid down it is to be basted; baste it again occasionally. When the veal is on the dish, pour over it half a pint of melted butter; if you have a little brown gravy by you, add that to the butter. With those joints which are not stuffed, send up forcemeat in balls, or rolled into sausages, as garnish to the dish, or fried pork sausages. Bacon is always eaten with veal.
1048.  Fillet of Veal

Fillet of veal of from twelve to sixteen pounds, will require from four to five hours at a good fire: make some stuffing or forcemeat, and put it under the flap, that there may be some left to eat cold, or to season a hash: brown it, and pour good melted butter over it. Garnish with thin slices of lemon, and cakes or balls of stuffing, or duck stuffing, or fried pork sausages, curry sauce, bacon, &c.
1049.  A Loin

A loin is the best part of the calf, and will take about three hours roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the back: some cooks send it up on a toast, which is eaten with the kidney and the fat of this part, which is more delicate than any marrow, &c. If there is more of it than you think will be eaten with the veal, before you roast it cut it out, it will make an excellent suet pudding: take care to have your fire long enough to brown the ends.
1050.  A Shoulder of Veal

A shoulder of veal, from three hours to three hours and a half: stuff it with the forcemeat ordered for the fillet of veal, in the under side.
1051.  Neck

Neck, best end, will take two hours. The scrag part is best made into a pie or broth. Breast, from an hour and a half to two hours. Let the caul remain till it is almost done, then take it off to brown the meat; baste, flour, and froth it.
1052.  Veal Sweetbread.

Trim a fine sweetbread—it cannot be too fresh; parboil it for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water; roast it plain, or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare some fine bread-crumbs. Or when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in a cloth, run a lark spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the ordinary spit; egg it with a paste brush, powder it well with bread-crumbs, and roast it. For sauce, put fried bread-crumbs round it, and melted butter with a little mushroom ketchup and lemon juice, or serve on buttered toast, garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy.
1053.  Lamb

Lamb is a delicate, and commonly considered tender meat; but those who talk of tender lamb, while they are thinking of the age of the animal, forget that even a chicken must be kept a proper time after it has been killed, or it will be tough eating. To the usual accompaniments of roast meat, green mint sauce or a salad is commonly added: and some cooks, about five minutes before it is done, sprinkle it with a little minced parsley.
1054.  Grass-Lamb

Grass-Lamb is in season from Easter to Michaelmas.
1055.  House-Lamb

House-lamb from Christmas to Lady-day.
1056.  Mint

When green mint cannot be got, mint vinegar is an acceptable substitute for it.
1057.  Roasting a Hind-Quarter

Hind-quarter of eight pounds will take from an hour and three-quarters to two hours; baste and froth it.
1058.  Roasting a Fore-Quarter

Fore-quarter of ten pounds, about two hours.
1059.  Preparation

It is a pretty general custom, when you take off the shoulder from the ribs, to rub them with a lump of butter, and then to squeeze a lemon or Seville orange over them, and sprinkle them with a little pepper and salt.

Hope is the Most Common of All.

1060.  Roasting a Leg

Leg of five pounds, from an hour to an hour and a half.
1061.  Roasting a Shoulder

Shoulder, with a quick fire, an hour.
1062.  Roasting Ribs

Ribs, about an hour to an hour and a quarter; joint it nicely; crack the ribs across, and bend them up to make it easy for the carver.
1063.  Roasting Loin, Neck or Breast

Loin, an hour and a quarter. Neck an hour. Breast, three-quarters of an hour.
1064.  Poultry, Game, &c.

H. M.
A small capon, fowl, or chicken requires 0 26
A large fowl 0 45
A capon, full size 0 35
A goose 1 0
Wild ducks, and grouse 0 15
Pheasants, and turkey poults 0 20
A moderate sized turkey, stuffed 1 15
Partridges 0 25
Quail 0 10
A hare, or rabbit, about 1 0
Leg of pork, 1/4 hour for each pound, and above that allowance 0 20
Chine of pork, as for leg, and 0 20
A neck of mutton 1 30
A haunch of venison, about 3 30

1065.  Effectiveness of Roasting

Roasting, by causing the contraction of the cellular substance which contains the fat, expels more fat than boiling. The free escape of watery particles in the form of vapour, so necessary to produce flavour, must be regulated by frequent basting with the fat which has exuded from the meat, combined with a little salt and water—otherwise the meat would burn, and become hard and tasteless. A brisk fire at first will, by charring the outside, prevent the heat from penetrating, and therefore should only be employed when the meat is half roasted.
1066.  The Loss by Roasting (General)

The loss by roasting is said to vary from 14-3/8ths to nearly double that rate per cent. The average loss on roasting butcher's meat is 22 percent.: and on domestic poultry, 20-1/2.
1067.  The Loss by Roasting (Specific)

The loss per cent, on roasting beef, viz., on sirloins and ribs together is 19-1/6th; on mutton, viz., legs and shoulders together, 24-4/5ths, on fore-quarters of lamb, 22-1/3rd; on ducks, 27-1/5th; on turkeys, 20-1/2; on geese, 19-1/2; on chickens, 14-3/5ths. So that it will be seen by comparison with the percentage given of the loss by boiling, that roasting is not so economical; especially when we take into account that the loss of weight by boiling is not actual loss of economic materials, for we then possess the principal ingredients for soups; whereas, after roasting, the fat only remains. The average loss in boiling and and roasting together is 18 per cent. according to Donovan, and 28 per cent. according to Wallace—a difference that may be accounted for by supposing a difference in the fatness of the meat, duration and degree of heat, &c., employed.
1068.  Boiling

This most simple of culinary processes is not often performed in perfection; it does not require quite so much nicety and attendance as roasting; to skim your pot well, and keep it really boiling, or rather, simmering, all the while—to know how long is required for doing the joint, &c., and to take it up at the critical moment when it is done enough—comprehends almost the whole art and mystery. This, however, demands a patient and perpetual vigilance, of which, unhappily, few persons are capable.

The cook must take especial care that the water really boils all the while she is cooking, or she will be deceived in the time; and make up a sufficient fire (a frugal cook will manage with much less fire for boiling than she uses for roasting) at first, to last all the time, without much mending or stirring, and thereby save much trouble. When the pot is coming to a boil, there will always, from the cleanest meat and clearest water, rise a scum to the top of it; proceeding partly from the foulness of the meat, and partly from the water: this must be carefully taken off, as soon as it rises. On this depends the good appearance of all boiled things—an essential matter.

When you have skimmed well, put in some cold water, which will throw up the rest of the scum. The oftener it is skimmed, and the clearer the surface of the water is kept, the cleaner will be the meat. If let alone, it soon boils down and sticks to the meat, which, instead of looking delicately white and nice, will have that coarse appearance we have too often to complain of, and the butcher and poulterer will be blamed for the carelessness of the cook, in not skimming her pot with due diligence.

Many put in milk, to make what they boil look white, but this does more harm than good; others wrap it up in a cloth; but these are needless precautions; if the scum be attentively removed, meat will have a much more delicate colour and finer flavour than it has when muffled up. This may give rather more trouble—but those we wish to excel in their art must only consider how the processes of it can be most perfectly performed: a cook who has a proper pride and pleasure in her business will make this her maxim and rule on all occasions.

Put your meat into cold water, in the proportion of about a quart of water to a pound of meat; it should be covered with water during the whole of the process of boiling, but not drowned in it; the less water, provided the meat be covered with it, the more savoury will be the meat, and the better will be the broth in every respect. The water should be heated gradually, according to the thickness, &c., of the article boiled; for instance, a leg of mutton of ten pounds weight should be placed over a moderate fire, which will gradually make the water hot without causing it to boil, for about forty minutes; if the water boils much sooner, the meat will be hardened, and shrink up as if it was scorched—by keeping the water a certain time heating without boiling, its fibres are dilated, and it yields a quantity of scum, which must be taken off as soon as it rises, for the reasons already mentioned.
"If a vessel containing water be placed over a steady fire, the water will grow continually hotter, till it reaches the limit of boiling; after which, the regular accessions of heat are wholly spent in converting it into steam: the water remains at the same pitch of temperature, however fiercely it boils. The only difference is, that with a strong fire it sooner comes to boil, and more quickly boils away, and is converted into steam."
Such are the opinions stated by Buchanan in his "Economy of Fuel." There was placed a thermometer in water in that state which cooks call gentle simmering—the heat was 212°, i. e., the same degree as the strongest boiling. Two mutton chops were covered with cold water, and one boiled fiercely, and the other simmered gently, for three-quarters of an hour; the flavour of the chop which was simmered was decidedly superior to that which was boiled; the liquor which boiled fast was in like proportion more savoury, and, when cold, had much more fat on its surface; this explains why quick boiling renders meat hard, &c.—because its juices are extracted in a greater degree.

A Scraper at the Door Keeps Dirt from the Floor.

1069.  Time of Boiling

Reckon the time from the water first coming to a boil. The old rule, of fifteen minutes to a pound of meat, is, perhaps, rather too little; the slower the meat boils, the tenderer, the plumper, and whiter it will be. For those who choose their food thoroughly cooked (which all will who have any regard for their stomachs), twenty minutes to a pound will not be found too much for gentle simmering by the side of the fire; allowing more or less time, according to the thickness of the joint and the coldness of the weather; always remembering, the slower it boils the better. Without some practice it is difficult to teach any art; and cooks seem to suppose they must be right, if they put meat into a pot, and set it over the fire for a certain time—making no allowance, whether it simmers without a bubble, or boils at a gallop.

A Letter-box Saves Many Knocks.

1070.  Before Boiling

Fresh killed meat will take much longer time boiling than that which has been kept till it is what the butchers call ripe, and longer in cold than in warm weather. If it be frozen it must be thawed before boiling as before roasting; if it be fresh killed, it will be tough and hard, if you stew it ever so long, and ever so gently. In cold weather, the night before you dress it, bring it into a place of which the temperature is not less than forty-five degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer.

The size of the boiling-pots should be adapted to what they are to contain; the larger the saucepan the more room it takes upon the fire; and a larger quantity of water requires a proportionate increase of fire to boil it. In small families block tin saucepans are best, as being lightest and safest: moreover, if proper care is taken of them, and they are well dried after they are cleansed, they are by far the cheapest; the purchase of a new tin saucepan being little more than the expense of tinning a copper one. Take care that the covers of your boiling-pots fit close, not only to prevent unnecessary evaporation of the water, but that the smoke may not insinuate itself under the edge of the lid, and give the meat a bad taste.
1071.  Average Boiling Times.

The following Table will be useful as an average of the time required to boil the various articles:

H. M.
A ham, 20 lbs. weight, requires 6 30
A tongue (if dry), after soaking 4 0
A tongue out of pickle
A neck of mutton 1 30
A chicken 0 20
A large fowl 0 45
A capon 0 35
A pigeon 0 15

1072.  Remove Immediately

If you let meat or poultry remain in the water after it is done enough, it will become sodden and lose its flavour.
1073.  Degree of Cooking

Beef and mutton is preferred by some people a little underdone. Very large joints if slightly underdone, will make the better hash or broil. Lamb, pork, and veal are uneatable if not thoroughly boiled—but these meats should not be overdone. A trivet, a fish-drainer, or an American contrivance called a "spider"—which is nothing more than a wire dish raised on three or four short legs—put on the bottom of the boiling-pot, raising the contents about an inch and a half from the bottom, will prevent that side of the meat which comes next the bottom being done too much; and the lower part will be as delicately done as the upper; and this will enable you to take out the meat without inserting a fork, &c., into it. If you have not a trivet, a drainer, or a "spider," use a soup-plate laid the wrong side upwards.
1074.  Stock

Take care of the liquor you have boiled poultry or meat in, as it is useful for making soup.
1075.  Using the Stock

The good housewife never boils a joint without converting the broth into some sort of soup.
1076.  Reducing Salt

If the liquor be too salt, use only half the quantity, and add some water; wash salted meat well with cold water before you put it into the boiler.
1077.  The Process of Boiling

Boiling extracts a portion of the juice of meat, which mixes with the water, and also dissolves some of its solids; the more fusible parts of the fat melt out, combine with the water, and form soup or broth. The meat loses its red colour, becomes more savoury in taste and smell, and more firm and digestible. If the process is continued too long, the meat becomes indigestible, less succulent, and tough.
1078.  Loss by Boiling (General)

The loss by boiling varies from 6-1/4 to 16 per cent. The average loss on boiling butcher's meat, pork, hams, and bacon, is 12; and on domestic poultry, is 14-3/4.
1079.  Loss by Boiling (Specific)

The loss per cent, on boiling salt beef is 15; on legs of mutton, 10; hams, 12-1/2; salt pork, 13-1/3; knuckles of veal, 8-1/3; bacon, 6-1/4; turkeys, 16; chickens, 13-1/2.
1080.  Economy of Fat

In most families many members are not fond of fat—servants seldom like it: consequently there is frequently much wasted; to avoid which, take off bits of suet fat from beefsteaks, &c., previous to cooking; they can be used for puddings. With good management there need be no waste in any shape or form.

A Bell Hung Well its Tale will Tell.

1081.  Broiling

Broiling requires a brisk, rapid heat, which by producing a greater degree of change in the affinities of the raw meat than roasting, generates a higher flavour, so that broiled meat is more savoury than roast. The surface becoming charred, a dark-coloured crust is formed, which retards the evaporation of the juices; and, therefore, if properly done, broiled meat may he as tender and juicy as roasted meat.
1082.  Baking

Baking does not admit of the evaporation of the vapours so rapidly as by the processes of broiling and roasting; the fat is also retained more, and becomes converted, by the agency of the heat, into an empyreumatic oil, which renders the meat less fitted for delicate stomachs, and more difficult to digest. The meat is, in fact, partly boiled in its own confined water, and partly roasted by the dry, hot air of the oven. The loss by baking has not been estimated and reduced to a tabular form.
1083.  Frying

Frying is of all methods the most objectionable, from the foods being less digestible when thus prepared, as the fat employed undergoes chemical changes. Olive oil in this respect is preferable to lard or butter. The crackling noise which accompanies the process of frying meat in a pan is occasioned by the explosions of steam formed in fat, the temperature of which is much above 212 degrees. If the meat is very juicy it will not fry well, because it becomes sodden before the water is evaporated; and it will not brown, because the temperature is too low to scorch it. To fry fish well the fat should be boiling hot (600 degrees), and the fish well dried in a cloth; otherwise, owing to the generation of steam the temperature will fall so low that it will be boiled in its own steam, and not be browned. Meat, or indeed any article, should be frequently turned and agitated during frying to promote the evaporation of the watery particles. To make fried things look well, they should be done over twice with egg and stale bread-crumbs.
1084.  Bastings

  1. Fresh butter.

  1. Clarified suet.

  1. Minced sweet herbs, butter, and claret, especially for mutton and lamb.

  1. Water and salt.

  1. Cream and melted butter, especially for a flayed pig.

  1. Yolks of eggs, grated biscuit and juice of oranges.

1085.  Dredgings

  1. Flour mixed with grated bread.

  1. Sweet herbs dried and powdered, and mixed with grated bread.

  1. Lemon-peel dried and pounded, or orange-peel, mixed with flour.

  1. Sugar finely powdered, and mixed with pounded cinnamon, and flour or grated bread.

  1. Fennel seeds, corianders, cinnamon, and sugar, finely beaten and mixed with grated bread or flour.

  1. For young pigs, grated bread or flour, mixed with beaten nutmeg, ginger, pepper, sugar, and yolks of eggs.

  1. Sugar, bread, and salt mixed.

1086.  Estimating Meat for Cooking

The housewife who is anxious to dress no more meat than will suffice for the meal, should remember that beef loses about one pound in four in boiling, but in roasting, loses in the proportion of one pound five ounces, and in baking about two ounces less, or one pound three ounces; mutton loses in boiling about fourteen ounces in four pounds; in roasting, one pound six ounces.
1087.  Caution on Charcoal

Cooks should be cautioned against the use of charcoal in any quantity, except whore there is a free current of air; for charcoal is highly prejudicial in a state of ignition, although it may be rendered even actively beneficial when boiled, as a small quantity of it, if boiled with meat on the turn, will effectually cure the unpleasant taint.

An Ill-Fixed Blind No One Can Wind.

1088.  Preparation of Vegetables

There is nothing in which the difference between an elegant and an ordinary table is more seen, than in the dressing of vegetables, more especially of greens; they may be equally as fine at first, at one place as at another, but their look and taste are afterwards very different, entirely from the careless way in which they have been cooked. They are in greatest perfection when in greatest plenty, i. e., when in full season. By season, we do not mean those early days, when luxury in the buyers, and avarice in the sellers about London, force the various vegetables, but the time of the year in which, by nature and common culture, and the mere operation of the sun and climate, they are most plenteous and in perfection.
1089.  New Potatoes and Green Peas

New Potatoes and green peas, unless sent to us from warmer latitudes than our own, are seldom worth eating before Midsummer.
1090.  Unripe Vegetables

Unripe vegetables are as insipid and unwholesome as unripe fruits.
1091.  The Quality of Vegetables

As to the quality of vegetables, the middle size are preferable to the largest or the smallest; they are more tender, juicy, and full of flavour, just before they are quite full-grown: freshness is their chief value and excellence. The eye easily discovers if they have been kept too long; they soon lose their beauty in all respects.
1092.  Freshness of Vegetables

Roots, greens, salads, &c., and the various productions of the garden, when first gathered, are plump and firm, and have a fragrant freshness no art can give them again; though it will refresh them a little to put them into cold spring water for some time before they are dressed.
1093.  To Boil Vegetables

Soft water will best preserve the colour of such as are green; if you have only hard water, put to it a teaspoonful of carbonate of potash.
1094.  Preparing Vegetables

Take care to wash and cleanse Vegetables thoroughly from dust, dirt, and insects—this requires great attention. Pick off all the outside leaves, trim them nicely, and if they are not quite fresh-gathered and have become flaccid, it is absolutely necessary to restore their crispness before cooking them, or they will be tough and unpleasant. To do this, lay them in a pan of clean water, with a handful of salt in it, for an hour before you dress them. Most vegetables being more or less succulent, it is necessary that they possess their full proportion of fluids in order to retain that state of crispness and plumpness which they have when growing.
1095.  Staleness

On being cut or gathered, the exhalation from their surface continues, while from the open vessels of the cut surface there is often great exudation or evaporation, and thus their natural moisture is diminished; tho tender leaves become flaccid, and the thicker masses or roots lose their plumpness. This is not only less pleasant to the eye, but is a serious injury to the nutritious powers of the vegetable; for in this flaccid and shrivelled state its fibres are less easily divided in chewing, and the water which exists in the form of their respective natural juices is less directly nutritious.
1096.  Preservation

The first Care in the preservation of succulent vegetables, therefore, is to prevent them from losing their natural moisture. They should alway be boiled in a saucepan by themselves, and have plenty of water: if meat is boiled with them in the same pot, the one will spoil the look and taste of the other.
1097.  Cleaning

To have vegetables delicately clean, put on your pot, make it boil, put a little salt in, and skim it perfectly clean before you put in the greens, &c., which should not be put in till the water boils briskly: the quicker they boil the greener they will be.
1098.  When Done

When the vegetables sink, they are generally done enough, if the water has been kept constantly boiling. Take them up immediately, or they will lose their colour and goodness, Drain the water from them thoroughly before you send them to table. This branch of cookery requires the most vigilant attention.

Keep Your Keys and Be at Ease.

1099.  Over-Cooked

If vegetables are a minute or two too long over the fire, they lose all their beauty and flavour.
1100.  Undercooked

If not thoroughly boiled tender, they are very indigestible, and much more troublesome during their residence in the stomach than underdone meats.
1101.  Take Care your Vegetables are Fresh

To preserve or give colour in cookery many good dishes are spoiled; but the rational epicure, who makes nourishment the main end of eating, will be content to sacrifice the shadow to enjoy the substance. As the fishmonger often suffers for the sins of the cook, so the cook often gets undeservedly blamed instead of the greengrocer.
1102.  To Cleanse Vegetables of Insects

Make a strong brine of one pound and a half of salt to one gallon of water; into this, place the vegetables with the stalk ends uppermost, for two or three hours: this will destroy all the insects which cluster in the leaves, and they will fall out and sink to the bottom of the water.
1103.  Potatoes

Most people esteem potatoes beyond any other vegetable, yet few persons know how to cook them. The following will be found to be excellent methods of cooking this delicious esculent.
1104.  To Boil Potatoes

Put them into a saucepan with scarcely sufficient water to cover them. Directly the skins begin to break, lift them from the fire, and as rapidly as possible pour off every drop of the water. Then place a coarse (we need not say clean) towel over them, and return them to the fire again until they are thoroughly done, and quite dry. A little salt, to flavour, should be added to the water before boiling.
1105.  To Peel Potatoes

The above recipe is for boiling potatoes in their jackets, as the phrase goes. When potatoes are to be peeled prior to cooking, the tubers should first be well washed and put in a bowl of clean water. As each potato is taken out of this receptacle and peeled, it should be thrown into another bowl of cold water, close at hand to receive them. This prevents undue discolouration of the potatoes.
1106.   To Steam Potatoes

Some kinds of potatoes are better steamed than boiled. Whether dressed with the skins on or off a careful eye must be kept on them, and when they are nearly done the steamer should be removed, the water in the saucepan thrown off, and the steamer then replaced, in order to allow the process of cooking to be completed. Some people shake the steamer when potatoes are somewhat close and heavy, under the idea that it renders them floury, and in many cases the shaking has this effect.
1107.  Potatoes Fried with Fish

Take cold fish and cold potatoes. Pick all the bones from the former, and mash the fish and the potatoes together; form into rolls, and fry with lard until the outsides are brown and crisp. For this purpose, the drier kinds of fish, such as cod, hake, &c., are preferable; turbot, soles, eels, &c., are not so good. This is an economical and excellent relish.
1108.  Potatoes Mashed with Onions

Prepare some boiled onions, by putting them through a sieve, and mix them with potatoes. Regulate the portions according to taste.
1109.  Potato Cheesecakes

One pound of mashed potatoes, quarter of a pound of currants, quarter of a pound of sugar and butter, and four eggs, to be well mixed together; bake them in patty-pans, having first lined them with puff paste.
1110.  Potato Colcanon

Boil potatoes and greens (or spinach) separately; mash the potatoes; squeeze the greens dry; chop them quite fine, and mix them with the potatoes with a little butter, pepper, and salt. Put into a mould, buttering it well first: let it stand in a hot oven for ten minutes.

A Chair Unsound Soon Finds the Ground.

1111.  Potatoes Roasted under Meat

Half boil large potatoes; drain the water; put them into an earthen dish, or small tin pan, under meat roasting before the fire; baste them with the dripping. Turn them to brown on all sides; send up in a separate dish.
1112.  Potato Balls Ragoût

Add to a pound of potatoes a quarter of a pound of grated ham, or some sweet herbs, or chopped parsley, an onion or shalot, salt, pepper, and a little grated nutmeg, and other spice, with the yolk of a couple of eggs; then dress as Potatoes Escalloped. (1116).
1113.  Potato Snow

Pick out the whitest potatoes, put them on in cold water; when they begin to crack, strain, and put them in a clean stewpan before the fire till they are quite dry, and fall to pieces; rub them through a wire sieve upon the dish they are to be sent up on, and do not disturb them afterwards.
1114.  Potatoes Fried Whole

When nearly boiled enough, put them into a stewpan with a bit of butter, or some clean beef dripping; shake them about often, to prevent burning, till they are brown and crisp; drain them from the fat. It will be an improvement if they are floured and dipped into the yoke of an egg, and then rolled in finely sifted bread-crumbs.
1115.  Potatoes Fried in Slices

Peel large potatoes, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cut them into shavings, as you would peel a lemon; dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that the fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, and as soon as the lard boils, and is still, put in the slices of potato, and keep moving them until they are crisp; take them up, and lay them to drain on a sieve. Send to table with a little salt sprinkled over them.
1116.  Potatoes Escalloped

Mash potatoes in the usual way; then butter some nice clean scallop-shells, pattypans, or tea cups or saucers; put in your potatoes; make them smooth at the top; cross a knife over them; strew a few fine bread-crumbs on them; sprinkle them with a paste-brush with a few drops of melted butter, and set them in a Dutch oven. When nicely browned on the top, take them carefully out of the shells, and brown on the other side. Cold potatoes may be warmed up this way.
1117.  Potato Scones

Mash boiled potatoes till they are quite smooth, adding a little salt; then knead out the flour, or barley-meal, to the thickness required; toast on the girdle, pricking them with a fork to prevent them blistering. When eaten with fresh or salt butter they are equal to crumpets—even superior, and very nutritious.
1118.  Potato Pie

Peel and slice your potatoes very thinly into a pie-dish; between each layer of potatoes put a little chopped onion, and sprinkle a little pepper and salt; put in a little water, and cut about two ounces of fresh butter into bits, and lay them on the top; cover it close with paste. The yolks of four eggs may be added; and when baked, a tablespoonful of good mushroom ketchup poured in through a funnel. Another method is to put between the layers small bits of mutton, beef, or pork. In Cornwall, turnips are added. This constitutes (on the Cornish method) a cheap and satisfactory dish for families.
1119.  Cold Potatoes

There are few articles in families more subject to waste, whether in paring, boiling, or being actually wasted, than potatoes; and there are few cooks who do not boil twice as many potatoes every day as are wanted, and fewer still who do not throw the residue away as being totally unfit in any shape for the next day's meal; yet if they would take the trouble to beat up the despised cold potatoes with an equal quantity of flour, they would find them produce a much lighter dumpling or pudding than they can make with flour alone: and by the aid of a few spoonfuls of good gravy, they will provide a cheap and agreeable appendage to the dinner table.

Every Receipt is the Basis of Many Others.

1120.  Mashed Potatoes and Spinach or Cabbage

Moisten cold mashed potatoes with a little white sauce: take cold cabbage or spinach, and chop it very finely. Moisten with a brown gravy. Fill a tin mould with layers of potatoes and cabbage; cover the top, and put it into a stewpan of boiling water. Let it remain long enough to warm the vegetables; then turn the vegetables out and serve them. Prepare by boiling the vegetables separately, and put them into the mould in layers, to be turned out when wanted. It forms a very pretty dish for an entrée.
1121.  Cold Carrots and Turnips

These may be added to soups, if they have not been mixed with gravies: or if warmed up separately, and put into moulds in layers, they may be turned out, and served the same as the potatoes and cabbage described above.
1122.  French Beans

Cut away the stalk-end, and strip off the strings, then cut them into shreds. If not quite fresh, have a basin of spring water, with a little salt dissolved in it, and as the beans are cleaned and stringed throw them in; put them on the fire in boiling water, with some salt in it; after they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, take one out and taste it; as soon as they are tender take them up, throw them into a cullender or sieve to drain. Send up the beans whole when they are very young.
1123.  Boiled Turnip Radishes

Boil in plenty of salted water, and in about twenty-five minutes they will be tender; drain well, and send them to table with melted butter. Common radishes, when young, tied in bunches, boiled for twenty minutes, and served on a toast, are excellent.
1124.  Asparagus

Asparagus (often mis-called "asparagrass").—Scrape the stalks till they are clean; throw them into a pan of cold water, tie them up in bundles of about a quarter of a hundred each; cut off the stalks at the bottom to a uniform length leaving enough to serve as a handle for the green part; put them into a stewpan of boiling water, with a handful of salt in it. Let it boil, and skim it. When they are tender at the stalk, which will be in from twenty to thirty minutes, they are done enough.

Watch the exact time of their becoming tender; take them up that instant. While the asparagus is boiling, toast a round of a a quartern loaf, about half an inch thick; brown it delicately on both sides; dip it lightly in the liquor the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle of a dish; melt some butter, but do not put it over them. Serve butter in a butter-boat.
1125.  Artichokes

Soak them in cold water, wash them well; put them into plenty of boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let them boil gently for an hour and a half or two hours: trim them and drain on a sieve; send up melted butter with them, which some put into small cups, one for each guest.
1126.  Stewed Water-Cress

The following receipt will be found an agreeable and wholesome dish:—Lay the cress in strong salt and water, to clear it from insects. Pick and wash nicely, and stew it in water for about ten minutes; drain and chop, season with pepper and salt, add a little butter, and return it to the stewpan until well heated. Add a little vinegar previously to serving; put around it sippets of toast or fried bread. The above, made thin, as a substitute for parsley and butter, will be found an excellent sauce for a boiled fowl. There should be considerably more of the cress than of the parsley, as the flavour is much milder.

A Good Suggestion is Often Invaluable.

1127.  Stewed Mushrooms

Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare neatly some middle-sized or button mushrooms, and put them into a basin of water with the juice of a lemon as they are done. When all are prepared, take them from the water with the hands to avoid the sediment, and put them into a stewpan with a little fresh butter, white pepper, salt, and a little lemon juice; cover the pan close, and let them stew gently for twenty minutes or half an hour; then thicken the butter with a spoonful of flour, and add gradually sufficient cream, or cream and milk, to make the same about the thickness of good cream. Season the sauce to palate, adding a little pounded mace or grated nutmeg. Let the whole stew gently until the mushrooms are tender. Remove every particle of butter which may be floating on the top before serving.
1128.  Indications of Wholesome Mushrooms

Whenever a fungus is pleasant, in flavour and odour, it may be considered wholesome; if, on the contrary, it have an offensive smell, a bitter, astringent, or styptic taste, or even if it leave an unpleasant flavour in the mouth, it should not be considered fit for food. The colour, figure, and texture of these vegetables do not afford any characters on which we can safely rely; yet it may be remarked that in colour the pure yellow, gold colour, bluish pale, dark or lustre brown, wine red, or the violet, belong to many that are eatable; whilst the pale or sulphur yellow, bright or blood-red, and the greenish belong to few but the poisonous. The safe kinds have most frequently a compact, brittle texture; the flesh is white; they grow more readily in open places, such as dry pastures and waste lands, than in places humid or shaded by wood. In general, those should be suspected which grow in caverns and subterranean passages, on animal matter undergoing putrefaction, as well as those whose flesh is soft or watery.
1129.  To Distinguish Mushrooms from Poisonous Fungi

  1. Sprinkle a little salt on the spongy part or gills of the sample to be tried. If they turn yellow, they are poisonous,—if black, they are wholesome. Allow the salt to act, before you decide on the question.
  1. False mushrooms have a warty cap, or else fragments of membrane, adhering to the upper surface, are heavy, and emerge from a vulva or bag; they grow in tufts or clusters in woods, on the stumps of trees, &c., whereas the true mushrooms grow in pastures.
  1. False mushrooms have an astringent, styptic, and disagreeable taste. When cut they turn blue. They are moist on the surface, and generally of a rose or orange colour.
  1. The gills of the true mushroom are of a pinky red, changing to a liver colour. The flesh is white. The stem is white, solid, and cylindrical.

1130.  Cookery for Soldiers Sailors, Travellers, and Emigrants

The following seven receipts are due to the inventive genius of the late Alexis Soyer, who at one time was chief cook of the Reform Club:
1131.  Stewed Salt Beef and Pork

Put into a saucepan about two pounds of well-soaked beef, cut in eight pieces; half a pound of salt pork, divided in two, and also soaked: half a pound of rice, or six tablespoonfuls; a quarter of a pound of onions, or four middle-sized ones, peeled and sliced; two ounces of brown sugar, or a large tablespoonful; a quarter of an ounce of pepper, and five pints of water; simmer gently for three hours, remove the fat from the top, and serve. This dish is enough for six people, and it cannot fail to be excellent if the receipt be closely followed. Butchers' salt meat will require only a four hours' soaking, having been but lightly pickled.

A Good Beginning Makes a Good Ending.

1132.  Mutton Soup

Put into a pan—half a pound of mutton will make a pint of good family soup—six pounds of mutton, cut in four or six pieces; three quarters of a pound of mixed vegetables, or three ounces of preserved, three and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, and half a teaspoonful of pepper, if handy; five tablespoonfuls of barley or rice; eight pints of water; let it simmer gently for three hours and a half, remove this fat, and serve. Bread and biscuit may be added in small quantities.
1133.  Plain Pea Soup

Put in a pan six pounds of pork, well soaked and cut into eight pieces; pour six quarts of water over; one pound of split peas; one teaspoonful of sugar; half a teaspoonful of pepper; four ounces of fresh vegetables, or two ounces of preserved, if handy; let it boil gently for two hours, or until the peas are tender. When the pork is rather fat, as is generally the case, wash it only; a quarter of a pound of broken biscuit may be used for the soup. Salt beef, when rather fat and well soaked, may be used for pea soup.
1134.  French Beef Soup, or Pot au Feu (Camp Fashion)

Put into the kettle six pounds of beef, cut into two or three pieces, bone included; one pound of mixed green vegetables, or half a pound of preserved, in cakes; four teaspoonfuls of salt; if handy, one teaspoonful of pepper, one of sugar, and three cloves; and eight pints of water. Let it boil gently three hours; remove some of the fat, and serve. The addition of a pound and a half of bread, cut into slices, or one pound of broken biscuits, well soaked, will make a very nutritious soup. Skimming is not required.
1135.  How to Stew Fresh Beef, Pork, Mutton, and Veal

Cut or chop two pounds of fresh beef into ten or twelve pieces; put these into a saucepan, with one and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two middle-sized onions sliced, half a pint of water. Set on the fire for ten minutes until forming a thick gravy. Add a good teaspoonful of flour, stir on the fire a few minutes; add a quart and a half of water; let the whole simmer until the meat is tender. Beef will take from two hours and a half to three hours; mutton and pork, about two hours; veal, one hour and a quarter to one hour and a half; onions, sugar, and pepper, if not to be had, must be omitted; it will even then make a good dish; half a pound of sliced potatoes, or two ounces of preserved potatoes; either fresh or preserved vegetables may be added if they can be obtained, also a small dumpling.
1136.  Plain Boiled Beef

Put in a saucepan six pounds of well-soaked beef, cut in two, with three quarts of cold water; simmer gently three hours, and serve. About a pound of either carrots, turnips, parsnips, greens, or cabbage, as well as dumplings, may be boiled with it.
1137.  Cossack's Plum Pudding

Put into a basin one pound of flour, three quarters of a pound of raisins (stoned, if time be allowed), three quarters of a pound of the fat of salt pork (well washed, cut into small squares, or chopped), two tablespoonfuls of sugar or treacle; and half a pint of water; mix all together; put into a cloth tied lightly; boil for four hours, and serve. If time will not admit, boil only two hours, though four are preferable. How to spoil the above:—Add anything to it.
1138.  Meat Cookery

1139.  Beef Minced

Cut into small dice remains of cold beef: the gravy reserved from it on the first day of it being served should be put in the stewpan, with the addition of warm water, some mace, sliced shalot, salt, and black pepper. Let the whole simmer gently for an hour, A few minutes before it is served, take out the meat and dish it, add to the gravy some walnut ketchup, and a little lemon juice or walnut pickle. Boil up the gravy once more, and, when hot, pour it over the meat. Serve it with bread sippets.
1140.  Beef with Mashed Potatoes

Mash some potatoes with hot milk, the yolk of an egg, some butter and salt. Slice the cold beef and lay it at the bottom of a pie-dish, adding to it some sliced shalot, pepper, salt, and a little beef gravy; cover the whole with a thick paste of potatoes, making the crust to rise in the centre above the edges of the dish. Score the potato crust with the point of a knife in squares of equal sizes. Put the dish before a fire in a Dutch oven, and brown it on all sides; by the time it is coloured, the meat and potatoes will be sufficiently done.

Try All Things, Hold Fast That Which is Good.

1141.  Beef Bubble and Squeak

Cut into pieces convenient for frying, cold roasted or boiled beef; pepper, salt, and fry them; when done, lay them on a hot drainer, and while the meat is draining from the fat used in frying them, have in readiness a cabbage already boiled in two waters; chop it small, and put it in the frying-pan with some butter, add a little pepper and keep stirring it, that all of it may be equally done. When taken from the fire, sprinkle over the cabbage a very little vinegar, only enough to give it a slightly acid taste. Place the cabbage in the centre of the dish, and arrange the slices of meat neatly around it.
1142.  Beef or Mutton Lobscous

Mince, not too finely, some cold roasted beef or mutton. Chop the bones, and put them in a saucepan with six potatoes peeled and sliced, one onion, also sliced, some pepper and salt; of these make a gravy. When the potatoes are completely incorporated with the gravy, take out the bones and put in the meat; stew the whole together for an hour before it is to be served.
1143.  Beef Rissoles.

Mince and season cold beef, and flavour it with mushroom or walnut ketchup. Make of beef dripping a very thin paste, roll it out in thin pieces, about four inches square; enclose in each piece some of the mince, in the same way as for puffs, cutting each neatly all round; fry them in dripping to a very light brown. The paste can scarcely be rolled out too thin.
1144.  Veal Minced

Cut veal from the fillet or shoulder into very small dice; put into veal or mutton broth with a little mace, white pepper, salt, some lemon peel grated, and a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup or mushroom powder, rubbed smooth into the gravy, Take out some of the gravy when nearly done, and when cool enough thicken it with flour, cream, and a little butter; boil it up with the rest of the gravy, and pour it over the meat when done. Garnish with bread sippets. A little lemon juice added to the gravy improves its flavour.
1145.  Veal dressed with White Sauce

Boil milk or cream with a thickening of flour and butter; put into it thin slices of cold veal, and simmer it in the gravy till it is made hot without boiling. When nearly done, beat up the yolk of an egg, with a little anchovy and white sauce; pour it gently to the rest, stirring it all the time; simmer again the whole together, and serve it with sippets of bread and curled bacon alternately.
1146.  Veal Rissoles

Mince and pound veal extremely fine; grate into it some remains of cooked ham. Mix these well together with white sauce, flavoured with mushrooms: form this mixture into balls, and enclose each in pastry. Fry them in butter to a light brown. The same mince may be fried in balls without pastry, being first cemented together with egg and breadcrumbs.
1147.  Mutton Hashed

Cut cold mutton into thin slices, fat and lean together; make gravy with the bones whence the meat has been taken, boiling them long enough in water, with onion, pepper and salt; strain the gravy, and warm, but do not boil, the mutton in it. Then take out some of the gravy to thicken it with flour and butter, and flavour it with mushroom ketchup. Pour in the thickening and boil it up, having previously taken out the meat, and placed it neatly on the dish in which it is to go to the table. Pour over it the boiling gravy, and add sippets of bread.
1148.  Lamb

Fry slices or chops of lamb in butter till they are slightly browned. Serve them on a purée of cucumbers, or on a dish of spinach; or dip the slices in bread-crumbs, chopped parsley, and yolk of an egg; some grated lemon and a little nutmeg may be added. Fry them, and pour a little nice gravy over them when served.

We Learn Something, Even by Our Failures.

1149.  Pork

Slices of cold pork, fried and laid on apple sauce, form an excellent side or corner dish. Boiled pork may also he made into rissoles, minced very fine like sausage meat, and seasoned sufficiently, but not over much.
1150.  Round of Salt Beef

Skewer it tight and round, and tie a fillet of broad tape about it. Put it into plenty of cold water, and carefully remove the scum; let it boil till all the scum is removed, and then put the boiler on one side of the fire, to continue simmering slowly till it is done. Half a round may be boiled for a small family. When you take it up, wash the scum off with a paste-brush—garnish with carrots and turnips.
1151.  Aitchbone of Beef

Manage in the same way as the round. The soft, marrow-like fat which lies on the back is best when hot, and the hard fat of the upper corner is best cold.
1152.  Stewed Brisket of Beef

Stew in sufficient water to cover the meat; when tender, take out the bones, and skim off the fat; add to the gravy, when strained, a glass of wine, and a little spice tied up in a muslin bag. (This can he omitted if preferred.) Have ready either mushrooms, truffles, or vegetables boiled, and cut into shapes, Lay them on and around the beef; reduce part of the gravy to glaze, lay it on the top, and pour the remainder into the dish.
1153.  Baked Brisket of Beef

Brisket of beef may lie baked, the bones being removed, and the holes filled with oysters, fat bacon, parsley, or all three in separate holes; these stuffings being chopped and seasoned to taste. Dredge it well with flour, pour upon it half a pint of broth, bake for three hours, skim off the fat, strain the gravy over the meat, and garnish with cut pickles.
1154.  Pork, Spare-rib

Joint it nicely before roasting, and crack the ribs across as lamb. Take care not to have the fire too fierce. The joint should be basted with very little butter and flour, and may be sprinkled with fine dried sage, It takes from two to three hours. Apple sauce, mashed potatoes, and greens are the proper accompaniments, also good mustard, fresh made.
1155.  Lamb Stove or Lamb Stew

Take a lamb's head and lights, open the jaws of the head, and wash them thoroughly; put them in a pot with some beef stock, made with three quarts of water and two pounds of shin of beef, strained; boil very slowly for an hour; wash and string two or three good handfuls of spinach; put it in twenty minutes before serving; add a little parsley, and one or two onions, a short time before it comes off the fire; season with pepper and salt, and serve all together in a tureen.
1156.  Roast Beef Bones

Roast beef bones furnish a very relishing luncheon or supper, prepared with poached or fried eggs and mashed potatoes as accompaniments. Divide the bones, having good pickings of meat on each; score them in squares, pour a little melted butter over, and sprinkle with pepper and salt; put them on a dish; set in a Dutch oven for half or three quarters of an hour, according to the thickness of the meat; keep turning till they are quite hot and brown: or broil them on the gridiron. Brown but do not burn them. Serve with piquant sauce.
1157.  Marrow Bones

Saw the bones evenly, so that they will stand steadily; put a piece of paste into the ends; set them upright in a saucepan, and boil till they are done enough—beef marrow bone will require from an hour and a half to two hours; serve fresh-toasted bread with them.
1158.  Beef (Rump) Steak and Onion Sauce

Peel and slice two large onions, put them into a quart stewpan, with two tablespoonfuls of water; cover the pan close, and set on a slow fire till the water has boiled away, and the onions have become a little browned; then add half a pint of good broth, and boil the onions till they are tender; strain the broth, and chop very fine; season with mushroom ketchup, pepper, and salt; put in the onions then, and let them boil gently for five minutes, pour into the dish, and lay over it a broiled rump steak. If instead of broth you use good beef gravy, it will be delicious.

When we Think we Fail, we are Often Near Success.

1159.  Beef à la Mode and Veal Ditto.

Take about eleven pounds of the mouse buttock,—or clod of beef,—or blade bone,—or the sticking-piece, or the like weight of the breast of veal;—cut it into pieces of three or four ounces each; put in three or four ounces of beef dripping, and mince a couple of large onions, and lay them into a large deep stewpan. As soon as it is quite hot, flour the meat, put it into the stewpan, continue stirring with a wooden spoon; when it has been on about ten minutes, dredge with flour, and keep doing so till you have stirred in as much as you think will thicken it; then add by degrees about a gallon of boiling water; keep stirring it together; skim it when it boils, and then put in one drachm of ground black pepper, two of allspice, and two bay-leaves; set the pan by the side of the fire, or at a distance over it, and let it stew very slowly for about three hours; when you find the meat sufficiently tender, put it into a tureen, and it is ready for table.
1160.  Ox-Cheek Stewed

Prepare the day before it is to be eaten; clean the cheek and put it into soft water, just warm; let it lie for three or four hours, then put it into cold water, to soak all night; next day wipe it clean, put it into a stewpan, and just cover it with water; skim it well when it is coming to a boil, then add two whole onions with two or three cloves stuck into each, three turnips quartered, a couple of carrots sliced, two bay-leaves, and twenty-four corns of allspice, a head of celery, and a bundle of sweet herbs, pepper, and salt; lastly, add a little cayenne and garlic, if liked.

Let it stew gently till perfectly tender, about three hours; then take out the cheek, divide into pieces fit to help at table; skim and strain the gravy; melt an ounce and a half of butter in a stewpan; stir into it as much flour as it will take up; mix with it by degrees a pint and a half of the gravy; add a tablespoonful of mushroom or walnut ketchup, or port wine, and boil a short time. Serve up in a soup or ragoût dish, or make it into barley broth. This is a very economical, nourishing, and savoury meal.
1161.  Hashed Mutton or Beef

Slice the meat small, trim off the brown edges, and stew down the trimmings with the bones, well broken, an onion, a bunch of thyme and parsley, a carrot cut into slices, a few peppercorns, cloves, salt, and a pint and a half of water or stock. When this is reduced to little more than three quarters of a pint, strain it, clear it from the fat, thicken it with a large dessertspoonful of flour or arrowroot, add salt and pepper, boil the whole for a few minutes, then lay in the meat and heat it well. Boiled potatoes are sometimes sliced hot into the hash.
1162.  Irish Stew

Take two pounds of potatoes; peel and slice them; cut rather more than two pounds of mutton chops, either from the loin or neck; part of the fat should he taken off; beef, two pounds, six large onions sliced, a slice of ham, or lean bacon, a spoonful of pepper, and two of salt. This stew may be done in a stewpan over the fire, or in a baker's oven, or in a close-covered earthen pot. First put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat and onions, sprinkle the seasoning, then a layer of potatoes, and again the meat and onions and seasoning; the top layer should be potatoes, and the vessel should be quite full. Then put in half a pint of good gravy, and a spoonful of mushroom ketchup. Let the whole stew for an hour and a half; be very careful it does not burn.

Second Trials Often Succeed.

1163.  Palatable Stew

Cut pieces of salt beef and pork into dice, put them into a stewpan with six whole peppercorns, two blades of mace, a few cloves, a teaspoonful of celery-seeds, and a faggot of dried sweet herbs; cover with water, and stew gently for an hour, then add fragments of carrots, turnips, parsley, or any other vegetables at hand, with two sliced onions, and some vinegar to flavour; thicken with flour or rice, remove the herbs, and pour into the dish with toasted bread, or freshly baked biscuit, broken small, and serve hot. When they can be procured, a few potatoes improve it very much.
1164.  Ragoût of Cold Veal

Either a neck, loin, or fillet of veal will furnish this excellent ragoût with a very little expense or trouble. Cut the veal into handsome cutlets; put a piece of butter, or clean dripping, into a frying pan; as soon as it is hot, flour and fry the veal to a light brown; take it out, and if you have no gravy ready, put a pint of boiling water into the frying-pan, give it a boil-up for a minute, and strain it in a basin while you make some thickening in the following manner:

Put an ounce of butter into a stewpan; as soon as it melts, mix as much flour as will dry it up; stir it over the fire for a few minutes, and gradually add the gravy you made in the frying-pan: let them simmer together for ten minutes; season with pepper, salt, a little mace, and a wineglassful of mushroom ketchup or wine; strain it through a tammy, or fine sieve, over the meat, and stew very gently till the meat is thoroughly warmed, If you have any ready-boiled bacon, cut it in slices, and put it to warm with the meat.
1165.   Economical Dish

Cut some rather fat ham or bacon into slices, and fry to a nice brown; lay them aside to keep warm; then mix equal quantities of potatoes and cabbage, bruised well together, and fry them in the fat left from the ham. Place the mixture at the bottom, and lay the slices of bacon on the top. Cauliflower, or broccoli, substituted for cabbage, is truly delicious; and, to any one possessing a garden, quite easily procured, as those newly blown will do. The dish must be well seasoned with pepper.
1166.  Mock Goose

(being a leg of pork skinned, roasted, and stuffed goose fashion).—Parboil the leg; take off the skin, and then put it down to roast; baste it with butter, and make a savoury powder of finely minced or dried or powdered sage, ground black pepper, salt, and some bread-crumbs, rubbed together through a cullender: add to this a little very finely minced onion; sprinkle it with this when it is almost roasted; put half a pint of made gravy into the dish, and goose stuffing under the knuckle skin; or garnish the dish with balls of it fried or boiled.
1167.  Roast Goose

When a goose is well picked, singed, and cleaned, make the stuffing, with about two ounces of onion—if you think the flavour of raw onions too strong, cut them in slices, and lay them in cold water for a couple of hours, add as much apple or potato as you have of onion, and half as much green sage, chop them very fine, adding four ounces, i. e., about a large breakfast cupful, of stale breadcrumbs, a bit of butter about as big as a walnut, and a very little pepper and salt, the yolk of an egg or two, and incorporating the whole well together, stuff the goose; do not quite fill it, but leave a little room for the stuffing to swell. Spit it, tie it on the spit at both ends, to prevent it swinging round, and to prevent the stuffing from coming out. From an hour and a half to an hour and three-quarters will roast a fine full-grown goose. Send up gravy and apple sauce with it.

Second Thoughts are Often Best.

1168.  Jugged Hare

Wash it very nicely, cut it up in pieces proper to help at table, and put them into a jugging-pot, or into a stone jar, just sufficiently large to hold it well; put in some sweet herbs, a roll or two of rind of a lemon, and a fine large onion with five cloves stuck in it; and, if you wish to preserve the flavour of the hare, a quarter of a pint of water; but, if you wish to make a ragoût, a quarter of a pint of claret or port wine, and the juice of a lemon. Tie the jar down closely with a bladder, so that no steam can escape; put a little hay in the bottom of the saucepan, in which place the jar; let the water boil for about three hours, according to the age and size of the hare, keeping it boiling all the time, and till up the pot as it boils away.

Care, however, must be taken that it is not overdone, which is the general fault in all made dishes. When quite tender, strain off the gravy from the fat, thicken it with flour, and give it a boil up; lay the pieces of hare in a hash dish, and pour the gravy over it. You may make a pudding the same as for roast hare, and boil it in a cloth, and when you dish up your hare, cut it in slices, or make forcemeat balls of it for garnish. For sauce, red currant jelly.
1169.  Stewed Hare

A much easier and quicker way is the following: —Prepare the hare as for jugging; put it into a stewpan with a few sweet herbs, half a dozen cloves, the same of allspice and black pepper, two large onions, and a roll of lemon peel; cover it with water: when it boils, skim it clean, and let it simmer gently till tender (about two hours); then take the meat up with a slice, set it by a fire to keep hot while you thicken the gravy; take three ounces of butter and some flour, rub together, put in the gravy, stir it well, and let it boil about ten minutes; strain it through a sieve over the meat, and it is ready.
1170.  Curried Beef, Madras Way

Take about two ounces of butter, and place it in a saucepan, with two small onions cut up into slices, and let them fry until they are a light brown; then add a tablespoonful and a half of curry powder, and mix it up well. Now put in the beef, cut into pieces about an inch square; pour in from a quarter to a third of a pint of milk, and let it simmer for thirty minutes; then take it off, and place it in a dish, with a little lemon juice. Whilst cooking stir constantly, to prevent it burning. Send to table with a wall of mashed potatoes or boiled rice round it. It greatly improves any curry to add with the milk a quarter of a cocoa-nut, scraped very small, and squeezed through muslin with a little water; this softens the taste of the curry, and, indeed, no curry should be made without it.
1171.  Ragoût of Duck, or any kind of Poultry or Game

Partly roast, then divide into joints, or pieces of a suitable size for helping at table. Set it on in a stewpan, with a pint and a half of broth, or, if you have no broth, water, with any little trimmings of meat to enrich it; a large onion stuck with cloves, a dozen berries of allspice, the same quantity of black pepper, and the rind of half a lemon shaved thin. When it boils, skim it very clean, and then let it simmer gently, with the lid close, for an hour and a half. Then strain off the liquor, and take out the pieces, which keep hot in a basin or deep dish.

Rinse the stewpan, or use a clean one, in which put two ounces of butter, and as much flour or other thickening as will bring it to a stiff paste; add to it the gravy by degrees. Let it boil up, then add a glass of port wine, a little lemon juice, and a teaspoonful of salt; simmer a few minutes. Put the meat in a deep dish, strain the gravy over, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread. The flavour may be varied at pleasure by adding ketchup, curry powder, or vinegar.
1172.  To Dress Cold Turkey, Goose, Fowl, Duck, Pigeon, or Rabbit

Cut the cold bird or rabbit in quarters, beat up an egg or two (according to the quantity to be dressed) with a little grated nutmeg, and pepper and salt, some parsley minced fine, and a few crumbs of bread; mix these well together, and cover the pieces with this batter: broil them, or put them in a Dutch oven, or have ready some dripping hot in a pan, in which fry them a light brown colour; thicken a little gravy with some flour, put a large spoonful of ketchup to it, lay the fry in a dish, and pour the sauce round it; garnish with slices of lemon and toasted bread.

Read Frequently the Medical Hints.

1173.  Pulled Turkey, Fowl, or Chicken

Skin a cold chicken, fowl, or turkey; take off the fillets from the breasts, and put them into a stewpan with the rest of the white meat and wings, side-bones, and merry-thought, with a pint of broth, a large blade of mace pounded, a shalot minced fine, the juice of half a lemon, and a strip of the peel, some salt, and a few grains of cayenne; thicken it with flour and butter, and let it simmer for two or three minutes, till the meat is warm. In the meantime score the legs and rump, powder them with pepper and salt, broil them in a dish and lay the pulled chicken round them. Three tablespoonfuls of good cream, or the yolks of as many eggs, will be a great improvement to it.
1174.  Hashed Poultry, Game, or Rabbit

Cut them into joints, put the trimmings into a stew pan with a quart of the broth in which they were boiled, and a large onion cut in four; let the whole boil half an hour: strain it through a sieve; then put two tablespoonfuls of flour in a basin, and mix it well by degrees with the hot broth; set it on the fire to boil up, then strain it through a fine sieve: wash out the stewpan, lay the poultry in it, and pour the gravy on it (through a sieve); set it by the side of the fire to simmer very gently (it must not boil) for fifteen minutes; five minutes before you serve it up, cut the stuffing in slices, and put it in to warm, then take it out, and lay it round the edge of the dish, and put the poultry in the middle; skim the fat off the gravy, then shake it round well in the stewpan, and pour it over the hash. Garnish the dish with toasted sippets.
1175.  Ducks or Geese Hashed

Cut an onion, into small dice: put it into a stewpan with a bit of butter; fry it, but do not let it get any colour; put as much boiling water into the stewpan as will make sauce for the hash; thicken it with a little flour; cut up the duck, and put it into the sauce to warm; do not let it boil; season it with pepper and salt and ketchup.
1176.  Broiled Goose

The legs of geese, &c., broiled, and laid on a bed of apple sauce, form an appetising dish for luncheon or supper.
1177.  Grilled Fowl

Take the remains of cold fowls, and skin them or not, at choice; pepper and salt them, and sprinkle over them a little lemon juice, and let them stand an hour; wipe them dry, dip them into clarified butter, and then into fine bread-crumbs, and broil gently over a clear fire. A little finely minced lean of ham or grated lemon peel, with a seasoning of cayenne, salt, and mace, mixed with the crumbs, will vary this dish agreeably. When fried instead of broiled, the fowls may be dipped into yolk of egg instead of butter.
1178.  A Nice Way of serving up a fowl that has been dressed

Beat the whites of two eggs to a thick froth; add a small bit of butter, or some salad oil, flour, a little lukewarm water, and two tablespoonfuls of beer, beaten altogether till it is of the consistency of very thick cream. Cut up the fowl into small pieces, strew over it some chopped parsley and shalot, pepper, salt, and a little vinegar, and let it lie till dinner-time; dip the fowl in the batter, and fry it in boiling lard, of a nice light brown. Veal that has been cooked may be dressed in the same way.
1179.  Curry of any Kind

Cut up a good fowl; skin it or not, as you please; fry it nicely brown: slice two or three onions, and fry them; put the fried fowl and onions into a stew-pan with a tablespoonful of curry powder, and one clove of garlic: cover it with water or veal gravy: let it stew slowly for one hour, or til very tender; have ready, mixed in two or three spoonfuls of good cream, one teaspoonful of flour, two ounces of butter, juice of a lemon, some salt; after the cream is in, it must only have one boil up, not to stew. Any spice may be added if the curry powder is not highly seasoned. With chicken, rabbit, or fish, observe the same rule. Curry is made also with sweetbreads, breast of veal, veal cutlets, lamb, mutton or pork chops, lobster, turbot, soles, eels, oysters, &c. Any kind of white meat is fit for a curry.

And Study All the Precautions.

1180.  Curried Eggs

Slice two onions and fry them in butter, add a tablespoonful of curry powder; let the onions and curry powder stew in a pint of good broth till the former are quite tender; mix a cup of cream, and thicken with arrowroot, or rice flour. Simmer a few minutes, then add six or eight hard-boiled eggs cut in slices; heat them thoroughly, but do not let them boil.
1181.  Cold Meat Broiled, With Poached Eggs

The inside of a sirloin of beef or a leg of mutton is the best for this dish. Cut the slices of equal thickness, and broil and brown them carefully and slightly over a clear smart fire, or in a Dutch oven; give those slices most fire that are least done; lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot, while you poach the eggs and mash the potatoes. This makes a savoury luncheon or supper. The meat should be underdone the first time.
1182.  Curried Oysters

This receipt may be greatly modified, both in quantity and ingredients. Let a hundred of large oysters be opened into a basin without losing one drop of their liquor. Put a lump of fresh butter into a good-sized saucepan, and when it boils, add a large onion, cut into thin slices, and let it fry in the uncovered stewpan until it is of a rich brown: now add a bit more butter, and two or three tablespoonfuls of curry powder. When these ingredients are well mixed over the fire with a wooden spoon, add gradually either hot water, or broth from the stock-pot; cover the stewpan, and let the whole boil up. Meanwhile, have ready the meat of a cocoa-nut, grated or rasped fine, put this into the stewpan with an unripe apple, chopped. Let the whole simmer over the fire until the apple is dissolved, and the cocoa-nut very tender; then add a cupful of strong thickening made of flour and water, and sufficient salt, as a curry will not bear being salted at table. Let this boil up for five minutes.

Have ready also a vegetable marrow, or part of one, cut into bits, and sufficiently boiled to require little or no further cooking. Put this in with a tomato or two. These vegetables improve the flavour of the dish, but either or both of them may be omitted. Now put into the stewpan the oysters with their liquor, and the milk of the cocoa-nut, if it be perfectly sweet; stir them well with the former ingredients; let the curry stew gently for a few minutes, then throw in the strained juice of half a lemon. Stir the curry from time to time with a wooden spoon, and as soon as the oysters are done enough, serve it up with a corresponding dish of rice on the opposite side of the table. This dish is considered at Madras the ne plus ultra of Indian cookery.
1183.  Fried Oysters

Large oysters are the best. Simmer for a minute or two in their own liquor; drain perfectly dry; dip in yolks of eggs, and then in bread-crumbs, seasoned with nutmeg, cayenne, and salt; fry them of a light brown. They are chiefly used as garnish for fish, or for rump steaks; but if intended to be eaten alone, make a little thick melted butter, moistened with the liquor of the oysters, and serve as sauce.
1184.  Stewed Oysters

The beard or fringe is generally taken off. When this is done, set on the beards with the liquor of the oysters, and a little white gravy, rich, but unseasoned; having boiled for a few minutes, strain off the beards, put in the oysters, and thicken the gravy with flour and butter (an ounce of butter to half a pint of stew), a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg, or mace, a spoonful of ketchup, and three of cream; some prefer a little essence of anchovy to ketchup, others the juice of a lemon, others a glass of white wine; the flavour may be varied according to taste. Simmer till the stew is thick, and the oysters warmed through, but avoid letting them boil. Lay toasted sippets at the bottom of the dish and round the edges.

Study the Precautions Respecting Fire.

1185.  Bologna Sausages

Take equal quantities of bacon, fat and lean, beef, veal, pork, and beef suet; chop them small, season with pepper, salt, &c., sweet herbs, and sage rubbed fine. Have a well-washed intestine, fill, and prick it; boil gently for an hour, and lay on straw to dry. They may be smoked the same as hams.
1186.  Oxford Sausages

To each pound of lean pork allow one pound of lean veal, one pound of fat, part pork and part veal. Chop and beat well with a lard-beater. Allow one pound of bread-crumbs, thyme, a little parsley; an ounce of sage leaves, chopped very small; two heads of leeks, or a little garlic, or shalot, chopped very fine; salt, pepper, and nutmeg. To each pound allow one egg, the yolks and whites separately; beat both well, mix in the yolks, and as much of the whites as is necessary to moisten the bread. Then make the sausages in the usual way.
1187.  Worcester Sausages

Worcester sausages are made of beef, &c.; add allspice, and any other spices and herbs you may choose.
1188.  Mutton Sausages

The lean of the leg is the best. Add half as much of beef suet; that is, a pound of lean and half a pound of suet (this proportion is good for all sausages). Add oysters, anchovies chopped very fine, and flavour with seasoning. No herbs. These will require a little fat in the pan to fry.
1189.  Veal Sausages

Veal sausages are made exactly as Oxford sausages, except that you add ham fat, or fat bacon; and, instead of sage, use marjoram, thyme, and parsley.
1190.  Preparing Sausage Skins

Turn them inside out, and stretch them on a stick; wash and scrape them in several waters. When thoroughly cleansed, take them off the sticks, and soak in salt and water two or three hours before filling.
1191.  Saveloys

Saveloys are made of salt pork, fat and lean, with bread-crumbs, pepper, and sage; they are always put in skins: boil half an hour slowly. These are eaten cold.
1192.  Black Hog Pudding

Catch the blood of a hog; to each quart of blood put a large teaspoonful of salt, and stir it without ceasing till it is cold. Simmer half a pint or a pint of Embden groats in a small quantity of water till tender; there must be no gruel. The best way of doing it is in a double saucepan, so that you need not put more water than will moisten them. Chop up (for one quart of blood) one pound of the inside fat of the hog, and a quarter of a pint of bread-crumbs, a tablespoonful of sage, chopped fine, a teaspoonful of thyme, three drachms each of allspice, salt, and pepper, and a teacupful of cream. When the blood is cold, strain it through a sieve, and add to it the fat, then the groats, and then the seasoning. When well mixed, put it into the skin of the largest gut, well cleansed; tie it in lengths of about nine inches, and boil gently for twenty minutes. Take them out and prick them when they have boiled a few minutes.
1193.  Scotch Woodcock

Three or four slices of bread; toast and butter well on both sides,—nine or ten anchovies washed, scraped, and chopped fine; put them between the slices of toast,—have ready the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and half a pint of cream—which set over the fire to thicken, but not boil,—then pour it over the toast, and serve it to table as hot as possible.
1194.  Sweetbread

Trim a fine sweetbread (it cannot be too _fresh_); parboil it for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water. Then roast it plain—or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare some fine breadcrumbs; or when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in a cloth; run a lark-spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the ordinary spit; egg it with a paste-brush; powder it well with bread-crumbs, and roast it. For sauce, fried bread-crumbs, melted butter, with a little mushroom ketchup, and lemon juice, or serve on buttered toast, garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy. Instead of spitting the sweetbread, you may put it into a tin Dutch oven, or fry it.

Read the Hints to Husbands and Wives.

1195.  Sweetbreads Plain

Parboil and slice them as before, dry them in a clean cloth, flour them, and fry them a delicate brown; take care to drain the fat well, and garnish with slices of lemon, and sprigs of chervil or parsley, or crisp parsley. Serve with sauce, and slices of ham or bacon, or force-meat balls.
1196.  Kidneys

Cut them through the long way, score them, sprinkle a little pepper and salt on them, and run a wire skewer through to keep them from curling on the gridiron, so that they may be evenly broiled. Broil over a clear fire, taking care not to prick the kidney with the fork, and turning them often till they are done; they will take about ten or twelve minutes, if the fire is brisk. Another mode is to fry them in butter, and make gravy for them in the pan (after you have taken out the kidneys), by putting in a teaspoonful of flour; as soon as it looks brown, put in as much water as will make gravy. Kidneys will take five minutes more to fry than to broil.
1197.  Devil

The gizzard and rump, or legs, &c., of a dressed turkey, capon, or goose, or mutton or veal kidney, scored, peppered, salted, and broiled, sent up for a relish, being made very hot, has obtained the name of a "devil."
1198.  Bacon

Dr. Kitchiner very justly says:
"The boiling of bacon is a very simple subject to comment upon; but our main object is to teach common cooks the art of dressing common food in the best manner. Cover a pound of nice streaked bacon with cold water, let it boil gently for three quarters of an hour; take it up, scrape the under side well, and cut off the rind: grate a crust of bread not only on the top, but all over it, as you would ham, put it before the fire for a few minutes, not too long, or it will dry and spoil it. Bacon is sometimes as salt as salt can make it, therefore before it is boiled it must be soaked in warm water for an hour or two, changing the water once; then pare off the rusty and smoked part, trim it nicely on the under side, and scrape the rind as clean as possible."

1199.  Ham or Bacon Slices

Ham or bacon slices should not be less than one-eighth or more than a quarter of an inch thick, and, for delicate persons, should be soaked in hot water for a quarter of an hour, and then well wiped and dried before broiling. If you wish to curl a slice, roll it up, and put a wooden skewer through it; then in may be dressed in a cheese-toaster or a Dutch oven.
1200.  Relishing Rashers of Bacon

If you have any _cold bacon_, you may make a very nice dish of it by cutting it into slices about a quarter of an inch thick. Then grate some crust of bread as directed for ham, and powder the slices well with it on both sides; lay the rashers in a cheese-toaster,—they will be browned on one side in about three minutes:—turn them and do the other. These are a delicious accompaniment to poached or fried eggs:—the bacon, having been boiled first, is tender and mellow.—They are an excellent garnish round veal cutlets, sweetbreads, calf's head hash, green peas, or beans, &c.
1201.  Anchovy Sandwiches

Anchovy sandwiches made with the above, will be found excellent.
1202.  Anchovy Toast

Anchovy toast is made by spreading anchovy paste upon bread either toasted or fried.

Fire Is A Good Servant But A Bad Master.

1203.  Scotch Porridge

For four persons.—Boil three pints of water in a clean saucepan, add a teaspoonful of salt; mix very gradually, while the water is boiling, one pound of fine oatmeal, stirring constantly, while you put in the meal, with a round stick about eighteen inches long, called a "spirtle." Continue stirring for fifteen minutes; then pour into soup plates, allow it to cool a little, and serve with sweet milk. Scotch porridge is one of the most nutritive diets that can be given, especially for young persons, on account of the bone-producing elements contained in oatmeal. It is sometimes boiled with milk instead of water, but the mixture is then rather rich for delicate stomachs.
1204.  Scotch Brose

This favourite Scotch dish is generally made with the liquor in which meat has been boiled. Put half a pint of oatmeal into a porringer with a little salt, if there be not enough in the broth,—of which add as much as will mix it to the consistence of hasty pudding or a little thicker,— lastly, take a little of the fat that swims on the broth and put it on the porridge, and eat it in the same way as hasty pudding.
1205.  Barley Broth, Scotch

Dr. Kitchiner, from whose "Cook's Oracle,"1 we take this receipt, after testing it, says:
"This is a most frugal, agreeable, and nutritive meal. It will neither lighten the purse nor lie heavy on the stomach. It will furnish you with a pleasant soup, and meat for eight persons.

Wash three-quarters of a pound of Scotch barley in a little cold water; put it in a soup-pot with a shin or leg of beef, of about ten pounds weight, sawn into four pieces (tell the butcher to do this for you); cover it well with cold water; set it on the fire; when it boils, skim it very clean, and put in two onions, of about three ounces weight each; set it by the side of the fire to simmer very gently for about two hours; then skim all the fat clean off, and put in two heads of celery and a large turnip cut into small squares; season it with salt, and let it boil for an hour and a half longer, and it will be ready: take out the meat carefully with a slice (and cover it up, and set it by the fire to keep warm), and skim the broth well before you put it in the tureen.

Put a quart of the soup into a basin, and about an ounce of flour into a stewpan, and pour the broth to it by degrees, stirring it well together; set it on the fire, and stir it till it boils, then let it boil up, and it is ready. Put the meat in a ragoût dish, and strain the sauce through a sieve over the meat; you may put to it some capers, or minced gherkins, or walnuts, &c. If the beef has been stewed with proper care, in a very gentle manner, and taken up at 'the critical moment when it is just tender,' you will obtain an excellent and savoury meal."

Footnote 1:   Published by Messrs. Houlston and Suns, Paternoster-square. London, E.C.
return to footnote mark
1206.  Hotch-Potch for Summer

Make a stock from the neck or ribs of lamb or mutton, reserving some chops, which cook for a shorter time and serve in the tureen. Chop small, four turnips, four carrots, a few young onions, a little parsley, and one lettuce; boil for one hour. Twenty minutes before they are done, put in a cauliflower cut small, one quart of shelled peas, and a pint of young beans.
1207.  Hotch-Potch for Winter

This can be made of beef or mutton, or, for those who are partial to Scotch cookery, a sheep's head and feet, one pound of old green peas, steeped all the night previously, one large turnip, three carrots, four leeks, a little parsley, all cut small, with the exception of one carrot, which should be grated; add a small bunch of sweet herbs, pepper, and salt. The peas take two hours and a half to cook; the other vegetables, two hours; the head, three hours; and the feet, four hours.

There is No Balm for Every Wound.

1208.  Beef Broth

Beef broth may be made by adding vegetables to essence of beef —or you may wash a leg or shin of beef, the bone of which has been well cracked by the butcher; add any trimmings of meat, game, or poultry, heads, necks, gizzards, feet, &c.; cover them with cold water; stir the whole up well from the bottom, and the moment it begins to simmer, skim it carefully. Your broth must be perfectly clear and limpid; on this depends the goodness of the soups, sauces, and gravies of which it is the basis. Add some cold water to make the remaining scum rise, and skim it again.

When the scum has done rising, and the surface of the broth is quite clear, put in one moderate sized carrot, a head of celery, two turnips, and two onions,—it should not have any taste of sweet herbs, spice, or garlic, &c.; either of these flavours can easily be added after, if desired,—cover it close, set it by the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently (so as not to waste the broth) for four or five hours, or more, according to the weight of the meat. Strain it through a sieve in to a clean and dry stone pan, and set it in the coldest place you have, if for after use.
1209.  Beef Tea

Beef extract, by adding water, forms the best beef tea or broth for invalids. (See Beef Extract, par. 1220.)
1210.  Clear Gravy Soup

This may be made from shin of beef, which should not be large or coarse. The meat will be found serviceable for the table. From ten pounds of the meat let the butcher cut off five or six from the thick fleshy part, and again divide the knuckle, that the whole may lie compactly in the vessel in which it is to be stewed. Pour in three quarts of cold water, and when it has been brought slowly to boil, and been well skimmed, throw in an ounce and a half of salt, half a large teaspoonful of peppercorns, eight cloves, two blades of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, a couple of small carrots, and the heart of a root of celery; to these add a mild onion or not, at choice.

When the whole has stewed very softly for four hours, probe the large bit of beef, and, if quite tender, lift it out for table; let the soup he simmered from two to three hours longer, and then strain it through a fine sieve, into a clean pan. When it is perfectly cold, clear off every particle of fat: heat a couple of quarts; stir in, when it boils, half an ounce of sugar, a small tablespoonful of good soy, and twice as much of Harvey's sauce, or, instead of this, of clear and fine mushroom ketchup. If carefully made, the soup will be perfectly transparent, and of good colour and flavour. A thick slice of ham will improve it, and a pound or so of the neck of beef with an additional pint of water, will likewise enrich its quality. A small quantity of good broth may be made of the fragments of the whole, boiled down with a few fresh vegetables.
1211.  Beef Glaze

Beef glaze, or portable soup, is simply the essence of beef condensed by evaporation. It may be put into pots, like potted meats, or into skins, as sausages, and will keep for many months. If further dried in cakes or lozenges, by being laid on pans or dishes, and frequently turned, it will keep for years, and supply soup at any moment.
1212.  Vermicelli Soup

To three quarts of gravy soup, or stock, add six ounces of vermicelli. Simmer for half an hour; stir frequently.
1213.  Vegetable Soup

Peel and cut into very small pieces three onions, three turnips, one carrot, and four potatoes, put them into a stewpan with a quarter of a pound of butter, the same of lean ham, and a bunch of parsley, pass them ten minutes over a sharp fire; then add a large spoonful of flour, mix well in, moisten with two quarts of broth, and a pint of boiling milk; boil up, keeping it stirred; season with a little salt and sugar, and run it through a hair sieve; put it into another stewpan, boil again, skim, and serve with fried bread in it.
1214.  Asparagus Soup

Two quarts of good beef or veal stock, four onions, two or three turnips, some sweet herbs, and the white parts of a hundred young asparagus,—if old, half that quantity,—and let them simmer till fit to be rubbed through a tammy; strain and season it; have ready the boiled green tops of the asparagus, and add them to the soup.

Books and Thought;—They Should Not Supersede It.

1215.  Carrot Soup

Scrape and wash half a dozen large carrots; peel off the red outside (which is the only part used for this soup); put it into a gallon stewpan, with one head of celery, and an onion cut into thin pieces; take two quarts of beef, veal, or mutton broth, or liquor in which mutton or beef has been boiled, as the foundation for this soup. Stock that is equally good may be made by boiling down some cold roast mutton or beef bones. When you have put the broth to the roots, cover the stewpan close, and set it on a slow stove for two hours and a half, when the carrots will be soft enough. At this stage some cooks put in a teacupful of bread-crumbs. Next boil the soup for two or three minutes; rub it through a tammy or hair sieve, with a wooden spoon, and add as much broth as will make it a proper thickness, i. e., almost as thick as pea soup; put it into a clean stewpan, make it hot and serve.
1216.  Cock-a-Leekie

Boil from four to six pounds of good shin of beef well broken, until the liquor is very good. Strain it and add a good-sized fowl, with two or three leeks cut in pieces about an inch long, put in pepper and salt to taste, boil slowly about an hour, then put in as many more leeks, and give it three-quarters of an hour longer. A somewhat similar soup may be made of good beef stock, and leeks cut up and put in without a fowl, though this cannot be called Cock-a-Leekie with propriety.
1217.  Mince Meat

Take seven pounds of currants well picked and cleaned; of finely chopped beef suet, and finely chopped apples (Kentish or golden pippins), each three and a half; pounds; citron, lemon peel, and orange peel cut small, each half a pound; fine moist sugar, two pounds; mixed spice, an ounce; the rind of four lemons and four Seville oranges; mix well, and put in a deep pan. Mix a bottle of brandy, another of white wine, and the juice of the lemons and oranges that have been grated, together in a basin; pour half over and press down tight with the hand, then add the other half and cover closely. This may be made one year so as to be used the next.
1218.  Minced Collops

Two pounds of good rump steak, chopped very fine; six good-sized onions, also chopped small; put both into a stewpan, with as much water or gravy as will cover the meat; stir it without ceasing till the water begins to boil; then set the stewpan aside, where the collops can simmer, not boil, for three-quarters of an hour. Just before serving, stir in a tablespoonful of flour, a little pepper and salt, and boil it up once. Serve with mashed potatoes round the dish. The above quantity will be enough for four persons.
1219.  Forcemeat Balls

(For turtle, mock turtle, or made dishes.)— Pound some veal in a marble mortar, rub it through a sieve with as much of the udder as you have veal, or about n third of the quantity of butter: put some bread-crumbs into a stewpan, moisten them with milk, add a little chopped parsley and shalot, rub them well together in a mortar, till they form a smooth paste; put it through a sieve, and when cold, pound, and mix all together, with the yolks of three eggs boiled hard; season the mixture with salt, pepper, and curry powder, or cayenne; add to it the yolks of two raw eggs, rub it well together, and make it into small balls which should be put into the soup or hash, as the case may be, ten minutes before it is ready.

There is Something to be Learned from the Merest Trifle.

1220.  Beef Extract

(As recommended by Baron Liebig).—Take a pound of good juicy beef from which all the skin and fat has been cut away, chop it up like sausage meat; mix it thoroughly with a pint of cold water, place it on the side of the stove to heat very slowly, and give it an occasional stir. It may stand two or three hours before it is allowed to simmer, and will then require but fifteen minutes of gentle boiling. Salt should be added when the boiling commences, and this for invalids in general, is the only seasoning required. When the extract is thus far prepared, it may be poured from the meat into a basin, and allowed to stand until any particles of fat on the surface can he skimmed off, and the sediment has subsided and left the soup quite clear, when it may be poured off gently, heated in a clean saucepan, and served. The scum should be well cleared as it accumulates.
1221.  Potted Beef

Take three or four pounds, or any smaller quantity, of lean beef, free from sinews, and rub it well with a mixture made of a handful of salt, one ounce of saltpetre, and one ounce of coarse sugar; let the meat lie in the salt for two days, turning and rubbing it twice a day. Put it into a stone jar with a little beef gravy, and cover it with a paste to keep it close. Bake it for several hours in a very slow oven till the meat is tender; then pour off the gravy, which should be in a very small quantity, or the juice of the meat will be lost; pound the meat, when cold, in a marble mortar till it is reduced to a smooth paste, adding by degrees a little fresh butter melted. Season it as you proceed with pepper, allspice, nutmeg, pounded mace, and cloves, or such of these spices as are thought agreeable. Some flavour with anchovy, ham, shalots, mustard, wine, flavoured vinegar, ragoût powder, curry powder, &c., according to taste. When it is thoroughly beaten and mingled together, press it closely into small shallow pots, nearly full, and fill them up with a layer a quarter of an inch thick of clarified butter, and tie them up with a bladder, or sheet of Indian rubber. They should be kept in a cool place.
1222.  Strasburg Potted Meat

Take a pound and a half of rump of beef, cut into dice, and put it in an earthen jar, with a quarter of a pound of butter at the bottom; tie the jar close up with paper, and set over a pot to boil; when nearly done, add cloves, mace, allspice, nutmeg, salt, and cayenne pepper to taste; then boil till tender, and let it get cold. Pound the meat, with four anchovies washed and boned; add a quarter of a pound of oiled butter, work it well together with the gravy, warm a little, and add cochineal to colour. Then press into small pots, and pour melted mutton suet over the top of each.
1223.  Brown Stock (1)

Put five pounds of shin of beef, three pounds of knuckle of veal, and some sheep's trotters or cow-heel into a closely-covered stewpan, to draw out the gravy very gently, and allow it to become nearly brown. Then pour in sufficient boiling water to entirely cover the meat, and let it boil up, skimming it frequently; seasoning it with whole peppers, salt, and roots, herbs, and vegetables of any kind. That being done, let it boil gently five or six hours, pour the broth off from the meat, and let it stand during the night to cool. The following morning take off the scum and fat, and put it away in a stone jar for further use.
1224.  Brown Stock (2)

Brown stock may be made from all sorts of meat, bones, remnants of poultry, game, &c. The shin of beef makes an excellent stock.
1225.  Brown Gravy

Three onions sliced, and fried in butter to a nice brown; toast a large thin slice of bread until quite hard and of a deep brown. Take these, with any piece of meat, bone, &c., and some herbs, and set them on the fire, with water according to judgment, and stew down until a rich and thick gravy is produced. Season, strain, and keep cool.
1226.  Goose or Duck Stuffing

Chop very fine about two ounces of onion, of _green_ sage leaves about an ounce (both unboiled), four ounces of bread-crumbs, a bit of butter about as big as a walnut, &c., the yolk and white of an egg, and a little pepper and salt; some add to this a minced apple.

Strive to Learn from All Things.

1227.  Bacon

Bacon is an extravagant article in housekeeping; there is often twice as much dressed as need be; when it is sent to table as an accompaniment to boiled poultry or veal, a pound and a half is plenty for a dozen people, A good German sausage is a very economical substitute for bacon; or fried pork sausage.
1228.  Culinary Economy

The English, generally speaking, are very deficient in the practice of culinary economy; a French family would live well on what is often wasted in an English kitchen: the bones, dripping, pot-liquor, remains of fish, vegetables, &c., which are too often consigned to the grease-pot or the dust-heap, especially where pigs or fowls are not kept, might, by a very trifling degree of management on the part of the cook, or mistress of a family, be converted into sources of daily support and comfort, at least to some poor pensioner or other, at an expense that even the miser could scarcely grudge.
1229.  Calf's Head Pie

Boil the head an hour and a half, or rather more. After dining from it, cut the remaining meat off in slices. Boil the bones in a little of the liquor for three hours; then strain it off, let it remain till next day, and then take off the fat.

To make the Pie.—Boil two eggs for five minutes; let them get cold, then lay them in slices at the bottom of a pie-dish, and put alternate layers of meat and jelly, with pepper and chopped lemon also alternately, till the dish is full; cover with a crust and bake it. Next day turn the pie out upside down.
1230.  Sea Pie

Make a thick pudding crust, line a dish with it, or what is better, a cake-tin; put a layer of sliced onions, then a layer of salt beef cut in slices, a layer of sliced potatoes, a layer of pork, and another of onions; strew pepper over all, cover with a crust, and tie down tightly with a cloth previously dipped in boiling water and floured. Boil for two hours, and serve hot in a dish.
1231.  Rump-Steak Pie

Cut three pounds of rump-steak (that has been kept till tender) into pieces half as big as your hand, trim off all the skin, sinews, and every part which has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and beat them with a chopper. Chop very fine half a dozen shalots, and add to them half an ounce of pepper and salt mixed; strew some of the seasoning at the bottom of the dish, then a layer of steak, then some more of the seasoning, and so on till the dish is full; add half a gill of mushroom ketchup, and the same quantity of gravy, or red wine; cover it as in the preceding receipt, and bake it two hours. Large oysters, parboiled, bearded, and laid alternately with the steaks—their liquor reduced and substituted instead of the ketchup and wine, will impart a delicious flavour to the pie.
1232.  Raised Pies

Put two pounds and a half of flour on the pasteboard, —and set on the fire, in a saucepan, three quarters of a pint of water, and half a pound of good lard. When the water boils, make a hole in the middle of the flour, pour in the water and lard by degrees, gently incorporating the flour with a spoon, and when it is well mixed, knead it with your hands till it becomes stiff; dredge a little flour to prevent it sticking to the board, or you cannot make it look smooth. Roll the dough with your hands—the rolling-pin must not be used—to about the thickness of a quart pot; leave a little for the covers, and cut the remainder into six circular discs. Take each of these pieces in succession; put one hand in the middle, and keep the other close on the outside till you have worked it either into an oval or a round shape.

Have your meat ready cut, and seasoned with pepper and salt; if pork, cut it in small slices—the griskin is the best for pasties: if you use mutton, cut it in very neat cutlets, and put them in the pies as you make them; roll out the covers with the rolling-pin, and cut them to the size of the pies, wet them round the edge, put them on the pie. Then press the paste of each pie and its cover together with the thumb and finger, and lastly, nick the edge all round with the back of a knife, and bake them an hour and a half.

Observation is the Best Teacher.

1233.  Wild Duck, To Dress

The birds are roasted like common ducks, but without stuffing, and with a rather less allowance of time for cooking. For example, a full-sized duck will take from three-quarters of an hour to an hour in roasting, but a wild duck will take from forty to fifty minutes. Before carving the knife should be drawn longitudinally along the breast, and upon these a little cayenne pepper must be sprinkled, and a lemon squeezed. They require a good made gravy, as described below. They are excellent half roasted and hashed in a good gravy made as follows:
1234.  Sauce for Wild Duck

Simmer a teacupful of port wine, the same quantity of good gravy, a small shalot, with pepper, nutmeg, mace, and salt to taste, for about ten minutes; put in a bit of butter and flour; give it all one boil, and pour it over the birds, or serve in a sauce tureen.
1235.  Widgeon and Teal, To Dress

These birds may be roasted or half roasted and baked, according to the directions given for wild duck, and served up with, a sauce or gravy made in precisely the same way. A widgeon will take as long to roast as a wild duck, but a teal, being a smaller bird, will take only from twenty to thirty minutes.
1236.  Roast Duck

Put into the body of the bird a seasoning of parboiled onions mixed with finely-chopped sage, salt, pepper, and a slice of butter. Place it before a brisk fire, but not sufficiently near to be scorched; baste it constantly, and when the breast is well plumped, and the steam from it draws towards the fire, dish and serve it quickly, with a little good brown gravy poured round them, and also some in a gravy tureen. Young ducks will take about half an hour to roast; full-sized ones from three-quarters of an hour to an hour.
1237.  Roast Partridge

Let the bird hang as long as it can be kept without being offensive. Pick it carefully, and singe it; wipe the inside thoroughly with a clean cloth, truss it with the head turned under the wing and the legs drawn close together, but not crossed. Flour partridges prepared in this manner when first laid to the fire, and baste them plentifully with butter. Serve them with bread sauce and good brown gravy.
1238.  Partridge Pudding

Skin a brace of well-kept partridges, and cut them into pieces; line a deep basin with suet crust, and lay in the pieces, which should be rather highly seasoned with white pepper and cayenne, and moderately with salt. Pour in water for the gravy, close the pudding carefully, and boil it for three hours or three hours and a half. When mushrooms are plentiful, put a layer of buttons or small mushrooms, cleaned as for pickling, alternately with a layer of partridge in filling tho pudding. The crust may he left untouched and merely emptied of its contents, where it is objected to, or a richer crust made with butter may be used instead of the ordinary suet crust.
1239.  Roast Ptarmigan

The ptarmigan, which is either a variety of grouse or grouse in its winter plumage, and black game, when roasted, are cooked in precisely the same manner as grouse.
1240.  Roast Grouse

Truss the birds in the same manner as pheasants, and set down before a brisk fire. When nearly ready—they will be done in from twenty to twenty-five minutes—baste well with butter and sprinkle with flour in order to froth them, and send to table with some good brown gravy and some fried bread crumbs and bread sauce. These accompaniments should be served in different sauce tureens.

Small Beginnings may Lead to Large Ends.

1241.  To Truss and Roast a Pheasant

The following method of trussing a pheasant—which applies equally to partridges, grouse, &c., and to fowls, guineafowls, &c.—is prescribed by Francatelli in his "Cook's Guide":
"Rub the scaly cuticle off the legs with a cloth; trim away the claws and spurs; cut off the neck close up to the back, leaving the skin of the breast entire; wipe the pheasant clean and truss it in the following manner, viz.:—Place the pheasant upon its breast, run a trussing needle and string through the left pinion (the wings being removed); then turn the bird over on its back, and place the thumb and forefinger of the left hand across the breast, holding the legs erect; thrust the needle through the middle joint of both thighs, draw it out and then pass it through the other pinion, and fasten the strings at the back; next pass the needle through the hollow of the back, just below the thighs, thrust it again through the legs and body and tie the strings tightly; this will give it an appearance of plumpness."
Roast and send to table in the same manner, and with the same accompaniments as directed for Roast Partridge (par. 1237.)
1242.   Cold Partridge Pie

Bone as many partridges as the size of pie to be made may require. Put a whole raw truffle, peeled, into each partridge, and fill up the remaining space in each bird with good forcemeat. Make a raised crust; lay a few slices of veal in the bottom, and a thick layer of forcemeat; then the partridges, and four truffles to each partridge; then cover the partridges and truffles over with sheets of bacon, cover the pie in, and finish it. It will take four hours baking.

Cut two pounds of lean ham (if eight partridges are in the pie) into very thin slices, put it in a stewpan along with the bones and giblets of the partridges, and any other loose giblets that are at hand, an old fowl, a faggot of thyme and parsley, a little mace, and about twenty-four shalots: add about a pint of stock. Set the stewpan on a stove to simmer for half an hour, then put in three quarts of good stock; let it boil for two hours, then strain it off, and reduce the liquid to one pint; add sherry wine to it, and put aside till the pie is baked.

When the pie has been out of the oven for half an hour, boil the residue strained from the bones &c., of the partridges, and put it into the pie. Let it stand for twenty-four hours before it is eaten.—Do not take, any of the fat from the pie, as that is what preserves it. A pie made in this manner will be eatable for three months after it is cut; in short, it cannot spoil in any reasonable time. All cold pies are made in this manner. Either poultry or game, when put into a raised crust and intended not to be eaten until cold, should be boned, and the liquor that is to fill up the pie made from the bones, &c.
1243.  Veal Pie

Take some of the middle or scrag of a small neck; season it with pepper and salt, and, put to it a few pieces of lean bacon or ham. If a high seasoning is required, add mace, cayenne, and nutmeg to tho salt and pepper, and forcemeat and egg balls, truffles, morels, mushrooms, sweetbreads cut into small bits, and cocks' combs blanched, can form part of the materials, if liked, but the pie will be very good without them. Have a rich gravy to pour in after baking.
1244.  Mutton Pie

The following is a capital family dish:—Cut mutton into pieces about two inches square, and half an inch thick; mix pepper, pounded allspice, and salt together, dip the pieces in this; sprinkle stale bread-crumbs at the bottom of the dish; lay in the pieces, strewing the crumbs over each layer; put a piece of butter the size of a hen's egg at the top; add a wineglassful of water, and cover in, and bake in a moderate oven rather better than an hour. Take an onion, chopped fine; a faggot of herbs; half an anchovy; and add to it a little beef stock or gravy; simmer for a quarter of an hour; raise the crust at one end, and pour in the liquor—not the thick part. (See Potato Pie. par, 1118).

If None Endeavour, there would be an End to Discovery.

1245.   Seven-Bell Pasty

Shred a pound of suet fine, cut salt pork into dice, potatoes and onions small, rub a sprig of dried sage up fine; mix with some pepper, and place in the corner of a square piece of paste; turn over the other corner, pinch up the sides, and bake in a quick oven. If any bones, &c., remain from the meat, season with pepper and sage, place them with a gill of water in a pan, and bake with the pasty; when done, strain and pour the gravy into the centre of the pasty.
1246.   Apple Pie

Pare, core, and quarter the apples; boil the cores and parings in sugar and water; strain off the liquor, adding more sugar; grate the rind of a lemon over the apples, and squeeze the juice into the syrup; mix half a dozen cloves with the fruit, put in a piece of butter the size of a walnut; cover with puff paste.
1247.  Cup in a Pie-Dish

The custom of placing an inverted cup in a fruit pie, is to retain the juice while the pie is baking in the oven, and prevent its boiling over. When the cup is first put in the dish it is full of cold air, and when the pie is placed in the oven, this air will expand by the heat and fill the cup, and drive out all the juice and a portion of the present air it contains, in which state it will remain until removed from the oven, when the air in the cup will condense, and occupy a very small space, leaving the remainder to be filled with juice; but this does not take place till the danger of the juice boiling over is passed.
1248.  Excellent Paste for Fruit or Meat Pies

Excellent paste for fruit or meat pies may be made with two-thirds of wheat flour, one-third of the flour of boiled potatoes, and some butter or dripping; the whole being brought to a proper consistence with warm water, and a small quantity of yeast or baking powder added when lightness is desired. This will also make very pleasant cakes for breakfast, and may be made with or without spices, fruits, &c.
1249.  Pastry for Tarts, &c.

Take of flour one pound; baking powder, three teaspoonfuls; butter, six ounces; water, enough to bring it to the consistence required.
1250.  Preparation

When much pastry is made in a house, a quantity of fine flour should be kept on hand, in dry jars, and quite secured from the air, as it makes lighter pastry and bread when kept a short time, than when fresh ground.
1251.  My Wife's Little Suppers

1252.  Meat Cakes

Take any cold meat, game, or poultry (if underdone, all the better), mince it fine, with a little fat bacon or ham, or an anchovy; season it with pepper and salt; mix well, and make it into small cakes three inches long, an inch and a half wide, and half an inch thick; fry these a light brown, and serve them with good gravy, or put into a mould, and boil or bake it. Bread-crumbs, hard yolks of eggs, onions, sweet herbs, savoury spices, zest, curry-powder, or any kind of forcemeat may be added to these meat cakes.
1253.  Oyster Patties

Roll out puff paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut it into squares with a knife, sheet eight or ten patty pans, put upon each a bit of bread the size of half a walnut; roll out another layer of paste of the same thickness, cut it as above, wet the edge of the bottom paste, and put on the top; pare them round to the pan, and notch them about a dozen times with the back of the knife, rub them lightly with yolk of egg, bake them in a hot oven about a quarter of an hour: when done, take a thin slice off the top, then with a small knife, or spoon, take out the bread and the inside paste, leaving the outside quite entire; then parboil two dozen of large oysters, strain them from their liquor, wash, beard, and cut them into four; put them into a stewpan with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of good cream, a little grated lemon peel, the oyster liquor, free from sediment, reduced by boiling to one-half, some cayenne pepper, salt, and a teaspoonful of lemon juice; stir it over a fire five minutes, and fill the patties.

The Steam Engine is a Mighty Agent of Good.

1254.  Lobster Patties

Prepare the patties as in the last receipt. Take a hen lobster already boiled; pick the meat from the tail and claws, and chop it fine; put it into a stewpan with a little of the inside spawn pounded in a mortar till quite smooth, an ounce of fresh butter, half a gill of cream, and half a gill of veal consommé, cayenne pepper, and salt, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, the same of lemon juice, and a tablespoonful of flour and water: stew for five minutes.
1255.  Egg and Ham Patties

Cut a slice of bread two inches thick, from the most solid part of a stale quartern loaf: have ready a tin round cutter, two inches in diameter; cut out four or five pieces, then take a cutter two sizes smaller, press it nearly through the larger pieces, then remove with a small knife the bread from the inner circle: have ready a large stewpan full of boiling lard; fry the discs of bread of a light brown colour, drain them dry with a clean cloth, and set them by till wanted; then take half a pound of lean ham, mince it small, add to it a gill of good brown sauce; stir it over the fire a few minutes, and put to it a small quantity of cayenne pepper and lemon juice: fill the shapes with the mixture, and lay a poached egg upon each.
1256.  Veal and Ham Patties

Chop about six ounces of ready-dressed lean veal, and three ounces of ham, very small; put it into a stewpan with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of cream, half a gill of veal stock, a little grated nutmeg and lemon peel, some cayenne pepper and salt, a spoonful of essence of ham, and lemon juice, and stir it over the fire some time, taking care it does not burn.
1257.  Puff Paste

To a pound and a quarter of sifted flour, rub gently in with the hand half a pound of fresh butter, mix up with half a pint of spring water, knead it well, and set it by for a quarter of an hour; then roll it out thin, lay on it in small pieces three quarters of a pound more of butter, throw on it a little flour, double it up in folds, and roll it out thin three times, and set it by for about an hour in a cold place. Or, if a more substantial and savoury paste be desired, use the following:
1258.  Paste for Meat or Savoury Pies

Sift two pounds of fine flour to a pound and a half of good salt butter, break it into small pieces, and wash it well in cold water; rub gently together the butter and flour, and mix it up with the yolks of three eggs, beat together with a spoon, and nearly a pint of spring water; roll it out, and double it in folds three times, and it is ready.
1259.  Chicken and Ham Patties

Use the white meat from the breast of the chickens or fowls, and proceed as for veal and ham patties.
1260.  Prime Beef Sausages

Take a pound of lean beef, and half a pound of suet, remove the skin, chop it fine as for mince collop, then beat it well with a roller, or in a marble mortar, till it is all well mixed and will stick together; season highly, and make into flat round cakes, about an inch thick, and shaped with a cup or saucer, and fry of a light brown. The sausages should be served up on boiled rice, as for curry, if for company, you may do them with eggs and bread-crumbs; but they are quite as good without. Or they may be rolled in puff or pie paste, and baked.
1261.  Potato Puffs

Take cold roast meat, either beef, or mutton, or veal and ham, clear it from the gristle, cut it small, and season with pepper, salt, and pickles, finely minced. Boil and mash some potatoes, and make them into a paste with one or two eggs; roll out the paste, with a dust of flour, cut it round with a saucer, put some of your seasoned meat on one half, and fold the other half over it like a puff; pinch or nick it neatly round, and fry of a light brown. This is an elegant method of preparing meat that has been dressed before.

The Steam from a Kettle Suggested the Steam Engine.

1262.   Fried Eggs and Minced Ham or Bacon

Choose some very fine bacon streaked with a good deal of lean; cut this into very thin slices, and afterwards into small square pieces; throw them into a stewpan and set it over a gentle fire, that they may lose some of their fat. When as much as will freely come is thus melted from them, lay them on a warm dish. Put into a stewpan a ladleful of melted bacon or lard; set it on a stove; put in about a dozen of the small pieces of bacon, then incline the stewpan and break in an egg. Manage this carefully, and the egg will presently be done: it will be very round, and the little dice of bacon will stick to it all over, so that it will make, a very pretty appearance. Take care the yolks do not harden. When the egg is thus done, lay it carefully on a warm dish, and do the others.
1263.  Fish Cake

Take the meat from the bones of any kind of cold fish, and put the bones with the head and fins into a stewpan with a pint of water, a little salt, pepper, an onion, and a faggot of sweet herbs, to stew for gravy. Mince the meat, and mix it well with crumbs of bread and cold potatoes, equal parts, a little parsley and seasoning. Make into a cake, with the white of an egg, or a little butter or milk; egg it over, and cover with bread crumbs, then fry a light brown. Pour the gravy over, and stew gently for fifteen minutes, stirring it carefully twice or thrice. Serve hot, and garnish with slices of lemon, or parsley. These cakes afford a capital relish from scraps of cold fish. Housekeepers who would know how to economise all kinds of nutritious fragments, should refer to the "Family Save-all," which supplies a complete course of "Secondary Cookery."1

Footnote 1:  : Published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square, London, E.C. Price 2s. 6d.
return to footnote mark
1264.  Marbled Goose

The following is suitable for larger supper parties, or as a stock dish for families where visitors are frequent; it is also excellent for breakfasts, or for picnics :—Take a fine mellow ox-tongue out of pickle, cut off the root and horny part at the tip, wipe dry, and boil till it is quite tender. Then peel it, cut a deep slit in its whole length, and lay a fair proportion of the following mixture within it:—Mace half an ounce, nutmeg half an ounce, cloves half an ounce, salt two tablespoonfuls, and twelve Spanish olives. The olives should be stoned, and all the ingredients well pounded and mixed together. Next take a barn-door fowl and a good large goose, and bone them. Put the tongue inside the fowl, rub the latter outside with the seasoning, and having ready some slices of ham divested of the rind, wrap them tightly round the fowl. Put the fowl and its wrapping of ham inside the goose, with the remainder of the seasoning, sew it up, and make all secure and of natural shape with a piece of new linen and tape. Put it in an earthen pan or jar just large enough to hold it, with plenty of clarified butter, and bake it for two hours and a half in a slow oven; then take it out, and when cold take out the goose and set it in a sieve; take off the butter and hard fat, which put by the fire to melt, adding, if required, more clarified butter. Wash and wipe out the pan, put the bird again into it, and take care that it is well covered with the warm butter; then tie the jar down with bladder and leather. It will keep thus for a long time. When wanted for the table the jar should be placed in a tub of hot water, so as to melt the butter, the goose then can he taken out, and sent to table cold.

Be Bold Enough to Experiment.

1265.  Oyster Pie

The following directions may be safely relied upon. Take a large dish, butter it, and spread a rich paste over the sides and round the edge, but not at the bottom. The oysters should be fresh, and as large and fine as possible. Drain off part of the liquor from the oysters. Put them into a pan, and season them with pepper, salt, and spice. Stir them well with the seasoning. Have ready the yolks of some hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine, and the grated bread.

Pour the oysters (with as much of their liquor as you please) into the dish that has the paste in it. Strew over them the chopped egg and grated bread. Roll out the lid of the pie, and put it on, crimping the edges handsomely. Take a small sheet of paste, cut it into a square, and roll it up. Cut it with a sharp knife into the form of a double tulip. Make a slit in the centre of the upper crust, and stick the tulip in it. Cut out eight large leaves of paste, and lay them on the lid. Bake the pie in a quick oven.
1266.  Salad

The mixing of salad is an art which it is easy to attain with care. The main point is to incorporate the several articles required for the salad, and to serve up at table as fresh as possible. The herbs should be "morning gathered," and they will be much refreshed by laying an hour or two in spring water. Careful picking, and washing, and drying in a cloth, in the kitchen, are also very important, and the due proportion of each herb requires attention.

The sauce may be thus prepared:—Boil two eggs for ten or twelve minutes, and then put them in cold water for a few minutes, so that the yolks may become quite cold and hard. Rub them through a coarse sieve with a wooden spoon, and mix them with a tablespoonful of water or cream, and then add two tablespoonfuls of fine flask oil, or melted butter; mix, and add by degrees a teaspoonful of salt, and the same quantity of mustard: mix till smooth, and then incorporate with the other ingredients about three tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Pour this sauce down the side of the salad bowl, but do not stir up the salad till wanted to be eaten. Garnish the top of the salad with the white of the eggs, cut in slices; or these may be arranged in such manner as to be ornamental on the table. Some persons may fancy they are able to prepare a salad without previous instruction, but, like everything else, a little knowledge in this case is not thrown away.
1267.  French Mode of Dressing Salad

Fill the salad bowl with lettuce and small salading, taking care not to cut up the lettuce into too small strips. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and, if liked, drop some mustard, mixed thin, over the salad, and strew a little moist sugar over it. Then pour over the whole three tablespoonfuls of good salad oil and one of Orléans vinegar, and turn over the lettuce lightly with a salad spoon and fork, that every portion of it may be brought into contact with the mixture. This mode of preparing a salad is far more expeditious than the ordinary way.
1268.  Salad Mixture in Verse

Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve,
Unwonted softness to the salad give;
Of mordant mustard add a single spoon—
Distrust the condiment which bites so soon;
But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault
To add a double quantity of salt;
Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,
And once with vinegar procured from town.
True flavour needs it, and your poet begs
The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs;
Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl,
And, scarce suspected, animate the whole;
And lastly, on the favoured compound toss
A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce;
Then, though green turtle fail, though venison's tough,
And ham and turkey be not boiled enough
Serenely full, the epicure may say,—
"Fate cannot harm me—I have dined today."

1269.  Apple Puddings

One pound of flour, six ounces of very finely minced beef suet; roll thin, and fill with one pound and a quarter of boiling apples; add the grated rind and strained juice of a small lemon, tie it in a cloth; boil for one hour and twenty minutes, or longer. A small slice of fresh butter stirred into it when it is sweetened will be an acceptable addition; grated nutmeg, or cinnamon in fine powder, may be substituted for lemon rind. For a richer pudding use half a pound of butter for the crust, and add to the apples a spoonful or two of orange or quince marmalade.

He is Unfortunate who Cannot Bear Misfortune.

1270.  Boston Apple Pudding

Peel and core one dozen and a half of good apples; cut them small; put them into a stewpan with a little water, cinnamon, two cloves, and the peel of a lemon; stew over a slow fire till soft; sweeten with moist sugar, and pass it through a hair sieve; add the yolks of four eggs and one white, a quarter of a pound of good butter, half a nutmeg, the peel of a lemon grated, and the juice of one lemon; beat well together; line the inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste; put in the pudding, and bake half an hour.
1271.  Bread Pudding

Unfermented brown bread, two ounces; milk, half a pint; one egg; sugar, quarter of an ounce. Cut the bread into slices, and pour the milk over it boiling hot; let it stand till well soaked, and stir in the egg and sugar, well beaten, with a little grated nutmeg; and bake or steam for one hour.
1272.  Plum Pudding

Take of flour, one pound; three teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef suet, eight ounces; currants, eight ounces; nutmeg and orange peel, grated fine, quarter of an ounce; three eggs. To be boiled or steamed four hours.
1273.  Cabinet Pudding

Cut three or four muffins in two, pour over them boiling milk sufficient to cover them, cover them up until they are tender. Make a rich custard with the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four, a pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, an ounce of almonds, blanched and cut, lemon peel and nutmeg grated, and a glass of ratafia or brandy, and add to the soaked muffins. Butter a tin mould for boiling—for baking, a dish. Put a layer of dried cherries, greengages, apricots, or French plums; cover with the mixture, adding fruit and mixture alternately, until the mould or dish is quite full. Boil an hour, and serve with wine sauce. In boiling this pudding it should be placed in a stewpan with only water enough, to reach half way up the mould. If for baking, it will not take so long. Lay a puff paste round the edges of the dish.
1274.  Elegant Bread Pudding

Take light white bread, and cut it in thin slices. Put into a pudding shape a layer of any sort of preserve, then a slice of bread, and repeat until the mould is almost full. Pour over all a pint of warm milk, in which four beaten eggs have been mixed; cover the mould with a piece of linen, place it in a saucepan with a little boiling water, let it boil twenty minutes, and serve with pudding sauce.
1275.  Economical Family Pudding

Bruise with a wooden spoon, through a cullender, six large or twelve middle-sized boiled potatoes; beat four eggs, mix with a pint of good milk, stir in the potatoes; sugar and seasoning to taste; butter the dish; bake half an hour. A little Scotch marmalade makes a delicious accompaniment.
1276.  Batter Pudding

Take of flour, four ounces; a teaspoonful of baking powder; a little sugar, and one egg. Mix with milk to a thin batter, and bake in a well-buttered tin, in a brisk oven, half an hour. A few currants may be strewed in the bottom of the tin if preferred.
1277.  Batter Pudding, Baked or Boiled

Six ounces of fine flour, a little salt, and three eggs; beat well with a little milk, added by degrees until it is the thickness of cream; put into a buttered dish: bake three-quarters of an hour: or if boiled put it into a buttered and floured basin, tied over with a cloth; boil one hour and a half or more.

Falsehood, Like a Nettle, Stings Those who Meddle with It.

1278.  Half-Pay Pudding

Four ounces of each of the following ingredients, viz., suet, flour, currants, raisins, and bread-crumbs; two tablespoonfuls of treacle, half a pint of milk—all of which must be well mixed together, and boiled in a mould, for four hours.
1279.   Fig Pudding

Three-quarters of a pound of grated bread, half a pound of best figs, six ounces of suet, six ounces of moist sugar, a teacupful of milk, and a little nutmeg. The figs and suet must be chopped very fine. Mix the bread and suet first, then the figs, sugar, and nutmegs, one egg beaten well, and lastly the milk. Boil in a mould four hours. To be eaten with sweet sauce.
1280.  Plain Suet Pudding

Take of flour, one pound and a half; bicarbonate of soda, three drachms; or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef suet, four ounces; powdered ginger, half a drachm; water or milk, one pint. Mix according to the directions given for the tea cake (par. 2099) and boil or steam for two hours.
1281.  Barley Pudding

Take a quarter of a pound of Scotch or pearl barley. Wash, and simmer it in a small quantity of water; pour off the water, and add milk and flavouring as for rice puddings. Beat up with sugar and nutmeg, and mix the milk and barley in the same way. It may be more or less rich of eggs, and with or without the addition of butter, cream, or marrow. Put it into a buttered deep dish, leaving room for six or eight ounces of currants, and an ounce of candied peel, cut up fine, with a few apples cut in small pieces. An hour will bake it.
1282.  Carrot Pudding

Grate a raw red carrot; mix with double the weight of bread-crumbs or biscuit, or with the same weight of each: to a pound and a half of this mixture, put a Pint of new milk or cream, or half a pint of each, four or six ounces of clarified butter, three or four eggs well beaten, sugar to taste, a little nutmeg, and a glass of brandy; line or edge a dish with puff paste; pour in the mixture; put slices of candied lemon or orange peel on the top, and bake in a moderately hot oven.
1283.  Potato Pudding

Boil mealy potatoes in their skins, according to the plan laid down (par. 1104) skin and mash them with a little milk, pepper and salt: this will make a good pudding to bake under roast meat. With the addition of a bit of butter, an egg, milk, pepper, and salt, it makes an excellent batter for a meat pudding baked.

Grease a baking dish; put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat cut in bits, and seasoned with pepper, salt, a little allspice, either with or without chopped onions; a little gravy of roast meat is a great improvement: then put another layer of potatoes, then meat, and cover with potatoes. Put a buttered paper over the top, to prevent it from being burnt, and bake it from an hour to an hour and a half.
1284.  Almond Pudding

A large cupful of finely-minced beef suet, a teacupful of milk, four ounces of bread-crumbs, four ounces of well-cleaned currants, two ounces of almonds, half a pound of stoned raisins, three well-beaten eggs, and the whites of another two; sugar, nutmeg, and cinnamon, and a small glass of rum. Butter a shape, and place part of the raisins neatly in rows. Blanch the almonds; reserve the half of them to be placed in rows between the raisins just before serving. Mix all the remaining ingredients well together, put into the shape, and boil three hours.
1285.  Sauce for Almond Pudding

One teaspoonful of milk, and two yolks of eggs well beaten, and some sugar; place on the fire and stir till it just comes to the boil: then let it cool. When lukewarm, stir into it a glass of sherry or currant wine, and serve in a sauce tureen. This sauce is a great improvement to raisin pudding.
1286.  Peas Pudding

Dry a pint or quart of split peas thoroughly before the fire; then tie them up loosely in a cloth, put them into warm water, boil them a couple of hours, or more, until quite tender; take them up, beat them well in a dish with a little salt, the yolk of an egg, and a bit of butter. Make it quite smooth, tie it up again in a cloth, and boil it an hour longer. This is highly nourishing.

Let Truth be our Guide.

1287.  Apple Dumplings

Paste the same as for apple pudding, divide into as many pieces as dumplings are required; peel and core the apples; roll out your paste large enough; put in the apples; close the dumplings, tie each in a cloth very tightly. Boil them one hour; when you take them up, dip them quickly in cold water, and put them in a cup while you untie them; they will turn out without breaking.
1288.  Rice Dumplings

Pick and wash a pound of rice, and boil it gently in two quarts of water till it becomes dry—keeping the pot well covered, and not stirring it. Then take it off the fire, and spread it out to cool on the bottom of an inverted sieve, loosening the grains lightly with a fork, that all the moisture may evaporate. Pare a dozen pippins, or some large juicy apples, and scoop out the core; then fill up the cavity with marmalade, or with lemon and sugar. Cover every apple all over with a thick coating of the boiled rice. Tie up each in a separate cloth, and put them into a pot of cold water. They will require about an hour and a quarter after they begin to boil, perhaps longer.
1289.  Boiled Custard

Boil half a pint of new milk, with a piece of lemon peel, two peach leaves, half a stick of cassia, a few whole allspice, from four to six ounces of white sugar. Cream may be used instead of milk; beat the yolks and white of four eggs, strain the milk through coarse muslin, or a hair sieve; then mix the eggs and milk very gradually together, and stir it well from the bottom, on the fire, till it thickens.
1290.  Baked Custard

Boil in a pint of milk a few coriander seeds, a little cinnamon and lemon peel; sweeten with four ounces of loaf sugar, mix with it a pint of cold milk; beat eight eggs for ten minutes; add the other ingredients; pour it from one pan into another six or eight times, strain through a sieve; let it stand; skim the froth from the top, pour it into earthen cups, and bake immediately in a hot oven till they are of a good colour; ten minutes will be sufficient.
1291.  French Batter

Two ounces of butter cut into bits, pour on it less than a quarter of a pint of water boiling; when dissolved, add three-quarters of a pint of water cold, so that it shall not be quite milk warm; mix by degrees smoothly with twelve ounces of fine dry flour and a small pinch of salt, if the batter be for fruit fritters, but with more if for meat or vegetables. Before used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten to solid froth; previously to this, add a little water if too thick. This is excellent for frying vegetables, and for fruit fritters.
1292.  A Black Man's Recipe to Dress Rice

Wash him well, much wash in cold water, the rice flour make him stick. Water boil all ready very fast. Throw him in, rice can't burn, water shake him too much. Boil quarter of an hour or little more; rub one rice in thumb and finger, if all rub away him quite done. Put rice in cullender, hot water run away; pour cup of cold water on him, put back rice in saucepan, keep him covered near the fire, then rice all ready. Eat him up!
1293.  Yellow Rice

Take one pound of rice, wash it clean, and put it into a saucepan which will hold three quarts; add to it half a pound of currants picked and washed, one quarter of an ounce of the best turmeric powder, previously dissolved in a cupful of water, and a stick of cinnamon; pour over them two quarts of cold water, place the saucepan uncovered on a moderate fire, and allow it to boil till the rice is dry, then stir in a quarter of a pound of sugar, and two ounces of butter: cover up, and place the pan near the fire for a few minutes, then mix it well and dish up. This is a favourite dish with the Japanese, and will be found excellent as a vegetable with roast meat, poultry, &c. It also forms a capital pudding, which may be improved by the addition of raisins, and a few blanched almonds.

The Fall of the Leaf is a Whisper to the Living.

1294.  Boiled Rice for Curry

Put the rice on in cold water, and let it come to a boil for a minute or so: strain it quite dry, and lay it on the hob in a stewpan without a cover to let the steam evaporate, then shake it into the dish while very hot. A squeeze of lemon juice after it boils will make it separate better.
1295.  Lemon Rice

Boil sufficient rice in milk, with white sugar to taste, till it is soft; put it into a pint basin or an earthenware blanc-mange mould, and leave it till cold. Peel a lemon very thick, cut the peel into shreds about half or three-quarters of an inch in length, put them into a little water, boil them up, and throw the water away, lest it should be bitter, then pour about a teacupful of fresh water upon them; squeeze and strain the juice of the lemon, add it with white sugar to the water and shreds, and let it stew gently at the fire for two hours. (When cold it will be a syrup.) Having turned out the jellied rice into a cutglass dish, or one of common delf, pour the syrup gradually over the rice, taking care the little shreds of the peel are equally distributed over the whole.
1296.  Remains of Cold Sweet Dishes

1297.  Rice Pudding

Over the cold rice pudding pour a custard, and add a few lumps of jelly or preserved fruit. Remember to remove the baked coating of the pudding before the custard is poured over it.
1298.  Apple Tart

Cut into triangular pieces the remains of a cold apple tart: arrange the pieces around the sides of a glass or china bowl, and leave space in the centre for a custard to be poured in.
1299.  Plum Pudding

Cut into thin round slices cold plum pudding, and fry them in butter. Fry also Spanish fritters, and place them high in the centre of the dish, and the fried pudding all round the heaped-up fritters. Powder all with lump sugar, and serve them with wine sauce in a tureen.
1300.  Fritters

Make them of any of the batters directed for pancakes, by dropping a small quantity into the pan; or make the plainer sort, and dip pared apples, sliced and cored, into the batter, and fry them in plenty of hot lard. Currants, or sliced lemon as thin as paper, make an agreeable change. Fritters for company should be served on a folded napkin in the dish. Any sort of sweetmeat, or ripe fruit, may be made into fritters.
1301.  Oyster Fritters

Make a batter of flour, milk, and eggs; season with a very little nutmeg. Beard the oysters, and put as many as you think proper in each fritter.
1302.  Potato Fritters

Boil two large potatoes, bruise them fine, beat four yolks and three whites of eggs, and add to the above one large spoonful of cream, another of sweet wine, a squeeze of lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat this batter well half an hour. It will be extremely light. Put a good quantity of fine lard into a stewpan, and drop a spoonful at a time of the batter into it. Fry the fritters; and serve as a sauce, a glass of white wine, the juice of a lemon, one dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf or almond water, and some white sugar, warmed together; not to be served in a dish.
1303.  Apple Fritters

Peel and core some fine pippins, and cut into slices. Soak them in wine, sugar, and nutmeg, for a few hours. Make a batter of four eggs to a tablespoonful of rose water, a tablespoonful of wine, and a tablespoonful of milk, thickened with enough flour, stirred in by degrees; mix two or three hours before wanted. Heat some butter in a frying-pan; dip each slice of apple separately in the batter, and fry brown; sift pounded sugar, and grate a nutmeg over them.

The hope is sure which has its foundation in virtue.

1304.  Pancakes

Make a light batter of eggs, flour, and milk; a little salt, nutmeg, and ginger may be added; fry in a small pan, in hot dripping or lard. Sugar and lemon should be served to eat with them. Or, when eggs are scarce, make the batter with small beer, ginger, and so forth; or water, with flour, and a very little milk, will serve, but not so well as eggs and all milk.
1305.  Cream Pancakes

Mix two eggs, well beaten, with a pint of cream, two ounces of sifted sugar, six of flour, a little nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace. Fry the pancakes thin, with a bit of butter.
1306.  Rice Pancakes

Boil half a pound of ground rice to a jelly in a pint of water or milk, and keep it well stirred from the bottom to prevent its being burnt; if too thick add a little more milk; take it off the fire; stir in six or eight ounces of butter, a pint of cream, six or eight eggs well beaten, a pinch of salt, sugar, and nutmeg, with as much flour as will make the batter thick enough. Fry with lard or dripping.
1307.  Scones

Flour, two pounds; bicarbonate of soda, quarter of an ounce; salt, quarter of an ounce; sour buttermilk, one pint, more or less. Mix to the consistence of light dough, roll out about half an inch thick, and cut them out to any shape you please, and bake on a _griddle_ over a clear fire about ten or fifteen minutes; turning them to brown on both sides—or they may be done on a hot plate, or ironing stove. A griddle is a thin plate of cast iron about twelve or fourteen inches in diameter, with a handle attached, to hang it up by.—These scones are excellent for tea, and may be eaten either cold or hot, buttered, or with cheese.
1308.  Friar's Omelette

Boil a dozen apples, as for sauce; stir in a quarter of a pound of butter, and the same of white sugar; when cold, add four eggs, well beaten; put it into a baking dish thickly strewed over with crumbs of bread, so as to stick to the bottom and sides; then put in the apple mixture; strew crumbs of bread over the top; when baked, turn it out and grate loaf sugar over it.
1309.  Ordinary Omelette

Take four eggs, beat the yolks and whites together with a tablespoonful of milk, and a little salt and pepper; put two ounces of butter into a frying-pan to boil, and let it remain until it begins to brown; pour the batter into it, and let it remain quiet for a minute; turn up the edges of the omelette gently from the bottom of the pan with a fork; shake it, to keep it from burning at the bottom, and fry it till of a bright brown. It will not take more than five minutes frying.
1310.  Miss Acton's Observations on Omelettes, Pancakes, Fritters, &c.

"There is no difficulty in making good omelettes, pancakes, or fritters; and, as they may be expeditiously prepared and served, they are often a very convenient resource when, on short notice, an addition is required to a dinner. The eggs for all of them should be well and lightly whisked; the lard for frying batter should be extremely pure in flavour, and quite hot when the fritters are dropped in; the batter itself should be smooth as cream, and it should be briskly beaten the instant before it is used. All fried pastes should be perfectly drained from the fat before they are served, and sent to table promptly when they are ready.

Eggs may be dressed in a multiplicity of ways, but are seldom more relished in any form than in a well-made and expeditiously served omelette. This may be plain, or seasoned with minced herbs and a very little shalot, when the last is liked, and is then called Omelettes aux fines herbes; or it may be mixed with minced ham or grated cheese: in any case it should be light, thick, full-tasted, and fried only on one side; if turned in the pan, as it frequently is in England, it will at once be flattened and rendered tough. Should the slight rawness, which is sometimes found in the middle of the inside when the omelette is made in the French way, be objected to, a heated shovel, or a salamander, may be held over it for an instant, before it is folded on the dish.

The pan for frying it should be quite small; for if it be composed of four or five eggs only, and then put into a large one, it will necessarily spread over it and be thin, which would render it more like a pancake than an omelette; the only partial remedy for this, when a pan of proper size cannot be had, is to raise the handle of it high, and to keep the opposite side close down to the fire, which will confine the eggs into a smaller space. No gravy should be poured into the dish with it, and, indeed, if properly made, it will require none. Lard is preferable to butter for frying batter, as it renders it lighter; but it must not be used for omelettes. Filled with preserves of any kind, it is called a sweet omelette."
1311.  Baked Pears

Take twelve large baking pears; pare and cut them into halves, leaving on about half an inch of the stem. Take out the core with the point of a knife, and place the pears thus prepared close together in a block tin saucepan, the inside of which is quite bright, and whose cover fits quite close. Put to them the rind of a lemon cut thin, with half its juice, a small stick of cinnamon, and twenty grains of allspice; cover them with spring water, and allow one pound of loaf sugar to a pint and a half of water: cover up close, and bake for six hours in a very slow oven;—they will be quite tender, and of a good colour. Prepared cochineal is generally used for colouring the pears; but if the above is strictly attended to, it will be found to answer best.
1312.  Apples served with Custard

Pare and core apples; cut them in pieces; bake or stew them with as little water as possible; when they have become pulpy, sweeten and put them in a pie-dish, and, when cold, pour over them an unboiled custard, and put back into the oven till the custard is fixed. A Dutch oven will do. Equally good hot or cold.
1313.  Apples in Syrup

Pare and core some hard apples, and throw them into a basin of water. When all are done, clarify as much loaf sugar as will cover them; put the apples in along with the juice and rind of a lemon, and let them simmer till they are quite clear; care must be taken not to break them; place them on the dish they are to appear upon at table, and pour the syrup over. These are for immediate use.
1314.  Apricots Stewed in Syrup

Wipe the down from young apricots, and stew them as gently as possible in a syrup made of four ounces of sugar to half a pint of water, boiled the usual time.
1315.  Mother Eve's Pudding

If you want a good pudding, to teach you I'm willing:
Take two pennyworth of eggs, when twelve for a shilling;
And of the same fruit that Eve had once chosen,
Well pared and well chopped, at least half a dozen;
Six ounces of bread (let your maid eat the crust),
The crumbs must be grated as small as the dust;
Six ounces of currants from the stones you must sort,
Lest they break out your teeth, and spoil all your sport;
Six ounces of sugar won't make it too sweet;
Some salt and some nutmeg will make it complete;
Three hours let it boil, without hurry or flutter,
And then serve it up, without sugar or butter.

1316.  Accidents

Always send for a surgeon immediately an accident occurs, but treat as directed until he arrives.

An Evil Conscience is the Greatest Plague.

1317.  In both Scalds and Burns

In both scalds and burns, the following facts cannot be too firmly impressed on the mind of the reader, that in either of these accidents the first, best, and often the only remedies required, are sheets of wadding, fine wool, or carded cotton, and in default of these, violet powder, flour, magnesia, or chalk. The object for which these several articles are employed is the same in each instance; namely, to exclude the air from the injured part; for if the air can be effectually shut out from the raw surface, and care is taken not to expose the tender part till the new cuticle is formed, the cure may be safely left to nature.

The moment a person is called to a case of scald or burn, he should cover the part with a sheet, or a portion of a sheet, of wadding, taking care not to break any blister that may have formed, or stay to remove any burnt clothes that may adhere to the surface, but as quickly as possible envelope every part of the injury from all access of the air, laying one or two more pieces of wadding on the first, so as effectually to guard the burn or scald from the irritation of the atmosphere; and if the article used is wool or cotton, the same precaution, of adding more material where the surface is thinly covered, must be adopted; a light bandage finally securing all in their places.

Any of the popular remedies recommended below may be employed when neither wool, cotton, nor wadding are to be procured, it being always remembered that that article which will best exclude the air from a burn or scald is the best, quickest, and least painful mode of treatment. And in this respect nothing has surpassed cotton loose or attached to paper as in wadding.
1318.  If the Skin is much Injured

If the skin is much injured in burns, spread some linen pretty thickly with chalk ointment, and lay over the part, and give the patient some brandy and water if much exhausted; then send for a medical man. If not much injured, and very painful, use the same ointment, or apply carded cotton dipped in lime water and linseed oil. If you please, you may lay cloths dipped in ether over the parts, or cold lotions. Treat scalds in the same manner, or cover with scraped raw potato; but the chalk ointment is the best. In the absence of all these, cover the injured part with treacle, and dust over it plenty of flour.
1319.  Body in Flames

Lay the person down on the floor of the room, and throw the tablecloth, rug, or other large cloth over him, and roll him on the floor.
1320.  Dirt in the Eye

Place your forefinger upon the cheek-bone, having the patient before you; then slightly bend the finger, this will draw down the lower lid of the eye, and you will probably be able to remove the dirt; but if this will not enable you to get at it, repeat this operation while you have a netting-needle or bodkin placed over the eyelid; this will turn it inside out, and enable you to remove the sand, or eyelash, &c., with the corner of a fine silk handkerchief. As soon as the substance is removed, bathe the eye with cold water, and exclude the light for a day. If the inflammation is severe, let the patient take a purgative, and use a refrigerant lotion.
1321.  Lime in the Eye

Syringe it well with warm vinegar and water in the proportion of one ounce of vinegar to eight ounces of water; take a purgative, and exclude light.
1322.  Iron or Steel Spiculæ in the Eye

These occur while turning iron or steel in a lathe, and are best remedied by doubling back the upper or lower eyelid, according to the situation of the substance, and with the flat edge of a silver probe, taking up the metallic particle, using a lotion made by dissolving six grains of sugar of lead, and the same of white vitriol, in six ounces of water, and bathing the eye three times a day till the inflammation subsides. Another plan is—Drop a solution of sulphate of copper (from one to three grains of the salt to one ounce of water) into the eye, or keep the eye open in a wineglassful of the solution. Take a purgative, bathe with cold lotion, and exclude light to keep down inflammation.

Sleep Falls Sweetly upon the Virtuous.

1323.  Dislocated Thumb

This is frequently produced by a fall. Make a clove hitch, by passing two loops of cord over the thumb, placing a piece of rag under the cord to prevent it cutting the thumb; then pull in the same line as the thumb. Afterwards apply a cold lotion.
1324.  Cuts and Wounds

Clean cut wounds, whether deep or superficial, and likely to heal by the first intention, should never be washed or cleaned, but at once evenly and smoothly closed by bringing both edges close together, and securing them in that position by adhesive plaster. Cut thin strips of sticking-plaster, and bring the parts together; or if large and deep, cut two broad pieces, so as to look like the teeth of a comb, and place one on each side of the wound, which must be cleaned previously. These pieces must be arranged so that they shall interlace one another; then, by laying hold of the pieces on the right side with one hand, and those on the other side with the other hand, and pulling them from one another, the edges of the wound are brought together without any difficulty.
1325.  Ordinary Cuts

Ordinary cuts are dressed by thin strips, applied by pressing down the plaster on one side of the wound, and keeping it there and pulling in the opposite direction; then suddenly depressing the hand when the edges of the wound are brought together.
1326.  Contusions

Contusions are best healed by laying a piece of folded lint, well wetted with the extract of lead, on the part, and, if there is much pain, placing a hot bran poultice over the dressing, repeating both, if necessary, every two hours. When the injuries are very severe, lay a cloth over the part, and suspend a basin over it filled with cold lotion. Put a piece of cotton into the basin, so that it shall allow the lotion to drop on the cloth, and thus keep it always wet.
1327.  Hæmorrhage

Hæmorrhage, when caused by an artery being divided or torn, may be known by the blood issuing out of the wound in leaps or jerks, and being of a bright scarlet colour. If a vein is injured, the blood is darker and flows continuously. To arrest the latter, apply pressure by means of a compress and bandage. To arrest arterial bleeding, get a piece of wood (part of a mop handle will do), and tie a piece of tape to one end of it; then tie a piece of tape loosely over the arm, and pass the other end of the wood under it; twist the stick round and round until the tape compresses the arm sufficiently to arrest the bleeding, and then confine the other end by tying the string round the arm. A compress made by enfolding a penny piece in several folds of lint or linen, should, however, be first placed under the tape and over the artery.

If the bleeding is very obstinate, and it occurs in the arm, place a cork underneath the string, on the inside of the fleshy part, where the artery may be felt beating by any one; if in the leg, place a cork in the direction of a line drawn from the inner part of the knee towards the outer part of the groin. It is an excellent thing to accustom yourself to find out the position of these arteries, or, indeed, any that are superficial, and to explain to every person in your house where they are, and how to stop bleeding.

If a stick cannot be got, take a handkerchief, make a cord bandage of it, and tie a knot in the middle; the knot acts as a compress, and should be placed over the artery, while the two ends are to be tied around the thumb. Observe always to place the ligature between the wound and the heart. Putting your finger into a bleeding wound, and making pressure until a surgeon arrives, will generally stop violent bleeding.
1328.  Bleeding from the Nose

Bleeding from the nose, from whatever cause, may generally be stopped by putting a plug of lint into the nostrils, if this does not do, apply a cold lotion to the forehead; raise the head, and place over it both arms, so that it will rest on the hands; dip the lint plug, slightly moistened, into some powdered gum arabic, and plug the nostrils again; or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum arabic and alum, and plug the nose. Or the plug may be dipped in Friar's balsam, or tincture of kino. Heat should be applied to the feet; and, in obstinate cases, the sudden shock of a cold key, or cold water poured down the spine, will often instantly stop the bleeding. If the bowels are confined, take a purgative.

Morning is Welcome to the Industrious.

1329.  Violent Shocks

Violent shocks will sometimes stun a person, and he will remain unconscious. Untie strings, collars, &c.; loosen anything that is tight, and interferes with the breathing; raise the head; see if there is bleeding from any part; apply smelling-salts to the nose, and hot bottles to the feet.
1330.  Concussion

In concussion, the surface of the body is cold and pale, and the pulse weak and small, the breathing slow and gentle, and the pupil of the eye generally contracted or small. You can g