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Title: The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary: Letters T, U, V & W


Release Date: February, 1999 [EBook #669]
Last Updated: June 21, 2019

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

Version published 1913

by the C. & G. Merriam Co.
Springfield, Mass.
Under the direction of
Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.


T (t), the twentieth letter of the English alphabet, is a nonvocal consonant. With the letter h it forms the digraph th, which has two distinct sounds, as in thin, then. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§262-264, and also §§153, 156, 169, 172, 176, 178-180.

The letter derives its name and form from the Latin, the form of the Latin letter being further derived through the Greek from the Phœnician. The ultimate origin is probably Egyptian. It is etymologically most nearly related to d, s, th; as in tug, duke; two, dual, L. duo; resin, L. resina, Gr. "rhti`nh, tent, tense, a., tenuous, thin; nostril, thrill. See D, S.

T bandage (Surg.), a bandage shaped like the letter T, and used principally for application to the groin, or perineum. — T cart, a kind of fashionable two seated wagon for pleasure driving. — T iron. (a) A rod with a short crosspiece at the end, — used as a hook. (b) Iron in bars, having a cross section formed like the letter T, — used in structures. — T rail, a kind of rail for railroad tracks, having no flange at the bottom so that a section resembles the letter T. — T square, a ruler having a crosspiece or head at one end, for the purpose of making parallel lines; — so called from its shape. It is laid on a drawing board and guided by the crosspiece, which is pressed against the straight edge of the board. Sometimes the head is arranged to be set at different angles. — To a T, exactly, perfectly; as, to suit to a T. [Colloq.]

Ta (?), v. t. To take. [Obs. or Scot.] Cursor Mundi.

Used by Chaucer to represent a peculiarity of the Northern dialect.

Taas (?), n. A heap. See Tas. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tab (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] 1. The flap or latchet of a shoe fastened with a string or a buckle.

2. A tag. See Tag, 2.

3. A loop for pulling or lifting something.

4. A border of lace or other material, worn on the inner front edge of ladies' bonnets.

5. A loose pendent part of a lady's garment; esp., one of a series of pendent squares forming an edge or border.

Ta*bac"co (?), n. Tobacco. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

||Ta*ba"nus (?), n. [L., horsefly.] (Zoöl.) A genus of blood sucking flies, including the horseflies.

Tab"ard (?), n. [OE. tabard, tabart; cf. Sp. & Pg. tabardo, It. tabarro, W. tabar, LGr. &?;, LL. tabardum.] A sort of tunic or mantle formerly worn for protection from the weather. When worn over the armor it was commonly emblazoned with the arms of the wearer, and from this the name was given to the garment adopted for heralds. [Spelt also taberd.]

In a tabard he [the Plowman] rode upon a mare.


Tab"ard*er (?), n. 1. One who wears a tabard.

2. A scholar on the foundation of Queen's College, Oxford, England, whose original dress was a tabard. Nares.

Tab"a*ret (?), n. [Cf. Tabby.] A stout silk having satin stripes, — used for furniture.

Tab`a*sheer" (?), n. [Per. tabshr: cf. Skr. tvakkshr, tvakshr.] A concretion in the joints of the bamboo, which consists largely or chiefly of pure silica. It is highly valued in the East Indies as a medicine for the cure of bilious vomitings, bloody flux, piles, and various other diseases.

Tab"bi*net (?), n. [Cf. Tabby.] A fabric like poplin, with a watered surface. [Written also tabinet.]

Tab"by (?), n.; pl. Tabbies (#). [F. tabis (cf. It. tabì, Sp. & Pg. tabí, LL. attabi), fr. Ar. 'attb, properly the name of a quarter of Bagdad where it was made, the quarter being named from the prince Attab, great grandson of Omeyya. Cf. Tobine.] 1. A kind of waved silk, usually called watered silk, manufactured like taffeta, but thicker and stronger. The watering is given to it by calendering.

2. A mixture of lime with shells, gravel, or stones, in equal proportions, with an equal proportion of water. When dry, this becomes as hard as rock. Weale.

3. A brindled cat; hence, popularly, any cat.

4. An old maid or gossip. [Colloq.] Byron.

Tab"by (?), a. 1. Having a wavy or watered appearance; as, a tabby waistcoat. Pepys.

2. Brindled; diversified in color; as, a tabby cat.

Tabby moth (Zoöl.), the grease moth. See under Grease.

Tab"by, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tabbied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabbying (?).] To water; to cause to look wavy, by the process of calendering; to calender; as, to tabby silk, mohair, ribbon, etc.

Tab`e*fac"tion (?), n. [See Tabefy.] A wasting away; a gradual losing of flesh by disease.

Tab"e*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tabefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabefying (?).] [L. tabere to waste away + -fy: cf. L. tabefacere to melt.] To cause to waste gradually, to emaciate. [R.] Harvey.

Ta*bel"lion (?), n. [L. tabellio, fr. tabella a tablet, a writing, document, dim. of tabula a board: cf. F. tabellion. See Table.] A secretary or notary under the Roman empire; also, a similar officer in France during the old monarchy.

Ta"ber (?), v. i. Same as Tabor. Nahum ii. 7.

Tab"erd (?), n. See Tabard.

Tab"er*na*cle (?), n. [F., fr. L. tabernaculum, dim. of taberna nut. See Tabern.] 1. A slightly built or temporary habitation; especially, a tent.

Dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob.

Heb. xi. 9.

Orange trees planted in the ground, and secured in winter with a wooden tabernacle and stoves.


2. (Jewish Antiq.) A portable structure of wooden framework covered with curtains, which was carried through the wilderness in the Israelitish exodus, as a place of sacrifice and worship. Ex. xxvi.

3. Hence, the Jewish temple; sometimes, any other place for worship. Acts xv. 16.

4. Figuratively: The human body, as the temporary abode of the soul.

Shortly I must put off this my tabernacle.

2 Pet. i. 14.

5. Any small cell, or like place, in which some holy or precious things was deposited or kept. Specifically: —

(a) The ornamental receptacle for the pyx, or for the consecrated elements, whether a part of a building or movable.

(b) A niche for the image of a saint, or for any sacred painting or sculpture.

(c) Hence, a work of art of sacred subject, having a partially architectural character, as a solid frame resting on a bracket, or the like.

(d) A tryptich for sacred imagery.

(e) A seat or stall in a choir, with its canopy.

6. (Naut.) A boxlike step for a mast with the after side open, so that the mast can be lowered to pass under bridges, etc.

Feast of Tabernacles (Jewish Antiq.), one of the three principal festivals of the Jews, lasting seven days, during which the people dwelt in booths formed of the boughs of trees, in commemoration of the habitation of their ancestors in similar dwellings during their pilgrimage in the wilderness. — Tabernacle work, rich canopy work like that over the head of niches, used over seats or stalls, or over sepulchral monuments. Oxf. Gloss.

Tab"er*na*cle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tabernacled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabernacling (?).] To dwell or reside for a time; to be temporary housed.

He assumed our nature, and tabernacled among us in the flesh.

Dr. J. Scott.

Tab`er*nac"u*lar (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a tabernacle, especially the Jewish tabernacle.

2. Formed in latticework; latticed. T. Warton.

3. Of or pertaining to huts or booths; hence, common; low. "Horribly tabernacular." De Quincey.

||Ta"bes (t"bz), n. [L., a wasting disease.] (Med.) Progressive emaciation of the body, accompanied with hectic fever, with no well-marked local symptoms.

||Tabes dorsalis (dôr*s"ls) [NL., tabes of the back], locomotor ataxia; — sometimes called simply tabes. — ||Tabes mesenterica (&?;) [NL., mesenteric tabes], a wasting disease of childhood characterized by chronic inflammation of the lymphatic glands of the mesentery, attended with caseous degeneration.

Ta*bes"cent (?), a. [L. tabescens wasting, p. pr. of tabescere.] Withering, or wasting away.

Ta*bet"ic (?), a. (Med.) Of or pertaining to tabes; of the nature of tabes; affected with tabes; tabid. — n. One affected with tabes.

Tab"id (?), a. [L. tabidus: cf. F. tabide. See Tabes.] (Med.) Affected by tabes; tabetic.

In tabid persons, milk is the bset restorative.


— Tab"id*ly, adv. — Tab"id*ness, n.

{ Ta*bif"ic (?), Ta*bif"ic*al (?), } a. [Tabes + L. facere to make.] (Med.) Producing tabes; wasting; tabefying.

Tab"inet (?), n. See Tabbinet. Thackeray.

Tab"la*ture (?), n. [Cf. F. tablature ancient mode of musical notation. See Table.] 1. (Paint.) A painting on a wall or ceiling; a single piece comprehended in one view, and formed according to one design; hence, a picture in general. Shaftesbury.

2. (Mus.) An ancient mode of indicating musical sounds by letters and other signs instead of by notes.

The chimes of bells are so rarely managed that I went up to that of Sir Nicholas, where I found who played all sorts of compositions from the tablature before him as if he had fingered an organ.


3. (Anat.) Division into plates or tables with intervening spaces; as, the tablature of the cranial bones.

Ta"ble (?), n. [F., fr. L. tabula a board, tablet, a painting. Cf. Tabular, Taffrail, Tavern.] 1. A smooth, flat surface, like the side of a board; a thin, flat, smooth piece of anything; a slab.

A bagnio paved with fair tables of marble.


2. A thin, flat piece of wood, stone, metal, or other material, on which anything is cut, traced, written, or painted; a tablet; pl. a memorandum book. "The names . . . written on his tables." Chaucer.

And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.

Ex. xxxiv. 1.

And stand there with your tables to glean
The golden sentences.

Beau. & Fl.

3. Any smooth, flat surface upon which an inscription, a drawing, or the like, may be produced. "Painted in a table plain." Spenser.

The opposite walls are painted by Rubens, which, with that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip, is a most incomparable table.


St. Antony has a table that hangs up to him from a poor peasant.


4. Hence, in a great variety of applications: A condensed statement which may be comprehended by the eye in a single view; a methodical or systematic synopsis; the presentation of many items or particulars in one group; a scheme; a schedule. Specifically: —

(a) (Bibliog.) A view of the contents of a work; a statement of the principal topics discussed; an index; a syllabus; a synopsis; as, a table of contents.

(b) (Chem.) A list of substances and their properties; especially, a list of the elementary substances with their atomic weights, densities, symbols, etc.

(c) (Mach.) Any collection and arrangement in a condensed form of many particulars or values, for ready reference, as of weights, measures, currency, specific gravities, etc.; also, a series of numbers following some law, and expressing particular values corresponding to certain other numbers on which they depend, and by means of which they are taken out for use in computations; as, tables of logarithms, sines, tangents, squares, cubes, etc.; annuity tables; interest tables; astronomical tables, etc.

(d) (Palmistry) The arrangement or disposition of the lines which appear on the inside of the hand.

Mistress of a fairer table
Hath not history for fable.

B. Jonson.

5. An article of furniture, consisting of a flat slab, board, or the like, having a smooth surface, fixed horizontally on legs, and used for a great variety of purposes, as in eating, writing, or working.

We may again
Give to our tables meat.


The nymph the table spread.


6. Hence, food placed on a table to be partaken of; fare; entertainment; as, to set a good table.

7. The company assembled round a table.

I drink the general joy of the whole table.


8. (Anat.) One of the two, external and internal, layers of compact bone, separated by diploë, in the walls of the cranium.

9. (Arch.) A stringcourse which includes an offset; esp., a band of stone, or the like, set where an offset is required, so as to make it decorative. See Water table.

10. (Games) (a) The board on the opposite sides of which backgammon and draughts are played. (b) One of the divisions of a backgammon board; as, to play into the right-hand table. (c) pl. The games of backgammon and of draughts. [Obs.] Chaucer.

This is the ape of form, monsieur the nice,
That, when he plays at tables, chides the dice.


11. (Glass Manuf.) A circular plate of crown glass.

A circular plate or table of about five feet diameter weighs on an average nine pounds.


12. (Jewelry) The upper flat surface of a diamond or other precious stone, the sides of which are cut in angles.

13. (Persp.) A plane surface, supposed to be transparent and perpendicular to the horizon; — called also perspective plane.

14. (Mach.) The part of a machine tool on which the work rests and is fastened.

Bench table, Card table, Communion table, Lord's table, etc. See under Bench, Card, etc. — Raised table (Arch. & Sculp.), a raised or projecting member of a flat surface, large in proportion to the projection, and usually rectangular, — especially intended to receive an inscription or the like. — Roller table (Horology), a flat disk on the arbor of the balance of a watch, holding the jewel which rolls in and out of the fork at the end of the lever of the escapement. — Round table. See Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction. — Table anvil, a small anvil to be fastened to a table for use in making slight repairs. — Table base. (Arch.) Same as Water table. — Table bed, a bed in the form of a table. — Table beer, beer for table, or for common use; small beer. — Table bell, a small bell to be used at table for calling servants. — Table cover, a cloth for covering a table, especially at other than mealtimes. — Table diamond, a thin diamond cut with a flat upper surface. — Table linen, linen tablecloth, napkins, and the like. — Table money (Mil. or Naut.), an allowance sometimes made to officers over and above their pay, for table expenses. — Table rent (O. Eng. Law), rent paid to a bishop or religious, reserved or appropriated to his table or housekeeping. Burrill.Table shore (Naut.), a low, level shore. — Table talk, conversation at table, or at meals. — Table talker, one who talks at table. — Table tipping, Table turning, certain movements of tables, etc., attributed by some to the agency of departed spirits, and by others to the development of latent vital or spriritual forces, but more commonly ascribed to the muscular force of persons in connection with the objects moved, or to physical force applied otherwise. — Tables of a girder or chord (Engin.), the upper and lower horizontal members. — To lay on the table, in parliamentary usage, to lay, as a report, motion, etc., on the table of the presiding officer, — that is, to postpone the consideration of, by a vote. — To serve tables (Script.), to provide for the poor, or to distribute provisions for their wants. Acts vi. 2.To turn the tables, to change the condition or fortune of contending parties; — a metaphorical expression taken from the vicissitudes of fortune in gaming. — Twelve tables (Rom. Antiq.), a celebrated body of Roman laws, framed by decemvirs appointed 450 years before Christ, on the return of deputies or commissioners who had been sent to Greece to examine into foreign laws and institutions. They consisted partly of laws transcribed from the institutions of other nations, partly of such as were altered and accommodated to the manners of the Romans, partly of new provisions, and mainly, perhaps, of laws and usages under their ancient kings. Burrill.

<! p. 1467 !>

Ta"ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tableed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tableing (?).] 1. To form into a table or catalogue; to tabulate; as, to table fines.

2. To delineate, as on a table; to represent, as in a picture. [Obs.]

Tabled and pictured in the chambers of meditation.


3. To supply with food; to feed. [Obs.] Milton.

4. (Carp.) To insert, as one piece of timber into another, by alternate scores or projections from the middle, to prevent slipping; to scarf.

5. To lay or place on a table, as money. Carlyle.

6. In parliamentary usage, to lay on the table; to postpone, by a formal vote, the consideration of (a bill, motion, or the like) till called for, or indefinitely.

7. To enter upon the docket; as, to table charges against some one.

8. (Naut.) To make board hems in the skirts and bottoms of (sails) in order to strengthen them in the part attached to the boltrope.

Ta"ble, v. i. To live at the table of another; to board; to eat. [Obs.] "He . . . was driven from the society of men to table with the beasts." South.

||Ta`bleau" (?), n.; pl. Tableaux (#). [F., dim. fr. L. tabula a painting. See Table.] 1. A striking and vivid representation; a picture.

2. A representation of some scene by means of persons grouped in the proper manner, placed in appropriate postures, and remaining silent and motionless.

||Ta`bleau" vi`vant" (?); pl. Tableaux vivants (#). [F.] Same as Tableau, n., 2.

Ta"ble*book` (?), n. A tablet; a notebook.

Put into your tablebook whatever you judge worthy.


Ta"ble*cloth` (?), n. A cloth for covering a table, especially one with which a table is covered before the dishes, etc., are set on for meals.

||Ta"ble d'hôte" (t"bl' dt`); pl. Tables d'hôte (#). [F., literally, table of the landlord.] A common table for guests at a hotel; an ordinary.

Ta"ble-land` (?), n. A broad, level, elevated area of land; a plateau.

The toppling crags of Duty scaled,
Are close upon the shining table-lands
To which our God himself is moon and sun.


Ta"ble*man (?), n.; pl. Tablemen (&?;). A man at draughts; a piece used in playing games at tables. See Table, n., 10. [R.] Bacon.

Ta"ble*ment (?), n. (Arch.) A table. [Obs.]

Tablements and chapters of pillars.


Ta"bler (?), n. 1. One who boards. [Obs.]

2. One who boards others for hire. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Ta"ble*spoon` (?), n. A spoon of the largest size commonly used at the table; — distinguished from teaspoon, dessert spoon, etc.

Ta"ble*spoon`ful (?), n.; pl. Tablespoonfuls (&?;). As much as a tablespoon will hold; enough to fill a tablespoon. It is usually reckoned as one half of a fluid ounce, or four fluid drams.

Ta"blet (?), n. [F. tablette, dim. of table. See Table.] 1. A small table or flat surface.

2. A flat piece of any material on which to write, paint, draw, or engrave; also, such a piece containing an inscription or a picture.

3. Hence, a small picture; a miniature. [Obs.]

4. pl. A kind of pocket memorandum book.

5. A flattish cake or piece; as, tablets of arsenic were formerly worn as a preservative against the plague.

6. (Pharm.) A solid kind of electuary or confection, commonly made of dry ingredients with sugar, and usually formed into little flat squares; — called also lozenge, and troche, especially when of a round or rounded form.

Ta"ble*ware` (?), n. Ware, or articles collectively, for table use.

Ta"bling (?), n. 1. A forming into tables; a setting down in order.

2. (Carp.) The letting of one timber into another by alternate scores or projections, as in shipbuilding.

3. (Naut.) A broad hem on the edge of a sail. Totten.

4. Board; support. [Obs.] Trence in English (1614).

5. Act of playing at tables. See Table, n., 10. [Obs.]

Tabling house, a gambling house. [Obs.] Northbrooke.

Ta*boo" (?), n. A total prohibition of intercourse with, use of, or approach to, a given person or thing under pain of death, — an interdict of religious origin and authority, formerly common in the islands of Polynesia; interdiction. [Written also tabu.]

Ta*boo", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tabooed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabooing.] To put under taboo; to forbid, or to forbid the use of; to interdict approach to, or use of; as, to taboo the ground set apart as a sanctuary for criminals. [Written also tabu.]

Ta"bor (?), n. [OF. tabor, tabour, F. tambour; cf. Pr. tabor, tanbor, Sp. & Pg. tambor, atambor, It. tamburo; all fr. Ar. & Per. tamb&?;r a kind of lute, or giutar, or Per. tabr a drum. Cf. Tabouret, Tambour.] (Mus.) A small drum used as an accompaniment to a pipe or fife, both being played by the same person. [Written also tabour, and taber.]

Ta"bor, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tabored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Taboring.] [Cf. OF. taborer.] [Written also tabour.] 1. To play on a tabor, or little drum.

2. To strike lightly and frequently.

Ta"bor, v. t. To make (a sound) with a tabor.

Ta"bor*er (?), n. One who plays on the tabor. Shak.

Tab"o*ret (?), n. [Dim. of tabor. Cf. Tabret.] (Mus.) A small tabor. [Written also tabouret.]

Tab"o*rine (?), n. [OF. tabourin, F. tambourin. See Tabor, and cf. Tambourine.] (Mus.) A small, shallow drum; a tabor.

Ta"bor*ite (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of certain Bohemian reformers who suffered persecution in the fifteenth century; — so called from Tabor, a hill or fortress where they encamped during a part of their struggles.

Ta"bour (?), n. & v. See Tabor.

Tab"ou*ret (?), n. [F., dim. of OF. tabor, tabour, drum. See Tabor.] 1. Same as Taboret.

2. A seat without arms or back, cushioned and stuffed: a high stool; — so called from its resemblance to a drum.

3. An embroidery frame. Knight.

Right of the tabouret, the privilege of sitting on a tabouret in the presence of the severeign, formerly granted to certain ladies of high rank at the French court.

Tab"rere (?), n. A taborer. [Obs.] Spenser.

Tab"ret (?), n. A taboret. Young.

Ta*bu" (?), n. & v. See Taboo.

||Tab"u*la (?), n.; pl. Tabulæ (#). [L.] 1. A table; a tablet.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the transverse plants found in the calicles of certain corals and hydroids.

Tabula rasa (&?;) [L.], a smoothed tablet; hence, figuratively, the mind in its earliest state, before receiving impressions from without; — a term used by Hobbes, Locke, and others, in maintaining a theory opposed to the doctrine of innate ideas.

Tab"u*lar (?), a. [L. tabularis, fr. tabula a board, table. See Table.] Having the form of, or pertaining to, a table (in any of the uses of the word). Specifically: —

(a) Having a flat surface; as, a tabular rock.

(b) Formed into a succession of flakes; laminated.

Nodules . . . that are tabular and plated.


(c) Set in squares. [R.]

(d) Arranged in a schedule; as, tabular statistics.

(e) Derived from, or computed by, the use of tables; as, tabular right ascension.

Tabular difference (Math.), the difference between two consecutive numbers in a table, sometimes printed in its proper place in the table. — Tabular spar (Min.), wollastonite.

Tab`u*lar*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of tabularizing, or the state of being tabularized; formation into tables; tabulation.

Tab"u*lar*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tabularized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabularizing (?).] To tabulate.

||Tab`u*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. tabulatus floored.] (Zoöl.) An artificial group of stony corals including those which have transverse septa in the calicles. The genera Pocillopora and Favosites are examples.

Tab"u*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tabulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tabulating.] [L. tabula a table. See Tabular.] 1. To form into a table or tables; to reduce to tables or synopses.

A philosophy is not worth the having, unless its results may be tabulated, and put in figures.

I. Taylor.

2. To shape with a flat surface.

Tab`u*la"tion (?), n. The act of forming into a table or tables; as, the tabulation of statistics.

Tac (?), n. [Cf. Tack, n., 4.] (O. Eng. Law) A kind of customary payment by a tenant; — a word used in old records. Cowell. Burrill.

{ Tac"a*ma*hac` (?), Tac`a*ma*ha"ca (?), } n. 1. A bitter balsamic resin obtained from tropical American trees of the genus Elaphrium (E. tomentosum and E. Tacamahaca), and also from East Indian trees of the genus Calophyllum; also, the resinous exhudation of the balsam poplar.

2. (Bot.) Any tree yielding tacamahac resin, especially, in North America, the balsam poplar, or balm of Gilead (Populus balsamifera).

Ta*caud" (?), n. [Cf. F. tacaud. See Tomcod.] (Zoöl.) The bib, or whiting pout. [Prov. Eng.]

Tace (?), n. The cross, or church, of St. Antony. See Illust. (6), under Cross, n. Mollett.

Tace, n. See Tasse. Fairholt.

||Ta"cet (?), v. impers. [L., it is silent, 3d of tacere to be silent.] (Mus.) It is silent; — a direction for a vocal or instrumental part to be silent during a whole movement.

Tache (?), n. [See Tack a kind of nail.] Something used for taking hold or holding; a catch; a loop; a button. [Obs.] Ex. xxvi. 6.

Tache, n. [F. tache spot. See Techy.] A spot, stain, or blemish. [Obs.] Warner.

Tach*hy"drite (?), n. [Gr. tachy`s quick + "y`dwr water. So named from its ready deliquescence.] (Min.) A hydrous chloride of calcium and magnesium occurring in yellowish masses which rapidly deliquesce upon exposure. It is found in the salt mines at Stassfurt.

||Tach"i*na (?), n.; pl. Tachinæ (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, for &?; swift.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of Diptera belonging to Tachina and allied genera. Their larvæ are external parasites of other insects.

Ta*chom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; swiftness, speed (fr. tachy`s quick) + -meter: cf. F. tachomètre.] An instrument for measuring the velocity, or indicating changes in the velocity, of a moving body or substance. Specifically: —

(a) An instrument for measuring the velocity of running water in a river or canal, consisting of a wheel with inclined vanes, which is turned by the current. The rotations of the wheel are recorded by clockwork.

(b) An instrument for showing at any moment the speed of a revolving shaft, consisting of a delicate revolving conical pendulum which is driven by the shaft, and the action of which by change of speed moves a pointer which indicates the speed on a graduated dial.

(c) (Physiol.) An instrument for measuring the velocity of the blood; a hæmatachometer.

Tach"y*di*dax`y (?), n. [Gr. tachy`s quick + &?; teaching.] A short or rapid method of instructing. [R.]

||Tach`y*glos"sa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. tachy`s quick + &?; tongue.] (Zoöl.) A division of monotremes which comprises the spiny ant-eaters of Australia and New Guinea. See Illust. under Echidna.

{ Tach`y*graph"ic (?), Tach`y*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. tachygraphique.] Of or pertaining to tachygraphy; written in shorthand.

Ta*chyg"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. tachy`s quick + -graphy: cf. F. tachygraphie.] The art or practice of rapid writing; shorthand writing; stenography. I. Taylor (The Alphabet).

Tach"y*lyte (?), n. [Gr. tachy`s quick + &?; to dissolve.] (Min.) A vitreous form of basalt; — so called because decomposable by acids and readily fusible.

Tac"it (?), a. [L. tacitus, p. p. of tacere to be silent, to pass over in silence; akin to Goth. þahan to be silent, Icel. þegja, OHG. dagn: cf. F. tacite. Cf. Reticent.] Done or made in silence; implied, but not expressed; silent; as, tacit consent is consent by silence, or by not interposing an objection. — Tac"it*ly, adv.

The tacit and secret theft of abusing our brother in civil contracts.

Jer. Taylor.

Tac"i*turn (?), a. [L. taciturnus: cf. F. taciturne. See Tacit.] Habitually silent; not given to converse; not apt to talk or speak. — Tac"i*turn*ly, adv.

Syn. — Silent; reserved. Taciturn, Silent. Silent has reference to the act; taciturn, to the habit. A man may be silent from circumstances; he is taciturn from disposition. The loquacious man is at times silent; one who is taciturn may now and then make an effort at conversation.

Tac`i*tur"ni*ty (?), n. [L. taciturnitas: cf. F. taciturnité.] Habilual silence, or reserve in speaking.

The cause of Addison's taciturnity was a natural diffidence in the company of strangers.

V. Knox.

The taciturnity and the short answers which gave so much offense.


Tack (?), n. [From an old or dialectal form of F. tache. See Techy.] 1. A stain; a tache. [Obs.]

2. [Cf. L. tactus.] A peculiar flavor or taint; as, a musty tack. [Obs. or Colloq.] Drayton.

Tack, n. [OE. tak, takke, a fastening; akin to D. tak a branch, twig, G. zacke a twig, prong, spike, Dan. takke a tack, spike; cf. also Sw. tagg prickle, point, Icel. tg a willow twig, Ir. taca a peg, nail, fastening, Gael. tacaid, Armor. & Corn. tach; perhaps akin to E. take. Cf. Attach, Attack, Detach, Tag an end, Zigzag.] 1. A small, short, sharp-pointed nail, usually having a broad, flat head.

2. That which is attached; a supplement; an appendix. See Tack, v. t., 3. Macaulay.

Some tacks had been made to money bills in King Charles's time.

Bp. Burnet.

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3. (Naut.) (a) A rope used to hold in place the foremost lower corners of the courses when the vessel is closehauled (see Illust. of Ship); also, a rope employed to pull the lower corner of a studding sail to the boom. (b) The part of a sail to which the tack is usually fastened; the foremost lower corner of fore-and-aft sails, as of schooners (see Illust. of Sail). (c) The direction of a vessel in regard to the trim of her sails; as, the starboard tack, or port tack; — the former when she is closehauled with the wind on her starboard side; hence, the run of a vessel on one tack; also, a change of direction.

4. (Scots Law) A contract by which the use of a thing is set, or let, for hire; a lease. Burrill.

5. Confidence; reliance. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Tack of a flag (Naut.), a line spliced into the eye at the foot of the hoist for securing the flag to the halyards. — Tack pins (Naut.), belaying pins; — also called jack pins. — To haul the tacks aboard (Naut.), to set the courses. — To hold tack, to last or hold out. Milton.

Tack (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tacked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tacking.] [Cf. OD. tacken to touch, take, seize, fix, akin to E. take. See Tack a small nail.] 1. To fasten or attach. "In hopes of getting some commendam tacked to their sees." Swift.

And tacks the center to the sphere.


2. Especially, to attach or secure in a slight or hasty manner, as by stitching or nailing; as, to tack together the sheets of a book; to tack one piece of cloth to another; to tack on a board or shingle; to tack one piece of metal to another by drops of solder.

3. In parliamentary usage, to add (a supplement) to a bill; to append; — often with on or to. Macaulay.

4. (Naut.) To change the direction of (a vessel) when sailing closehauled, by putting the helm alee and shifting the tacks and sails so that she will proceed to windward nearly at right angles to her former course.

In tacking, a vessel is brought to point at first directly to windward, and then so that the wind will blow against the other side.

Tack, v. i. (Naut.) To change the direction of a vessel by shifting the position of the helm and sails; also (as said of a vessel), to have her direction changed through the shifting of the helm and sails. See Tack, v. t., 4.

Monk, . . . when he wanted his ship to tack to larboard, moved the mirth of his crew by calling out, "Wheel to the left."


Tack"er (?), n. One who tacks.

Tack"et (?), n. [Dim. of tack a small nail.] A small, broad-headed nail. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Tack"ey (?), a. & n. See Tacky.

Tack"ing, n. (Law) A union of securities given at different times, all of which must be redeemed before an intermediate purchaser can interpose his claim. Bouvier.

The doctrine of tacking is not recognized in American law. Kent.

Tac"kle (?; sometimes improperly pronounced ?, especially by seamen), n. [OE. takel, akin to LG. & D. takel, Dan. takkel, Sw. tackel; perhaps akin to E. taw, v.t., or to take.] 1. Apparatus for raising or lowering heavy weights, consisting of a rope and pulley blocks; sometimes, the rope and attachments, as distinct from the block.

2. Any instruments of action; an apparatus by which an object is moved or operated; gear; as, fishing tackle, hunting tackle; formerly, specifically, weapons. "She to her tackle fell." Hudibras.

In Chaucer, it denotes usually an arrow or arrows.

3. (Naut.) The rigging and apparatus of a ship; also, any purchase where more than one block is used.

Fall and tackle. See the Note under Pulley. — Fishing tackle. See under Fishing, a.Ground tackle (Naut.), anchors, cables, etc. — Gun tackle, the apparatus or appliances for hauling cannon in or out. — Tackle fall, the rope, or rather the end of the rope, of a tackle, to which the power is applied. — Tack tackle (Naut.), a small tackle to pull down the tacks of the principal sails. — Tackle board, Tackle post (Ropemaking), a board, frame, or post, at the end of a ropewalk, for supporting the spindels, or whirls, for twisting the yarns.

Tac"kle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tackled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tackling.] [Cf. LG. takeln to equip. See Tackle, n.] 1. To supply with tackle. Beau. & Fl.

2. To fasten or attach, as with a tackle; to harness; as, to tackle a horse into a coach or wagon. [Colloq.]

3. To seize; to lay hold of; to grapple; as, a wrestler tackles his antagonist; a dog tackles the game.

The greatest poetess of our day has wasted her time and strength in tackling windmills under conditions the most fitted to insure her defeat.

Dublin Univ. Mag.

Tac"kled (?), a. Made of ropes tacked together.

My man shall be with thee,
And bring thee cords made like a tackled stair.


Tac"kling, n. (Naut.) 1. Furniture of the masts and yards of a vessel, as cordage, sails, etc.

2. Instruments of action; as, fishing tackling. Walton.

3. The straps and fixures adjusted to an animal, by which he draws a carriage, or the like; harness.

Tacks"man (?), n.; pl. Tacksmen (&?;). (Scots Law) One who holds a tack or lease from another; a tenant, or lessee. Sir W. Scott.

The tacksmen, who formed what may be called the "peerage" of the little community, must be the captains.


Tack"y (?), a. [Cf. Techy, Tack a spot.] Sticky; adhesive; raw; — said of paint, varnish, etc., when not well dried. [U. S.]

Ta*con"ic (?), a. (Geol.) Designating, or pertaining to, the series of rocks forming the Taconic mountains in Western New England. They were once supposed to be older than the Cambrian, but later proved to belong to the Lower Silurian and Cambrian.

Tact (?), n. [L. tactus a touching, touch, fr. tangere, tactum, to touch: cf. F. tact. See Tangent.] 1. The sense of touch; feeling.

Did you suppose that I could not make myself sensible to tact as well as sight?


Now, sight is a very refined tact.

J. Le Conte.

2. (Mus.) The stroke in beating time.

3. Sensitive mental touch; peculiar skill or faculty; nice perception or discernment; ready power of appreciating and doing what is required by circumstances.

He had formed plans not inferior in grandeur and boldness to those of Richelieu, and had carried them into effect with a tact and wariness worthy of Mazarin.


A tact which surpassed the tact of her sex as much as the tact of her sex surpassed the tact of ours.


Tac"ta*ble (?), a. Capable of being touched; tangible. [R.] "They [women] being created to be both tractable and tactable." Massinger.

{ Tac"tic (?), Tac"tic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;. See tactics.] Of or pertaining to the art of military and naval tactics. — Tac"tic*al*ly, adv.

Tac"tic (?), n. See Tactics.

Tac*ti"cian (?), n. [Cf. F. tacticien.] One versed in tactics; hence, a skillful maneuverer; an adroit manager.

Tac"tics (?), n. [Gr. &?;, pl., and &?; (sc. &?;, sing., fr. &?; fit for ordering or arranging, fr. &?;, &?;, to put in order, to arrange: cf. F. tactique.] 1. The science and art of disposing military and naval forces in order for battle, and performing military and naval evolutions. It is divided into grand tactics, or the tactics of battles, and elementary tactics, or the tactics of instruction.

2. Hence, any system or method of procedure.

Tac"tile (?), a. [L. tactilis, fr. tangere, tactum, to touch: cf. F. tactile.] Of or pertaining to the organs, or the sense, of touch; perceiving, or perceptible, by the touch; capable of being touched; as, tactile corpuscles; tactile sensations. "Tactile sweets." Beaumont. "Tactile qualities." Sir M. Hale.

Tactile sense (Physiol.), the sense of touch, or pressure sense. See Touch.

The delicacy of the tactile sense varies on different parts of the skin; it is geatest on the forehead, temples and back of the forearm.

H. N. Martin.

Tac*til"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. tactilité.] The quality or state of being tactile; perceptibility by touch; tangibleness.

Tac"tion (?), n. [L. tactio, from tangere, tactum, to touch.] The act of touching; touch; contact; tangency. "External taction." Chesterfield.

Tact"less (?), a. Destitute of tact.

Tac"tu*al (?), a. [See Tact.] (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the sense, or the organs, of touch; derived from touch.

In the lowest organisms we have a kind of tactual sense diffused over the entire body.


Tad"pole` (?), n. [OE. tadde toad (AS. tdie, tdige) + poll; properly, a toad that is or seems all head. See Toad, and Poll.] 1. (Zoöl.) The young aquatic larva of any amphibian. In this stage it breathes by means of external or internal gills, is at first destitute of legs, and has a finlike tail. Called also polliwig, polliwog, porwiggle, or purwiggy.

2. (Zoöl.) The hooded merganser. [Local, U. S.]

Tadpole fish. (Zoöl.) See Forkbeard (a).

||Tæ"di*um (?), n. [L.] See Tedium.

Tael (?), n. [Malay ta&?;l, a certain weight, probably fr. Hind. tola, Skr. tul a balance, weight, tul to weigh.] A denomination of money, in China, worth nearly six shillings sterling, or about a dollar and forty cents; also, a weight of one ounce and a third. [Written also tale.]

{ Taen (?), or Ta'en }, p. p. of Ta, to take, or a contraction of Taken. [Poetic & Scot.] Burns.

||Tæ"ni*a (?), n.; pl. Tæniæ (#). [L., a ribbon, a tapeworm.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of intestinal worms which includes the common tapeworms of man. See Tapeworm.

2. (Anat.) A band; a structural line; — applied to several bands and lines of nervous matter in the brain.

3. (Arch.) The fillet, or band, at the bottom of a Doric frieze, separating it from the architrave.

||Tæ*ni"a*da (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Tænioidea.

||Tæ`ni*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. taenia a ribbon.] (Zoöl.) A division of Ctenophora including those which have a long, ribbonlike body. The Venus's girdle is the most familiar example.

||Tæ*nid"i*um (?), n.; pl. Tænidia (#). [NL., dim. fr. L. taenia a ribbon.] (Zoöl.) The chitinous fiber forming the spiral thread of the tracheæ of insects. See Illust. of Trachea.

||Tæ`ni*o*glos"sa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a ribbon + &?; a tongue.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of gastropod mollusks in which the odontophore is long and narrow, and usually bears seven rows of teeth. It includes a large number of families both marine and fresh-water.

Tæ`ni*o*glos"sate (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Tænioglossa.

Tæ"ni*oid (?), a. [Tænia + -oid.] 1. Ribbonlike; shaped like a ribbon.

2. (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to Tænia.

||Tæ`ni*oi"de*a (?), n. pl. (Zoöl.) The division of cestode worms which comprises the tapeworms. See Tapeworm.

||Tæ*ni"o*la (?), n.; pl. Tæniolæ (#). [L., dim. of taenia a ribbon.] (Zoöl.) One of the radial partitions which separate the internal cavities of certain medusæ.

||Tæ`ni*o*so"mi (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; ribbon + &?; body.] (Zoöl.) An order of fishes remarkable for their long and compressed form. The ribbon fishes are examples. See Ribbon fish, under Ribbon.

Taf"fer*er (?), n. (Naut.) See Taffrail.

{ Taf"fe*ta (?), Taf"fe*ty (?), } n. [F. taffetas, It. taffetà, from Per. tftah, originally, twisted, woven, from tftan to twist, to spin.] A fine, smooth stuff of silk, having usually the wavy luster called watering. The term has also been applied to different kinds of silk goods, from the 16th century to modern times.

Lined with taffeta and with sendal.


Taff"rail (?), n. [D. tafereel a panel, picture, fr. tafel table, fr. L. tabula. See Table.] (Naut.) The upper part of a ship's stern, which is flat like a table on the top, and sometimes ornamented with carved work; the rail around a ship's stern. [Written also tafferel.]

Taf"fy (?), n. [Prov. E. taffy toffy.] 1. A kind of candy made of molasses or brown sugar boiled down and poured out in shallow pans. [Written also, in England, toffy.]

2. Flattery; soft phrases. [Slang]

Taf"i*a (?), n. [Cf. F. & Sp. tafia, It. taffia; fr. Malay tfa a spirit distilled from molasses. Cf. Ratafia.] A variety of rum. [West Indies]

Tag (?), n. [Probably akin to tack a small nail; cf. Sw. tagg a prickle, point, tooth.] 1. Any slight appendage, as to an article of dress; something slight hanging loosely; specifically, a direction card, or label.

2. A metallic binding, tube, or point, at the end of a string, or lace, to stiffen it.

3. The end, or catchword, of an actor's speech; cue.

4. Something mean and paltry; the rabble. [Obs.]

Tag and rag, the lowest sort; the rabble. Holinshed.

5. A sheep of the first year. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Tag, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tagging (?).] 1. To fit with, or as with, a tag or tags.

He learned to make long-tagged thread laces.


His courteous host . . .
Tags every sentence with some fawning word.


2. To join; to fasten; to attach. Bolingbroke.

3. To follow closely after; esp., to follow and touch in the game of tag. See Tag, a play.

Tag, v. i. To follow closely, as it were an appendage; — often with after; as, to tag after a person.

Tag, n. [From Tag, v.; cf. Tag, an end.] A child's play in which one runs after and touches another, and then runs away to avoid being touched.

Tag"belt` (?), n. (Far.) Same as Tagsore. [Obs.]

Tag"ger (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, appends or joins one thing to another.

2. That which is pointed like a tag.

Hedgehogs' or procupines' small taggers.


3. pl. Sheets of tin or other plate which run below the gauge. Knight.

4. A device for removing taglocks from sheep. Knight.

Tag"let (?), n. A little tag.

||Tagl"ia (?), n. [It., a cutting, a pulley, from tagliare to cut. See Tailor.] (Mech.) A peculiar combination of pulleys. Brande & C.

Tagl`ia*co"tain (?), a. (Surg.) Of or pertaining to Tagliacozzi, a Venetian surgeon; as, the Tagliacotian operation, a method of rhinoplasty described by him. [Also Taliacotian, and Tagliacozzian.]

Tagl*io"ni (?), n. A kind of outer coat, or overcoat; — said to be so named after a celebrated Italian family of professional dancers.

He ought certainly to exchange his taglioni, or comfortable greatcoat, for a cuirass of steel.

Sir W. Scott.

Tag"lock` (?), n. An entangled lock, as of hair or wool. Nares.

Tag"ni*cate (?), n. (Zoöl.) The white-lipped peccary.

Tag"-rag` (?), n. & a. [See Tag an end, and Rag.] The lowest class of people; the rabble. Cf. Rag, tag, and bobtail, under Bobtail.

If the tag-rag people did not clap him and hiss him, I am no true man.


Tag"sore` (?), n. (Far.) Adhesion of the tail of a sheep to the wool from excoriation produced by contact with the feces; — called also tagbelt. [Obs.]

Tag"tail` (?), n. 1. A worm which has its tail conspicuously colored.

2. A person who attaches himself to another against the will of the latter; a hanger-on.

Tag"u*an (?), n. [From the native name in the East Indies.] (Zoöl.) A large flying squirrel (Pteromys petuarista). Its body becomes two feet long, with a large bushy tail nearly as long.

<! p. 1469 !>

Ta`gui*ca"ti (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) The white-lipped peccary.

Ta"ha (?), n. The African rufous-necked weaver bird (Hyphantornis texor).

Ta*ha"leb (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) A fox (Vulpes Niloticus) of Northern Africa.

Ta*hi"ti*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Tahiti, an island in the Pacific Ocean. — n. A native inhabitant of Tahiti.

Tahr (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Thar.

Tail (?), n. [F. taille a cutting. See Entail, Tally.] (Law) Limitation; abridgment. Burrill.

Estate in tail, a limited, abridged, or reduced fee; an estate limited to certain heirs, and from which the other heirs are precluded; — called also estate tail. Blackstone.

Tail, a. (Law) Limited; abridged; reduced; curtailed; as, estate tail.

Tail, n. [AS. tægel, tægl; akin to G. zagel, Icel. tagl, Sw. tagel, Goth. tagl hair. √59.] 1. (Zoöl.) The terminal, and usually flexible, posterior appendage of an animal.

The tail of mammals and reptiles contains a series of movable vertebræ, and is covered with flesh and hairs or scales like those of other parts of the body. The tail of existing birds consists of several more or less consolidated vertebræ which supports a fanlike group of quills to which the term tail is more particularly applied. The tail of fishes consists of the tapering hind portion of the body ending in a caudal fin. The term tail is sometimes applied to the entire abdomen of a crustacean or insect, and sometimes to the terminal piece or pygidium alone.

2. Any long, flexible terminal appendage; whatever resembles, in shape or position, the tail of an animal, as a catkin.

Doretus writes a great praise of the distilled waters of those tails that hang on willow trees.


3. Hence, the back, last, lower, or inferior part of anything, — as opposed to the head, or the superior part.

The Lord will make thee the head, and not the tail.

Deut. xxviii. 13.

4. A train or company of attendants; a retinue.

"Ah," said he, "if you saw but the chief with his tail on."

Sir W. Scott.

5. The side of a coin opposite to that which bears the head, effigy, or date; the reverse; — rarely used except in the expression "heads or tails," employed when a coin is thrown up for the purpose of deciding some point by its fall.

6. (Anat.) The distal tendon of a muscle.

7. (Bot.) A downy or feathery appendage to certain achenes. It is formed of the permanent elongated style.

8. (Surg.) (a) A portion of an incision, at its beginning or end, which does not go through the whole thickness of the skin, and is more painful than a complete incision; — called also tailing. (b) One of the strips at the end of a bandage formed by splitting the bandage one or more times.

9. (Naut.) A rope spliced to the strap of a block, by which it may be lashed to anything.

10. (Mus.) The part of a note which runs perpendicularly upward or downward from the head; the stem. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

11. pl. Same as Tailing, 4.

12. (Arch.) The bottom or lower portion of a member or part, as a slate or tile.

13. pl. (Mining) See Tailing, n., 5.

Tail beam. (Arch.) Same as Tailpiece. — Tail coverts (Zoöl.), the feathers which cover the bases of the tail quills. They are sometimes much longer than the quills, and form elegant plumes. Those above the quills are called the upper tail coverts, and those below, the under tail coverts. — Tail end, the latter end; the termination; as, the tail end of a contest. [Colloq.] — Tail joist. (Arch.) Same as Tailpiece. — Tail of a comet (Astron.), a luminous train extending from the nucleus or body, often to a great distance, and usually in a direction opposite to the sun. — Tail of a gale (Naut.), the latter part of it, when the wind has greatly abated. Totten.Tail of a lock (on a canal), the lower end, or entrance into the lower pond. — Tail of the trenches (Fort.), the post where the besiegers begin to break ground, and cover themselves from the fire of the place, in advancing the lines of approach. — Tail spindle, the spindle of the tailstock of a turning lathe; — called also dead spindle. — To turn tail, to run away; to flee.

Would she turn tail to the heron, and fly quite out another way; but all was to return in a higher pitch.

Sir P. Sidney.

Tail, v. t. 1. To follow or hang to, like a tail; to be attached closely to, as that which can not be evaded. [Obs.]

Nevertheless his bond of two thousand pounds, wherewith he was tailed, continued uncanceled, and was called on the next Parliament.


2. To pull or draw by the tail. [R.] Hudibras.

To tail in or on (Arch.), to fasten by one of the ends into a wall or some other support; as, to tail in a timber.

Tail, v. i. 1. (Arch.) To hold by the end; — said of a timber when it rests upon a wall or other support; — with in or into.

2. (Naut.) To swing with the stern in a certain direction; — said of a vessel at anchor; as, this vessel tails down stream.

Tail on. (Naut.) See Tally on, under Tally.

Tail"age (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) See Tallage.

Tail"-bay` (?), n. 1. (Arch.) One of the joists which rest one end on the wall and the other on a girder; also, the space between a wall and the nearest girder of a floor. Cf. Case-bay.

2. The part of a canal lock below the lower gates.

Tail"block` (?), n. (Naut.) A block with a tail. See Tail, 9.

Tail"board` (?), n. The board at the rear end of a cart or wagon, which can be removed or let down, for convenience in loading or unloading.

Tailed (?), a. Having a tail; having (such) a tail or (so many) tails; — chiefly used in composition; as, bobtailed, longtailed, etc.

Snouted and tailed like a boar.


Tail"ing (?), n. 1. (Arch.) The part of a projecting stone or brick inserted in a wall. Gwilt.

2. (Surg.) Same as Tail, n., 8 (a).

3. Sexual intercourse. [Obs.] Chaucer.

4. pl. The lighter parts of grain separated from the seed threshing and winnowing; chaff.

5. pl. (Mining) The refuse part of stamped ore, thrown behind the tail of the buddle or washing apparatus. It is dressed over again to secure whatever metal may exist in it. Called also tails. Pryce.

Taille (?), n. [F. See Tally, Tailor.] 1. A tally; an account scored on a piece of wood. [Obs.]

Whether that he paid or took by taille.


2. (O. F. Law) Any imposition levied by the king, or any other lord, upon his subjects.

The taille, as it still subsists in France, may serve as an example of those ancient tallages. It was a tax upon the profits of the farmer, which they estimate by the stock that he has upon the farm.

A. Smith.

3. (Mus.) The French name for the tenor voice or part; also, for the tenor viol or viola.

Tail"less (?), a. Having no tail. H. Spencer.

Tail"lie (?), n. (Scots Law) Same as Tailzie.

Tai"lor (?), n. [OF. tailleor, F. tailleur, fr. OF. taillier, F. tailler to cut, fr. L. talea a rod, stick, a cutting, layer for planting. Cf. Detail, Entail, Retail, Tally, n.] 1. One whose occupation is to cut out and make men's garments; also, one who cuts out and makes ladies' outer garments.

Well said, good woman's tailor . . . I would thou wert a man's tailor.


2. (Zoöl.) (a) The mattowacca; — called also tailor herring. (b) The silversides.

3. (Zoöl.) The goldfish. [Prov. Eng.]

Salt-water tailor (Zoöl.), the bluefish. [Local, U. S.] Bartlett.Tailor bird (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of small Asiatic and East Indian singing birds belonging to Orthotomus, Prinia, and allied genera. They are noted for the skill with which they sew leaves together to form nests. The common Indian species are O. longicauda, which has the back, scapulars, and upper tail coverts yellowish green, and the under parts white; and the golden-headed tailor bird (O. coronatus), which has the top of the head golden yellow and the back and wings pale olive-green.

Tai"lor, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tailored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tailoring.] To practice making men's clothes; to follow the business of a tailor.

These tailoring artists for our lays
Invent cramped rules.

M. Green.

Tai"lor*ess, n. A female tailor.

Tai"lor*ing, adv. The business or the work of a tailor or a tailoress.

Tail"piece` (?), n. 1. A piece at the end; an appendage.

2. (Arch.) One of the timbers which tail into a header, in floor framing. See Illust. of Header.

3. (Print.) An ornament placed at the bottom of a short page to fill up the space, or at the end of a book. Savage.

4. A piece of ebony or other material attached to the lower end of a violin or similar instrument, to which the strings are fastened.

Tail"pin" (?), n. (Mach.) The center in the spindle of a turning lathe.

Tail"race` (?), n. 1. See Race, n., 6.

2. (Mining) The channel in which tailings, suspended in water, are conducted away.

Tail"stock` (?), n. The sliding block or support, in a lathe, which carries the dead spindle, or adjustable center. The headstock supports the live spindle.

Tail"-wa`ter (?), n. Water in a tailrace.

Tail"zie (-z or -y), n. [F. tailler to cut. See Tail a limitation.] (Scots Law) An entailment or deed whereby the legal course of succession is cut off, and an arbitrary one substituted. [Written also tailzee.]

Tain (?), n. [OE. tein, teyne; cf. Icel. teinn a twig, akin to AS. tn, Goth. tains.] Thin tin plate; also, tin foil for mirrors. Knight.

Taint (?), n. [Cf. F. atteinte a blow, bit, stroke. See Attaint.] 1. A thrust with a lance, which fails of its intended effect. [Obs.]

This taint he followed with his sword drawn from a silver sheath.


2. An injury done to a lance in an encounter, without its being broken; also, a breaking of a lance in an encounter in a dishonorable or unscientific manner. [Obs.]

Taint, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tainted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tainting.] To thrust ineffectually with a lance. [Obs.]

Taint, v. t. 1. To injure, as a lance, without breaking it; also, to break, as a lance, but usually in an unknightly or unscientific manner. [Obs.]

Do not fear; I have
A staff to taint, and bravely.


2. To hit or touch lightly, in tilting. [Obs.]

They tainted each other on the helms and passed by.

Ld. Berners.

Taint, v. t. [F. teint, p. p. of teindre to dye, tinge, fr. L. tingere, tinctum. See Tinge, and cf. Tint.] 1. To imbue or impregnate with something extraneous, especially with something odious, noxious, or poisonous; hence, to corrupt; to infect; to poison; as, putrid substance taint the air.

2. Fig.: To stain; to sully; to tarnish.

His unkindness may defeat my life,
But never taint my love.


Syn. — To contaminate; defile; pollute; corrupt; infect; disease; vitiate; poison.

Taint (?), v. i. 1. To be infected or corrupted; to be touched with something corrupting.

I can not taint with fear.


2. To be affected with incipient putrefaction; as, meat soon taints in warm weather.

Taint, n. 1. Tincture; hue; color; tinge. [Obs.]

2. Infection; corruption; deprivation.

He had inherited from his parents a scrofulous taint, which it was beyond the power of medicine to remove.


3. A blemish on reputation; stain; spot; disgrace.

Taint"less, a. Free from taint or infection; pure.

Taint"less*ly, adv. In a taintless manner.

Tain"ture (?), n. [F. teinture. See Taint to stain, and cf. Tincture.] Taint; tinge; difilement; stain; spot. [R.] Shak.

Taint"worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A destructive parasitic worm or insect larva.

Tai"ra (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tayra.

Tairn (?), n. See Tarn. Coleridge.

Tait (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small nocturnal and arboreal Australian marsupial (Tarsipes rostratus) about the size of a mouse. It has a long muzzle, a long tongue, and very few teeth, and feeds upon honey and insects. Called also noolbenger.

{ Ta*jaç"u, Ta*jas"su } (?), n. [Pg. tajaçú, from Braz. tayaçú a hog or swine.] (Zoöl.) The common, or collared, peccary.

Take (?), obs. p. p. of Take. Taken. Chaucer.

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Take, v. t. [imp. Took (?); p. p. Takend (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Taking.] [Icel. taka; akin to Sw. taga, Dan. tage, Goth. tkan to touch; of uncertain origin.] 1. In an active sense; To lay hold of; to seize with the hands, or otherwise; to grasp; to get into one's hold or possession; to procure; to seize and carry away; to convey. Hence, specifically: —

(a) To obtain possession of by force or artifice; to get the custody or control of; to reduce into subjection to one's power or will; to capture; to seize; to make prisoner; as, to take am army, a city, or a ship; also, to come upon or befall; to fasten on; to attack; to seize; — said of a disease, misfortune, or the like.

This man was taken of the Jews.

Acts xxiii. 27.

Men in their loose, unguarded hours they take;
Not that themselves are wise, but others weak.


They that come abroad after these showers are commonly taken with sickness.


There he blasts the tree and takes the cattle
And makes milch kine yield blood.


(b) To gain or secure the interest or affection of; to captivate; to engage; to interest; to charm.

Neither let her take thee with her eyelids.

Prov. vi. 25.

Cleombroutus was so taken with this prospect, that he had no patience.


I know not why, but there was a something in those half-seen features, — a charm in the very shadow that hung over their imagined beauty, — which took me more than all the outshining loveliness of her companions.


(c) To make selection of; to choose; also, to turn to; to have recourse to; as, to take the road to the right.

Saul said, Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken.

1 Sam. xiv. 42.

The violence of storming is the course which God is forced to take for the destroying . . . of sinners.


(d) To employ; to use; to occupy; hence, to demand; to require; as, it takes so much cloth to make a coat.

This man always takes time . . . before he passes his judgments.

I. Watts.

(e) To form a likeness of; to copy; to delineate; to picture; as, to take picture of a person.

Beauty alone could beauty take so right.


(f) To draw; to deduce; to derive. [R.]

The firm belief of a future judgment is the most forcible motive to a good life, because taken from this consideration of the most lasting happiness and misery.


(g) To assume; to adopt; to acquire, as shape; to permit to one's self; to indulge or engage in; to yield to; to have or feel; to enjoy or experience, as rest, revenge, delight, shame; to form and adopt, as a resolution; — used in general senses, limited by a following complement, in many idiomatic phrases; as, to take a resolution; I take the liberty to say.

(h) To lead; to conduct; as, to take a child to church.

(i) To carry; to convey; to deliver to another; to hand over; as, he took the book to the bindery.

He took me certain gold, I wot it well.


(k) To remove; to withdraw; to deduct; — with from; as, to take the breath from one; to take two from four.

2. In a somewhat passive sense, to receive; to bear; to endure; to acknowledge; to accept. Specifically: —

(a) To accept, as something offered; to receive; not to refuse or reject; to admit.

Ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer.

Num. xxxv. 31.

Let not a widow be taken into the number under threescore.

1 Tim. v. 10.

(b) To receive as something to be eaten or dronk; to partake of; to swallow; as, to take food or wine.

(c) Not to refuse or balk at; to undertake readily; to clear; as, to take a hedge or fence.

(d) To bear without ill humor or resentment; to submit to; to tolerate; to endure; as, to take a joke; he will take an affront from no man.

(e) To admit, as, something presented to the mind; not to dispute; to allow; to accept; to receive in thought; to entertain in opinion; to understand; to interpret; to regard or look upon; to consider; to suppose; as, to take a thing for granted; this I take to be man's motive; to take men for spies.

You take me right.


Charity, taken in its largest extent, is nothing else but the science love of God and our neighbor.


[He] took that for virtue and affection which was nothing but vice in a disguise.


You'd doubt his sex, and take him for a girl.


(f) To accept the word or offer of; to receive and accept; to bear; to submit to; to enter into agreement with; — used in general senses; as, to take a form or shape.

I take thee at thy word.


Yet thy moist clay is pliant to command; . . .
Not take the mold.


To be taken aback, To take advantage of, To take air, etc. See under Aback, Advantage, etc. — To take aim, to direct the eye or weapon; to aim. — To take along, to carry, lead, or convey. — To take arms, to commence war or hostilities. — To take away, to carry off; to remove; to cause deprivation of; to do away with; as, a bill for taking away the votes of bishops. "By your own law, I take your life away." Dryden.To take breath, to stop, as from labor, in order to breathe or rest; to recruit or refresh one's self. — To take care, to exercise care or vigilance; to be solicitous. "Doth God take care for oxen?" 1 Cor. ix. 9.To take care of, to have the charge or care of; to care for; to superintend or oversee. — To take down. (a) To reduce; to bring down, as from a high, or higher, place; as, to take down a book; hence, to bring lower; to depress; to abase or humble; as, to take down pride, or the proud. "I never attempted to be impudent yet, that I was not taken down." Goldsmith. (b) To swallow; as, to take down a potion. (c) To pull down; to pull to pieces; as, to take down a house or a scaffold. (d) To record; to write down; as, to take down a man's words at the time he utters them. — To take effect, To take fire. See under Effect, and Fire. — To take ground to the right or to the left (Mil.), to extend the line to the right or left; to move, as troops, to the right or left. — To take heart, to gain confidence or courage; to be encouraged. — To take heed, to be careful or cautious. "Take heed what doom against yourself you give." Dryden.To take heed to, to attend with care, as, take heed to thy ways. — To take hold of, to seize; to fix on. — To take horse, to mount and ride a horse. — To take in. (a) To inclose; to fence. (b) To encompass or embrace; to comprise; to comprehend. (c) To draw into a smaller compass; to contract; to brail or furl; as, to take in sail. (d) To cheat; to circumvent; to gull; to deceive. [Colloq.] (e) To admit; to receive; as, a leaky vessel will take in water. (f) To win by conquest. [Obs.]

For now Troy's broad-wayed town
He shall take in.


(g) To receive into the mind or understanding. "Some bright genius can take in a long train of propositions." I. Watts. (h) To receive regularly, as a periodical work or newspaper; to take. [Eng.] — To take in hand. See under Hand. — To take in vain, to employ or utter as in an oath. "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain." Ex. xx. 7.To take issue. See under Issue. — To take leave. See Leave, n., 2. — To take a newspaper, magazine, or the like, to receive it regularly, as on paying the price of subscription. — To take notice, to observe, or to observe with particular attention. — To take notice of. See under Notice. — To take oath, to swear with solemnity, or in a judicial manner. — To take off. (a) To remove, as from the surface or outside; to remove from the top of anything; as, to take off a load; to take off one's hat. (b) To cut off; as, to take off the head, or a limb. (c) To destroy; as, to take off life. (d) To remove; to invalidate; as, to take off the force of an argument. (e) To withdraw; to call or draw away. Locke. (f) To swallow; as, to take off a glass of wine. (g) To purchase; to take in trade. "The Spaniards having no commodities that we will take off." Locke. (h) To copy; to reproduce. "Take off all their models in wood." Addison. (i) To imitate; to mimic; to personate. (k) To find place for; to dispose of; as, more scholars than preferments can take off. [R.] Bacon.To take on, to assume; to take upon one's self; as, to take on a character or responsibility. — To take one's own course, to act one's pleasure; to pursue the measures of one's own choice. — To take order for. See under Order. — To take order with, to check; to hinder; to repress. [Obs.] Bacon.To take orders. (a) To receive directions or commands. (b) (Eccl.) To enter some grade of the ministry. See Order, n., 10. — To take out. (a) To remove from within a place; to separate; to deduct. (b) To draw out; to remove; to clear or cleanse from; as, to take out a stain or spot from cloth. (c) To produce for one's self; as, to take out a patent. (d) To put an end to; as, to take the conceit out of a man. (e) To escort; as, to take out to dinner. — To take over, to undertake; to take the management of. [Eng.] Cross (Life of G. Eliot).To take part, to share; as, they take part in our rejoicing. — To take part with, to unite with; to join with. — To take place, root, sides, stock, etc. See under Place, Root, Side, etc. — To take the air. (a) (Falconry) To seek to escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon; — said of a bird. (b) See under Air. — To take the field. (Mil.) See under Field. — To take thought, to be concerned or anxious; to be solicitous. Matt. vi. 25, 27.To take to heart. See under Heart. — To take to task, to reprove; to censure. — To take up. (a) To lift; to raise. Hood. (b) To buy or borrow; as, to take up goods to a large amount; to take up money at the bank. (c) To begin; as, to take up a lamentation. Ezek. xix. 1. (d) To gather together; to bind up; to fasten or to replace; as, to take up raveled stitches; specifically (Surg.), to fasten with a ligature. (e) To engross; to employ; to occupy or fill; as, to take up the time; to take up a great deal of room. (f) To take permanently. "Arnobius asserts that men of the finest parts . . . took up their rest in the Christian religion." Addison. (g) To seize; to catch; to arrest; as, to take up a thief; to take up vagabonds. (h) To admit; to believe; to receive. [Obs.]

The ancients took up experiments upon credit.


(i) To answer by reproof; to reprimand; to berate.

One of his relations took him up roundly.


(k) To begin where another left off; to keep up in continuous succession.

Soon as the evening shades prevail,
The moon takes up the wondrous tale.


(l) To assume; to adopt as one's own; to carry on or manage; as, to take up the quarrels of our neighbors; to take up current opinions. "They take up our old trade of conquering." Dryden. (m) To comprise; to include. "The noble poem of Palemon and Arcite . . . takes up seven years." Dryden. (n) To receive, accept, or adopt for the purpose of assisting; to espouse the cause of; to favor. Ps. xxvii. 10. (o) To collect; to exact, as a tax; to levy; as, to take up a contribution. "Take up commodities upon our bills." Shak. (p) To pay and receive; as, to take up a note at the bank. (q) (Mach.) To remove, as by an adjustment of parts; as, to take up lost motion, as in a bearing; also, to make tight, as by winding, or drawing; as, to take up slack thread in sewing. (r) To make up; to compose; to settle; as, to take up a quarrel. [Obs.] Shak.To take up arms. Same as To take arms, above. — To take upon one's self. (a) To assume; to undertake; as, he takes upon himself to assert that the fact is capable of proof. (b) To appropriate to one's self; to allow to be imputed to, or inflicted upon, one's self; as, to take upon one's self a punishment. — To take up the gauntlet. See under Gauntlet.

Take (?), v. i. 1. To take hold; to fix upon anything; to have the natural or intended effect; to accomplish a purpose; as, he was inoculated, but the virus did not take. Shak.

When flame taketh and openeth, it giveth a noise.


In impressions from mind to mind, the impression taketh, but is overcome . . . before it work any manifest effect.


2. To please; to gain reception; to succeed.

Each wit may praise it for his own dear sake,
And hint he writ it, if the thing should take.


3. To move or direct the course; to resort; to betake one's self; to proceed; to go; — usually with to; as, the fox, being hard pressed, took to the hedge.

4. To admit of being pictured, as in a photograph; as, his face does not take well.

To take after. (a) To learn to follow; to copy; to imitate; as, he takes after a good pattern. (b) To resemble; as, the son takes after his father. — To take in with, to resort to. [Obs.] Bacon.To take on, to be violently affected; to express grief or pain in a violent manner. — To take to. (a) To apply one's self to; to be fond of; to become attached to; as, to take to evil practices. "If he does but take to you, . . . you will contract a great friendship with him." Walpole. (b) To resort to; to betake one's self to. "Men of learning, who take to business, discharge it generally with greater honesty than men of the world." Addison.To take up. (a) To stop. [Obs.] "Sinners at last take up and settle in a contempt of religion." Tillotson. (b) To reform. [Obs.] Locke.To take up with. (a) To be contended to receive; to receive without opposition; to put up with; as, to take up with plain fare. "In affairs which may have an extensive influence on our future happiness, we should not take up with probabilities." I. Watts. (b) To lodge with; to dwell with. [Obs.] L'Estrange.To take with, to please. Bacon.

Take, n. 1. That which is taken; especially, the quantity of fish captured at one haul or catch.

2. (Print.) The quantity or copy given to a compositor at one time.

Take"-in` (?), n. Imposition; fraud. [Colloq.]

Tak"en (?), p. p. of Take.

Take"-off` (?), n. An imitation, especially in the way of caricature.

Tak"er (tk"r), n. One who takes or receives; one who catches or apprehends.

Take"-up` (?), n. (Mach.) That which takes up or tightens; specifically, a device in a sewing machine for drawing up the slack thread as the needle rises, in completing a stitch.

Tak"ing (?), a. 1. Apt to take; alluring; attracting.

Subtile in making his temptations most taking.


2. Infectious; contageous. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

— Tak"ing*ly, adv. — Tak"ing*ness, n.

Tak"ing, n. 1. The act of gaining possession; a seizing; seizure; apprehension.

2. Agitation; excitement; distress of mind. [Colloq.]

What a taking was he in, when your husband asked who was in the basket!


3. Malign influence; infection. [Obs.] Shak.

Tak"ing-off` (?), n. Removal; murder. See To take off (c), under Take, v. t.

The deep damnation of his taking-off.


Tal"a*poin (tl"*poin), n. (Zoöl.) A small African monkey (Cercopithecus, or Miopithecus, talapoin) — called also melarhine.

||Ta*la"ri*a (?), n. pl. [L., from talaris pertaining to the ankles, fr. talus ankle.] (Class. Myth.) Small wings or winged shoes represented as fastened to the ankles, — chiefly used as an attribute of Mercury.

Tal"bot (?), n. A sort of dog, noted for quick scent and eager pursuit of game. [Obs.] Wase (1654).

The figure of a dog is borne in the arms of the Talbot family, whence, perhaps, the name.

Tal"bo*type (?), n. (Photog.) Same as Calotype.

Talc (?), n. [F. talc; cf. Sp. & It. talco, LL. talcus; all fr. Ar. talq.] (Min.) A soft mineral of a soapy feel and a greenish, whitish, or grayish color, usually occurring in foliated masses. It is hydrous silicate of magnesia. Steatite, or soapstone, is a compact granular variety.

Indurated talc, an impure, slaty talc, with a nearly compact texture, and greater hardness than common talc; — called also talc slate.

{ Tal*cose" (?), Talc"ous (?), } a. [Cf. F. talqueux.] (Min.) Of or pertaining to talc; composed of, or resembling, talc.

Tale (?), n. See Tael.

Tale, n. [AS. talu number, speech, narrative; akin to D. taal speech, language, G. zahl number, OHG. zala, Icel. tal, tala, number, speech, Sw. tal, Dan. tal number, tale speech, Goth. talzjan to instruct. Cf. Tell, v. t., Toll a tax, also Talk, v. i.] 1. That which is told; an oral relation or recital; any rehearsal of what has occured; narrative; discourse; statement; history; story. "The tale of Troy divine." Milton. "In such manner rime is Dante's tale." Chaucer.

We spend our years as a tale that is told.

Ps. xc. 9.

2. A number told or counted off; a reckoning by count; an enumeration; a count, in distinction from measure or weight; a number reckoned or stated.

The ignorant, . . . who measure by tale, and not by weight.


And every shepherd tells his tale,
Under the hawthornn in the dale.


In packing, they keep a just tale of the number.


3. (Law) A count or declaration. [Obs.]

To tell tale of, to make account of. [Obs.]

Therefore little tale hath he told
Of any dream, so holy was his heart.


Syn. — Anecdote; story; fable; incident; memoir; relation; account; legend; narrative.

Tale (?), v. i. To tell stories. [Obs.] Chaucer. Gower.

Tale"bear`er (?), n. One who officiously tells tales; one who impertinently or maliciously communicates intelligence, scandal, etc., and makes mischief.

Spies and talebearers, encouraged by her father, did their best to inflame her resentment.


Tale"bear`ing, a. Telling tales officiously.

Tale"bear`ing, n. The act of informing officiously; communication of sectrts, scandal, etc., maliciously.

Ta"led (?), n. (Jewish Antiq.) A kind of quadrangular piece of cloth put on by the Jews when repeating prayers in the synagogues. Crabb.

Tale"ful (?), a. Full of stories. [R.] Thomson.

||Tal`e*gal"la (?), n. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A genus of Australian birds which includes the brush turkey. See Brush turkey.

Tal"ent (?), n. [F., fr. L. talentum a talent (in sense 1), Gr. &?; a balance, anything weighed, a definite weight, a talent; akin to &?; to bear, endure, &?;, L. tolerare, tollere, to lift up, sustain, endure. See Thole, v. t., Tolerate.] 1. Among the ancient Greeks, a weight and a denomination of money equal to 60 minæ or 6,000 drachmæ. The Attic talent, as a weight, was about 57 lbs. avoirdupois; as a denomination of silver money, its value was £243 15s. sterling, or about $1,180.

Rowing vessel whose burden does not exceed five hundred talents.

Jowett (Thucid.).

2. Among the Hebrews, a weight and denomination of money. For silver it was equivalent to 3,000 shekels, and in weight was equal to about 93&?; lbs. avoirdupois; as a denomination of silver, it has been variously estimated at from £340 to £396 sterling, or about $1,645 to $1,916. For gold it was equal to 10,000 gold shekels.

3. Inclination; will; disposition; desire. [Obs.]

They rather counseled you to your talent than to your profit.


4. Intellectual ability, natural or acquired; mental endowment or capacity; skill in accomplishing; a special gift, particularly in business, art, or the like; faculty; a use of the word probably originating in the Scripture parable of the talents (Matt. xxv. 14-30).

He is chiefly to be considered in his three different talents, as a critic, a satirist, and a writer of odes.


His talents, his accomplishments, his graceful manners, made him generally popular.


Syn. — Ability; faculty; gift; endowment. See Genius.

Tal"ent*ed, a. Furnished with talents; possessing skill or talent; mentally gifted. Abp. Abbot (1663).

This word has been strongly objected to by Coleridge and some other critics, but, as it would seem, upon not very good grounds, as the use of talent or talents to signify mental ability, although at first merely metaphorical, is now fully established, and talented, as a formative, is just as analogical and legitimate as gifted, bigoted, moneyed, landed, lilied, honeyed, and numerous other adjectives having a participal form, but derived directly from nouns and not from verbs.

||Ta"les (?), n. [L., pl. of talis such (persons).] (Law) (a) pl. Persons added to a jury, commonly from those in or about the courthouse, to make up any deficiency in the number of jurors regularly summoned, being like, or such as, the latter. Blount. Blackstone. (b) syntactically sing. The writ by which such persons are summoned.

Tales book, a book containing the names of such as are admitted of the tales. Blount. Craig.||Tales de circumstantibus [L.], such, or the like, from those standing about.

Tales"man (?), n.; pl. Talesmen (&?;). (Law) A person called to make up a deficiency in the number of jurors when a tales is awarded. Wharton.

Tale"tell`er (?), n. One who tells tales or stories, especially in a mischievous or officious manner; a talebearer; a telltale; a tattler.

Tale"wise` (?), adv. In a way of a tale or story.

Tal"ia*co`tian (?), a. See Tagliacotian.

Tal`i*a"tion (?), n. Retaliation. [Obs.]

Just heav'n this taliation did decree.


Ta"li*on (?), n. [F., fr. L. talio, perh. fr. talis such. Cf. Retaliation.] Retaliation. [R.] Holinshed.

||Tal"i*pes (?), n. [NL., fr. L. talus an ankle + pes, pedis, a foot; cf. L. talipedare to be weak in the feet, properly, to walk on the ankles.] (Surg.) The deformity called clubfoot. See Clubfoot.

Several varieties are distinguished; as, Talipes varus, in which the foot is drawn up and bent inward; T. valgus, in which the foot is bent outward; T. equinus, in which the sole faces backward and the patient walks upon the balls of the toes; and T. calcaneus (called also talus), in which the sole faces forward and the patient walks upon the heel.

Tal"i*pot (?), n. [Hind. tlpt the leaf of the tree.] (Bot.) A beautiful tropical palm tree (Corypha umbraculifera), a native of Ceylon and the Malabar coast. It has a trunk sixty or seventy feet high, bearing a crown of gigantic fan-shaped leaves which are used as umbrellas and as fans in ceremonial processions, and, when cut into strips, as a substitute for writing paper.

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Tal"is*man (?), n.; pl. Talismans (#). [Sp., from Ar. tilism, tilsam, a magical image, pl. tilsamn, fr. Gr. &?; tribute, tax, LGr., an initiation, incantation, from &?; to complete, perform, to play taxes, to make perfect, to initiate, especially in the mysteries, fr. &?; completion, end.] 1. A magical figure cut or engraved under certain superstitious observances of the configuration of the heavens, to which wonderful effects are ascribed; the seal, figure, character, or image, of a heavenly sign, constellation, or planet, engraved on a sympathetic stone, or on a metal corresponding to the star, in order to receive its influence.

2. Hence, something that produces extraordinary effects, esp. in averting or repelling evil; an amulet; a charm; as, a talisman to avert diseases. Swift.

{ Tal`is*man"ic (?), Tal`is*man"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. talismanique.] Of or pertaining to a talisman; having the properties of a talisman, or preservative against evils by occult influence; magical.

Talk (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Talked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Talking.] [Cf. LG. talk talk, gabble, Prov. G. talken to speak indistinctly; or OD. tolken to interpret, MHG. tolkan to interpret, to tell, to speak indistinctly, Dan. tolke to interpret, Sw. tolka, Icel. t&?;lka to interpret, t&?;lkr an interpreter, Lith. tulkas an interpreter, tulkanti, tulkti, to interpret, Russ. tolkovate to interpret, to talk about; or perhaps fr. OE. talien to speak (see Tale, v. i. & n.).] 1. To utter words; esp., to converse familiarly; to speak, as in familiar discourse, when two or more persons interchange thoughts.

I will buy with you, sell with you, talk with you, walk with you, and so following, but I will not eat with you.


2. To confer; to reason; to consult.

Let me talk with thee of thy judgments.

Jer. xii. 1.

3. To prate; to speak impertinently. [Colloq.]

To talk of, to relate; to tell; to give an account of; as, authors talk of the wonderful remains of Palmyra. "The natural histories of Switzerland talk much of the fall of these rocks, and the great damage done." Addison.To talk to, to advise or exhort, or to reprove gently; as, I will talk to my son respecting his conduct. [Colloq.]

Talk, v. t. 1. To speak freely; to use for conversing or communicating; as, to talk French.

2. To deliver in talking; to speak; to utter; to make a subject of conversation; as, to talk nonsense; to talk politics.

3. To consume or spend in talking; — often followed by away; as, to talk away an evening.

4. To cause to be or become by talking. "They would talk themselves mad." Shak.

To talk over. (a) To talk about; to have conference respecting; to deliberate upon; to discuss; as, to talk over a matter or plan. (b) To change the mind or opinion of by talking; to convince; as, to talk over an opponent.

Talk, n. 1. The act of talking; especially, familiar converse; mutual discourse; that which is uttered, especially in familiar conversation, or the mutual converse of two or more.

In various talk the instructive hours they passed.


Their talk, when it was not made up of nautical phrases, was too commonly made up of oaths and curses.


2. Report; rumor; as, to hear talk of war.

I hear a talk up and down of raising our money.


3. Subject of discourse; as, his achievment is the talk of the town.

Syn. — Conversation; colloquy; discourse; chat; dialogue; conference; communication. See Conversation.

Talk"a*tive (?), a. Given to much talking.

Syn. — Garrulous; loquacious. See Garrulous.

— Talk"a*tive*ly, adv. — Talk"a*tive*ness, n.

Talk"er (?), n. 1. One who talks; especially, one who is noted for his power of conversing readily or agreeably; a conversationist.

There probably were never four talkers more admirable in four different ways than Johnson, Burke, Beauclerk, and Garrick.


2. A loquacious person, male or female; a prattler; a babbler; also, a boaster; a braggart; — used in contempt or reproach. Jer. Taylor.

Talk"ing, a. 1. That talks; able to utter words; as, a talking parrot.

2. Given to talk; loquacious.

The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade,
For talking age and whispering lovers made.


Tall (?), a. [Compar. Taller (?); superl. Tallest.] [OE. tal seemly, elegant, docile (?); of uncertain origin; cf. AS. un- tala, un-tale, bad, Goth. untals indocile, disobedient, uninstructed, or W. & Corn. tal high, Ir. talla meet, fit, proper, just.] 1. High in stature; having a considerable, or an unusual, extension upward; long and comparatively slender; having the diameter or lateral extent small in proportion to the height; as, a tall person, tree, or mast.

Two of far nobler shape, erect and tall.


2. Brave; bold; courageous. [Obs.]

As tall a trencherman
As e'er demolished a pye fortification.


His companions, being almost in despair of victory, were suddenly recomforted by Sir William Stanley, which came to succors with three thousand tall men.


3. Fine; splendid; excellent; also, extravagant; excessive. [Obs. or Slang] B. Jonson.

Syn. — High; lofty. — Tall, High, Lofty. High is the generic term, and is applied to anything which is elevated or raised above another thing. Tall specifically describes that which has a small diameter in proportion to its height; hence, we speak of a tall man, a tall steeple, a tall mast, etc., but not of a tall hill. Lofty has a special reference to the expanse above us, and denotes an imposing height; as, a lofty mountain; a lofty room. Tall is now properly applied only to physical objects; high and lofty have a moral acceptation; as, high thought, purpose, etc.; lofty aspirations; a lofty genius. Lofty is the stronger word, and is usually coupled with the grand or admirable.

{ Tal"lage (?), Tal"li*age (?), } n. [F. taillage. See Taille, and cf. Tailage.] (O. Eng. Law) A certain rate or tax paid by barons, knights, and inferior tenants, toward the public expenses. [Written also tailage, taillage.]

When paid out of knight's fees, it was called scutage; when by cities and burghs, tallage; when upon lands not held by military tenure, hidage. Blackstone.

Tal"lage, v. t. To lay an impost upon; to cause to pay tallage.

Tal"li*er (?), n. One who keeps tally.

Tall"ness (?), n. The quality or state of being tall; height of stature.

Tal"low (?), n. [OE. taluh, talugh; akin to OD. talgh, D. talk, G., Dan. and Sw. talg, Icel. tlgr, tlg, tlk; and perhaps to Goth. tulgus firm.] 1. The suet or fat of animals of the sheep and ox kinds, separated from membranous and fibrous matter by melting.

The solid consistency of tallow is due to the large amount of stearin it contains. See Fat.

2. The fat of some other animals, or the fat obtained from certain plants, or from other sources, resembling the fat of animals of the sheep and ox kinds.

Tallow candle, a candle made of tallow. — Tallow catch, a keech. See Keech. [Obs.] — Tallow chandler, one whose occupation is to make, or to sell, tallow candles. — Tallow chandlery, the trade of a tallow chandler; also, the place where his business is carried on. — Tallow tree (Bot.), a tree (Stillingia sebifera) growing in China, the seeds of which are covered with a substance which resembles tallow and is applied to the same purposes.

Tal"low, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tallowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tallowing.] 1. To grease or smear with tallow.

2. To cause to have a large quantity of tallow; to fatten; as, tallow sheep.

Tal"low*er (?), n. An animal which produces tallow.

Tal"low-face` (?), n. One who has a sickly, pale complexion. Shak.

Tal"low-faced` (?), a. Having a sickly complexion; pale. Burton.

Tal"low*ing, n. The act, or art, of causing animals to produce tallow; also, the property in animals of producing tallow.

Tal"low*ish, a. Having the qualities of tallow.

Tal"low*y (?), a. Of the nature of tallow; resembling tallow; greasy.

Tall"wood` (?), n. [Cf. Tally.] Firewood cut into billets of a certain length. [Obs.] [Eng.]

Tal"ly (?), n.; pl. Tallies (#). [OE. taile, taille, F. taille a cutting, cut tally, fr. tailler to cut, but influenced probably by taillé, p. p. of tailler. See Tailor, and cf. Tail a limitation, Taille, Tallage.] 1. Originally, a piece of wood on which notches or scores were cut, as the marks of number; later, one of two books, sheets of paper, etc., on which corresponding accounts were kept.

In purshasing and selling, it was once customary for traders to have two sticks, or one stick cleft into two parts, and to mark with a score or notch, on each, the number or quantity of goods delivered, — the seller keeping one stick, and the purchaser the other. Before the use of writing, this, or something like it, was the only method of keeping accounts; and tallies were received as evidence in courts of justice. In the English exchequer were tallies of loans, one part being kept in the exchequer, the other being given to the creditor in lieu of an obligation for money lent to government.

2. Hence, any account or score kept by notches or marks, whether on wood or paper, or in a book; especially, one kept in duplicate.

3. One thing made to suit another; a match; a mate.

They were framed the tallies for each other.


4. A notch, mark, or score made on or in a tally; as, to make or earn a tally in a game.

5. A tally shop. See Tally shop, below.

Tally shop, a shop at which goods or articles are sold to customers on account, the account being kept in corresponding books, one called the tally, kept by the buyer, the other the counter tally, kept by the seller, and the payments being made weekly or otherwise by agreement. The trade thus regulated is called tally trade. Eng. Encyc.To strike tallies, to act in correspondence, or alike. [Obs.] Fuller.

Tal"ly, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tallied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tallying.] [Cf. F. tialler to cut. See Tally, n.] 1. To score with correspondent notches; hence, to make to correspond; to cause to fit or suit.

They are not so well tallied to the present juncture.


2. (Naut.) To check off, as parcels of freight going inboard or outboard. W. C. Russell.

Tally on (Naut.), to dovetail together.

Tal"ly (?), v. i. 1. To be fitted; to suit; to correspond; to match.

I found pieces of tiles that exactly tallied with the channel.


Your idea . . . tallies exactly with mine.


2. To make a tally; to score; as, to tally in a game.

Tally on (Naut.), to man a rope for hauling, the men standing in a line or tail.

Tal"ly (?), adv. [See Tall, a.] Stoutly; with spirit. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Tal"ly*ho` (?), interj. & n. 1. The huntsman's cry to incite or urge on his hounds.

2. A tallyho coach.

Tallyho coach, a pleasure coach. See under Coach.

Tal"ly*man (?), n.; pl. Tallymen (&?;). 1. One who keeps the tally, or marks the sticks.

2. One who keeps a tally shop, or conducts his business as tally trade.

Tal"ma (?), n.; pl. Talmas (#). [Prob. so called from Talma, a French actor.] (a) A kind of large cape, or short, full cloak, forming part of the dress of ladies. (b) A similar garment worn formerly by gentlemen.

Tal"mud (?), n. [Chald. talmd instruction, doctrine, fr. lamad to learn, limmad to teach.] The body of the Jewish civil and canonical law not comprised in the Pentateuch.

The Talmud consists of two parts, the Mishna, or text, and the Gemara, or commentary. Sometimes, however, the name Talmud is restricted, especially by Jewish writers, to the Gemara. There are two Talmuds, the Palestinian, commonly, but incorrectly, called the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the Babylonian Talmud. They contain the same Mishna, but different Gemaras. The Babylonian Talmud is about three times as large as the other, and is more highly esteemed by the Jews.

{ Tal*mud"ic (?), Tal*mud"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. talmudique.] Of or pertaining to the Talmud; contained in the Talmud; as, Talmudic Greek; Talmudical phrases. Lightfoot.

Tal"mud*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. talmudiste.] One versed in the Talmud; one who adheres to the teachings of the Talmud.

Tal`mud*is"tic (?), a. Resembling the Talmud; Talmudic.

Tal"on (?), n. [F., heel, spur, LL. talo, fr. L. talus the ankle, heel.] 1. The claw of a predaceous bird or animal, especially the claw of a bird of prey. Bacon.

2. (Zoöl.) One of certain small prominences on the hind part of the face of an elephant's tooth.

3. (Arch.) A kind of molding, concave at the bottom and convex at the top; — usually called an ogee.

When the concave part is at the top, it is called an inverted talon.

4. The shoulder of the bolt of a lock on which the key acts to shoot the bolt. Knight.

{ Ta*look", Ta*luk" } (?), n. [Ar. ta'lluq.] A large estate; esp., one constituting a revenue district or dependency the native proprietor of which is responsible for the collection and payment of the public revenue due from it. [India]

{ Ta*look"dar, Ta*luk"dar } (?), n. [Hind., fr. Per. ta'lluqdr.] A proprietor of a talook. [India]

||Tal"pa (?), n. [L., mole.] (Zoöl.) A genus of small insectivores including the common European mole.

||Ta"lus (?), n.; pl. Tali (#). [L., the ankle, the ankle bone.] 1. (Anat.) The astragalus.

2. (Surg.) A variety of clubfoot (Talipes calcaneus). See the Note under Talipes.

Ta"lus, n. [F.] 1. (Fort.) A slope; the inclination of the face of a work.

2. (Geol.) A sloping heap of fragments of rock lying at the foot of a precipice.

Tam`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tamable; tamableness.

Tam"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being tamed, subdued, or reclaimed from wildness or savage ferociousness. - - Tam"a*ble*ness, n.

Ta*man"du (?), n. [Sp., from the native name: cf. F. tamandua.] (Zoöl.) A small ant-eater (Tamandua tetradactyla) native of the tropical parts of South America.

It has five toes on the fore feet, an elongated snout, small ears, and short woolly hair. Its tail is stout and hairy at the base, tapering, and covered with minute scales, and is somewhat prehensile at the end. Called also tamandua, little ant-bear, fourmilier, and cagouare. The collared, or striped, tamandu (Tamandua bivittata) is considered a distinct species by some writers, but by others is regarded as only a variety.

Ta`ma*noir" (?), n. (Zoöl.) The ant-bear.

Tam"a*rack (?), n. (Bot.) (a) The American larch; also, the larch of Oregon and British Columbia (Larix occidentalis). See Hackmatack, and Larch. (b) The black pine (Pinus Murrayana) of Alaska, California, etc. It is a small tree with fine- grained wood.

Tam"a*ric (?), n. [L. tamarice. See Tamarisk.] A shrub or tree supposed to be the tamarisk, or perhaps some kind of heath. [Obs.]

He shall be like tamaric in the desert, and he shall not see when good shall come.

Jer. xvii. 6 (Douay version).

Tam"a*rin (?), n. [From the native name in Cayenne.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small squirrel-like South American monkeys of the genus Midas, especially M. ursulus.

<! p. 1472 !>

Tam"a*rind (?), n. [It. tamarindo, or Sp. tamarindo, or Pg. tamarindo, tamarinho, from Ar. tamarhind, literally, Indian date; tamar a dried date + Hind India: cf. F. tamarin. Cf. Hindu.] (Bot.) 1. A leguminous tree (Tamarindus Indica) cultivated both the Indies, and the other tropical countries, for the sake of its shade, and for its fruit. The trunk of the tree is lofty and large, with wide-spreading branches; the flowers are in racemes at the ends of the branches. The leaves are small and finely pinnated.

2. One of the preserved seed pods of the tamarind, which contain an acid pulp, and are used medicinally and for preparing a pleasant drink.

Tamarind fish, a preparation of a variety of East Indian fish with the acid pulp of the tamarind fruit. — Velvet tamarind. (a) A West African leguminous tree (Codarium acutifolium). (b) One of the small black velvety pods, which are used for food in Sierra Leone. — Wild tamarind (Bot.), a name given to certain trees somewhat resembling the tamarind, as the Lysiloma latisiliqua of Southern Florida, and the Pithecolobium filicifolium of the West Indies.

Tam"a*risk (?), n. [L. tamariscus, also tamarix, tamarice, Skr. tamla, tamlaka, a tree with a very dark bark; cf. tamas darkness: cf. F. tamarisc, tamarix, tamaris.] (Bot.) Any shrub or tree of the genus Tamarix, the species of which are European and Asiatic. They have minute scalelike leaves, and small flowers in spikes. An Arabian species (T. mannifera) is the source of one kind of manna.

Tamarisk salt tree, an East Indian tree (Tamarix orientalis) which produces an incrustation of salt.

Tam"bac (?), n. (Metal.) See Tombac. [Obs.]

Tam"bour (?), n. 1. (Mus.) A kind of small flat drum; a tambourine.

2. A small frame, commonly circular, and somewhat resembling a tambourine, used for stretching, and firmly holding, a portion of cloth that is to be embroidered; also, the embroidery done upon such a frame; — called also, in the latter sense, tambour work.

3. (Arch.) Same as Drum, n., 2(d).

4. (Fort.) A work usually in the form of a redan, to inclose a space before a door or staircase, or at the gorge of a larger work. It is arranged like a stockade.

5. (Physiol.) A shallow metallic cup or drum, with a thin elastic membrane supporting a writing lever. Two or more of these are connected by an India rubber tube, and used to transmit and register the movements of the pulse or of any pulsating artery.

Tam"bour, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tamboured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tambouring.] To embroider on a tambour.

Tam`bou`rin" (?), n. [F. See Tambourine.] 1. A tambourine. [Obs.]

2. (Mus.) An old Provençal dance of a lively character, common on the stage.

Tam`bour*ine" (?), n. [F. tambourin; cf. It. tamburino. See Tambour, and cf. Tamborine.] A small drum, especially a shallow drum with only one skin, played on with the hand, and having bells at the sides; a timbrel.

Tam"breet (?), n. (Zoöl.) The duck mole.

Tam`bu*rin" (?), n. See Tambourine. Spenser.

Tame (?), v. t. [Cf. F. entamer to cut into, to broach.] To broach or enter upon; to taste, as a liquor; to divide; to distribute; to deal out. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

In the time of famine he is the Joseph of the country, and keeps the poor from starving. Then he tameth his stacks of corn, which not his covetousness, but providence, hath reserved for time of need.


Tame, a. [Compar. Tamer (?); superl. Tamest.] [AS. tam; akin to D. tam, G. zahm, OHG. zam, Dan. & Sw. tam, Icel. tamr, L. domare to tame, Gr. &?;, Skr. dam to be tame, to tame, and perhaps to E. beteem. √61. Cf. Adamant, Diamond, Dame, Daunt, Indomitable.] 1. Reduced from a state of native wildness and shyness; accustomed to man; domesticated; domestic; as, a tame deer, a tame bird.

2. Crushed; subdued; depressed; spiritless.

Tame slaves of the laborious plow.


3. Deficient in spirit or animation; spiritless; dull; flat; insipid; as, a tame poem; tame scenery.

Syn. — Gentle; mild; meek. See Gentle.

Tame, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Taming.] [AS. tamian, temian, akin to D. tammen, temmen, G. zähmen, OHG. zemmen, Icel. temja, Goth. gatamjan. See Tame, a.] 1. To reduce from a wild to a domestic state; to make gentle and familiar; to reclaim; to domesticate; as, to tame a wild beast.

They had not been tamed into submission, but baited into savegeness and stubbornness.


2. To subdue; to conquer; to repress; as, to tame the pride or passions of youth.

Tame"a*ble (?), a. Tamable. Bp. Wilkins.

Tame"less, a. Incapable of being tamed; wild; untamed; untamable. Bp. Hall. — Tame"less*ness, n.

Tame"ly, adv. In a tame manner.

Tame"ness, n. The quality or state of being tame.

Tam"er (?), n. One who tames or subdues.

||Ta"mi*as (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a distributer.] (Zoöl.) A genus of ground squirrels, including the chipmunk.

Ta"mil (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Tamils, or to their language. [Written also Tamul.]

Ta"mil, n. [Written also Tamul.] 1. (Ethnol.) One of a Dravidian race of men native of Northern Ceylon and Southern India.

2. The Tamil language, the most important of the Dravidian languages. See Dravidian, a.

Ta*mil"i*an (?), a. & n. Tamil.

{ Tam"ine (?), Tam"i*ny (?), } n. [Cf. F. tamis a sort of sieve. Cf. Stamin, Temse.] A kind of woolen cloth; tammy.

Tam"is (?), n. [F., a kind of sieve.] 1. A sieve, or strainer, made of a kind of woolen cloth.

2. The cloth itself; tammy.

Tamis bird (Zoöl.), a Guinea fowl.

Tam"kin (?), n. A tampion. Johnson (Dict.).

Tam"my (?), n.; pl. Tammies (&?;). 1. A kind of woolen, or woolen and cotton, cloth, often highly glazed, — used for curtains, sieves, strainers, etc.

2. A sieve, or strainer, made of this material; a tamis.

Tamp (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tamped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tamping.] [Cf. F. tamponner to plug or stop. See Tampion.] 1. In blasting, to plug up with clay, earth, dry sand, sod, or other material, as a hole bored in a rock, in order to prevent the force of the explosion from being misdirected.

2. To drive in or down by frequent gentle strokes; as, to tamp earth so as to make a smooth place.

Tam"pan (?), n. (Zoöl.) A venomous South African tick. Livingstone.

Tam"pe*on (?), n. See Tampion. Farrow.

Tamp"er (?), n. 1. One who tamps; specifically, one who prepares for blasting, by filling the hole in which the charge is placed.

2. An instrument used in tamping; a tamping iron.

Tam"per (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tampered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tampering.] [A corruption of temper.] 1. To meddle; to be busy; to try little experiments; as, to tamper with a disease.

'T is dangerous tampering with a muse.


2. To meddle so as to alter, injure, or vitiate a thing.

3. To deal unfairly; to practice secretly; to use bribery.

Others tampered
For Fleetwood, Desborough, and Lambert.


Tam"per*er (?), n. One who tampers; one who deals unfairly.

{ Tam*pi"co fi"ber or fi"bre (?) }. A tough vegetable fiber used as a substitute for bristles in making brushes. The piassava and the ixtle are both used under this name.

Tamp"ing (?), n. 1. The act of one who tamps; specifically, the act of filling up a hole in a rock, or the branch of a mine, for the purpose of blasting the rock or exploding the mine.

2. The material used in tamping. See Tamp, v. t., 1.

Tamping iron, an iron rod for beating down the earthy substance in tamping for blasting.

Tam"pi*on (?), n. [F. tampon, tapon, tape, of Dutch or German origin. See Tap a pipe or plug, and cf. Tamp, Tampop, Tompion.] [Written also tampeon, and tompion.] 1. A wooden stopper, or plug, as for a cannon or other piece of ordnance, when not in use.

2. (Mus.) A plug for upper end of an organ pipe.

Tam"poe (?), n. (Bot.) The edible fruit of an East Indian tree (Baccaurea Malayana) of the Spurge family. It somewhat resembles an apple.

Tam"pon (?), n. [F. See Tampion.] (Surg.) A plug introduced into a natural or artificial cavity of the body in order to arrest hemorrhage, or for the application of medicine.

Tam"pon, v. t. (Surg.) To plug with a tampon.

Tam"poon (?), n. [See Tampion.] The stopper of a barrel; a bung.

Tam"-tam` (?), n. [Hind.; of imitative origin.] (Mus.) (a) A kind of drum used in the East Indies and other Oriental countries; — called also tom- tom. (b) A gong. See Gong, n., 1.

Ta"mul (?), a. & n. Tamil.

Tan (?), n. [Chin.] See Picul.

Tan, n. [F. tan, perhaps fr. Armor. tann an oak, oak bar; or of Teutonic origin; cf. G. tanne a fir, OHG. tanna a fir, oak, MHG. tan a forest. Cf. Tawny.] 1. The bark of the oak, and some other trees, bruised and broken by a mill, for tanning hides; — so called both before and after it has been used. Called also tan bark.

2. A yellowish-brown color, like that of tan.

3. A brown color imparted to the skin by exposure to the sun; as, hands covered with tan.

Tan bed (Hort.), a bed made of tan; a bark bed. — Tan pickle, the liquor used in tanning leather. — Tan spud, a spud used in stripping bark for tan from trees. — Tan stove. See Bark stove, under Bark. — Tan vat, a vat in which hides are steeped in liquor with tan.

Tan, a. Of the color of tan; yellowish- brown.

Black and tan. See under Black, a.

Tan, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tanned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tanning.] [F. tanner, LL. tannare. See Tan, n.] 1. To convert (the skin of an animal) into leather, as by usual process of steeping it in an infusion of oak or some other bark, whereby it is impregnated with tannin, or tannic acid (which exists in several species of bark), and is thus rendered firm, durable, and in some degree impervious to water.

The essential result in tanning is due to the fact that the tannins form, with gelatins and albuminoids, a series of insoluble compounds which constitute leather. Similar results may be produced by the use of other reagents in place of tannin, as alum, and some acids or chlorides, which are employed in certain processes of tanning.

2. To make brown; to imbrown, as by exposure to the rays of the sun; as, to tan the skin.

Tan (?), v. i. To get or become tanned.

Ta"na (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Banxring.

Tan"a*ger (?), n. [NL. tanagra, probably fr. Brazilian tangara.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of bright-colored singing birds belonging to Tanagra, Piranga, and allied genera. The scarlet tanager (Piranga erythromelas) and the summer redbird (Piranga rubra) are common species of the United States.

Tan"a*grine (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the tanagers.

Tan"a*groid (?), a. [Tanager + - oid.] (Zoöl.) Tanagrine.

||Ta*na"te (?), n. (Zoöl.) An Asiatic wild dog (Canis procyonoides), native of Japan and adjacent countries. It has a short, bushy tail. Called also raccoon dog.

Tan"dem (?), adv. & a. [L. tandem at length (of time only), punningly taken as meaning, lengthwise.] One after another; — said especially of horses harnessed and driven one before another, instead of abreast.

Tan"dem, n. A team of horses harnessed one before the other. "He drove tandems." Thackeray.

Tandem engine, a compound steam engine having two or more steam cylinders in the same axis, close to one another. — Tandem bicycle or tricycle, one for two persons in which one rider sits before the other.

Tang (tng), n. [Of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. tang seaweed, Sw. tång, Icel. þang. Cf. Tangle.] (Bot.) A coarse blackish seaweed (Fuscus nodosus). Dr. Prior.

Tang sparrow (Zoöl.), the rock pipit. [Prov. Eng.]

Tang, n. [Probably fr. OD. tanger sharp, tart, literally, pinching; akin to E. tongs. √59. See Tong.] 1. A strong or offensive taste; especially, a taste of something extraneous to the thing itself; as, wine or cider has a tang of the cask.

2. Fig.: A sharp, specific flavor or tinge. Cf. Tang a twang.

Such proceedings had a strong tang of tyranny.


A cant of philosophism, and a tang of party politics.


3. [Probably of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. tangi a projecting point; akin to E. tongs. See Tongs.] A projecting part of an object by means of which it is secured to a handle, or to some other part; anything resembling a tongue in form or position. Specifically: —

(a) The part of a knife, fork, file, or other small instrument, which is inserted into the handle.

(b) The projecting part of the breech of a musket barrel, by which the barrel is secured to the stock.

(c) The part of a sword blade to which the handle is fastened.

(d) The tongue of a buckle. [Prov. Eng.]

Tang, n. [Of imitative origin. Cf. Twang. This word has become confused with tang tatse, flavor.] A sharp, twanging sound; an unpleasant tone; a twang.

Tang, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tanged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tanging.] To cause to ring or sound loudly; to ring.

Let thy tongue tang arguments of state.


To tang bees, to cause a swarm of bees to settle, by beating metal to make a din.

Tang, v. i. To make a ringing sound; to ring.

Let thy tongue tang arguments of state.


Tan"ga*lung (?), n. (Zoöl.) An East Indian civet (Viverra tangalunga).

Tan"gence (?), n. Tangency. [R.]

Tan"gen*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being tangent; a contact or touching.

Tan"gent (?), n. [L. tangens, - entis, p. pr. of tangere to touch; akin to Gr. &?; having seized: cf. F. tangente. Cf. Attain, Contaminate, Contingent, Entire, Tact, Taste, Tax, v. t.] (Geom.) A tangent line curve, or surface; specifically, that portion of the straight line tangent to a curve that is between the point of tangency and a given line, the given line being, for example, the axis of abscissas, or a radius of a circle produced. See Trigonometrical function, under Function.

Artificial, or Logarithmic, tangent, the logarithm of the natural tangent of an arc. — Natural tangent, a decimal expressing the length of the tangent of an arc, the radius being reckoned unity. — Tangent galvanometer (Elec.), a form of galvanometer having a circular coil and a short needle, in which the tangent of the angle of deflection of the needle is proportional to the strength of the current. — Tangent of an angle, the natural tangent of the arc subtending or measuring the angle. — Tangent of an arc, a right line, as ta, touching the arc of a circle at one extremity a, and terminated by a line ct, passing from the center through the other extremity o.

Tan"gent, a. [L. tangens, - entis, p. pr.] Touching; touching at a single point; specifically (Geom.) meeting a curve or surface at a point and having at that point the same direction as the curve or surface; — said of a straight line, curve, or surface; as, a line tangent to a curve; a curve tangent to a surface; tangent surfaces.

Tangent plane (Geom.), a plane which touches a surface in a point or line. — Tangent scale (Gun.), a kind of breech sight for a cannon. — Tangent screw (Mach.), an endless screw; a worm.

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Tan*gen"tal (?), a. (Geom.) Tangential.

Tan*gen"tial (?), a. (Geom.) Of or pertaining to a tangent; in the direction of a tangent.

Tangential force (Mech.), a force which acts on a moving body in the direction of a tangent to the path of the body, its effect being to increase or diminish the velocity; — distinguished from a normal force, which acts at right angles to the tangent and changes the direction of the motion without changing the velocity. — Tangential stress. (Engin.) See Shear, n., 3.

Tan*gen"tial*ly, adv. In the direction of a tangent.

Tan"ger*ine` (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) A kind of orange, much like the mandarin, but of deeper color and higher flavor. It is said to have been produced in America from the mandarin. [Written also tangierine.]

Tang"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The common harbor seal. [Prov. Eng.]

||Tan*ghin"i*a (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) The ordeal tree. See under Ordeal.

Tan`gi*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. tanggibilité.] The quality or state of being tangible.

Tan"gi*ble (?), a. [L. tangibilis, fr. tangere to touch: cf. F. tangible. See Tangent.] 1. Perceptible to the touch; tactile; palpable. Bacon.

2. Capable of being possessed or realized; readily apprehensible by the mind; real; substantial; evident. "A tangible blunder." Byron.

Direct and tangible benefit to ourselves and others.


— Tan"gi*ble*ness, n. — Tan"gi*bly, adv.

Tan"gle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tangled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tangling (?).] [A frequentative fr. tang seaweed; hence, to twist like seaweed. See Tang seaweed, and cf. Tangle, n.] 1. To unite or knit together confusedly; to interweave or interlock, as threads, so as to make it difficult to unravel the knot; to entangle; to ravel.

2. To involve; to insnare; to entrap; as, to be tangled in lies. "Tangled in amorous nets." Milton.

When my simple weakness strays,
Tangled in forbidden ways.


Tan"gle, v. i. To be entangled or united confusedly; to get in a tangle.

Tan"gle, n. 1. [Cf. Icel. þöngull. See Tang seaweed.] (Bot.) Any large blackish seaweed, especially the Laminaria saccharina. See Kelp.

Coral and sea fan and tangle, the blooms and the palms of the ocean.

C. Kingsley.

2. [From Tangle, v.] A knot of threads, or other thing, united confusedly, or so interwoven as not to be easily disengaged; a snarl; as, hair or yarn in tangles; a tangle of vines and briers. Used also figuratively.

3. pl. An instrument consisting essentially of an iron bar to which are attached swabs, or bundles of frayed rope, or other similar substances, — used to capture starfishes, sea urchins, and other similar creatures living at the bottom of the sea.

Blue tangle. (Bot.)See Dangleberry. — Tangle picker (Zoöl.), the turnstone. [Prov. Eng.]

Tan"gle*fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The sea adder, or great pipefish of Europe.

Tan"gling*ly (?), adv. In a tangling manner.

Tan"gly (?), a. 1. Entangled; intricate.

2. Covered with tangle, or seaweed.

Prone, helpless, on the tangly beach he lay.


Tan"gram (?), n. [Cf. Trangram.] A Chinese toy made by cutting a square of thin wood, or other suitable material, into seven pieces, as shown in the cut, these pieces being capable of combination in various ways, so as to form a great number of different figures. It is now often used in primary schools as a means of instruction.

Tangue (?), n. (Zoöl.) The tenrec.

Tan"gun (?), n. (Zoöl.) A piebald variety of the horse, native of Thibet.

Tang"whaup (?), n. (Zoöl.) The whimbrel. [Prov. Eng.]

Tan"i*er (?), n. (Bot.) An aroid plant (Caladium sagittæfolium), the leaves of which are boiled and eaten in the West Indies. [Written also tannier.]

Tan"ist (?), n. [Ir. tanaiste, tanaise, second, the second person in rank, the presumptive or apparent heir to a prince.] In Ireland, a lord or proprietor of a tract of land or of a castle, elected by a family, under the system of tanistry.

This family [the O'Hanlons] were tanists of a large territory within the present county of Armagh.

M. A. Lower.

Tan"ist*ry (?), n. [See Tanist.] In Ireland, a tenure of family lands by which the proprietor had only a life estate, to which he was admitted by election.

The primitive intention seems to have been that the inheritance should descend to the oldest or most worthy of the blood and name of the deceased. This was, in reality, giving it to the strongest; and the practice often occasioned bloody feuds in families, for which reason it was abolished under James I.

Ta"nite (?), n. A firm composition of emery and a certain kind of cement, used for making grinding wheels, slabs, etc.

Tank (?), n. A small Indian dry measure, averaging 240 grains in weight; also, a Bombay weight of 72 grains, for pearls. Simmonds.

Tank, n. [Pg. tanque, L. stangum a pool; or perhaps of East Indian origin. Cf. Stank, n.] A large basin or cistern; an artificial receptacle for liquids.

Tank engine, a locomotive which carries the water and fuel it requires, thus dispensing with a tender. — Tank iron, plate iron thinner than boiler plate, and thicker than sheet iron or stovepipe iron. — Tank worm (Zoöl.), a small nematoid worm found in the water tanks of India, supposed by some to be the young of the Guinea worm.

Tan"ka (?), n. (Naut.) A kind of boat used in Canton. It is about 25 feet long and is often rowed by women. Called also tankia. S. W. Williams.

Tank"ard (?), n. [OF. tanquart; cf. OD. tanckaert; of uncertain origin.] A large drinking vessel, especially one with a cover.

Marius was the first who drank out of a silver tankard, after the manner of Bacchus.


Tan"ki*a (?), n. (Naut.) See Tanka.

Tank"ling (?), n. A tinkling. [Obs.]

Tan"ling (?), n. One tanned by the sun. [R.]

Hot summer's tanlings and
The shrinking slaves of winter.


Tan"na*ble (?), a. That may be tanned.

Tan"nage (?), n. A tanning; the act, operation, or result of tanning. [R.]

They should have got his cheek fresh tannage.

R. Browning.

Tan"nate (?), n. [Cf. F. tannate.] (Chem.) A salt of tannic acid.

Tan"ner (?), n. One whose occupation is to tan hides, or convert them into leather by the use of tan.

Tan"ner*y (?), n.; pl. Tanneries (#). [Cf. F. tannerie.] 1. A place where the work of tanning is carried on.

2. The art or process of tanning. [R.] Carlyle.

Tan"nic (?), a. Of or pertaining to tan; derived from, or resembling, tan; as, tannic acid.

Tannic acid. (Chem.) (a) An acid obtained from nutgalls as a yellow amorphous substance, C14H10O9, having an astringent taste, and forming with ferric salts a bluish-black compound, which is the basis of common ink. Called also tannin, and gallotannic acid. (b) By extension, any one of a series of astringent substances resembling tannin proper, widely diffused through the vegetable kingdom, as in oak bark, willow, catechu, tea, coffee, etc.

Tan"ni*er (?), n. (Bot.) See Tanier.

Tan"nin (?), n. [Cf. F. tannin.] (Chem.) Same as Tannic acid, under Tannic.

Tan"ning, n. The art or process of converting skins into leather. See Tan, v. t., 1.

Tan"rec (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tenrec.

Tan"sy (?), n. [OE. tansaye, F. tanaise; cf. It. & Sp. tanaceto, NL. tanacetum, Pg. atanasia, athanasia, Gr. 'aqanasi`a immortality, fr. 'aqa`natos immortal; 'a priv. + qa`natos death.] 1. (Bot.) Any plant of the composite genus Tanacetum. The common tansy (T. vulgare) has finely divided leaves, a strong aromatic odor, and a very bitter taste. It is used for medicinal and culinary purposes.

2. A dish common in the seventeenth century, made of eggs, sugar, rose water, cream, and the juice of herbs, baked with butter in a shallow dish. [Obs.] Pepys.

Double tansy (Bot.), a variety of the common tansy with the leaves more dissected than usual. — Tansy mustard (Bot.), a plant (Sisymbrium canescens) of the Mustard family, with tansylike leaves.

Tant (?), n. [Cf. Taint tincture.] (Zoöl.) A small scarlet arachnid.

Tan"ta*late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of tantalic acid.

Tan*tal"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to tantalum; derived from, or containing, tantalum; specifically, designating any one of a series of acids analogous to nitric acid and the polyacid compounds of phosphorus.

Tan"ta*lism (?), n. [See Tantalize.] A punishment like that of Tantalus; a teasing or tormenting by the hope or near approach of good which is not attainable; tantalization. Addison.

Is not such a provision like tantalism to this people?

Josiah Quincy.

Tan"ta*lite (?), n. [Cf. F. tantalite.] (Min.) A heavy mineral of an iron-black color and submetallic luster. It is essentially a tantalate of iron.

Tan`ta*li*za"tion (?), n. The act of tantalizing, or state of being tantalized. Gayton.

Tan"ta*lize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tantalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tantalizing (?).] [From Tantalus: cf. F. tantaliser.] To tease or torment by presenting some good to the view and exciting desire, but continually frustrating the expectations by keeping that good out of reach; to tease; to torment.

Thy vain desires, at strife
Within themselves, have tantalized thy life.


Syn. — To tease; vex; irritate; provoke. — Tantalize, Disappoint. To disappoint is literally to do away with what was (or was taken to be) appointed; hence the peculiar pain from hopes thus dashed to the ground. To tantalize, a much stronger term, describes a most distressing form of disappointment, as in the case of Tantalus, the Phrygian king. To tantalize is to visit with the bitterest disappointment — to torment by exciting hopes or expectations which can never be realized.

Tan"ta*li`zer (?), n. One who tantalizes.

Tan"ta*li`zing*ly (?), adv. In a tantalizing or teasing manner.

Tan"ta*lum (?), n. [NL. So named on account of the perplexity and difficulty encounterd by its discoverer (Ekeberg) in isolating it. See Tantalus.] (Chem.) A rare nonmetallic element found in certain minerals, as tantalite, samarskite, and fergusonite, and isolated as a dark powder which becomes steel-gray by burnishing. Symbol Ta. Atomic weight 182.0. Formerly called also tantalium.

Tan"ta*lus (?), n. [L., from Gr. Ta`ntalos.] (Gr. Myth.) 1. A Phrygian king who was punished in the lower world by being placed in the midst of a lake whose waters reached to his chin but receded whenever he attempted to allay his thirst, while over his head hung branches laden with choice fruit which likewise receded whenever he stretched out his hand to grasp them.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of wading birds comprising the wood ibises.

Tantalus's cup (Physics), a philosophical toy, consisting of a cup, within which is the figure of a man, and within the figure a siphon, the longer arm of which passes down through the bottom of the cup, and allows the escape of any liquid that may be poured in, when it reaches as high as the bend of the siphon, which is just below the level of the mouth of the figure in the cup.

Tan"ta*mount` (?), a. [F. tant so much (L. tantus) + E. amount.] Equivalent in value, signification, or effect.

A usage nearly tantamount to constitutional right.


The certainty that delay, under these circumstances, was tantamount to ruin.

De Quincey.

Tan"ta*mount`, v. i. To be tantamount or equivalent; to amount. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Tan*tiv"y (?), adv. [Said to be from the note of a hunting horn.] Swiftly; speedily; rapidly; — a fox-hunting term; as, to ride tantivy.

Tan*tiv"y, n. A rapid, violent gallop; an impetuous rush. Cleverland.

Tan*tiv"y, v. i. To go away in haste. [Colloq.]

Tan"trum (?), n. A whim, or burst of ill-humor; an affected air. [Colloq.] Thackeray.

Tan"yard` (?), n. An inclosure where the tanning of leather is carried on; a tannery.

||Tan`y*stom"a*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; to stretch + &?;, &?;, mouth.] (Zoöl.) A division of dipterous insects in which the proboscis is large and contains lancelike mandibles and maxillæ. The horseflies and robber flies are examples.

Ta"o*ism (?), n. One of the popular religions of China, sanctioned by the state. — Ta"o*ist, a. & n.

Tap (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tapping.] [F. taper to strike; of Teutonic origin; cf. dial. G. tapp, tapps, a blow, tappe a paw, fist, G. tappen to grope.] 1. To strike with a slight or gentle blow; to touch gently; to rap lightly; to pat; as, to tap one with the hand or a cane.

2. To put a new sole or heel on; as, to tap shoes.

Tap, n. [Cf. F. tape. See Tap to strike.] 1. A gentle or slight blow; a light rap; a pat. Addison.

2. A piece of leather fastened upon the bottom of a boot or shoe in repairing or renewing the sole or heel.

3. pl. (Mil.) A signal, by drum or trumpet, for extinguishing all lights in soldiers' quarters and retiring to bed, — usually given about a quarter of an hour after tattoo. Wilhelm.

Tap, v. i. To strike a gentle blow.

Tap, n. [AS. tæppa, akin to D. tap, G. zapfen, OHG. zapfo, Dan. tap, Sw. tapp, Icel. tappi. Cf. Tampion, Tip.] 1. A hole or pipe through which liquor is drawn.

2. A plug or spile for stopping a hole pierced in a cask, or the like; a faucet.

3. Liquor drawn through a tap; hence, a certain kind or quality of liquor; as, a liquor of the same tap. [Colloq.]

4. A place where liquor is drawn for drinking; a taproom; a bar. [Colloq.]

5. (Mech.) A tool for forming an internal screw, as in a nut, consisting of a hardened steel male screw grooved longitudinally so as to have cutting edges.

On tap. (a) Ready to be drawn; as, ale on tap. (b) Broached, or furnished with a tap; as, a barrel on tap. — Plug tap (Mech.), a screw-cutting tap with a slightly tapering end. — Tap bolt, a bolt with a head on one end and a thread on the other end, to be screwed into some fixed part, instead of passing through the part and receiving a nut. See Illust. under Bolt. — Tap cinder (Metal.), the slag of a puddling furnace.

Tap, v. t. 1. To pierce so as to let out, or draw off, a fluid; as, to tap a cask, a tree, a tumor, etc.

2. Hence, to draw from (anything) in any analogous way; as, to tap telegraph wires for the purpose of intercepting information; to tap the treasury.

3. To draw, or cause to flow, by piercing. Shak.

He has been tapping his liquors.


4. (Mech.) To form an internal screw in (anything) by means of a tool called a tap; as, to tap a nut.

||Ta"pa (?), n. A kind of cloth prepared by the Polynesians from the inner bark of the paper mulberry; — sometimes called also kapa.

||Ta`pa*yax"in (?), n. (Zoöl.) A Mexican spinous lizard (Phrynosoma orbiculare) having a head somewhat like that of a toad; — called also horned toad.

Tape (?), n. [AS. tæppe a fillet. Cf. Tapestry, Tippet.] 1. A narrow fillet or band of cotton or linen; a narrow woven fabric used for strings and the like; as, curtains tied with tape.

2. A tapeline; also, a metallic ribbon so marked as to serve as a tapeline; as, a steel tape.

Red tape. See under Red. — Tape grass (Bot.), a plant (Vallisneria spiralis) with long ribbonlike leaves, growing in fresh or brackish water; — called also fresh-water eelgrass, and, in Maryland, wild celery. — Tape needle. See Bodkin, n., 4.

Tape"line` (?), n. A painted tape, marked with linear dimensions, as inches, feet, etc., and often inclosed in a case, — used for measuring.

Ta"per (?), n. [AS. tapur, tapor, taper; cf. Ir. tapar, W. tampr.] 1. A small wax candle; a small lighted wax candle; hence, a small light.

Get me a taper in my study, Lucius.


2. A tapering form; gradual diminution of thickness in an elongated object; as, the taper of a spire.

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Ta"per (?), a. [Supposed to be from taper, n., in allusion to its form.] Regularly narrowed toward the point; becoming small toward one end; conical; pyramidical; as, taper fingers.

Ta"per, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tapered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tapering.] To become gradually smaller toward one end; as, a sugar loaf tapers toward one end.

Ta"per, v. t. To make or cause to taper.

Ta"pered (?), a. Lighted with a taper or tapers; as, a tapered choir. [R.] T. Warton.

Ta"per*ing (?), a. Becoming gradually smaller toward one end. — Ta"per*ing*ly, adv.

Ta"per*ness, n. The quality or state of being taper; tapering form; taper. Shenstone.

Tap"es*try (?), n.; pl. Tapestries (#). [F. tapissere, fr. tapisser to carpet, to hang, or cover with tapestry, fr. tapis a carpet, carpeting, LL. tapecius, fr. L. tapete carpet, tapestry, Gr. &?;, &?;. Cf. Tapis, Tippet.] A fabric, usually of worsted, worked upon a warp of linen or other thread by hand, the designs being usually more or less pictorial and the stuff employed for wall hangings and the like. The term is also applied to different kinds of embroidery.

Tapestry carpet, a kind of carpet, somewhat resembling Brussels, in which the warp is printed before weaving, so as to produce the figure in the cloth. — Tapestry moth. (Zoöl.) Same as Carpet moth, under Carpet.

Tap"es*try, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tapestried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tapestrying.] To adorn with tapestry, or as with tapestry.

The Trosachs wound, as now, between gigantic walls of rock tapestried with broom and wild roses.


Tap"et (?), n. [L. tapete. See Tapestry.] Worked or figured stuff; tapestry. [R.] Spenser.

Tap"e*ti (?), n.; pl. Tapetis (#). [Braz.] (Zoöl.) A small South American hare (Lepus Braziliensis).

||Ta*pe"tum (?), n. [NL., from L. tapete a carpet, a tapestry.] (Anat.) An area in the pigmented layer of the choroid coat of the eye in many animals, which has an iridescent or metallic luster and helps to make the eye visible in the dark. Sometimes applied to the whole layer of pigmented epithelium of the choroid.

Tape"worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of cestode worms belonging to Tænia and many allied genera. The body is long, flat, and composed of numerous segments or proglottids varying in shape, those toward the end of the body being much larger and longer than the anterior ones, and containing the fully developed sexual organs. The head is small, destitute of a mouth, but furnished with two or more suckers (which vary greatly in shape in different genera), and sometimes, also, with hooks for adhesion to the walls of the intestines of the animals in which they are parasitic. The larvæ (see Cysticercus) live in the flesh of various creatures, and when swallowed by another animal of the right species develop into the mature tapeworm in its intestine. See Illustration in Appendix.

Three species are common parasites of man: the pork tapeworm (Tænia solium), the larva of which is found in pork; the beef tapeworm (T. mediocanellata), the larva of which lives in the flesh of young cattle; and the broad tapeworm (Bothriocephalus latus) which is found chiefly in the inhabitants of the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia. See also Echinococcus, Cysticercus, Proglottis, and 2d Measles, 4.

Tap"house` (?), n. A house where liquors are retailed.

||Taph*ren"chy*ma (?), n. [Gr. &?; a trench + enchyma, as in parenchyma.] (Bot.) Same as Bothrenchyma.

Tap"i*nage (?), n. [See Tapish.] A lurking or skulking. [Obs.] Gower.

Tap`i*o"ca (?), n. [Braz. tapioka: cf. Pg., Sp. & F. tapioca.] A coarsely granular substance obtained by heating, and thus partly changing, the moistened starch obtained from the roots of the cassava. It is much used in puddings and as a thickening for soups. See Cassava.

Ta"pir (?), n. [Braz. tapy'ra: cf. F. tapir.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of large odd-toed ungulates belonging to Tapirus, Elasmognathus, and allied genera. They have a long prehensile upper lip, short ears, short and stout legs, a short, thick tail, and short, close hair. They have three toes on the hind feet, and four toes on the fore feet, but the outermost toe is of little use.

The best-known species are the Indian tapir (Tapirus Indicus), native of the East Indies and Malacca, which is black with a broad band of white around the middle, and the common American tapir (T. Americanus), which, when adult, is dull brown. Several others species inhabit the Andes and Central America.

Tapir tiger (Zoöl.), the wallah.

Ta"pir*oid (?), a. [Tapir + - oid.] (Zoöl.) Allied to the tapir, or the Tapir family.

Ta"pis (?), n. [F. See Tapestry.] Tapestry; formerly, the cover of a council table.

On, or Upon, the tapis, on the table, or under consideration; as, to lay a motion in Parliament on the tapis.

Tap"is (?), v. t. To cover or work with figures like tapestry. [R.] Holland.

Tap"is*er (?), n. [F. tapissier.] A maker of tapestry; an upholsterer. [R.] Chaucer.

Tap"ish (?), v. i. [F. se tapir to squat.] To lie close to the ground, so as to be concealed; to squat; to crouch; hence, to hide one's self. [Written also tappis, tappish, tappice.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

As a hound that, having roused a hart,
Although he tappish ne'er so soft.


Tap"lash` (?), n. Bad small beer; also, the refuse or dregs of liquor. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

The taplash of strong ale and wine.

Taylor (1630).

Tap"lings (?), n. pl. The strong double leathers by which the two parts of a flail are united. Halliwell.

||Ta*po"a ta"fa (?). (Zoöl.) A small carnivorous marsupial (Phascogale penicillata) having long, soft fur, and a very long tail with a tuft of long hairs at the end; — called also brush-tailed phascogale.

Tap"pen (?), n. An obstruction, or indigestible mass, found in the intestine of bears and other animals during hibernation.

Tap"per (?), n. (Zoöl.) The lesser spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus minor); — called also tapperer, tabberer, little wood pie, barred woodpecker, wood tapper, hickwall, and pump borer. [Prov. Eng.]

Tap"pes*ter (?), n. [See Tapster.] A female tapster. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tap"pet (?), n. (Mach.) A lever or projection moved by some other piece, as a cam, or intended to tap or touch something else, with a view to produce change or regulate motion. G. Francis.

Tappet motion, a valve motion worked by tappets from a reciprocating part, without an eccentric or cam, — used in steam pumps, etc.

{ Tap"pice (?), Tap"pis (?) }, v. i. See Tapish.

Tap"pit hen` (?). 1. A hen having a tuft of feathers on her head. [Scot.] Jamieson.

2. A measuring pot holding one quart (according to some, three quarts); — so called from a knob on the lid, thought to resemble a crested hen. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Tap"room` (?), n. A room where liquors are kept on tap; a barroom.

The ambassador was put one night into a miserable taproom, full of soldiers smoking.


Tap"root` (?), n. (Bot.) The root of a plant which penetrates the earth directly downward to a considerable depth without dividing.

Tap"ster (?), n. [AS. tæppestre a female tapster. See Tap a plug, pipe, and -ster.] One whose business is to tap or draw ale or other liquor.

Ta"qua-nut` (?), n. (Bot.) A Central American name for the ivory nut.

Tar (?), n. [Abbrev. from tarpaulin.] A sailor; a seaman. [Colloq.] Swift.

Tar, n. [OE. terre, tarre, AS. teru, teoru; akin to D. teer, G. teer, theer, Icel. tjara, Sw. tjära, Dan. tiære, and to E. tree. √63. See Tree.] A thick, black, viscous liquid obtained by the distillation of wood, coal, etc., and having a varied composition according to the temperature and material employed in obtaining it.

Coal tar. See in the Vocabulary. — Mineral tar (Min.), a kind of soft native bitumen. — Tar board, a strong quality of millboard made from junk and old tarred rope. Knight.Tar water. (a) A cold infusion of tar in water, used as a medicine. (b) The ammoniacal water of gas works. — Wood tar, tar obtained from wood. It is usually obtained by the distillation of the wood of the pine, spruce, or fir, and is used in varnishes, cements, and to render ropes, oakum, etc., impervious to water.

Tar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tarred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tarring.] To smear with tar, or as with tar; as, to tar ropes; to tar cloth.

To tar and feather a person. See under Feather, v. t.

Tar"a*nis (?), n. [L. taranis, from the Celtic; cf. W. & Corn. taran thunder.] (Myth.) A Celtic divinity, regarded as the evil principle, but confounded by the Romans with Jupiter.

Tar`an*tass" (?), n. [Russ. tarantas'.] A low four-wheeled carriage used in Russia. The carriage box rests on two long, springy poles which run from the fore to the hind axletree. When snow falls, the wheels are taken off, and the body is mounted on a sledge.

Tar`an*tel"la (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) (a) A rapid and delirious sort of Neapolitan dance in 6-8 time, which moves in whirling triplets; — so called from a popular notion of its being a remedy against the poisonous bite of the tarantula. Some derive its name from Taranto in Apulia. (b) Music suited to such a dance.

Tar"ant*ism (?), n. [It. tarantismo: cf. F. tarentisme. See Tarantula.] (Med.) A nervous affection producing melancholy, stupor, and an uncontrollable desire to dance. It was supposed to be produced by the bite of the tarantula, and considered to be incapable of cure except by protracted dancing to appropriate music. [Written also tarentism.]

Ta*ran"tu*la (?), n.; pl. E. Tarantulas (#), L. Tarantulæ (#). [NL., fr. It. tarantola, fr. L. Tarentum, now Taranto, in the south of Italy.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of large spiders, popularly supposed to be very venomous, especially the European species (Tarantula apuliæ). The tarantulas of Texas and adjacent countries are large species of Mygale. [Written also tarentula.]

Tarantula killer, a very large wasp (Pompilus formosus), which captures the Texan tarantula (Mygale Hentzii) and places it in its nest as food for its young, after paralyzing it by a sting.

Ta*ran"tu*la`ted (?), a. Bitten by a tarantula; affected with tarantism.

Tar*bog"an (?), n. & v. See Toboggan.

Tar*boosh" (?), n. [Ar. tarb&?;sh; perhaps from Per. sar-posh headdress: cf. F. tarbouch.] A red cap worn by Turks and other Eastern nations, sometimes alone and sometimes swathed with linen or other stuff to make a turban. See Fez.

Tar*da"tion (?), n. [L. tardatio, fr. tardare, tardatum, to retard, delay, fr. tardus slow.] The act of retarding, or delaying; retardation. [Obs.]

||Tar`di*gra"da (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tardigrade, a.] 1. (Zoöl.) A tribe of edentates comprising the sloths. They are noted for the slowness of their movements when on the ground. See Sloth, 3.

2. (Zoöl.) An order of minute aquatic arachnids; — called also bear animalcules, sloth animalcules, and water bears.

Tar"di*grade (?), a. [L. tardigradus; tardus slow + gradi to step: cf. F. tardigrade.] 1. Moving or stepping slowly; slow-paced. [R.] G. Eliot.

2. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Tardigrada.

Tar"di*grade, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Tardigrada.

Tar"di*gra`dous (?), a. Moving slowly; slow-paced. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Tar"di*ly (?), adv. In a tardy manner; slowly.

Tar"di*ness, n. The quality or state of being tardy.

Tar`di*ta"tion (?), n. Tardiness. [Obs.]

To instruct them to avoid all snares of tarditation, in the Lord's affairs.


Tar"di*ty (?), n. [L. tarditas.] Slowness; tardiness. [R.] Sir K. Digby.

||Tar"do (?), a. [It.] (Mus.) Slow; — a direction to perform a passage slowly.

||Tar"do, n. [Sp., slow, L. tardus.] (Zoöl.) A sloth.

Tar"dy (?), a. [Compar. Tardier (?); superl. Tardiest.] [F. tardif, fr. (assumed) LL. tardivus, fr. L. tardus slow.] 1. Moving with a slow pace or motion; slow; not swift.

And check the tardy flight of time.


Tardy to vengeance, and with mercy brave.


2. Not being inseason; late; dilatory; — opposed to prompt; as, to be tardy in one's payments. Arbuthnot.

The tardy plants in our cold orchards placed.


3. Unwary; unready. [Obs.] Hudibras.

4. Criminal; guilty. [Obs.] Collier.

Syn. — Slow; dilatory; tedious; reluctant. See Slow.

Tar"dy, v. t. To make tardy. [Obs.] Shak.

Tare (?), obs. imp. of Tear. Tore.

Tare, n. [Cf. Prov. E. tare brisk, eager, OE. tarefitch the wild vetch.] 1. A weed that grows among wheat and other grain; — alleged by modern naturalists to be the Lolium temulentum, or darnel.

Didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? From whence then hath it tares?

Matt. xiii. 27.

The "darnel" is said to be the tares of Scripture, and is the only deleterious species belonging to the whole order.


2. (Bot.) A name of several climbing or diffuse leguminous herbs of the genus Vicia; especially, the V. sativa, sometimes grown for fodder.

Tare, n. [F. tare; cf. Pr., Sp., Pg., & It. tara; all fr. Ar. tarah thrown away, removed, fr. taraha to reject, remove.] (Com.) Deficientcy in the weight or quantity of goods by reason of the weight of the cask, bag, or whatever contains the commodity, and is weighed with it; hence, the allowance or abatement of a certain weight or quantity which the seller makes to the buyer on account of the weight of such cask, bag, etc.

Tare, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Taring.] To ascertain or mark the tare of (goods).

Tared (?), a. (Chem.) Weighed; determined; reduced to equal or standard weight; as, tared filter papers, used in weighing precipitates.

Ta*ren"te (?), n. [Cf. F. tarente.] (Zoöl.) A harmless lizard of the Gecko family (Platydactylus Mauritianicus) found in Southern Europe and adjacent countries, especially among old walls and ruins.

Tar"ent*ism (?), n. See Tarantism.

Ta*ren"tu*la (?), n. See Tarantula.

Targe (?), n. [F. Cf. Target.] A shield or target. [Obs. or Poetic] "A buckler on a targe." Chaucer.

Tar"get (?), n. [OF. targette, dim. of OF. & F. targe, of Teutonic origin; cf. AS. targe, OD. targie, G. zarge a frame, case, border, OHG. zarga, Icel. targa shield.] 1. A kind of small shield or buckler, used as a defensive weapon in war.

2. (a) A butt or mark to shoot at, as for practice, or to test the accuracy of a firearm, or the force of a projectile. (b) The pattern or arrangement of a series of hits made by a marksman on a butt or mark; as, he made a good target.

3. (Surveying) The sliding crosspiece, or vane, on a leveling staff.

4. (Railroad) A conspicuous disk attached to a switch lever to show its position, or for use as a signal.

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Tar"get*ed (?), a. Furnished, armed, or protected, with a target.

Tar`get*eer" (?), n. One who is armed with a target or shield. [Written also targetier.]

Tar"gum (?), n.; pl. Targums (#). Heb. Targumim (#). [Chald. targm interpretation, fr. targm to interpret. Cf. Truchman, and Dragoman.] A translation or paraphrase of some portion of the Old Testament Scriptures in the Chaldee or Aramaic language or dialect.

Tar"gum*ist, n. The writer of a Targum; one versed in the Targums.

Tar"iff (?), n. [F. tarif; cf. Sp. & Pg. tarifa, It. tariffa; all fr. Ar. ta'rf information, explanation, definition, from 'arafa, to know, to inform, explain.] 1. A schedule, system, or scheme of duties imposed by the government of a country upon goods imported or exported; as, a revenue tariff; a protective tariff; Clay's compromise tariff. (U. S. 1833).

The United States and Great Britain impose no duties on exports; hence, in these countries the tariff refers only to imports.

2. The duty, or rate of duty, so imposed; as, the tariff on wool; a tariff of two cents a pound.

3. Any schedule or system of rates, changes, etc.; as, a tariff of fees, or of railroad fares. Bolingbroke.

Tar"iff, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tariffed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tariffing.] To make a list of duties on, as goods.

Tar"in (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) The siskin. [Prov.]

Tar"ing (?), n. (Zoöl.) The common tern; — called also tarret, and tarrock. [Prov. Eng.]

Tar"la*tan (?), n. A kind of thin, transparent muslin, used for dresses.

Tarn (?), n. [OE. terne, Icel. tjörn.] A mountain lake or pool.

A lofty precipice in front,
A silent tarn below.


Tar"nish (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tarnished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tarnishing.] [F. ternir, fr. OHG. tarnen to darken, to conceal, hide; akin to OS. dernian to hide, AS. dernan, dyrnan, OHG. tarni hidden, OS. derni, AS. derne, dyrne. Cf. Dern, a., and see -ish.] To soil, or change the appearance of, especially by an alternation induced by the air, or by dust, or the like; to diminish, dull, or destroy the luster of; to sully; as, to tarnish a metal; to tarnish gilding; to tarnish the purity of color. "Tarnished lace." Fuller. Used also figuratively; as, to tarnish one's honor.

Syn. — To sully; stain; dim.

Tar"nish, v. i. To lose luster; to become dull; as, gilding will tarnish in a foul air.

Till thy fresh glories, which now shine so bright,
Grow stale and tarnish with our daily sight.


Tar"nish, n. 1. The quality or state of being tarnished; stain; soil; blemish.

2. (Min.) A thin film on the surface of a metal, usually due to a slight alteration of the original color; as, the steel tarnish in columbite.

Tar"nish*er (?), n. One who, or that which, tarnishes.

Ta"ro (?), n. [From the Polynesian name.] (Bot.) A name for several aroid plants (Colocasia antiquorum, var. esculenta, Colocasia macrorhiza, etc.), and their rootstocks. They have large ovate-sagittate leaves and large fleshy rootstocks, which are cooked and used for food in tropical countries.

Tar"ot (?), n. [F.; cf. It. tarocco.] A game of cards; — called also taroc. Hoyle.

Tar"pan (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) A wild horse found in the region of the Caspian Sea.

Tar*pau"lin (?), n. [Tar + palling a covering, pall to cover. See Pall a covering.] 1. A piece of canvas covered with tar or a waterproof composition, used for covering the hatches of a ship, hammocks, boats, etc.

2. A hat made of, or covered with, painted or tarred cloth, worn by sailors and others.

3. Hence, a sailor; a seaman; a tar.

To a landsman, these tarpaulins, as they were called, seemed a strange and half-savage race.


Tar"pon (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tarpum.

Tar"pum (?), n. (Zoöl.) A very large marine fish (Megapolis Atlanticus) of the Southern United States and the West Indies. It often becomes six or more feet in length, and has large silvery scales. The scales are a staple article of trade, and are used in fancywork. Called also tarpon, sabalo, savanilla, silverfish, and jewfish.

Tar"quin*ish (?), a. Like a Tarquin, a king of ancient Rome; proud; haughty; overbearing.

Tar"race (?), n. See Trass. [Obs.]

Tar"ra*gon (?), n. [Sp. taragona, Ar. tarkh&?;n; perhaps fr. Gr. &?; a dragon, or L. draco; cf. L. dracunculus tarragon. Cf. Dragon.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Artemisa (A. dracunculus), much used in France for flavoring vinegar.

Tar"ras (?), n. See Trass. [Obs.]

Tarre (?), v. t. [OE. tarien, terien, to irritate, provoke, AS. tergan to pull, pluck, torment; probably akin to E. tear, v.t. √63. Cf. Tarry, v.] To set on, as a dog; to incite. [Obs.] Shak.

Tar"ri*ance (?), n. The act or time of tarrying; delay; lateness. [Archaic] Shak.

And after two days' tarriance there, returned.


Tar"ri*er (?), n. One who, or that which, tarries.

Tar"ri*er, n. (Zoöl.) A kind of dig; a terrier. [Obs.]

Tar"rock (?), n. [Greenland tattarock.] (Zoöl.) (a) The young of the kittiwake gull before the first molt. (b) The common guillemot. [Prov. Eng.] (c) The common tern.

Tar"ry (?), a. [From Tar, n.] Consisting of, or covered with, tar; like tar.

Tar"ry (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tarried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tarrying.] [OE. tarien to irritate (see Tarre); but with a change of sense probably due to confusion with OE. targen to delay, OF. targier, fr. (assumed) LL. tardicare, fr. L. tardare to make slow, to tarry, fr. tardus slow. Cf. Tardy.] 1. To stay or remain behind; to wait.

Tarry ye for us, until we come again.

Ex. xxiv. 14.

2. To delay; to put off going or coming; to loiter.

Come down unto me, tarry not.

Gen. xic. 9.

One tarried here, there hurried one.


3. To stay; to abide; to continue; to lodge.

Tarry all night, and wash your feet.

Gen. xix. 2.

Syn. — To abide; continue; lodge; await; loiter.

Tar"ry, v. t. 1. To delay; to defer; to put off. [Obs.]

Tarry us here no longer than to-morrow.


2. To wait for; to stay or stop for. [Archaic]

He that will have a cake out of the wheat must needs tarry the grinding.


He plodded on, . . . tarrying no further question.

Sir W. Scott.

Tar"ry, n. Stay; stop; delay. [Obs.] E. Lodge.

Tar"sal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the tarsus (either of the foot or eye). — n. A tarsal bone or cartilage; a tarsale.

Tarsal tetter (Med.), an eruptive disease of the edges of the eyelids; a kind of bleareye.

Tar"sal (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tercel. [Obs.]

||Tar*sa"le (?), n.; pl. Tarsalia (#). [NL.] (Anat.) One of the bones or cartilages of the tarsus; esp., one of the series articulating with the metatarsals.

Tarse (?), n. [Cf. Tassel, Tiercel.] (Falconry) The male falcon.

Tarse (?), n. [Cf. F. tarse.] (Anat.) tarsus.

Tar*sec"to*my (?), n. [Tarsus + Gr. &?; to cut out.] (Surg.) The operation of excising one or more of the bones of the tarsus.

Tar"sel (?), n. A male hawk. See Tercel. [Obs.]

||Tar"si (?), n., pl. of Tarsus.

{ ||Tar"si*a (?), ||Tar`si*a*tu"ra (?), } n. [It.] A kind of mosaic in woodwork, much employed in Italy in the fifteenth century and later, in which scrolls and arabesques, and sometimes architectural scenes, landscapes, fruits, flowers, and the like, were produced by inlaying pieces of wood of different colors and shades into panels usually of walnut wood.

Tar"si*er (?), n. [Cf. F. tarsier.] See Tarsius.

||Tar"si*us (?), n. [NL. See Tarsus.] (Zoöl.) A genus of nocturnal lemurine mammals having very large eyes and ears, a long tail, and very long proximal tarsal bones; — called also malmag, spectral lemur, podji, and tarsier.

Tar"so- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the tarsus; as, tarsometatarsus.

Tar`so*met`a*tar"sal (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to both the tarsus and metatarsus; as, the tarsometatarsal articulations. (b) Of or pertaining to the tarsometatarsus.

||Tar`so*met`a*tar"sus (?), n.; pl. Tarsometatarsi (#). [NL.] (Anat.) The large bone next the foot in the leg of a bird. It is formed by the union of the distal part of the tarsus with the metatarsus.

Tar*sor"rha*phy (?), n. [Tarsus + Gr. "rafh` seam, fr. &?; to sew.] (Surg.) An operation to diminish the size of the opening between eyelids when enlarged by surrounding cicatrices.

Tar*sot"o*my (?), n. [Tarsus + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Surg.) The operation of cutting or removing the tarsal cartilages.

Tar"sus (?), n.; pl. Tarsi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; the flat of the foot, the edge of the eyelid. Cf. 2d Tarse.] 1. (Anat.) (a) The ankle; the bones or cartilages of the part of the foot between the metatarsus and the leg, consisting in man of seven short bones. (b) A plate of dense connective tissue or cartilage in the eyelid of man and many animals; — called also tarsal cartilage, and tarsal plate.

2. (Zoöl.) The foot of an insect or a crustacean. It usually consists of form two to five joints.

Tart (?), a. [AS. teart. √63. Cf. Tear, v. t.] 1. Sharp to the taste; acid; sour; as, a tart apple.

2. Fig.: Sharp; keen; severe; as, a tart reply; tart language; a tart rebuke.

Why art thou tart, my brother?


Tart, n. [OE. tarte, F. tarte; perhaps originally the same word as tourte, LL. torta, fr. L. tortus, p. p. of torquere to twist, bend, wind, because tarts were originally made of a twisted shape. Cf. Torture, n.] A species of small open pie, or piece of pastry, containing jelly or conserve; a sort of fruit pie.

Tar"tan (?), n. [F. tiretane linsey- woolsey, akin to Sp. tiritaña a sort of thin silk; cf. Sp. tiritar to shiver or shake with cold.] Woolen cloth, checkered or crossbarred with narrow bands of various colors, much worn in the Highlands of Scotland; hence, any pattern of tartan; also, other material of a similar pattern.

MacCullummore's heart will be as cold as death can make it, when it does not warm to the tartan.

Sir W. Scott.

The sight of the tartan inflamed the populace of London with hatred.


Tar"tan, n. [F. tartane, or Sp., Pg., or It. tartana; all perhaps of Arabic origin.] (Naut.) A small coasting vessel, used in the Mediterranean, having one mast carrying large leteen sail, and a bowsprit with staysail or jib.

Tar"tar (?), n. [F. tartre (cf. Pr. tartari, Sp., Pg., & It. tartaro, LL. tartarum, LGr. &?;); perhaps of Arabic origin.] 1. (Chem.) A reddish crust or sediment in wine casks, consisting essentially of crude cream of tartar, and used in marking pure cream of tartar, tartaric acid, potassium carbonate, black flux, etc., and, in dyeing, as a mordant for woolen goods; — called also argol, wine stone, etc.

2. A correction which often incrusts the teeth, consisting of salivary mucus, animal matter, and phosphate of lime.

Cream of tartar. (Chem.) See under Cream. — Tartar emetic (Med. Chem.), a double tartrate of potassium and basic antimony. It is a poisonous white crystalline substance having a sweetish metallic taste, and used in medicine as a sudorific and emetic.

Tar"tar (?), n. 1. [Per. Ttr, of Tartar origin.] A native or inhabitant of Tartary in Asia; a member of any one of numerous tribes, chiefly Moslem, of Turkish origin, inhabiting the Russian Europe; — written also, more correctly but less usually, Tatar.

2. A person of a keen, irritable temper.

To catch a tartar, to lay hold of, or encounter, a person who proves too strong for the assailant. [Colloq.]

Tar"tar, a. Of or pertaining to Tartary in Asia, or the Tartars.

Tar"tar, n. [Cf. F. tartare.] See Tartarus. Shak.

Tar"tar*a`ted (?), a. (Chem.) Tartrated.

{ Tar*ta"re*an (?), Tar*ta"re*ous (?), } a. [L. tartareus: cf. F. tartaréen.] Of or pertaining to Tartarus; hellish.

Tar*ta"re*ous, a. [Cf. 1st Tartarous.] 1. Consisting of tartar; of the nature of tartar.

2. (Bot.) Having the surface rough and crumbling; as, many lichens are tartareous.

{ Tar*ta"ri*an (?), Tar*tar"ic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to Tartary in Asia, or the Tartars.

Tartarian lamb (Bot.), Scythian lamb. See Barometz.

Tar*ta"ri*an (?), n. (Bot.) The name of some kinds of cherries, as the Black Tartarian, or the White Tartarian.

Tar*tar"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to tartar; derived from, or resembling, tartar.

Tartaric acid. (a) An acid widely diffused throughout the vegetable kingdom, as in grapes, mountain-ash berries, etc., and obtained from tartar as a white crystalline substance, C2H2(OH)2.(CO2H)2, having a strong pure acid taste. It is used in medicine, in dyeing, calico printing, photography, etc., and also as a substitute for lemon juice. Called also dextro-tartaric acid. (b) By extension, any one of the series of isomeric acids (racemic acid, levotartaric acid, inactive tartaric acid) of which tartaric acid proper is the type.

Tar"tar*ine (?), n. (Old Chem.) Potassium carbonate, obtained by the incineration of tartar. [Obs.]

Tar"tar*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tartarized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tartarizing (?).] [Cf. F. tartariser.] (Chem.) To impregnate with, or subject to the action of, tartar. [R.]

Tartarized antimony (Med. Chem.), tartar emetic.

Tar"tar*ize (?), v. t. To cause to resemble the Tartars and their civilization, as by conquest.

Tar"tar*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. tartareux.] Containing tartar; consisting of tartar, or partaking of its qualities; tartareous.

Tar"tar*ous (?), a. Resembling, or characteristic of, a Tartar; ill-natured; irritable.

The Tartarous moods of common men.

B. Jonson.

Tar"ta*rum (?), n. (Chem.) See 1st Tartar.

Tar"ta*rus (tär"t*rs), n. [L., from Gr. Ta`rtaros.] (Class. Myth.) The infernal regions, described in the Iliad as situated as far below Hades as heaven is above the earth, and by later writers as the place of punishment for the spirits of the wicked. By the later poets, also, the name is often used synonymously with Hades, or the Lower World in general.

Tar"ta*ry (?), n. Tartarus. [Obs.] Spenser.

<! p. 1476 !>

Tar*ti"ni's tones` (?). [From Tartini, an Italian violinist, who discovered them in 1754.] See the Note under Tone.

Tart"ish (?), a. Somewhat tart.

Tart"let (?), n. A small tart. V. Knox.

Tart"ly, adv. In a tart manner; with acidity.

Tart"ness, n. The quality or state of being tart.

Syn. — Acrimony; sourness; keenness; poignancy; severity; asperity; acerbity; harshness. See Acrimony.

Tar*tral"ic (?), a. [From Tartar the chemical compound.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained as a white amorphous deliquescent substance, C8H10O11; — called also ditartaric, tartrilic, or tartrylic acid.

Tar*tram"ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of tartramic acid.

Tar*tram"ic (?), a. [Tarto- + amic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid which is the primary acid amide derivative of tartaric acid.

Tar*tram"ide (?), n. [Tarto- + amide.] (Chem.) An acid amide derivative of tartaric acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Tar"trate (?), n. [Cf. F. tartrate.] (Chem.) A salt of tartaric acid.

Tar"tra`ted (?), a. (Med. Chem.) Containing, or derived from, tartar; combined with tartaric acid.

Tar"tra*zine (?), n. [Tartaric + hydrazine.] (Chem.) An artificial dyestuff obtained as an orange-yellow powder, and regarded as a phenyl hydrazine derivative of tartaric and sulphonic acids.

Tar*trel"ic (?), a. [From Tartar the chemical compound.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an anhydride, C4H4O5, of tartaric acid, obtained as a white crystalline deliquescent substance.

Tar"tro-. A combining form (also used adjectively) used in chemistry to denote the presence of tartar or of some of its compounds or derivatives.

Tar"tro*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of tartronic acid.

Tar*tron"ic (?), a. [Tartro- + malonic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an organic acid (called also hydroxy malonic acid) obtained, by reducing mesoxalic acid, as a white crystalline substance.

Tar"tro*nyl (?), n. [Tartronic + - yl.] (Chem.) A hypothetical radical constituting the characteristic residue of tartronic acid and certain of its derivatives.

Tar`tro*vin"ic (?), a. [Tartro- + vinic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a certain acid composed of tartaric acid in combination with ethyl, and now called ethyltartaric acid.

{ Tar*tuffe", Tar*tufe" } (?), n. [F. tartufe.] A hypocritical devotee. See the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.

{ Tar*tuff"ish, Tar*tuf"ish, } a. Like a tartuffe; precise; hypocritical. Sterne.

Tar"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several resinous-glandular composite plants of California, esp. to the species of Grindelia, Hemizonia, and Madia.

Tas (?), n. [F.] A heap. [Obs.] "The tas of bodies slain." Chaucer.

Tas, v. t. To tassel. [Obs.] "A purse of leather tassed with silk." Chaucer.

Tas"co (?), n. [Cf. Sp. tasconio.] A kind of clay for making melting pots. Percy Smith.

Ta*sim"er (t*sm"*tr), n. [Gr. ta`sis stretching, extension (from tei`nein to stretch) + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for detecting or measuring minute extensions or movements of solid bodies. It consists essentially of a small rod, disk, or button of carbon, forming part of an electrical circuit, the resistance of which, being varied by the changes of pressure produced by the movements of the object to be measured, causes variations in the strength of the current, which variations are indicated by a sensitive galvanometer. It is also used for measuring minute changes of temperature. T. A. Edison.

Task (tsk), n. [OE. taske, OF. tasque, F. tâche, for tasche, LL. tasca, taxa, fr. L. taxare to rate, appraise, estimate. See Tax, n. & v.] 1. Labor or study imposed by another, often in a definite quantity or amount.

Ma task of servile toil.


Each morning sees some task begin,
Each evening sees it close.


2. Business; employment; undertaking; labor.

His mental powers were equal to greater tasks.


To take to task. See under Take.

Syn. — Work; labor; employment; business; toil; drudgery; study; lesson; stint.

Task, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tasked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tasking.] 1. To impose a task upon; to assign a definite amount of business, labor, or duty to.

There task thy maids, and exercise the loom.


2. To oppress with severe or excessive burdens; to tax.

3. To charge; to tax, as with a fault.

Too impudent to task me with those errors.

Beau. & Fl.

Task"er (?), n. 1. One who imposes a task.

2. One who performs a task, as a day-laborer. [R.]

3. A laborer who receives his wages in kind. [Scot.]

Task"mas`ter (?), n. One who imposes a task, or burdens another with labor; one whose duty is to assign tasks; an overseer. Ex. i. 11.

All is, if I have grace to use it so,
As ever in my great Taskmaster's eye.


Task"work` (?), n. Work done as a task; also, work done by the job; piecework.

Tas"let (?), n. [See Tasse a piece of armor.] A piece of armor formerly worn to guard the thighs; a tasse.

Tas*ma"ni*an (tz*m"n*an), a. Of or pertaining to Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land. — n. A native or inhabitant of Tasmania; specifically (Ethnol.), in the plural, the race of men that formerly inhabited Tasmania, but is now extinct.

Tasmanian cider tree. (Bot.) See the Note under Eucalyptus. — Tasmanian devil. (Zoöl.) See under Devil. — Tasmanian wolf (Zoöl.), a savage carnivorous marsupial; — called also zebra wolf. See Zebra wolf, under Wolf.

Tasse (?), n. [OF. tassette.] A piece of armor for the thighs, forming an appendage to the ancient corselet.

Usually the tasse was a plate of iron swinging from the cuirass, but the skirts of sliding splints were also called by this name.

Tas"sel (?), n. (Falconry) A male hawk. See Tercel.

Tas"sel, n. [See Teasel.] A kind of bur used in dressing cloth; a teasel.

Tas"sel, n. [OE., a fastening of a mantle, OF. tassel a fastening, clasp, F. tasseau a bracket, Fr. L. taxillus a little die, dim. of talus a die of a longish shape, rounded on two sides and marked only on the other four, a knuckle bone.] 1. A pendent ornament, attached to the corners of cushions, to curtains, and the like, ending in a tuft of loose threads or cords.

2. The flower or head of some plants, esp. when pendent.

And the maize field grew and ripened, Till it stood in all the splendor
Of its garments green and yellow,
Of its tassels and its plumage.


3. A narrow silk ribbon, or the like, sewed to a book to be put between the leaves.

4. (Arch.) A piece of board that is laid upon a wall as a sort of plate, to give a level surface to the ends of floor timbers; — rarely used in the United States.

Tassel flower (Bot.), a name of several composite plants of the genus Cineraria, especially the C. sconchifolia, and of the blossoms which they bear.

Tas"sel, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tasseled (?) or Tasselled; p. pr. & vb. n. Tasseling or Tasselling.] To put forth a tassel or flower; as, maize tassels.

Tas"sel, v. t. To adorn with tassels. Chaucer.

Tas"set (?), n. [See Tasse.] A defense for the front of the thigh, consisting of one or more iron plates hanging from the belt on the lower edge of the corselet.

Tast"a*ble (tst"*b'l), a. Capable of worthy of being tasted; savory; relishing.

Taste (tst), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Tasting.] [OE. tasten to feel, to taste, OF. taster, F. tater to feel, to try by the touch, to try, to taste, (assumed) LL. taxitare, fr. L. taxare to touch sharply, to estimate. See Tax, v. t.] 1. To try by the touch; to handle; as, to taste a bow. [Obs.] Chapman.

Taste it well and stone thou shalt it find.


2. To try by the touch of the tongue; to perceive the relish or flavor of (anything) by taking a small quantity into a mouth. Also used figuratively.

When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine.

John ii. 9.

When Commodus had once tasted human blood, he became incapable of pity or remorse.


3. To try by eating a little; to eat a small quantity of.

I tasted a little of this honey.

1 Sam. xiv. 29.

4. To become acquainted with by actual trial; to essay; to experience; to undergo.

He . . . should taste death for every man.

Heb. ii. 9.

5. To partake of; to participate in; — usually with an implied sense of relish or pleasure.

Thou . . . wilt taste
No pleasure, though in pleasure, solitary.


Taste, v. i. 1. To try food with the mouth; to eat or drink a little only; to try the flavor of anything; as, to taste of each kind of wine.

2. To have a smack; to excite a particular sensation, by which the specific quality or flavor is distinguished; to have a particular quality or character; as, this water tastes brackish; the milk tastes of garlic.

Yea, every idle, nice, and wanton reason
Shall to the king taste of this action.


3. To take sparingly.

For age but tastes of pleasures, youth devours.


4. To have perception, experience, or enjoyment; to partake; as, to taste of nature's bounty. Waller.

The valiant never taste of death but once.


Taste, n. 1. The act of tasting; gustation.

2. A particular sensation excited by the application of a substance to the tongue; the quality or savor of any substance as perceived by means of the tongue; flavor; as, the taste of an orange or an apple; a bitter taste; an acid taste; a sweet taste.

3. (Physiol.) The one of the five senses by which certain properties of bodies (called their taste, savor, flavor) are ascertained by contact with the organs of taste.

Taste depends mainly on the contact of soluble matter with the terminal organs (connected with branches of the glossopharyngeal and other nerves) in the papillæ on the surface of the tongue. The base of the tongue is considered most sensitive to bitter substances, the point to sweet and acid substances.

4. Intellectual relish; liking; fondness; — formerly with of, now with for; as, he had no taste for study.

I have no taste
Of popular applause.


5. The power of perceiving and relishing excellence in human performances; the faculty of discerning beauty, order, congruity, proportion, symmetry, or whatever constitutes excellence, particularly in the fine arts and belles-letters; critical judgment; discernment.

6. Manner, with respect to what is pleasing, refined, or in accordance with good usage; style; as, music composed in good taste; an epitaph in bad taste.

7. Essay; trial; experience; experiment. Shak.

8. A small portion given as a specimen; a little piece tasted or eaten; a bit. Bacon.

9. A kind of narrow and thin silk ribbon.

Syn. — Savor; relish; flavor; sensibility; gout. — Taste, Sensibility, Judgment. Some consider taste as a mere sensibility, and others as a simple exercise of judgment; but a union of both is requisite to the existence of anything which deserves the name. An original sense of the beautiful is just as necessary to æsthetic judgments, as a sense of right and wrong to the formation of any just conclusions on moral subjects. But this "sense of the beautiful" is not an arbitrary principle. It is under the guidance of reason; it grows in delicacy and correctness with the progress of the individual and of society at large; it has its laws, which are seated in the nature of man; and it is in the development of these laws that we find the true "standard of taste."

What, then, is taste, but those internal powers,
Active and strong, and feelingly alive
To each fine impulse? a discerning sense
Of decent and sublime, with quick disgust
From things deformed, or disarranged, or gross
In species? This, nor gems, nor stores of gold,
Nor purple state, nor culture, can bestow,
But God alone, when first his active hand
Imprints the secret bias of the soul.


Taste of buds, or Taste of goblets (Anat.), the flask-shaped end organs of taste in the epithelium of the tongue. They are made up of modified epithelial cells arranged somewhat like leaves in a bud.

Taste"ful (?), a. 1. Having a high relish; savory. "Tasteful herbs." Pope.

2. Having or exhibiting good taste; in accordance with good taste; tasty; as, a tasteful drapery.

— Taste"ful*ly, adv. — Taste"ful*ness, n.

Taste"less, a. 1. Having no taste; insipid; flat; as, tasteless fruit.

2. Destitute of the sense of taste; or of good taste; as, a tasteless age. Orrery.

3. Not in accordance with good taste; as, a tasteless arrangement of drapery.

— Taste"less*ly, adv. — Taste"less*ness, n.

Tast"er (?), n. 1. One who tastes; especially, one who first tastes food or drink to ascertain its quality.

Thy tutor be thy taster, ere thou eat.


2. That in which, or by which, anything is tasted, as, a dram cup, a cheese taster, or the like.

3. (Zoöl.) One of a peculiar kind of zooids situated on the polyp-stem of certain Siphonophora. They somewhat resemble the feeding zooids, but are destitute of mouths. See Siphonophora.

Tast"i*ly (?), adv. In a tasty manner.

Tast"ing, n. The act of perceiving or tasting by the organs of taste; the faculty or sense by which we perceive or distinguish savors.

||Tas"to (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A key or thing touched to produce a tone.

||Tasto solo, single touch; — in old music, a direction denoting that the notes in the bass over or under which it is written should be performed alone, or with no other chords than unisons and octaves.

Tast"y (?), a. [Compar. Tastier (?); superl. Tastiest.] 1. Having a good taste; — applied to persons; as, a tasty woman. See Taste, n., 5.

2. Being in conformity to the principles of good taste; elegant; as, tasty furniture; a tasty dress.

Tat (?), n. [Hind. tt.] Gunny cloth made from the fiber of the Corchorus olitorius, or jute. [India]

Tat, n. [Hind. tatt&?;.] (Zoöl.) A pony. [India]

Ta*tau"pa (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) A South American tinamou (Crypturus tataupa).

Tatch (?), n. [F. tache spot. See Techy.] A spot or stain; also, a trick. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.

Tath (?), obs. 3d pers. sing. pres. of Ta, to take.

Tath, n. [Prov. E.; of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. ta&?; dung, ta&?;a the grass of a manured pasture, te&?;ja to manure. √58. Cf. Ted.] 1. Dung, or droppings of cattle. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

2. The luxuriant grass growing about the droppings of cattle in a pasture. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Tath, v. t. To manure (land) by pasturing cattle on it, or causing them to lie upon it. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Ta*tou" (?), n. [Cf. Tatouay.] (Zoöl.) The giant armadillo (Priodontes gigas) of tropical South America. It becomes nearly five feet long including the tail. It is noted for its burrowing powers, feeds largely upon dead animals, and sometimes invades human graves.

Tat"ou*ay (?), n. [Of Brazilian origin; cf. Pg. tatu, F. tatou.] (Zoöl.) An armadillo (Xenurus unicinctus), native of the tropical parts of South America. It has about thirteen movable bands composed of small, nearly square, scales. The head is long; the tail is round and tapered, and nearly destitute of scales; the claws of the fore feet are very large. Called also tatouary, and broad-banded armadillo.

Tat"ou*hou (?), n. [Cf. Tatouay.] (Zoöl.) The peba.

Tatt (?), v. t. & i. To make (anything) by tatting; to work at tatting; as, tatted edging.

<! p. 1477 !>

||Tat"ta (?), n. [Hind. &?;a&?;&?;, tt.] A bamboo frame or trellis hung at a door or window of a house, over which water is suffered to trickle, in order to moisten and cool the air as it enters. [India]

Tat"ter (?), n. One who makes tatting. Caulfield & S. (Doct. of Needlework).

Tat"ter (?), n. [Icel. tötur, töttur, pl. tötrar, &?;öttrar; cf. Norw. totra, pl. totror, LG. taltern tatters. √240.] A rag, or a part torn and hanging; — chiefly used in the plural.

Tear a passion to tatters, to very rags.


Tat"ter, v. t. [p. p. Tattered (?).] To rend or tear into rags; — used chiefly in the past participle as an adjective.

Where waved the tattered ensigns of Ragfair.


Tat`ter*de*mal"ion (?), n. [Tatter + OF. desmaillier to break the meshes of, to tear: cf. OF. maillon long clothes, swadding clothes, F. maillot. See Tatter, and Mail armor.] A ragged fellow; a ragamuffin. L'Estrange.

Tat"ting (?), n. A kind of lace made from common sewing thread, with a peculiar stitch.

Tatting shuttle, the shuttle on which the thread used in tatting is wound.

Tat"tle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tattled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tattling (?).] [Akin to OE. tateren, LG. tateln, D. tateren to stammer, and perhaps to E. titter.] 1. To prate; to talk idly; to use many words with little meaning; to chat.

The tattling quality of age, which is always narrative.


2. To tell tales; to communicate secrets; to be a talebearer; as, a tattling girl.

Tat"tle, n. Idle talk or chat; trifling talk; prate.

[They] told the tattle of the day.


Tat"tler (?), n. 1. One who tattles; an idle talker; one who tells tales. Jer. Taylor.

2. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of large, long-legged sandpipers belonging to the genus Totanus.

The common American species are the greater tattler, or telltale (T. melanoleucus), the smaller tattler, or lesser yellowlegs (T. flavipes), the solitary tattler (T. solitarius), and the semipalmated tattler, or willet. The first two are called also telltale, telltale spine, telltale tattler, yellowlegs, yellowshanks, and yelper.

Tat"tler*y (?), n. Idle talk or chat; tittle-tattle.

Tat"tling (?), a. Given to idle talk; apt to tell tales. — Tat"tling*ly, adv.

Tat*too" (?), n. [Earlier taptoo, D. taptoe; tap a tap, faucet + toe to, shut (i. e., the taps, or drinking houses, shut from the soldiers).] (Mil.) A beat of drum, or sound of a trumpet or bugle, at night, giving notice to soldiers to retreat, or to repair to their quarters in garrison, or to their tents in camp.

The Devil's tattoo. See under Devil.

Tat*too", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tattooed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tattooing.] [Of Polynesian origin; cf. New Zealand ta to tattoo, tatu puncturation (in Otaheite).] To color, as the flesh, by pricking in coloring matter, so as to form marks or figures which can not be washed out.

Tat*too", n.; pl. Tattoos (&?;). An indelible mark or figure made by puncturing the skin and introducing some pigment into the punctures; — a mode of ornamentation practiced by various barbarous races, both in ancient and modern times, and also by some among civilized nations, especially by sailors.

Ta*tu" (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tatou.

Ta*tu"si*id (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any armadillo of the family Tatusiidæ, of which the peba and mule armadillo are examples. Also used adjectively.

Tau (?), n. [Gr. tay^ the letter τ (English T).] (Zoöl.) The common American toadfish; — so called from a marking resembling the Greek letter tau (τ).

Tau cross. See Illust. 6, of Cross.

Taught (?), a. See Taut. Totten.

Taught, imp. & p. p. of Teach. [AS. imp. thte, p. p. getht.] See Teach.

Taunt (?), a. [Cf. OF. tant so great, F. tant so much, L. tantus of such size, so great, so much.] (Naut.) Very high or tall; as, a ship with taunt masts. Totten.

Taunt (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Taunted; p. pr. & vb. n. Taunting.] [Earlier, to tease; probably fr. OF. tanter to tempt, to try, for tenter. See Tempt.] To reproach with severe or insulting words; to revile; to upbraid; to jeer at; to flout.

When I had at my pleasure taunted her.


Syn. — To deride; ridicule; mock; jeer; flout; revile. See Deride.

Taunt, n. Upbraiding language; bitter or sarcastic reproach; insulting invective.

With scoffs, and scorns, and contemelious taunts.


With sacrilegious taunt and impious jest.


Taunt"er (?), n. One who taunts.

Taunt"ing, a. & n. from Taunt, v.

Every kind of insolent and taunting reflection.


Taunt"ing*ly, adv. In a taunting manner.

Taunt"ress (?), n. A woman who taunts.

Taur (?), n. [L. Taurus.] The constellation Taurus. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tau`ri*cor"nous (?), a. [L. tauricornis; taurus a bull + cornu a horn.] (Zoöl.) Having horns like those of a bull. Sir T. Browne.

Tau`ri*dor" (?), n. [See Toreador.] A bullfighter; a toreador. Sir W. Scott.

Tau"ri*form (?), a. [L. tauriformis; taurus a bull + -form: cf. F. tauriforme.] Having the form of a bull.

Tau"rine (?), a. [L. taurinus, fr. taurus a bull. See Taurus.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the genus Taurus, or cattle.

Tau"rine (?), n. [So named because it was discovered in the bile of the ox. See Taurus.] (Physiol. Chem.) A body occurring in small quantity in the juices of muscle, in the lungs, and elsewhere, but especially in the bile, where it is found as a component part of taurocholic acid, from which it can be prepared by decomposition of the acid. It crystallizes in colorless, regular six-sided prisms, and is especially characterized by containing both nitrogen and sulphur, being chemically amido-isethionic acid, C2H7NSO3.

Tau`ro*cho"late (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A salt of taurocholic acid; as, sodium taurocholate, which occurs in human bile.

Tau`ro*chol"ic (?), a. [Taurine + cholic.] (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a conjugate acid (called taurocholic acid) composed of taurine and cholic acid, present abundantly in human bile and in that of carnivora. It is exceedingly deliquescent, and hence appears generally as a thick, gummy mass, easily soluble in water and alcohol. It has a bitter taste.

{ Tau"ro*col (?), Tau`ro*col"la (?), } n. [NL. taurocolla, fr. Gr. tayro`kolla; tay^ros a bull + ko`lla glue: cf. F. taurocolle.] Glue made from a bull's hide.

Tau`ro*ma"chi*an (?), a. [See Tauromachy.] Of or pertaining to bullfights. — n. A bullfighter.

Tau*rom"a*chy (?), n. [Gr. tayromachi`a; tay^ros bull + ma`chh fight.] Bullfighting.

||Tau"rus (t"rs), n. [L., akin to Gr. tay^ros, and E. steer. See Steer a young ox.] 1. (Astron.) (a) The Bull; the second in order of the twelve signs of the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of April; — marked thus [] in almanacs. (b) A zodiacal constellation, containing the well- known clusters called the Pleiades and the Hyades, in the latter of which is situated the remarkably bright Aldebaran.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of ruminants comprising the common domestic cattle.

Tau*ryl"ic (?), a. [L. taurus a bull + E. phenylic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found of a urine of neat cattle, and probably identical with cresol.

Taut (?), a. [Dan. tæt; akin to E. tight. See Tight.] 1. (Naut.) Tight; stretched; not slack; — said esp. of a rope that is tightly strained.

2. Snug; close; firm; secure.

Taut hand (Naut.), a sailor's term for an officer who is severe in discipline.

Tau`te*gor"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; to speak. Cf. Allegory.] Expressing the same thing with different words; — opposed to allegorical. [R.] Coleridge.

Tau"to*chrone (?), n. [Gr. &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; time: cf. F. tautochrone.] (Math.) A curved line, such that a heavy body, descending along it by the action of gravity, will always arrive at the lowest point in the same time, wherever in the curve it may begin to fall; as, an inverted cycloid with its base horizontal is a tautochrone.

Tau*toch"ro*nous (?), a. (Math.) Occupying the same time; pertaining to, or having the properties of, a tautochrone.

Tau*tog" (?), n. [The pl. of taut, the American Indian name, translated by Roger Williams sheep's heads, and written by him tautaúog.] (Zoöl.) An edible labroid fish (Haitula onitis, or Tautoga onitis) of the Atlantic coast of the United States. When adult it is nearly black, more or less irregularly barred, with greenish gray. Called also blackfish, oyster fish, salt-water chub, and moll. [Written also tautaug.]

Tau`to*log"ic (?), a. Tautological.

Tau`to*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. tautologique.] Involving tautology; having the same signification; as, tautological expression. — Tau`to*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Tautological echo, an echo that repeats the same sound or syllable many times.

Tau*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who uses tautological words or phrases.

Tau*tol"o*gize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tautologized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tautologizing (?).] To repeat the same thing in different words.

Tau*tol"o*gous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; to speak.] Repeating the same thing in different words; tautological. [R.] Tooke.

Tau*tol"o*gy (?), n. [L. tautologia, Gr. &?;: cf. F. tautologie.] (Rhet.) A repetition of the same meaning in different words; needless repetition of an idea in different words or phrases; a representation of anything as the cause, condition, or consequence of itself, as in the following lines: —

The dawn is overcast, the morning lowers,
And heavily in clouds brings on the day.


Syn. — Repetition. — Tautology, Repetition. There may be frequent repetitions (as in legal instruments) which are warranted either by necessity or convenience; but tautology is always a fault, being a sameness of expression which adds nothing to the sense or the sound.

Tau`to*mer"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Relating to, or characterized by, tautomerism.

Tau*tom"er*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; part.] (Chem.) The condition, quality, or relation of metameric substances, or their respective derivatives, which are more or less interchangeable, according as one form or the other is the more stable. It is a special case of metamerism; thus, the lactam and the lactim compounds exhibit tautomerism.

{ Tau`to*ou"si*an (?), Tau`to*ou"si*ous (?), } a. [Gr. &?;; &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; being, essence.] Having the same essence; being identically of the same nature. [R.] Cudworth.

Tau`to*phon"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, tautophony; repeating the same sound.

Tau*toph"o*ny (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?;, for &?; &?; the same + &?; voice.] Repetition of the same sound.

Tau`to*zon"al (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?;, for &?; &?; the same + E. zonal.] (Crystallog.) Belonging to the same zone; as, tautozonal planes.

Tav"ern (?), n. [OE. taverne, F. taverne, from L. taberna a hut, booth, tavern. Cf. Table, Tabernacle.] A public house where travelers and other transient guests are accomodated with rooms and meals; an inn; a hotel; especially, in modern times, a public house licensed to sell liquor in small quantities.

Tav"ern*er (?), n. [F. tavernier, L. tabernarius.] One who keeps a tavern. Chaucer. Camden.

Tav"ern*ing, n. A feasting at taverns. [Obs.] "The misrule of our tavernings." Bp. Hall.

Tav"ern*man (?), n.; pl. Tavernmen (&?;). The keeper of a tavern; also, a tippler. [Obs.]

Taw (?), n. Tow. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Taw, v. t. [Cf. Tew to tow, Tow, v. t.] To push; to tug; to tow. [Obs.] Drayton.

Taw (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tawing.] [OE. tawen, tewen, AS. twian to prepare; cf. D. touwen, Goth. twa order, taujan to do, and E. tool. √64. Cf. 1st Tew, Tow the coarse part of flax.] 1. To prepare or dress, as hemp, by beating; to tew; hence, to beat; to scourge. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

2. To dress and prepare, as the skins of sheep, lambs, goats, and kids, for gloves, and the like, by imbuing them with alum, salt, and other agents, for softening and bleaching them.

Taw, n. [Cf. AS. tw instrument.] 1. A large marble to be played with; also, a game at marbles.

2. A line or mark from which the players begin a game of marbles. [Colloq. U. S.]

Taw"dri*ly (?), adv. In a tawdry manner.

Taw"dri*ness, n. Quality or state of being tawdry.

A clumsy person makes his ungracefulness more ungraceful by tawdriness of dress.


Taw"dry (?), a. [Compar. Tawdrier (?); superl. Tawdriest.] [Said to be corrupted from Saint Audrey, or Auldrey, meaning Saint Ethelreda, implying therefore, originally, bought at the fair of St. Audrey, where laces and gay toys of all sorts were sold. This fair was held in Isle Ely, and probably at other places, on the day of the saint, which was the 17th of October.] 1. Bought at the festival of St. Audrey. [Obs.]

And gird in your waist,
For more fineness, with a tawdry lace.


2. Very fine and showy in colors, without taste or elegance; having an excess of showy ornaments without grace; cheap and gaudy; as, a tawdry dress; tawdry feathers; tawdry colors.

He rails from morning to night at essenced fops and tawdry courtiers.


Taw"dry, n.; pl. Tawdries (&?;). A necklace of a rural fashion, bought at St. Audrey's fair; hence, a necklace in general. [Obs.]

Of which the Naiads and the blue Nereids make
Them tawdries for their necks.


Taw"er (?), n. One who taws; a dresser of white leather.

Taw"er*y (?), n. A place where skins are tawed.

Taw"ni*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being tawny.

Taw"ny (?), a. [Compar. Tawnier (?); superl. Tawniest.] [F. tanné, p. p. of tanner to tan. See Tan, v. t. & n. Cf. Tenné.] Of a dull yellowish brown color, like things tanned, or persons who are sunburnt; as, tawny Moor or Spaniard; the tawny lion. "A leopard's tawny and spotted hide." Longfellow.

Taws (?), n. [See Taw to beat.] A leather lash, or other instrument of punishment, used by a schoolmaster. [Written also tawes, tawis, and tawse.] [Scot.]

Never use the taws when a gloom can do the turn.


Tax (?), n. [F. taxe, fr. taxer to tax, L. taxare to touch, sharply, to feel, handle, to censure, value, estimate, fr. tangere, tactum, to touch. See Tangent, and cf. Task, Taste.] 1. A charge, especially a pecuniary burden which is imposed by authority. Specifically: —

(a) A charge or burden laid upon persons or property for the support of a government.

A farmer of taxes is, of all creditors, proverbially the most rapacious.


(b) Especially, the sum laid upon specific things, as upon polls, lands, houses, income, etc.; as, a land tax; a window tax; a tax on carriages, and the like. Taxes are annual or perpetual, direct or indirect, etc.

(c) A sum imposed or levied upon the members of a society to defray its expenses.

2. A task exacted from one who is under control; a contribution or service, the rendering of which is imposed upon a subject.

3. A disagreeable or burdensome duty or charge; as, a heavy tax on time or health.

4. Charge; censure. [Obs.] Clarendon.

5. A lesson to be learned; a task. [Obs.] Johnson.

Tax cart, a spring cart subject to a low tax. [Eng.]

Syn. — Impost; tribute; contribution; duty; toll; rate; assessment; exaction; custom; demand.

<! p. 1478 !>

Tax (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Taxed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Taxing.] [Cf. F. taxer. See Tax, n.] 1. To subject to the payment of a tax or taxes; to impose a tax upon; to lay a burden upon; especially, to exact money from for the support of government.

We are more heavily taxed by our idleness, pride, and folly than we are taxed by government.


2. (Law) To assess, fix, or determine judicially, the amount of; as, to tax the cost of an action in court.

3. To charge; to accuse; also, to censure; — often followed by with, rarely by of before an indirect object; as, to tax a man with pride.

I tax you, you elements, with unkindness.


Men's virtues I have commended as freely as I have taxed their crimes.


Fear not now that men should tax thine honor.

M. Arnold.

Tax`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being taxable; taxableness.

Tax"a*ble (?), a. 1. Capable of being taxed; liable by law to the assessment of taxes; as, taxable estate; taxable commodities.

2. (Law) That may be legally charged by a court against the plaintiff of defendant in a suit; as, taxable costs.

— Tax"a*ble*ness, n. — Tax"a*bly, adv.

Tax`as*pid"e*an (?), a. [Gr. ta`xis an arrangement + &?;, &?;, shield.] (Zoöl.) Having the posterior tarsal scales, or scutella, rectangular and arranged in regular rows; — said of certain birds.

Tax*a"tion (?), n. [F. taxation, L. taxatio a valuing, estimation, from L. taxare. See Tax.] 1. The act of laying a tax, or of imposing taxes, as on the subjects of a state, by government, or on the members of a corporation or company, by the proper authority; the raising of revenue; also, a system of raising revenue.

2. (Law) The act of taxing, or assessing a bill of cost.

3. Tax; sum imposed. [R.] Daniel.

4. Charge; accusation. [Obs.] Shak.

Tax"el (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American badger.

||Tax`e*op"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (?) + -poda.] (Paleon.) An order of extinct Mammalia found in the Tertiary formations.

Tax"er (?), n. 1. One who taxes.

2. One of two officers chosen yearly to regulate the assize of bread, and to see the true gauge of weights and measures is observed. [Camb. Univ., Eng.] [Written also taxor.]

Tax"gath`er*er (?), n. One who collects taxes or revenues. — Tax"gath`er*ing, n.

Tax"i*arch (?), n. [Gr. &?; and &?;; &?; a division of an army, a brigade (from &?; to arrange, array) + to rule.] (Gr. Antiq.) An Athenian military officer commanding a certain division of an army. Milford.

Tax"i*corn (?), n. [L. taxus a yew + cornu a horn: cf. F. taxicorne.] (Zoöl.) One of a family of beetles (Taxicornes) whose antennæ are largest at the tip. Also used adjectively.

Tax`i*der"mic (?), a. [Cf. F. taxidermique.] Of or pertaining to the art of preparing and preserving the skins of animals.

Tax"i*der`mist (?), n. A person skilled in taxidermy.

Tax"i*der`my (?), n. [Gr. ta`xis an arranging, arrangement (fr. ta`ssein to arrange) + &?; a skin, from &?; to skin: cf. F. taxidermie. See Tactics, Tear, v. t.] The art of preparing, preserving, and mounting the skins of animals so as to represent their natural appearance, as for cabinets.

Tax"ine (?), n. [L. taxus a yew.] (Chem.) A poisonous alkaloid of bitter taste extracted from the leaves and seeds of the European yew (Taxus baccata). Called also taxia.

||Tax"is (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ta`xis a division or arrangement, fr. ta`ssein to arrange.] (Surg.) Manipulation applied to a hernial tumor, or to an intestinal obstruction, for the purpose of reducing it. Dunglison.

Tax"less, a. Free from taxation.

Tax*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. ta`xis arrangement + -logy.] (Biol.) Same as Taxonomy.

Tax`o*nom"ic (tks`*nm"k), a. Pertaining to, or involving, taxonomy, or the laws and principles of classification; classificatory.

Tax*on"o*mist (tks*n"*mst), n. One skilled in taxonomy.

Tax*on"o*my (-m), n. [Gr. ta`xis an arrangement, order + no`mos a law.] That division of the natural sciences which treats of the classification of animals and plants; the laws or principles of classification.

Tax"or (?), n. [NL.] Same as Taxer, n., 2.

Tax"pay`er (?), n. One who is assessed and pays a tax.

Tay"ra (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) A South American carnivore (Galera barbara) allied to the grison. The tail is long and thick. The length, including the tail, is about three feet. [Written also taira.]

Ta"zel (?), n. (Bot.) The teasel. [Obs.]

||Taz"za (?), n. [It.] An ornamental cup or vase with a large, flat, shallow bowl, resting on a pedestal and often having handles.

T" cart` (?). See under T.

||Tcha*wy"tcha (?), n. (Zoöl.) The quinnat salmon. [Local, U. S.]

Tea (t), n. [Chin. tsh, Prov. Chin. te: cf. F. thé.] 1. The prepared leaves of a shrub, or small tree (Thea, or Camellia, Chinensis). The shrub is a native of China, but has been introduced to some extent into some other countries.

Teas are classed as green or black, according to their color or appearance, the kinds being distinguished also by various other characteristic differences, as of taste, odor, and the like. The color, flavor, and quality are dependent upon the treatment which the leaves receive after being gathered. The leaves for green tea are heated, or roasted slightly, in shallow pans over a wood fire, almost immediately after being gathered, after which they are rolled with the hands upon a table, to free them from a portion of their moisture, and to twist them, and are then quickly dried. Those intended for black tea are spread out in the air for some time after being gathered, and then tossed about with the hands until they become soft and flaccid, when they are roasted for a few minutes, and rolled, and having then been exposed to the air for a few hours in a soft and moist state, are finally dried slowly over a charcoal fire. The operation of roasting and rolling is sometimes repeated several times, until the leaves have become of the proper color. The principal sorts of green tea are Twankay, the poorest kind; Hyson skin, the refuse of Hyson; Hyson, Imperial, and Gunpowder, fine varieties; and Young Hyson, a choice kind made from young leaves gathered early in the spring. Those of black tea are Bohea, the poorest kind; Congou; Oolong; Souchong, one of the finest varieties; and Pekoe, a fine-flavored kind, made chiefly from young spring buds. See Bohea, Congou, Gunpowder tea, under Gunpowder, Hyson, Oolong, and Souchong. K. Johnson. Tomlinson.

"No knowledge of . . . [tea] appears to have reached Europe till after the establishment of intercourse between Portugal and China in 1517. The Portuguese, however, did little towards the introduction of the herb into Europe, and it was not till the Dutch established themselves at Bantam early in 17th century, that these adventurers learned from the Chinese the habit of tea drinking, and brought it to Europe." Encyc. Brit.

2. A decoction or infusion of tea leaves in boiling water; as, tea is a common beverage.

3. Any infusion or decoction, especially when made of the dried leaves of plants; as, sage tea; chamomile tea; catnip tea.

4. The evening meal, at which tea is usually served; supper.

Arabian tea, the leaves of Catha edulis; also (Bot.), the plant itself. See Kat. — Assam tea, tea grown in Assam, in India, originally brought there from China about the year 1850. — Australian, or Botany Bay, tea (Bot.), a woody clambing plant (Smilax glycyphylla). — Brazilian tea. (a) The dried leaves of Lantana pseodothea, used in Brazil as a substitute for tea. (b) The dried leaves of Stachytarpheta mutabilis, used for adulterating tea, and also, in Austria, for preparing a beverage. — Labrador tea. (Bot.) See under Labrador. — New Jersey tea (Bot.), an American shrub, the leaves of which were formerly used as a substitute for tea; redroot. See Redroot. — New Zealand tea. (Bot.) See under New Zealand. — Oswego tea. (Bot.) See Oswego tea. — Paraguay tea, mate. See 1st Mate. — Tea board, a board or tray for holding a tea set. — Tea bug (Zoöl.), an hemipterous insect which injures the tea plant by sucking the juice of the tender leaves. — Tea caddy, a small box for holding tea. — Tea chest, a small, square wooden case, usually lined with sheet lead or tin, in which tea is imported from China. — Tea clam (Zoöl.), a small quahaug. [Local, U. S.] — Tea garden, a public garden where tea and other refreshments are served. — Tea plant (Bot.), any plant, the leaves of which are used in making a beverage by infusion; specifically, Thea Chinensis, from which the tea of commerce is obtained. — Tea rose (Bot.), a delicate and graceful variety of the rose (Rosa Indica, var. odorata), introduced from China, and so named from its scent. Many varieties are now cultivated. — Tea service, the appurtenances or utensils required for a tea table, — when of silver, usually comprising only the teapot, milk pitcher, and sugar dish. — Tea set, a tea service. — Tea table, a table on which tea furniture is set, or at which tea is drunk. — Tea taster, one who tests or ascertains the quality of tea by tasting. — Tea tree (Bot.), the tea plant of China. See Tea plant, above. — Tea urn, a vessel generally in the form of an urn or vase, for supplying hot water for steeping, or infusing, tea.

Tea, v. i. To take or drink tea. [Colloq.]

Tea"ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The checkerberry.

Teach (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Taught (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teaching.] [OE. techen, imp. taughte, tahte, AS. t&?;cean, imp. t&?;hte, to show, teach, akin to tcn token. See Token.] 1. To impart the knowledge of; to give intelligence concerning; to impart, as knowledge before unknown, or rules for practice; to inculcate as true or important; to exhibit impressively; as, to teach arithmetic, dancing, music, or the like; to teach morals.

If some men teach wicked things, it must be that others should practice them.


2. To direct, as an instructor; to manage, as a preceptor; to guide the studies of; to instruct; to inform; to conduct through a course of studies; as, to teach a child or a class. "He taught his disciples." Mark ix. 31.

The village master taught his little school.


3. To accustom; to guide; to show; to admonish.

I shall myself to herbs teach you.


They have taught their tongue to speak lies.

Jer. ix. 5.

This verb is often used with two objects, one of the person, the other of the thing; as, he taught me Latin grammar. In the passive construction, either of these objects may be retained in the objective case, while the other becomes the subject; as, I was taught Latin grammar by him; Latin grammar was taught me by him.

Syn. — To instruct; inform; inculcate; tell; guide; counsel; admonish. See the Note under Learn.

Teach (?), v. i. To give instruction; to follow the business, or to perform the duties, of a preceptor.

And gladly would he learn, and gladly teach.


The priests thereof teach for hire.

Micah iii. 11.

Teach"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being taught; apt to learn; also, willing to receive instruction; docile.

We ought to bring our minds free, unbiased, and teachable, to learn our religion from the Word of God.

I. Watts.

Teach"a*ble*ness, n. Willingness to be taught.

Teache (?), n. [Cf. Ir. teaghaim, Gael. teasaich, to heat.] (Sugar Works) One of the series of boilers in which the cane juice is treated in making sugar; especially, the last boiler of the series. Ure.

Teach"er (?), n. 1. One who teaches or instructs; one whose business or occupation is to instruct others; an instructor; a tutor.

2. One who instructs others in religion; a preacher; a minister of the gospel; sometimes, one who preaches without regular ordination.

The teachers in all the churches assembled.

Sir W. Raleigh.

Teach"ing, n. The act or business of instructing; also, that which is taught; instruction.

Syn. — Education; instruction; breeding. See Education.

Teach"less, a. Not teachable. [R.] Shelley.

Tea"cup` (?), n. A small cup from which to drink tea.

Tea"cup`ful (?), n.; pl. Teacupfuls (&?;). As much as a teacup can hold; enough to fill a teacup.

{ Tead, Teade } (?), n. [L. taeda, teda.] A torch. [Obs.] "A burning teade." Spenser.

Tea"gle (?), n. [Cf. Tackle.] A hoisting apparatus; an elevator; a crane; a lift. [Prov. Eng.]

Teague (?), n. [Cf. W. taeog, taeawg, adj., rustic, rude, n., a vassal, villain, pleasant, clown, Ir. th&?;atach rural, boorish.] An Irishman; — a term used in contempt. Johnson.

Teak (?), n. [Malayalm tekku.] (Bot.) A tree of East Indies (Tectona grandis) which furnishes an extremely strong and durable timber highly valued for shipbuilding and other purposes; also, the timber of the tree. [Written also teek.]

African teak, a tree (Oldfieldia Africana) of Sierra Leone; also, its very heavy and durable wood; — called also African oak. — New Zeland teak, a large tree (Vitex littoralis) of New Zeland; also, its hard, durable timber.

Tea"ket`tle (?), n. A kettle in which water is boiled for making tea, coffee, etc.

Teal (?), n. [OE. tele; akin to D. teling a generation, production, teal, telen to breed, produce, and E. till to cultivate. The English word probably once meant, a brood or flock. See Till to cultivate.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small fresh-water ducks of the genus Anas and the subgenera Querquedula and Nettion. The male is handsomely colored, and has a bright green or blue speculum on the wings.

The common European teal (Anas crecca) and the European blue-winged teal, or garganey (A. querquedula or A. circia), are well-known species. In America the blue-winged teal (A. discors), the green-winged teal (A. Carolinensis), and the cinnamon teal (A. cynaoptera) are common species, valued as game birds. See Garganey.

Goose teal, a goslet. See Goslet. — Teal duck, the common European teal.

Team (?), n. [OE. tem, team, AS. teám, offspring, progeny, race of descendants, family; akin to D. toom a bridle, LG. toom progeny, team, bridle, G. zaum a bridle, zeugen to beget, Icel. taumr to rein, bridle, Dan. tömme, Sw. töm, and also to E. tow to drag, tug to draw. √64. See Tug, and cf. Teem to bear.] 1. A group of young animals, especially of young ducks; a brood; a litter.

A team of ducklings about her.


2. Hence, a number of animals moving together.

A long team of snowy swans on high.


3. Two or more horses, oxen, or other beasts harnessed to the same vehicle for drawing, as to a coach, wagon, sled, or the like. "A team of dolphins." Spenser.

To take his team and till the earth.

Piers Plowman.

It happened almost every day that coaches stuck fast, until a team of cattle could be procured from some neighboring farm to tug them out of the slough.


4. A number of persons associated together in any work; a gang; especially, a number of persons selected to contend on one side in a match, or a series of matches, in a cricket, football, rowing, etc.

5. (Zoöl.) A flock of wild ducks.

6. (O. Eng. Law) A royalty or privilege granted by royal charter to a lord of a manor, of having, keeping, and judging in his court, his bondmen, neifes, and villains, and their offspring, or suit, that is, goods and chattels, and appurtenances thereto. Burrill.

<! p. 1479 !>

Team (?), v. i. To engage in the occupation of driving a team of horses, cattle, or the like, as in conveying or hauling lumber, goods, etc.; to be a teamster.

Team, v. t. To convey or haul with a team; as, to team lumber. [R.] Thoreau.

Teamed (?), a. Yoked in, or as in, a team. [Obs.]

Let their teamed fishes softly swim.


Team"ing (?), n. 1. The act or occupation of driving a team, or of hauling or carrying, as logs, goods, or the like, with a team.

2. (Manuf.) Contract work. [R.] Knight.

Team"ster (?), n. One who drives a team.

Team"work` (?), n. Work done by a team, as distinguished from that done by personal labor.

Tea"pot` (?), n. A vessel with a spout, in which tea is made, and from which it is poured into teacups.

Tea"poy (?), n. [Hind. tipi; Hind. tin there + Per. pe foot.] An ornamental stand, usually with three legs, having caddies for holding tea.

Tear (tr), n. [AS. teár; akin to G. zärhe, OHG. zahar, OFries. & Icel. tr, Sw. tår, Dan. taare, Goth. tagr, OIr. dr, W. dagr, OW. dacr, L. lacrima, lacruma, for older dacruma, Gr. da`kry, da`kryon, da`kryma. √59. Cf. Lachrymose.] 1. (Physiol.) A drop of the limpid, saline fluid secreted, normally in small amount, by the lachrymal gland, and diffused between the eye and the eyelids to moisten the parts and facilitate their motion. Ordinarily the secretion passes through the lachrymal duct into the nose, but when it is increased by emotion or other causes, it overflows the lids.

And yet for thee ne wept she never a tear.


2. Something in the form of a transparent drop of fluid matter; also, a solid, transparent, tear-shaped drop, as of some balsams or resins.

Let Araby extol her happy coast,
Her fragrant flowers, her trees with precious tears.


3. That which causes or accompanies tears; a lament; a dirge. [R.] "Some melodous tear." Milton.

Tear is sometimes used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, tear-distilling, tear-drop, tear- filled, tear-stained, and the like.

Tear (târ), v. t. [imp. Tore (tr), ((Obs. Tare) (târ); p. p. Torn (trn); p. pr. & vb. n. Tearing.] [OE. teren, AS. teran; akin to OS. farterian to destroy, D. teren to consume, G. zerren to pull, to tear, zehren to consume, Icel. tæra, Goth. gataíran to destroy, Lith. dirti to flay, Russ. drate to pull, to tear, Gr. de`rein to flay, Skr. dar to burst. √63. Cf. Darn, Epidermis, Tarre, Tirade.] 1. To separate by violence; to pull apart by force; to rend; to lacerate; as, to tear cloth; to tear a garment; to tear the skin or flesh.

Tear him to pieces; he's a conspirator.


2. Hence, to divide by violent measures; to disrupt; to rend; as, a party or government torn by factions.

3. To rend away; to force away; to remove by force; to sunder; as, a child torn from its home.

The hand of fate
Hath torn thee from me.


4. To pull with violence; as, to tear the hair.

5. To move violently; to agitate. "Once I loved torn ocean's roar." Byron.

To tear a cat, to rant violently; to rave; — especially applied to theatrical ranting. [Obs.] Shak.To tear down, to demolish violently; to pull or pluck down. — To tear off, to pull off by violence; to strip. — To tear out, to pull or draw out by violence; as, to tear out the eyes. — To tear up, to rip up; to remove from a fixed state by violence; as, to tear up a floor; to tear up the foundation of government or order.

Tear (?), v. i. 1. To divide or separate on being pulled; to be rent; as, this cloth tears easily.

2. To move and act with turbulent violence; to rush with violence; hence, to rage; to rave.

Tear (?), n. The act of tearing, or the state of being torn; a rent; a fissure. Macaulay.

Wear and tear. See under Wear, n.

Tear"er (?), n. One who tears or rends anything; also, one who rages or raves with violence.

Tear"-fall`ing (?), a. Shedding tears; tender. [Poetic] "Tear-falling pity." Shak.

Tear"ful (?), a. Abounding with tears; weeping; shedding tears; as, tearful eyes. — Tear"ful*ly, adv. — Tear"ful*ness, n.

Tear"less, a. Shedding no tears; free from tears; unfeeling. — Tear"less*ly, adv. — Tear"less*ness, n.

Tear"pit` (?), n. (Anat.) A cavity or pouch beneath the lower eyelid of most deer and antelope; the lachrymal sinus; larmier. It is capable of being opened at pleasure and secretes a waxy substance.

Tear"-thumb` (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several species of plants of the genus Polygonum, having angular stems beset with minute reflexed prickles.

Tear"y (?), a. 1. Wet with tears; tearful.

2. Consisting of tears, or drops like tears.

Tea"-sau`cer (?), n. A small saucer in which a teacup is set.

Tease (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Teased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teasing.] [AS. t&?;san to pluck, tease; akin to OD. teesen, MHG. zeisen, Dan. tæse, tæsse. √58. Cf. Touse.] 1. To comb or card, as wool or flax. "Teasing matted wool." Wordsworth.

2. To stratch, as cloth, for the purpose of raising a nap; teasel.

3. (Anat.) To tear or separate into minute shreds, as with needles or similar instruments.

4. To vex with importunity or impertinence; to harass, annoy, disturb, or irritate by petty requests, or by jests and raillery; to plague. Cowper.

He . . . suffered them to tease him into acts directly opposed to his strongest inclinations.


Syn. — To vex; harass: annoy; disturb; irritate; plague; torment; mortify; tantalize; chagrin. — Tease, Vex. To tease is literally to pull or scratch, and implies a prolonged annoyance in respect to little things, which is often more irritating, and harder to bear, than severe pain. Vex meant originally to seize and bear away hither and thither, and hence, to disturb; as, to vex the ocean with storms. This sense of the term now rarely occurs; but vex is still a stronger word than tease, denoting the disturbance or anger created by minor provocations, losses, disappointments, etc. We are teased by the buzzing of a fly in our eyes; we are vexed by the carelessness or stupidity of our servants.

Not by the force of carnal reason,
But indefatigable teasing.


In disappointments, where the affections have been strongly placed, and the expectations sanguine, particularly where the agency of others is concerned, sorrow may degenerate into vexation and chagrin.


Tease tenon (Joinery), a long tenon at the top of a post to receive two beams crossing each other one above the other.

Tease (?), n. One who teases or plagues. [Colloq.]

Tea"sel (?), n. [OE. tesel, AS. t&?;sel, t&?;sl, the fuller's herb. See Tease.] [Written also tassel, tazel, teasle, teazel, and teazle.] 1. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Dipsacus, of which one species (D. fullonum) bears a large flower head covered with stiff, prickly, hooked bracts. This flower head, when dried, is used for raising a nap on woolen cloth.

Small teasel is Dipsacus pilosus, wild teasel is D. sylvestris.

2. A bur of this plant.

3. Any contrivance intended as a substitute for teasels in dressing cloth.

Teasel frame, a frame or set of iron bars in which teasel heads are fixed for raising the nap on woolen cloth.

Tea"sel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Teaseled (?) or Teaselled; p. pr. & vb. n. Teaseling or Teaselling.] To subject, as woolen cloth, to the action of teasels, or any substitute for them which has an effect to raise a nap.

Tea"sel*er (?), n. One who uses teasels for raising a nap on cloth. [Written also teaseller, teasler.]

Tea"sel*ing, n. The cutting and gathering of teasels; the use of teasels. [Written also teaselling, teazling.]

Teas"er (?), n. 1. One who teases or vexes.

2. (Zoöl.) A jager gull. [Prov. Eng.]

Tea"sle (?), n. & v. t. See Teasel.

Tea"spoon` (t"spn`), n. A small spoon used in stirring and sipping tea, coffee, etc., and for other purposes.

Tea"spoon`ful (?), n.; pl. Teaspoonfuls (&?;). As much as teaspoon will hold; enough to fill a teaspoon; — usually reckoned at a fluid dram or one quarter of a tablespoonful.

Teat (?), n. [OE. tete, titte, AS. tit, titt; akin to LG. & OD. titte, D. tet, G. zitze: cf. F. tette, probably of Teutonic origin.] 1. The protuberance through which milk is drawn from the udder or breast of a mammal; a nipple; a pap; a mammilla; a dug; a tit.

2. (Mach.) A small protuberance or nozzle resembling the teat of an animal.

Teat"ed, a. Having protuberances resembling the teat of an animal.

Teathe (?), n. & v. See Tath. [Prov. Eng.]

Teat"ish (?), a. Peevish; tettish; fretful; — said of a child. See Tettish. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Teaze"-hole` (?), n. [Corrupted fr. F. tisard fire door.] (Glass Works) The opening in the furnaces through which fuel is introduced.

Tea"zel (?), n. & v. t. See Teasel.

Tea"zer (?), n. [Corrupted fr. F. tiser to feed a fire.] The stoker or fireman of a furnace, as in glass works. Tomlinson.

Tea"zle (?), n. & v. t. See Teasel.

Te"beth (?), n. [Heb.] The tenth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of December with a part of January. Esther ii. 16.

Tech"i*ly (?), adv. In a techy manner.

Tech"i*ness, n. The quality or state of being techy.

Tech"nic (?), a. Technical.

Tech"nic, n. [See Technical, a.] 1. The method of performance in any art; technical skill; artistic execution; technique.

They illustrate the method of nature, not the technic of a manlike Artificer.


2. pl. Technical terms or objects; things pertaining to the practice of an art or science.

Tech"nic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; an art, probably from the same root as &?;, &?;, to bring forth, produce, and perhaps akin to E. text: cf. F. technique.] Of or pertaining to the useful or mechanic arts, or to any science, business, or the like; specially appropriate to any art, science, or business; as, the words of an indictment must be technical. Blackstone.

Tech`ni*cal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Technicalities (&?;). 1. The quality or state of being technical; technicalness.

2. That which is technical, or peculiar to any trade, profession, sect, or the like.

The technicalities of the sect.


Tech"nic*al*ly (?), adv. In a technical manner; according to the signification of terms as used in any art, business, or profession.

Tech"nic*al*ness, n. The quality or state of being technical; technicality.

Tech"nic*als (?), n. pl. Those things which pertain to the practical part of an art, science, or profession; technical terms; technics.

Tech"ni*cist (?), n. One skilled in technics or in one or more of the practical arts.

Tech`ni*co*log"ic*al (?), a. Technological; technical. [R.] Dr. J. Scott.

Tech`ni*col"o*gy (?), n. Technology. [R.]

Tech"nics (?), n. The doctrine of arts in general; such branches of learning as respect the arts.

Tech`nique" (?), n. [F.] Same as Technic, n.

Tech"nism (?), n. Technicality.

Tech`no*log"ic (?), a. Technological.

Tech`no*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. technologique.] Of or pertaining to technology.

Tech*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in technology; one who treats of arts, or of the terms of arts.

Tech*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; an art + - logy; cf. Gr. &?; systematic treatment: cf. F. technologie.] Industrial science; the science of systematic knowledge of the industrial arts, especially of the more important manufactures, as spinning, weaving, metallurgy, etc.

Technology is not an independent science, having a set of doctrines of its own, but consists of applications of the principles established in the various physical sciences (chemistry, mechanics, mineralogy, etc.) to manufacturing processes. Internat. Cyc.

Tech"y (?), a. [From OE. tecche, tache, a habit, bad habit, vice, OF. tache, teche, a spot, stain, blemish, habit, vice, F. tache a spot, blemish; probably akin to E. tack a small nail. See Tack a small nail, and cf. Touchy.] Peevish; fretful; irritable.

Tec`ti*branch (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Tectibranchiata. Also used adjectively.

||Tec`ti*bran"chi*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] Same as Tectibranchiata.

||Tec`ti*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. tectus (p. p. of tegere to cover) + Gr. &?; a gill.] (Zoöl.) An order, or suborder, of gastropod Mollusca in which the gills are usually situated on one side of the back, and protected by a fold of the mantle. When there is a shell, it is usually thin and delicate and often rudimentary. The aplysias and the bubble shells are examples.

Tec`ti*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [L. tectus (p. p. of tegere to cover) + E. branchiate.] (Zoöl.) Having the gills covered by the mantle; of or pertaining to the Tectibranchiata. — n. A tectibranchiate mollusk.

Tect"ly (?), adv. [L. tectus covered, fr. tegere to cover.] Covertly; privately; secretly. [Obs.] Holinshed.

Tec*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; a carpenter + -logy.] (Biol.) A division of morphology created by Haeckel; the science of organic individuality constituting the purely structural portion of morphology, in which the organism is regarded as composed of organic individuals of different orders, each organ being considered an individual. See Promorphology, and Morphon.

Tec*ton"ic (?), a. [L. tectonicus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, a carpenter, builder.] Of or pertaining to building or construction; architectural.

Tec*ton"ics (?), n. The science, or the art, by which implements, vessels, dwellings, or other edifices, are constructed, both agreeably to the end for which they are designed, and in conformity with artistic sentiments and ideas.

Tec*to"ri*al (?), a. [L. tectorius.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to covering; — applied to a membrane immediately over the organ of Corti in the internal ear.

||Tec"tri*ces (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. tegere, tectum, to cover.] (Zoöl.) The wing coverts of a bird. See Covert, and Illust. of Bird.

Te"cum (?), n. (Bot.) See Tucum.

Ted (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tedded (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tedding.] [Prob. fr. Icel. te&?;ja to spread manure, fr. ta&?; manure; akin to MHG. zetten to scatter, spread. √58. Cf. Teathe.] To spread, or turn from the swath, and scatter for drying, as new-mowed grass; — chiefly used in the past participle.

The smell of grain or tedded grass.


The tedded hay and corn sheaved in one field.


Ted"der (?), n. A machine for stirring and spreading hay, to expedite its drying.

Ted"der, n. [OE. √64. See Tether.] Same as Tether.

Ted"der, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Teddered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teddering.] Same as Tether.

||Te` De"um (?). [L., from te (accus. of tu thou) + Deum, accus. of Deus God. See Thou, and Deity.] 1. An ancient and celebrated Christian hymn, of uncertain authorship, but often ascribed to St. Ambrose; — so called from the first words "Te Deum laudamus." It forms part of the daily matins of the Roman Catholic breviary, and is sung on all occasions of thanksgiving. In its English form, commencing with words, "We praise thee, O God," it forms a part of the regular morning service of the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal Church in America.

2. A religious service in which the singing of the hymn forms a principal part.

Tedge (?), n. (Founding) The gate of a mold, through which the melted metal is poured; runner, geat.

Te`di*os"i*ty (?), n. Tediousness. [Obs.]

Te"di*ous (?), a. [L. taediosus, fr. taedium. See Tedium.] Involving tedium; tiresome from continuance, prolixity, slowness, or the like; wearisome. — Te"di*ous*ly, adv. — Te"di*ous*ness, n.

I see a man's life is a tedious one.


I would not be tedious to the court.


Syn. — Wearisome; fatiguing. See Irksome.

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Te"di*um (?), n. [L. taedium, fr. taedet it disgusts, it wearies one.] Irksomeness; wearisomeness; tediousness. [Written also tædium.] Cowper.

To relieve the tedium, he kept plying them with all manner of bams.

Prof. Wilson.

The tedium of his office reminded him more strongly of the willing scholar, and his thoughts were rambling.


Tee (?), n. [Cf. Icel. tj to show, mark.] (a) The mark aimed at in curling and in quoits. (b) The nodule of earth from which the ball is struck in golf.

Tee, n. A short piece of pipe having a lateral outlet, used to connect a line of pipe with a pipe at a right angle with the line; — so called because it resembles the letter T in shape.

Tee" i`ron (?). See T iron, under T.

Teek (?), n. (Bot.) See Teak. [Obs.]

Teel (?), n. Sesame. [Sometimes written til.]

Teel oil, sesame oil.

Teel"seed` (?), n. The seed of sesame.

Teem (?), v. t. [Icel. tæma to empty, from tmr empty; akin to Dan. tömme to empty, Sw. tömma. See Toom to empty.] 1. To pour; — commonly followed by out; as, to teem out ale. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Swift.

2. (Steel Manuf.) To pour, as steel, from a melting pot; to fill, as a mold, with molten metal.

Teem, v. t. [See Tame, a., and cf. Beteem.] To think fit. [Obs. or R.] G. Gifford.

Teem, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Teemed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teeming.] [OE. temen, AS. tman, t&?;man, from teám. See Team.] 1. To bring forth young, as an animal; to produce fruit, as a plant; to bear; to be pregnant; to conceive; to multiply.

If she must teem,
Create her child of spleen.


2. To be full, or ready to bring forth; to be stocked to overflowing; to be prolific; to abound.

His mind teeming with schemes of future deceit to cover former villainy.

Sir W. Scott.

The young, brimful of the hopes and feeling which teem in our time.

F. Harrison.

Teem, v. t. To produce; to bring forth. [R.]

That [grief] of an hour's age doth hiss the speaker;
Each minute teems a new one.


Teem"er (?), n. One who teems, or brings forth.

Teem"ful (?), a. 1. Pregnant; prolific. [Obs.]

2. Brimful. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Teem"ing, a. Prolific; productive.

Teeming buds and cheerful appear.


Teem"less, a. Not fruitful or prolific; barren; as, a teemless earth. [Poetic] Dryden.

Teen (?), n. [OE. tene, AS. teóna reproach, wrong, fr. teón to accuse; akin to G. zeihen, Goth. gateihan to tell, announce, L. dicere to say. See Token.] Grief; sorrow; affiction; pain. [Archaic] Chaucer. Spenser.

With public toil and private teen
Thou sank'st alone.

M. Arnold.

Teen, v. t. [AS. teónian, t&?;nan, to slander, vex. √64. See Teen, n.] To excite; to provoke; to vex; to affict; to injure. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Teen, v. t. [See Tine to shut.] To hedge or fence in; to inclose. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Teen"age (?), n. The longer wood for making or mending fences. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Teend (?), v. t. & i. [See Tinder.] To kindle; to burn. [Obs.] Herrick.

Teen"ful (?), a. Full of teen; harmful; grievous; grieving; afflicted. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Teens (?), n. pl. [See Ten.] The years of one's age having the termination -teen, beginning with thirteen and ending with nineteen; as, a girl in her teens.

Tee"ny (?), a. Very small; tiny. [Colloq.]

Teen"y (?), a. [See Teen grief.] Fretful; peevish; pettish; cross. [Prov. Eng.]

Tee*ong" (?), n. (Zoöl.) The mino bird.

Teest (?), n. A tinsmith's stake, or small anvil.

Tee"tan (?), n. (Zoöl.) A pipit. [Prov. Eng.]

Tee"tee (?), n. [Sp. tití.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small, soft-furred South American monkeys belonging to Callithrix, Chrysothrix, and allied genera; as, the collared teetee (Callithrix torquatus), and the squirrel teetee (Chrysothrix sciurea). Called also pinche, titi, and saimiri. See Squirrel monkey, under Squirrel.

2. (Zoöl.) A diving petrel of Australia (Halodroma wrinatrix).

Tee"ter (?), v. i. & t. [imp. & p. p. Teetered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teetering.] [Prov. E. titter to tremble, to seesaw; cf. Icel. titra to tremble, OHG. zittarn, G. zittern.] To move up and down on the ends of a balanced plank, or the like, as children do for sport; to seesaw; to titter; to titter-totter. [U. S.]

[The bobolink] alit upon the flower, and teetered up and down.

H. W. Beecher.

Tee"ter-tail` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The spotted sandpiper. See the Note under Sandpiper.

Teeth (?), n., pl. of Tooth.

Teeth (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Teethed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Teething.] To breed, or grow, teeth.

Teeth"ing (?), n. The process of the first growth of teeth, or the phenomena attending their issue through the gums; dentition.

Tee*to"tal (?), a. Entire; total. [Colloq.]

Tee*to"tal*er (?), n. One pledged to entire abstinence from all intoxicating drinks.

Tee*to"tal*ism (?), n. The principle or practice of entire abstinence, esp. from intoxicating drinks.

Tee*to"tal*ly (?), adv. Entirely; totally. [Colloq.]

Tee*to"tum (?), n. [For T-totum. It was used for playing games of chance, and was four-sided, one side having the letter T on it, standing for Latin totum all, meaning, take all that is staked, whence the name. The other three sides each had a letter indicating an English or Latin word; as P meaning put down, N nothing or L. nil, H half. See Total.] A child's toy, somewhat resembling a top, and twirled by the fingers.

The staggerings of the gentleman . . . were like those of a teetotum nearly spent.


Tee"tuck (?), n. The rock pipit. [Prov. Eng.]

Tee"uck (?), n. The lapwing. [Prov. Eng.]

Tee"wit (?), n. (Zoöl.) The pewit. [Prov. Eng.]

Teg (?), n. A sheep in its second year; also, a doe in its second year. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

||Teg"men (?), n.; pl. Tegmina (#). [L., fr. tegere, tectum, to cover.] 1. A tegument or covering.

2. (Bot.) The inner layer of the coating of a seed, usually thin and delicate; the endopleura.

3. (Zoöl.) One of the elytra of an insect, especially of certain Orthoptera.

4. pl. (Zoöl.) Same as Tectrices.

Teg*men"tal (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to a tegument or tegmentum; as, the tegmental layer of the epiblast; the tegmental cells of the taste buds.

||Teg*men"tum (?), n.; pl. Tegmenta (#). [L., a covering.] (Anat.) A covering; — applied especially to the bundles of longitudinal fibers in the upper part of the crura of the cerebrum.

Te*guex"in (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large South American lizard (Tejus teguexin). It becomes three or four feet long, and is blackish above, marked with yellowish spots of various sizes. It feeds upon fruits, insects, reptiles, young birds, and birds' eggs. The closely allied species Tejus rufescens is called red teguexin.

||Teg"u*la (?), n.; pl. Tegulæ (#). [L., a tile, dim. fr. tegere to cover.] (Zoöl.) A small appendage situated above the base of the wings of Hymenoptera and attached to the mesonotum.

Teg"u*lar (?), a. [LL. tegularis, from L. tegula a tile. See Tile.] Of or pertaining to a tile; resembling a tile, or arranged like tiles; consisting of tiles; as, a tegular pavement. — Teg"u*lar*ly, adv.

Teg`u*la"ted (?), a. Composed of small plates, as of horn or metal, overlapping like tiles; — said of a kind of ancient armor. Fairholt.

Teg"u*ment (?), n. [L. tegumentum, from tegere to cover. See Thatch, n., and cf. Detect, Protect.] 1. A cover or covering; an integument.

2. Especially, the covering of a living body, or of some part or organ of such a body; skin; hide.

Teg`u*men"ta*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. tégumentaire.] Of or pertaining to a tegument or teguments; consisting of teguments; serving as a tegument or covering.

Te-hee" (?), n. & interj. A tittering laugh; a titter. "'Te-hee,' quoth she." Chaucer.

Te-hee", v. i. To titter; to laugh derisively.

She cried, "Come, come; you must not look grave upon me." Upon this, I te-heed.

Madame D'Arblay.

Teil (?), n. [OF. teil, til, L. tilia.] (Bot.) The lime tree, or linden; — called also teil tree.

Teind (?), n. [Cf. Icel. tund. See Tithe.] A tithe. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Teine (?), n. See Teyne. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tein"land (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) Land granted by the crown to a thane or lord. Burrill.

Tei"no*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; to extend + -scope.] (Physics) An instrument formed by combining prisms so as to correct the chromatic aberration of the light while linear dimensions of objects seen through the prisms are increased or diminished; — called also prism telescope. Sir D. Brewster.

Teint (?), n. [F. teint, teinte. See Tint.] Tint; color; tinge, See Tint. [Obs.]

Time shall . . . embrown the teint.


Tein"ture (?), n. [F. See Tincture.] Color; tinge; tincture. [Obs.] Holland.

Tek (?), n. (Zoöl.) A Siberian ibex.

||Tel`a*mo"nes (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of telamo or telamon, Gr. &?; a bearer, fr. &?; to bear.] (Arch.) Same as Atlantes.

||Tel*an`gi*ec"ta*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; end + &?; vessel + &?; extension.] (Med.) Dilatation of the capillary vessels.

Tel*an`gi*ec"ta*sy (?), n. (Med.) Telangiectasis.

Te"lar*ly (?), adv. In a weblike manner. [Obs.] "Telarly interwoven." Sir T. Browne.

Te"la*ry (?), a. [LL. telaris, fr. L. tela a web. See Toil a snare.] Of or pertaining to a web; hence, spinning webs; retiary. "Pictures of telary spiders." Sir T. Browne.

Tel"e*du (?), n. (Zoöl.) An East Indian carnivore (Mydaus meliceps) allied to the badger, and noted for the very offensive odor that it emits, somewhat resembling that of a skunk. It is a native of the high mountains of Java and Sumatra, and has long, silky fur. Called also stinking badger, and stinkard.

Tel"e*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?; far + - gram.] A message sent by telegraph; a telegraphic dispatch.

"A friend desires us to give notice that he will ask leave, at some convenient time, to introduce a new word into the vocabulary. It is telegram, instead of telegraphic dispatch, or telegraphic communication." Albany [N. Y.] Evening Journal (April 6, 1852).

Tel`e*gram*mic (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, a telegram; laconic; concise; brief. [R.]

Tel"e*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; far, far off (cf. Lith. toli) + -graph: cf. F. télégraphe. See Graphic.] An apparatus, or a process, for communicating intelligence rapidly between distant points, especially by means of preconcerted visible or audible signals representing words or ideas, or by means of words and signs, transmitted by electrical action.

The instruments used are classed as indicator, type- printing, symbol-printing, or chemical-printing telegraphs, according as the intelligence is given by the movements of a pointer or indicator, as in Cooke & Wheatstone's (the form commonly used in England), or by impressing, on a fillet of paper, letters from types, as in House's and Hughe's, or dots and marks from a sharp point moved by a magnet, as in Morse's, or symbols produced by electro-chemical action, as in Bain's. In the offices in the United States the recording instrument is now little used, the receiving operator reading by ear the combinations of long and short intervals of sound produced by the armature of an electro- magnet as it is put in motion by the opening and breaking of the circuit, which motion, in registering instruments, traces upon a ribbon of paper the lines and dots used to represent the letters of the alphabet. See Illustration in Appendix.

Acoustic telegraph. See under Acoustic. — Dial telegraph, a telegraph in which letters of the alphabet and numbers or other symbols are placed upon the border of a circular dial plate at each station, the apparatus being so arranged that the needle or index of the dial at the receiving station accurately copies the movements of that at the sending station. — Electric telegraph, or Electro- magnetic telegraph, a telegraph in which an operator at one station causes words or signs to be made at another by means of a current of electricity, generated by a battery and transmitted over an intervening wire. — Facsimile telegraph. See under Facsimile. — Indicator telegraph. See under Indicator. — Pan-telegraph, an electric telegraph by means of which a drawing or writing, as an autographic message, may be exactly reproduced at a distant station. - - Printing telegraph, an electric telegraph which automatically prints the message as it is received at a distant station, in letters, not signs. — Signal telegraph, a telegraph in which preconcerted signals, made by a machine, or otherwise, at one station, are seen or heard and interpreted at another; a semaphore. — Submarine telegraph cable, a telegraph cable laid under water to connect stations separated by a body of water. — Telegraph cable, a telegraphic cable consisting of several conducting wires, inclosed by an insulating and protecting material, so as to bring the wires into compact compass for use on poles, or to form a strong cable impervious to water, to be laid under ground, as in a town or city, or under water, as in the ocean. — Telegraph plant (Bot.), a leguminous plant (Desmodium gyrans) native of the East Indies. The leaflets move up and down like the signals of a semaphore.

Tel"e*graph (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Telegraphed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Telegraphing (?).] [F. télégraphier.] To convey or announce by telegraph.

Te*leg"ra*pher (?), n. One who sends telegraphic messages; a telegraphic operator; a telegraphist.

Tel`e*graph"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. télégraphique.] Of or pertaining to the telegraph; made or communicated by a telegraph; as, telegraphic signals; telegraphic art; telegraphic intelligence.

Tel`e*graph"ic*al (?), a. Telegraphic. — Tel`e*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.

Te*leg"ra*phist (?), n. One skilled in telegraphy; a telegrapher.

Te*leg"ra*phy (?), n. [Cf. F. télégraphie.] The science or art of constructing, or of communicating by means of, telegraphs; as, submarine telegraphy.

Te*lem"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; far + - meter.] An instrument used for measuring the distance of an object from an observer; as, a telescope with a micrometer for measuring the apparent diameter of an object whose real dimensions are known.

||Te`le*o*ceph"i*al (t`l**sf"*l or t`l-), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. te`leos complete + kefalh` head.] (Zoöl.) An extensive order of bony fishes including most of the common market species, as bass, salmon, cod, perch, etc.

Te`le*o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. téléologique.] (Biol.) Of or pertaining to teleology, or the doctrine of design. — Te`le*o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Te`le*ol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One versed in teleology.

Te`le*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, teleos, the end or issue + -logy: cf. F. téléologie.] The doctrine of the final causes of things; specif. (Biol.), the doctrine of design, which assumes that the phenomena of organic life, particularly those of evolution, are explicable only by purposive causes, and that they in no way admit of a mechanical explanation or one based entirely on biological science; the doctrine of adaptation to purpose.

Te"le*o*phore` (?), n. [Gr. teleos complete + &?; to bear.] (Zoöl.) Same as Gonotheca.

Te`le*or*gan"ic (?), a. [Gr. teleos complete + E. organic.] (Physiol.) Vital; as, teleorganic functions.

Te`le*o*saur" (?), n. (Paleon.) Any one of several species of fossil suarians belonging to Teleosaurus and allied genera. These reptiles are related to the crocodiles, but have biconcave vertebræ.

||Te`le*o*sau"rus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; complete, perfect + &?; a lizard.] (Paleon.) A genus of extinct crocodilian reptiles of the Jurassic period, having a long and slender snout.

Te"le*ost (?), n. [Gr. &?; complete + &?; bone.] (Zoöl.) One of the Teleosti. Also used adjectively.

Te`le*os"te*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the teleosts. — n. A teleostean fish.

||Te`le*os"te*i (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; complete + &?; bone.] (Zoöl.) A subclass of fishes including all the ordinary bony fishes as distinguished from the ganoids.

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||Te"le*os`to*mi (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; complete + &?; mouth.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of fishes including the ordinary fishes (Teleostei) and the ganoids.

Te`le*o*zo"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having tissued composed of cells.

Te*le*o*zo"ön (?), n. (Zoöl.) A metazoan.

Te*lep"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + &?;, &?;, to suffer.] The sympathetic affection of one mind by the thoughts, feelings, or emotions of another at a distance, without communication through the ordinary channels of sensation. — Tel`e*path"ic, a. — Te*lep"a*thist, n.

Tel"e*pheme (?), n. [Gr. &?; afar + &?; a saying.] A message by a telephone. [Recent]

Tel"e*phone (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + &?; sound.] (Physics) An instrument for reproducing sounds, especially articulate speech, at a distance.

The ordinary telephone consists essentially of a device by which currents of electricity, produced by sounds through the agency of certain mechanical devices and exactly corresponding in duration and intensity to the vibrations of the air which attend them, are transmitted to a distant station, and there, acting on suitable mechanism, reproduce similar sounds by repeating the vibrations. The necessary variations in the electrical currents are usually produced by means of a microphone attached to a thin diaphragm upon which the voice acts, and are intensified by means of an induction coil. In the magnetic telephone, or magneto- telephone, the diaphragm is of soft iron placed close to the pole of a magnet upon which is wound a coil of fine wire, and its vibrations produce corresponding vibrable currents in the wire by induction. The mechanical, or string, telephone is a device in which the voice or sound causes vibrations in a thin diaphragm, which are directly transmitted along a wire or string connecting it to a similar diaphragm at the remote station, thus reproducing the sound. It does not employ electricity.

Tel"e*phone, v. t. To convey or announce by telephone.

Tel`e*phon"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. téléphonique. See Telephone.] 1. Conveying sound to a great distance.

2. Of or pertaining to the telephone; by the telephone.

Tel`e*phon"ic*al*ly (?), adv. By telephonic means or processes; by the use of the telephone.

Te*leph"o*ny (?), n. The art or process of reproducing sounds at a distance, as with the telephone.

Tel`e*po*lar"i*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + E. polariscope.] (Opt.) A polariscope arranged to be attached to a telescope. Lockyer.

Tel`e*ryth"in (?), n. [Gr. &?; end + E. erythrin.] (Chem.) A red crystalline compound related to, or produced from, erythrin. So called because regarded as the end of the series of erythrin compounds.

Tel"e*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; viewing afar, farseeing; &?; far, far off + &?; a watcher, akin to &?; to view: cf. F. télescope. See Telegraph, and -scope.] An optical instrument used in viewing distant objects, as the heavenly bodies.

A telescope assists the eye chiefly in two ways; first, by enlarging the visual angle under which a distant object is seen, and thus magnifying that object; and, secondly, by collecting, and conveying to the eye, a larger beam of light than would enter the naked organ, thus rendering objects distinct and visible which would otherwise be indistinct and or invisible. Its essential parts are the object glass, or concave mirror, which collects the beam of light, and forms an image of the object, and the eyeglass, which is a microscope, by which the image is magnified.

Achromatic telescope. See under Achromatic. — Aplanatic telescope, a telescope having an aplanatic eyepiece. — Astronomical telescope, a telescope which has a simple eyepiece so constructed or used as not to reverse the image formed by the object glass, and consequently exhibits objects inverted, which is not a hindrance in astronomical observations. — Cassegrainian telescope, a reflecting telescope invented by Cassegrain, which differs from the Gregorian only in having the secondary speculum convex instead of concave, and placed nearer the large speculum. The Cassegrainian represents objects inverted; the Gregorian, in their natural position. The Melbourne telescope (see Illust. under Reflecting telescope, below) is a Cassegrainian telescope. — Dialytic telescope. See under Dialytic. - - Equatorial telescope. See the Note under Equatorial. — Galilean telescope, a refracting telescope in which the eyeglass is a concave instead of a convex lens, as in the common opera glass. This was the construction originally adopted by Galileo, the inventor of the instrument. It exhibits the objects erect, that is, in their natural positions. — Gregorian telescope, a form of reflecting telescope. See under Gregorian. — Herschelian telescope, a reflecting telescope of the form invented by Sir William Herschel, in which only one speculum is employed, by means of which an image of the object is formed near one side of the open end of the tube, and to this the eyeglass is applied directly. — Newtonian telescope, a form of reflecting telescope. See under Newtonian. — Photographic telescope, a telescope specially constructed to make photographs of the heavenly bodies. — Prism telescope. See Teinoscope. — Reflecting telescope, a telescope in which the image is formed by a speculum or mirror (or usually by two speculums, a large one at the lower end of the telescope, and the smaller one near the open end) instead of an object glass. See Gregorian, Cassegrainian, Herschelian, ∧ Newtonian, telescopes, above. — Refracting telescope, a telescope in which the image is formed by refraction through an object glass. — Telescope carp (Zoöl.), the telescope fish. — Telescope fish (Zoöl.), a monstrous variety of the goldfish having very protuberant eyes. — Telescope fly (Zoöl.), any two-winged fly of the genus Diopsis, native of Africa and Asia. The telescope flies are remarkable for having the eyes raised on very long stalks. — Telescope shell (Zoöl.), an elongated gastropod (Cerithium telescopium) having numerous flattened whorls. — Telescope sight (Firearms), a slender telescope attached to the barrel, having cross wires in the eyepiece and used as a sight. — Terrestrial telescope, a telescope whose eyepiece has one or two lenses more than the astronomical, for the purpose of inverting the image, and exhibiting objects erect.

Tel"e*scope (?), a. [imp. & p. p. Telescoped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Telescoping (?).] To slide or pass one within another, after the manner of the sections of a small telescope or spyglass; to come into collision, as railway cars, in such a manner that one runs into another. [Recent]

Tel"e*scope, v. t. To cause to come into collision, so as to telescope. [Recent]

{ Tel`e*scop"ic (?), Tel`e*scop"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. télescopique.] 1. Of or pertaining to a telescope; performed by a telescope.

2. Seen or discoverable only by a telescope; as, telescopic stars.

3. Able to discern objects at a distance; farseeing; far-reaching; as, a telescopic eye; telescopic vision.

4. Having the power of extension by joints sliding one within another, like the tube of a small telescope or a spyglass; especially (Mach.), constructed of concentric tubes, either stationary, as in the telescopic boiler, or movable, as in the telescopic chimney of a war vessel, which may be put out of sight by being lowered endwise.

Tel`e*scop"ic*al*ly, adv. In a telescopical manner; by or with the telescope.

Te*les"co*pist (?), n. One who uses a telescope. R. A. Proctor.

Te*les"co*py (?), n. The art or practice of using or making telescopes.

Tel"esm (?), n. [Ar. tilism. See Talisman.] A kind of amulet or magical charm. [Obs.] J. Gregory.

{ Tel`es*mat"ic (?), Tel`es*mat"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to telesms; magical. J. Gregory.

Tel`e*spec"tro*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + E. spectroscope.] (Astron.) A spectroscope arranged to be attached to a telescope for observation of distant objects, as the sun or stars. Lockyer.

Tel`e*ste"re*o*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + E. stereoscope.] (Opt.) A stereoscope adapted to view distant natural objects or landscapes; a telescopic stereoscope.

Te*les"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; fit for finishing, from &?; to finish.] Tending or relating to a purpose or an end. [R.] Cudworth.

Te*les"tich (?), n. [Gr. &?; the end + &?; a line, verse.] A poem in which the final letters of the lines, taken consequently, make a name. Cf. Acrostic.

Tel`e*ther*mom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + E. thermometer.] (Physics) An apparatus for determining the temperature of a distant point, as by a thermoelectric circuit or otherwise.

Te*leu"to*spore (?), n. [Gr. &?; completion + E. spore.] (Bot.) The thick-celled winter or resting spore of the rusts (order Uredinales), produced in late summer. See Illust. of Uredospore.

Tel"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, from &?; the end.] (Gram.) Denoting the final end or purpose, as distinguished from ecbatic. See Ecbatic. Gibbs.

Tell (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Told (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Telling.] [AS. tellan, from talu tale, number, speech; akin to D. tellen to count, G. zählen, OHG. zellen to count, tell, say, Icel. telja, Dan. tale to speak, tælle to count. See Tale that which is told.] 1. To mention one by one, or piece by piece; to recount; to enumerate; to reckon; to number; to count; as, to tell money. "An heap of coin he told." Spenser.

He telleth the number of the stars.

Ps. cxlvii. 4.

Tell the joints of the body.

Jer. Taylor.

2. To utter or recite in detail; to give an account of; to narrate.

Of which I shall tell all the array.


And not a man appears to tell their fate.


3. To make known; to publish; to disclose; to divulge.

Why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?

Gen. xii. 18.

4. To give instruction to; to make report to; to acquaint; to teach; to inform.

A secret pilgrimage,
That you to-day promised to tell me of?


5. To order; to request; to command.

He told her not to be frightened.


6. To discern so as to report; to ascertain by observing; to find out; to discover; as, I can not tell where one color ends and the other begins.

7. To make account of; to regard; to reckon; to value; to estimate. [Obs.]

I ne told no dainity of her love.


Tell, though equivalent in some respect to speak and say, has not always the same application. We say, to tell truth or falsehood, to tell a number, to tell the reasons, to tell something or nothing; but we never say, to tell a speech, discourse, or oration, or to tell an argument or a lesson. It is much used in commands; as, tell me the whole story; tell me all you know.

To tell off, to count; to divide. Sir W. Scott.

Syn. — To communicate; impart; reveal; disclose; inform; acquaint; report; repeat; rehearse; recite.

Tell, v. i. 1. To give an account; to make report.

That I may publish with the voice of thankgiving, and tell of all thy wondrous works.

Ps. xxvi. 7.

2. To take effect; to produce a marked effect; as, every shot tells; every expression tells.

To tell of. (a) To speak of; to mention; to narrate or describe. (b) To inform against; to disclose some fault of. — To tell on, to inform against. [Archaic & Colloq.]

Lest they should tell on us, saying, So did David.

1 Sam. xxvii. 11.

Tell, n. That which is told; tale; account. [R.]

I am at the end of my tell.


Tell, n. [Ar.] A hill or mound. W. M. Thomson.

Tell"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being told.

Tel"len (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of Tellina.

Tell"er (?), n. 1. One who tells, relates, or communicates; an informer, narrator, or describer.

2. One of four officers of the English Exchequer, formerly appointed to receive moneys due to the king and to pay moneys payable by the king. Cowell.

3. An officer of a bank who receives and counts over money paid in, and pays money out on checks.

4. One who is appointed to count the votes given in a legislative body, public meeting, assembly, etc.

Tell"er*ship, n. The office or employment of a teller.

||Tel*li"na (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a kind of shellfish.] (Zoöl.) A genus of marine bivalve mollusks having thin, delicate, and often handsomely colored shells.

Tell"ing (?), a. Operating with great effect; effective; as, a telling speech. — Tell"ing*ly, adv.

Tell"tale` (?), a. Telling tales; babbling. "The telltale heart." Poe.

Tell"tale`, n. 1. One who officiously communicates information of the private concerns of others; one who tells that which prudence should suppress.

2. (Mus.) A movable piece of ivory, lead, or other material, connected with the bellows of an organ, that gives notice, by its position, when the wind is exhausted.

3. (Naut.) (a) A mechanical attachment to the steering wheel, which, in the absence of a tiller, shows the position of the helm. (b) A compass in the cabin of a vessel, usually placed where the captain can see it at all hours, and thus inform himself of the vessel's course.

4. (Mach.) A machine or contrivance for indicating or recording something, particularly for keeping a check upon employees, as factory hands, watchmen, drivers, check takers, and the like, by revealing to their employers what they have done or omitted.

5. (Zoöl.) The tattler. See Tattler.

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Tel*lu"ral (?), a. [L. tellus, - uris, the earth.] Of or pertaining to the earth. [R.]

Tel"lu*rate (?), n. [Cf. F. tellurate. See Tellurium.] (Chem.) A salt of telluric acid.

Tel"lu*ret (?), n. (Chem.) A telluride. [Obsoles.]

Tel"lu*ret`ed (?), n. (Chem.) Combined or impregnated with tellurium; tellurized. [Written also telluretted.] [Obsoles.]

Tellureted hydrogen (Chem.), hydrogen telluride, H2Te, a gaseous substance analogous to hydrogen sulphide; — called also tellurhydric acid.

Tel`lur*hy"dric (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, hydrogen telluride, which is regarded as an acid, especially when in solution.

Tel*lu"ri*an (?), a. [L. tellus, - uris, the earth.] Of or pertaining to the earth. De Quincey.

Tel*lu"ri*an, n. 1. A dweller on the earth. De Quincey.

2. An instrument for showing the operation of the causes which produce the succession of day and night, and the changes of the seasons. [Written also tellurion.]

Tel*lu"ric (?), a. [L. tellus, - uris, the earth: cf. F. tellurique.] 1. Of or pertaining to the earth; proceeding from the earth.

Amid these hot, telluric flames.


2. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to tellurium; derived from, or resembling, tellurium; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with tellurous compounds; as, telluric acid, which is analogous to sulphuric acid.

Telluric bismuth (Min.), tetradymite. — Telluric silver (Min.), hessite.

Tel"lu*ride (?), n. (Chem.) A compound of tellurium with a more positive element or radical; — formerly called telluret.

Tel"lu*rism (?), n. An hypothesis of animal magnetism propounded by Dr. Keiser, in Germany, in which the phenomena are ascribed to the agency of a telluric spirit or influence. [R.] S. Thompson.

Tel"lu*rite (?), n. 1. (Chem.) A salt of tellurous acid.

2. (Min.) Oxide of tellurium. It occurs sparingly in tufts of white or yellowish crystals.

Tel*lu"ri*um (?), n. [NL., from L. tellus, -uris, the earth.] (Chem.) A rare nonmetallic element, analogous to sulphur and selenium, occasionally found native as a substance of a silver-white metallic luster, but usually combined with metals, as with gold and silver in the mineral sylvanite, with mercury in Coloradoite, etc. Symbol Te. Atomic weight 125.2.

Graphic tellurium. (Min.) See Sylvanite. — Tellurium glance (Min.), nagyagite; — called also black tellurium.

Tel"lu*rize (?), v. t. (Chem.) To impregnate with, or to subject to the action of, tellurium; — chiefly used adjectively in the past participle; as, tellurized ores.

Tel"lu*rous (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to tellurium; derived from, or containing, tellurium; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a lower valence as contrasted with telluric compounds; as, tellurous acid, which is analogous to sulphurous acid.

Tel`o*dy*nam"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; far + E. dynamic.] Relating to a system for transmitting power to a distance by means of swiftly moving ropes or cables driving grooved pulleys of large diameter.

Tel`oo*goo" (?), n. See Telugu. D. O. Allen.

||Te*lot"ro*cha (?), n.; pl. Telotrochæ (#). [NL. See Telotrochal.] (Zoöl.) An annelid larva having telotrochal bands of cilia.

{ Te*lot"ro*chal (?), Te*lot"ro*chous (?), } a. [Gr. &?; complete + &?; wheel, hoop.] (Zoöl.) Having both a preoral and a posterior band of cilla; — applied to the larvæ of certain annelids.

Tel"o*type (?), n. [Gr. &?; far off + - type.] An electric telegraph which prints the messages in letters and not in signs.

Tel"pher (?), n. [Gr. &?; far, far off + &?; to bear.] (Elec.) A contrivance for the conveyance of vehicles or loads by means of electricity. Fleeming Jenkin.

Telpher line, or Telpher road, an electric line or road over which vehicles for carrying loads are moved by electric engines actuated by a current conveyed by the line.

Tel"pher*age (?), n. The conveyance of vehicles or loads by means of electricity. Fleeming Jenkin.

Tel"son (?), n.; pl. Telsons (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a boundary, limit.] (Zoöl.) The terminal joint or movable piece at the end of the abdomen of Crustacea and other articulates. See Thoracostraca.

Tel`u*gu" (?), n. 1. A Darvidian language spoken in the northern parts of the Madras presidency. In extent of use it is the next language after Hindustani (in its various forms) and Bengali. [Spelt also Teloogoo.]

2. One of the people speaking the Telugu language.

Tel`u*gu", a. Of or pertaining to the Telugu language, or the Telugus.

Tem`er*a"ri*ous (?), a. [L. temerarius. See Temerity.] Unreasonably adventurous; despising danger; rash; headstrong; audacious; reckless; heedless. — Tem`er*a"ri*ous*ly, adv.

I spake against temerarious judgment.


Tem`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. temerare to defile.] Temerity. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Te*mer"i*ty (?), n. [L. temeritas, from temere by chance, rashly; perhaps akin to Skr. tamas darkness: cf. F. témérité.] Unreasonable contempt of danger; extreme venturesomeness; rashness; as, the temerity of a commander in war.

Syn. — Rashness; precipitancy; heedlessness; venturesomeness. - - Temerity, Rashness. These words are closely allied in sense, but have a slight difference in their use and application. Temerity is Latin, and rashness is Anglo-Saxon. As in many such cases, the Latin term is more select and dignified; the Anglo-Saxon more familiar and energetic. We show temerity in hasty decisions, and the conduct to which they lead. We show rashness in particular actions, as dictated by sudden impulse. It is an exhibition of temerity to approach the verge of a precipice; it is an act of rashness to jump into a river without being able to swim. Temerity, then, is an unreasonable contempt of danger; rashness is a rushing into danger from thoughtlessness or excited feeling.

It is notorious temerity to pass sentence upon grounds uncapable of evidence.


Her rush hand in evil hour
Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat.


Tem"er*ous (?), a. Temerarious. [Obs.]

Tem*pe"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Temple, a valley in Thessaly, celebrated by Greek poets on account of its beautiful scenery; resembling Temple; hence, beautiful; delightful; charming.

Tem"per (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tempered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tempering.] [AS. temprian or OF. temper, F. tempérer, and (in sense 3) temper, L. temperare, akin to tempus time. Cf. Temporal, Distemper, Tamper.] 1. To mingle in due proportion; to prepare by combining; to modify, as by adding some new element; to qualify, as by an ingredient; hence, to soften; to mollify; to assuage; to soothe; to calm.

Puritan austerity was so tempered by Dutch indifference, that mercy itself could not have dictated a milder system.


Woman! lovely woman! nature made thee
To temper man: we had been brutes without you.


But thy fire
Shall be more tempered, and thy hope far higher.


She [the Goddess of Justice] threw darkness and clouds about her, that tempered the light into a thousand beautiful shades and colors.


2. To fit together; to adjust; to accomodate.

Thy sustenance . . . serving to the appetite of the eater, tempered itself to every man's liking.

Wisdom xvi. 21.

3. (Metal.) To bring to a proper degree of hardness; as, to temper iron or steel.

The tempered metals clash, and yield a silver sound.


4. To govern; to manage. [A Latinism & Obs.]

With which the damned ghosts he governeth,
And furies rules, and Tartare tempereth.


5. To moisten to a proper consistency and stir thoroughly, as clay for making brick, loam for molding, etc.

6. (Mus.) To adjust, as the mathematical scale to the actual scale, or to that in actual use.

Syn. — To soften; mollify; assuage; soothe; calm.

Tem"per, n. 1. The state of any compound substance which results from the mixture of various ingredients; due mixture of different qualities; just combination; as, the temper of mortar.

2. Constitution of body; temperament; in old writers, the mixture or relative proportion of the four humors, blood, choler, phlegm, and melancholy.

The exquisiteness of his [Christ's] bodily temper increased the exquisiteness of his torment.


3. Disposition of mind; the constitution of the mind, particularly with regard to the passions and affections; as, a calm temper; a hasty temper; a fretful temper.

Remember with what mild
And gracious temper he both heared and judged.


The consequents of a certain ethical temper.

J. H. Newman.

4. Calmness of mind; moderation; equanimity; composure; as, to keep one's temper.

To fall with dignity, with temper rise.


Restore yourselves to your tempers, fathers.

B. Jonson.

5. Heat of mind or passion; irritation; proneness to anger; — in a reproachful sense. [Colloq.]

6. The state of a metal or other substance, especially as to its hardness, produced by some process of heating or cooling; as, the temper of iron or steel.

7. Middle state or course; mean; medium. [R.]

The perfect lawgiver is a just temper between the mere man of theory, who can see nothing but general principles, and the mere man of business, who can see nothing but particular circumstances.


8. (Sugar Works) Milk of lime, or other substance, employed in the process formerly used to clarify sugar.

Temper screw, in deep well boring, an adjusting screw connecting the working beam with the rope carrying the tools, for lowering the tools as the drilling progresses.

Syn. — Disposition; temperament; frame; humor; mood. See Disposition.

Tem"per, v. i. 1. To accord; to agree; to act and think in conformity. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To have or get a proper or desired state or quality; to grow soft and pliable.

I have him already tempering between my finger and my thumb, and shortly will I seal with him.


||Tem"pe*ra (?), n. [It.] (Paint.) A mode or process of painting; distemper.

The term is applied especially to early Italian painting, common vehicles of which were yolk of egg, yolk and white of egg mixed together, the white juice of the fig tree, and the like.

Tem"per*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being tempered.

The fusible, hard, and temperable texture of metals.


Tem"per*a*ment (?), n. [L. temperamentum a mixing in due proportion, proper measure, temperament: cf. F. tempérament. See Temper, v. t.] 1. Internal constitution; state with respect to the relative proportion of different qualities, or constituent parts.

The common law . . . has reduced the kingdom to its just state and temperament.

Sir M. Hale.

2. Due mixture of qualities; a condition brought about by mutual compromises or concessions. [Obs.]

However, I forejudge not any probable expedient, any temperament that can be found in things of this nature, so disputable on their side.


3. The act of tempering or modifying; adjustment, as of clashing rules, interests, passions, or the like; also, the means by which such adjustment is effected.

Wholesome temperaments of the rashness of popular assemblies.

Sir J. Mackintosh.

4. Condition with regard to heat or cold; temperature. [Obs.]

Bodies are denominated "hot" and "cold" in proportion to the present temperament of that part of our body to which they are applied.


5. (Mus.) A system of compromises in the tuning of organs, pianofortes, and the like, whereby the tones generated with the vibrations of a ground tone are mutually modified and in part canceled, until their number reduced to the actual practicable scale of twelve tones to the octave. This scale, although in so far artificial, is yet closely suggestive of its origin in nature, and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the ear, while it has the convenience that the same twelve fixed tones answer for every key or scale, C becoming identical with D, and so on.

6. (Physiol.) The peculiar physical and mental character of an individual, in olden times erroneously supposed to be due to individual variation in the relations and proportions of the constituent parts of the body, especially of the fluids, as the bile, blood, lymph, etc. Hence the phrases, bilious or choleric temperament, sanguine temperament, etc., implying a predominance of one of these fluids and a corresponding influence on the temperament.

Equal temperament (Mus.), that in which the variations from mathematically true pitch are distributed among all the keys alike. — Unequal temperament (Mus.), that in which the variations are thrown into the keys least used.

Tem`per*a*men"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to temperament; constitutional. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Tem"per*ance (?), n. [L. temperantia: cf. F. tempérance. See Temper, v. t.] 1. Habitual moderation in regard to the indulgence of the natural appetites and passions; restrained or moderate indulgence; moderation; as, temperance in eating and drinking; temperance in the indulgence of joy or mirth; specifically, moderation, and sometimes abstinence, in respect to using intoxicating liquors.

2. Moderation of passion; patience; calmness; sedateness. [R.] "A gentleman of all temperance." Shak.

He calmed his wrath with goodly temperance.


3. State with regard to heat or cold; temperature. [Obs.] "Tender and delicate temperance." Shak.

Temperance society, an association formed for the purpose of diminishing or stopping the use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage.

Tem"per*an*cy (?), n. Temperance.

Tem"per*ate (?), a. [L. temperatus, p. p. of temperare. See Temper, v. t.] 1. Moderate; not excessive; as, temperate heat; a temperate climate.

2. Not marked with passion; not violent; cool; calm; as, temperate language.

She is not hot, but temperate as the morn.


That sober freedom out of which there springs
Our loyal passion for our temperate kings.


3. Moderate in the indulgence of the natural appetites or passions; as, temperate in eating and drinking.

Be sober and temperate, and you will be healthy.


4. Proceeding from temperance. [R.]

The temperate sleeps, and spirits light as air.


Temperate zone (Geog.), that part of the earth which lies between either tropic and the corresponding polar circle; — so called because the heat is less than in the torrid zone, and the cold less than in the frigid zones.

Syn. — Abstemious; sober; calm; cool; sedate.

Tem"per*ate (?), v. t. To render temperate; to moderate; to soften; to temper. [Obs.]

It inflames temperance, and temperates wrath.


Tem"per*ate*ly (?), adv. In a temperate manner.

Tem"per*ate*ness, n. The quality or state of being temperate; moderateness; temperance.

Tem"per*a*tive (?), a. [Cf. L. temperativus soothing.] Having power to temper. [R.] T. Granger.

Tem"per*a*ture (?), n. [F. température, L. temperatura due measure, proportion, temper, temperament.] 1. Constitution; state; degree of any quality.

The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion, secrecy in habit, dissimulation in seasonable use, and a power to feign, if there be no remedy.


Memory depends upon the consistence and the temperature of the brain.

I. Watts.

2. Freedom from passion; moderation. [Obs.]

In that proud port, which her so goodly graceth,
Most goodly temperature you may descry.


3. (Physics) Condition with respect to heat or cold, especially as indicated by the sensation produced, or by the thermometer or pyrometer; degree of heat or cold; as, the temperature of the air; high temperature; low temperature; temperature of freezing or of boiling.

4. Mixture; compound. [Obs.]

Made a temperature of brass and iron together.


Absolute temperature. (Physics) See under Absolute. — Animal temperature (Physiol.), the nearly constant temperature maintained in the bodies of warm-blooded (homoiothermal) animals during life. The ultimate source of the heat is to be found in the potential energy of the food and the oxygen which is absorbed from the air during respiration. See Homoiothermal. — Temperature sense (Physiol.), the faculty of perceiving cold and warmth, and so of perceiving differences of temperature in external objects. H. N. Martin.

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Tem"pered (?), a. Brought to a proper temper; as, tempered steel; having (such) a temper; — chiefly used in composition; as, a good-tempered or bad-tempered man; a well-tempered sword.

Tem"per*er (?), n. One who, or that which, tempers; specifically, a machine in which lime, cement, stone, etc., are mixed with water.

Tem"per*ing, n. (Metal.) The process of giving the requisite degree of hardness or softness to a substance, as iron and steel; especially, the process of giving to steel the degree of hardness required for various purposes, consisting usually in first plunging the article, when heated to redness, in cold water or other liquid, to give an excess of hardness, and then reheating it gradually until the hardness is reduced or drawn down to the degree required, as indicated by the color produced on a polished portion, or by the burning of oil.

Tempering color, the shade of color that indicates the degree of temper in tempering steel, as pale straw yellow for lancets, razors, and tools for metal; dark straw yellow for penknives, screw taps, etc.; brown yellow for axes, chisels, and plane irons; yellow tinged with purple for table knives and shears; purple for swords and watch springs; blue for springs and saws; and very pale blue tinged with green, too soft for steel instruments.

Tem"pest (?), n. [OF. tempeste, F. tempête, (assumed) LL. tempesta, fr. L. tempestas a portion of time, a season, weather, storm, akin to tempus time. See Temporal of time.] 1. An extensive current of wind, rushing with great velocity and violence, and commonly attended with rain, hail, or snow; a furious storm.

[We] caught in a fiery tempest, shall be hurled,
Each on his rock transfixed.


2. Fig.: Any violent tumult or commotion; as, a political tempest; a tempest of war, or of the passions.

3. A fashionable assembly; a drum. See the Note under Drum, n., 4. [Archaic] Smollett.

Tempest is sometimes used in the formation of self- explaining compounds; as, tempest-beaten, tempest-loving, tempest-tossed, tempest-winged, and the like.

Syn. — Storm; agitation; perturbation. See Storm.

Tem"pest, v. t. [Cf. OF. tempester, F. tempêter to rage.] To disturb as by a tempest. [Obs.]

Part huge of bulk
Wallowing unwieldy, enormous in their gait,
Tempest the ocean.


Tem"pest, v. i. To storm. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Tem*pes"tive (?), a. [L. tempestivus.] Seasonable; timely; as, tempestive showers. [Obs.] Heywood. — Tem*pes"tive*ly, adv. [Obs.]

Tem`pes*tiv"i*ly (?), n. [L. tempestivitas.] The quality, or state, of being tempestive; seasonableness. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Tem*pes"tu*ous (?), a. [L. tempestuous: cf. OF. tempestueux, F. tempêtueux.] Of or pertaining to a tempest; involving or resembling a tempest; turbulent; violent; stormy; as, tempestuous weather; a tempestuous night; a tempestuous debate. — Tem*pes"tu*ous*ly, adv. — Tem*pes"tu*ous*ness, n.

They saw the Hebrew leader,
Waiting, and clutching his tempestuous beard.


Tem"plar (?), n. [OE. templere, F. templier, LL. templarius. See Temple a church.] 1. One of a religious and military order first established at Jerusalem, in the early part of the 12th century, for the protection of pilgrims and of the Holy Sepulcher. These Knights Templars, or Knights of the Temple, were so named because they occupied an apartment of the palace of Bladwin II. in Jerusalem, near the Temple.

The order was first limited in numbers, and its members were bound by vows of chastity and poverty. After the conquest of Palestine by the Saracens, the Templars spread over Europe, and, by reason of their reputation for valor and piety, they were enriched by numerous donations of money and lands. The extravagances and vices of the later Templars, however, finally led to the suppression of the order by the Council of Vienne in 1312.

2. A student of law, so called from having apartments in the Temple at London, the original buildings having belonged to the Knights Templars. See Inner Temple, and Middle Temple, under Temple. [Eng.]

3. One belonged to a certain order or degree among the Freemasons, called Knights Templars. Also, one of an order among temperance men, styled Good Templars.

Tem"plar, a. Of or pertaining to a temple. [R.]

Solitary, family, and templar devotion.


Tem"plate (?), n. Same as Templet.

Tem"ple (?), n. [Cf. Templet.] (Weaving) A contrivence used in a loom for keeping the web stretched transversely.

Tem"ple, n. [OF. temple, F. tempe, from L. tempora, tempus; perhaps originally, the right place, the fatal spot, supposed to be the same word as tempus, temporis, the fitting or appointed time. See Temporal of time, and cf. Tempo, Tense, n.] 1. (Anat.) The space, on either side of the head, back of the eye and forehead, above the zygomatic arch and in front of the ear.

2. One of the side bars of a pair of spectacles, jointed to the bows, and passing one on either side of the head to hold the spectacles in place.

Tem"ple, n. [AS. tempel, from L. templum a space marked out, sanctuary, temple; cf. Gr. &?; a piece of land marked off, land dedicated to a god: cf. F. témple, from the Latin. Cf. Contemplate.] 1. A place or edifice dedicated to the worship of some deity; as, the temple of Jupiter at Athens, or of Juggernaut in India. "The temple of mighty Mars." Chaucer.

2. (Jewish Antiq.) The edifice erected at Jerusalem for the worship of Jehovah.

Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.

John x. 23.

3. Hence, among Christians, an edifice erected as a place of public worship; a church.

Can he whose life is a perpetual insult to the authority of God enter with any pleasure a temple consecrated to devotion and sanctified by prayer?


4. Fig.: Any place in which the divine presence specially resides. "The temple of his body." John ii. 21.

Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the spirit of God dwelleth in you?

1 Cor. iii. 16.

The groves were God's first temples.


Inner Temple, ∧ Middle Temple, two buildings, or ranges of buildings, occupied by two inns of court in London, on the site of a monastic establishment of the Knights Templars, called the Temple.

Tem"ple (?), v. t. To build a temple for; to appropriate a temple to; as, to temple a god. [R.] Feltham.

Tem"pled (?), a. Supplied with a temple or temples, or with churches; inclosed in a temple.

I love thy rocks and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills.

S. F. Smith.

Tem"plet (?), n. [LL. templatus vaulted, from L. templum a small timber.] [Spelt also template.] 1. A gauge, pattern, or mold, commonly a thin plate or board, used as a guide to the form of the work to be executed; as, a mason's or a wheelwright's templet.

2. (Arch.) A short piece of timber, iron, or stone, placed in a wall under a girder or other beam, to distribute the weight or pressure.

||Tem"po (?), n. [It., fr. L. tempus. See Tense, n.] (Mus.) The rate or degree of movement in time.

||A tempo giusto (js"t) [It.], in exact time; — sometimes, directing a return to strict time after a tempo rubato. — Tempo rubato. See under Rubato.

Tem"po*ral (?), a. [L. temporalis, fr. tempora the temples: cf. F. temporal. See Temple a part of the head.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the temple or temples; as, the temporal bone; a temporal artery.

Temporal bone, a very complex bone situated in the side of the skull of most mammals and containing the organ of hearing. It consists of an expanded squamosal portion above the ear, corresponding to the squamosal and zygoma of the lower vertebrates, and a thickened basal petrosal and mastoid portion, corresponding to the periotic and tympanic bones of the lower vertebrates.

Tem"po*ral (?), a. [L. temporalis, fr. tempus, temporis, time, portion of time, the fitting or appointed time: cf. F. temporel. Cf. Contemporaneous, Extempore, Temper, v. t., Tempest, Temple a part of the head, Tense, n., Thing.] 1. Of or pertaining to time, that is, to the present life, or this world; secular, as distinguished from sacred or eternal.

The things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal.

2 Cor. iv. 18.

Is this an hour for temporal affairs?


2. Civil or political, as distinguished from ecclesiastical; as, temporal power; temporal courts.

Lords temporal. See under Lord, n.Temporal augment. See the Note under Augment, n.

Syn. — Transient; fleeting; transitory.

Tem"po*ral, n. Anything temporal or secular; a temporality; — used chiefly in the plural. Dryden.

He assigns supremacy to the pope in spirituals, and to the emperor or temporals.


Tem`po*ral"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Temporalities (#). [L. temporalitas, in LL., possessions of the church: cf. F. temporalité.] 1. The state or quality of being temporary; — opposed to perpetuity.

2. The laity; temporality. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

3. That which pertains to temporal welfare; material interests; especially, the revenue of an ecclesiastic proceeding from lands, tenements, or lay fees, tithes, and the like; — chiefly used in the plural.

Supreme head, . . . under God, of the spirituality and temporality of the same church.


Tem"po*ral*ly (?), adv. In a temporal manner; secularly. [R.] South.

Tem"po*ral*ness, n. Worldliness. [R.] Cotgrave.

Tem"po*ral*ty (?), n. [See Temporality.] 1. The laity; secular people. [Obs.] Abp. Abbot.

2. A secular possession; a temporality.

Tem`po*ra"ne*ous (?), a. [L. temporaneus happening at the right time, fr. tempus, temporis, time.] Temporarity. [Obs.] Hallywell.

Tem"po*ra*ri*ly (?), adv. In a temporary manner; for a time.

Tem"po*ra*ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being temporary; — opposed to perpetuity.

Tem"po*ra*ry (?), a. [L. temporarius, fr. tempus, temporis, time: cf. F. temporaire.] Lasting for a time only; existing or continuing for a limited time; not permanent; as, the patient has obtained temporary relief.

Temporary government of the city.


Temporary star. (Astron.) See under Star.

Tem"po*rist (?), n. A temporizer. [Obs.]

Why, turn a temporist, row with the tide.


Tem`po*ri*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. temporisation.] The act of temporizing. Johnson.

Tem"po*rize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Temporized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Temporizing (?).] [F. temporiser. See Temporal of time.] 1. To comply with the time or occasion; to humor, or yield to, the current of opinion or circumstances; also, to trim, as between two parties.

They might their grievance inwardly complain,
But outwardly they needs must temporize.


2. To delay; to procrastinate. [R.] Bacon.

3. To comply; to agree. [Obs.] Shak.

Tem"po*ri`zer (?), n. One who temporizes; one who yields to the time, or complies with the prevailing opinions, fashions, or occasions; a trimmer.

A sort of temporizers, ready to embrace and maintain all that is, or shall be, proposed, in hope of preferment.


Tem"po*ri`zing*ly (?), adv. In a temporizing or yielding manner.

Tem"po*ro- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the temple, or temporal bone; as, temporofacial.

Tem`po*ro-au*ric"u*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the temple and the ear; as, the temporo- auricular nerve.

Tem`po*ro*fa"cial (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the temple and the face.

Tem`po*ro*ma"lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the temple and the region of the malar bone; as, the temporomalar nerve.

Tem`po*ro*max"il*la*ry (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the temple or the temporal bone and the maxilla.

Temps (?), n. [OF. & F., fr. L. tempus. See Temporal of time.] Time. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tempse (?), n. See Temse. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Tempt (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tempted; p. pr. & vb. n. Tempting.] [OE. tempten, tenten, from OF. tempter, tenter, F. tenter, fr. L. tentare, temptare, to handle, feel, attack, to try, put to the test, urge, freq. from tendere, tentum, and tensum, to stretch. See Thin, and cf. Attempt, Tend, Taunt, Tent a pavilion, Tent to probe.] 1. To put to trial; to prove; to test; to try.

God did tempt Abraham.

Gen. xxii. 1.

Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God.

Deut. vi. 16.

2. To lead, or endeavor to lead, into evil; to entice to what is wrong; to seduce.

Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.

James i. 14.

3. To endeavor to persuade; to induce; to invite; to incite; to provoke; to instigate.

Tempt not the brave and needy to despair.


Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging Sire.


4. To endeavor to accomplish or reach; to attempt.

Ere leave be given to tempt the nether skies.


Syn. — To entice; allure; attract; decoy; seduce.

Tempt`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being temptable; lability to temptation.

Tempt"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being tempted; liable to be tempted. Cudworth.

Temp*ta"tion (?), n. [OF. temptation, tentation, F. tentation, L. tentatio.] 1. The act of tempting, or enticing to evil; seduction.

When the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.

Luke iv. 13.

2. The state of being tempted, or enticed to evil.

Lead us not into temptation.

Luke xi. 4.

3. That which tempts; an inducement; an allurement, especially to something evil.

Dare to be great, without a guilty crown;
View it, and lay the bright temptation down.


Temp*ta"tion*less, a. Having no temptation or motive; as, a temptationless sin. [R.] Hammond.

Temp*ta"tious (?), a. Tempting. [Prov. Eng.]

Tempt"er (?), n. One who tempts or entices; especially, Satan, or the Devil, regarded as the great enticer to evil. "Those who are bent to do wickedly will never want tempters to urge them on." Tillotson.

So glozed the Tempter, and his proem tuned.


Tempt"ing, a. Adapted to entice or allure; attractive; alluring; seductive; enticing; as, tempting pleasures. — Tempt"ing*ly, adv. — Tempt"ing*ness, n.

Tempt"ress (?), n. A woman who entices.

She was my temptress, the foul provoker.

Sir W. Scott.

Temse (?), n. [F. tamis, or D. tems, teems. Cf. Tamine.] A sieve. [Written also tems, and tempse.] [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Temse bread, Temsed bread, Temse loaf, bread made of flour better sifted than common fluor. [Prov. Eng.]

{ Tem"u*lence (?), Tem"u*len*cy (?), } n. [L. temulentia.] Intoxication; inebriation; drunkenness. [R.] "Their temulency." Jer. Taylor.

Tem"u*lent (?), a. [L. temulentus.] Intoxicated; drunken. [R.]

Tem"u*lent*ive (?), a. Somewhat temulent; addicted to drink. [R.] R. Junius.

Ten (?), a. [AS. tn, tién, t&?;n, tne; akin to OFries. tian, OS. tehan, D. tien, G. zehn, OHG. zehan, Icel. tu, Sw. tio, Dan. ti, Goth. taíhun, Lith. deszimt, Russ. desiate, W. deg, Ir. & Gael. deich, L. decem, Gr. &?;, Skr. daçan. √308. Cf. Dean, Decade, Decimal, December, Eighteen, Eighty, Teens, Tithe.] One more than nine; twice five.

With twice ten sail I crossed the Phrygian Sea.


Ten is often used, indefinitely, for several, many, and other like words.

There 's proud modesty in merit,
Averse from begging, and resolved to pay
Ten times the gift it asks.


<! p. 1484 !>

Ten (?), n. 1. The number greater by one than nine; the sum of five and five; ten units of objects.

I will not destroy it for ten's sake.

Gen. xviii. 32.

2. A symbol representing ten units, as 10, x, or X.

Ten`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tenable; tenableness.

Ten"a*ble (?), a. [F. tenable, fr. tenir to hold, L. tenere. See Thin, and cf. Continue, Continent, Entertain, Maintain, Tenant, Tent.] Capable of being held, naintained, or defended, as against an assailant or objector, or againts attempts to take or process; as, a tenable fortress, a tenable argument.

If you have hitherto concealed his sight,
Let it be tenable in your silence still.


I would be the last man in the world to give up his cause when it was tenable.

Sir W. Scott.

Ten`a*ble*ness, n. Same as Tenability.

Ten"ace (?), n. [F. tenace tenacious, demeurer tenace to hold the best and third best cards and take both tricks, and adversary having to lead. See Tenacious.] (Whist) The holding by the fourth hand of the best and third best cards of a suit led; also, sometimes, the combination of best with third best card of a suit in any hand.

Te*na"cious (?), a. [L. tenax, - acis, from tenere to hold. See Tenable, and cf. Tenace.] 1. Holding fast, or inclined to hold fast; inclined to retain what is in possession; as, men tenacious of their just rights.

2. Apt to retain; retentive; as, a tenacious memory.

3. Having parts apt to adhere to each other; cohesive; tough; as, steel is a tenacious metal; tar is more tenacious than oil. Sir I. Newton.

4. Apt to adhere to another substance; glutinous; viscous; sticking; adhesive. "Female feet, too weak to struggle with tenacious clay." Cowper.

5. Niggardly; closefisted; miserly. Ainsworth.

6. Holding stoutly to one's opinion or purpose; obstinate; stubborn.

— Te*na"cious*ly, adv. — Te*na"cious*ness, n.

Te*nac"i*ty (?), n. [L. tenacitas: cf. F. ténacité. See Tenacious.] 1. The quality or state of being tenacious; as, tenacity, or retentiveness, of memory; tenacity, or persistency, of purpose.

2. That quality of bodies which keeps them from parting without considerable force; cohesiveness; the effect of attraction; — as distinguished from brittleness, fragility, mobility, etc.

3. That quality of bodies which makes them adhere to other bodies; adhesiveness; viscosity. Holland.

4. (Physics) The greatest longitudinal stress a substance can bear without tearing asunder, — usually expressed with reference to a unit area of the cross section of the substance, as the number of pounds per square inch, or kilograms per square centimeter, necessary to produce rupture.

||Te*nac"u*lum (?), n.; pl. L. Tenacula (#); E. Tenaculums (#). [L., a holder, fr. tenere to hold. Cf. Tenaille.] (Surg.) An instrument consisting of a fine, sharp hook attached to a handle, and used mainly for taking up arteries, and the like.

Ten"a*cy (?), n. [L. tenacia obstinacy. See Tenacious.] Tenaciousness; obstinacy. [Obs.] Barrow.

Te*naille" (?), n. [F., a pair of pincers or tongs, a tenaille, fr. L. tenaculum. See Tenaculum.] (Fort.) An outwork in the main ditch, in front of the curtain, between two bastions. See Illust. of Ravelin.

Te*nail"lon (?), n. [F. See Tenaille.] (Fort.) A work constructed on each side of the ravelins, to increase their strength, procure additional ground beyond the ditch, or cover the shoulders of the bastions.

Ten"an*cy (?), n.; pl. Tenacies (#). [Cf. OF. tenace, LL. tenentia. See Tenant.] (Law) (a) A holding, or a mode of holding, an estate; tenure; the temporary possession of what belongs to another. (b) (O. Eng. Law) A house for habitation, or place to live in, held of another. Blount. Blackstone. Wharton.

Ten"ant (?), n. [F. tenant, p. pr. of tenir to hold. See Tenable, and cf. Lieutenant.] 1. (Law) One who holds or possesses lands, or other real estate, by any kind of right, whether in fee simple, in common, in severalty, for life, for years, or at will; also, one who has the occupation or temporary possession of lands or tenements the title of which is in another; — correlative to landlord. See Citation from Blackstone, under Tenement, 2. Blount. Wharton.

2. One who has possession of any place; a dweller; an occupant. "Sweet tenants of this grove." Cowper.

The hhappy tenant of your shade.


The sister tenants of the middle deep.


Tenant in capite [L. in in + capite, abl. of caput head, chief.], or Tenant in chief, by the laws of England, one who holds immediately of the king. According to the feudal system, all lands in England are considered as held immediately or mediately of the king, who is styled lord paramount. Such tenants, however, are considered as having the fee of the lands and permanent possession. Blackstone.Tenant in common. See under Common.

Ten"ant, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tenanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Tenanting.] To hold, occupy, or possess as a tenant.

Sir Roger's estate is tenanted by persons who have served him or his ancestors.


Ten"ant*a*ble (?), a. Fit to be rented; in a condition suitable for a tenant. — Ten"ant*a*ble*ness, n.

Ten"ant*less, a. Having no tenants; unoccupied; as, a tenantless mansion. Shak.

Ten"ant*ry (?), n. 1. The body of tenants; as, the tenantry of a manor or a kingdom.

2. Tenancy. [Obs.] Ridley.

Ten"ant saw` (?). See Tenon saw, under Tenon.

Tench (?), n. [OF. tenche, F. tanche, L. tinca.] (Zoöl.) A European fresh- water fish (Tinca tinca, or T. vulgaris) allied to the carp. It is noted for its tenacity of life.

Tend (?), v. t. [See Tender to offer.] (O. Eng. Law) To make a tender of; to offer or tender. [Obs.]

Tend, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tended; p. pr. & vb. n. Tending.] [Aphetic form of attend. See Attend, Tend to move, and cf. Tender one that tends or attends.] 1. To accompany as an assistant or protector; to care for the wants of; to look after; to watch; to guard; as, shepherds tend their flocks. Shak.

And flaming ministers to watch and tend
Their earthly charge.


There 's not a sparrow or a wren,
There 's not a blade of autumn grain,
Which the four seasons do not tend
And tides of life and increase lend.


2. To be attentive to; to note carefully; to attend to.

Being to descend
A ladder much in height, I did not tend
My way well down.


To tend a vessel (Naut.), to manage an anchored vessel when the tide turns, so that in swinging she shall not entangle the cable.

Tend, v. i. 1. To wait, as attendants or servants; to serve; to attend; — with on or upon.

Was he not companion with the riotous knights
That tend upon my father?


2. [F. attendre.] To await; to expect. [Obs.] Shak.

Tend, v. i. [F. tendre, L. tendere, tensum and tentum, to stretch, extend, direct one's course, tend; akin to Gr. &?; to stretch, Skr. tan. See Thin, and cf. Tend to attend, Contend, Intense, Ostensible, Portent, Tempt, Tender to offer, Tense, a.] 1. To move in a certain direction; — usually with to or towards.

Two gentlemen tending towards that sight.

Sir H. Wotton.

Thus will this latter, as the former world,
Still tend from bad to worse.


The clouds above me to the white Alps tend.


2. To be directed, as to any end, object, or purpose; to aim; to have or give a leaning; to exert activity or influence; to serve as a means; to contribute; as, our petitions, if granted, might tend to our destruction.

The thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness; but of every one that is hasty only to want.

Prov. xxi. 5.

The laws of our religion tend to the universal happiness of mankind.


Tend"ance (?), n. [See Tend to attend, and cf. Attendance.] 1. The act of attending or waiting; attendance. [Archaic] Spenser.

The breath
Of her sweet tendance hovering over him.


2. Persons in attendance; attendants. [Obs.] Shak.

Tend"ence (?), n. Tendency. [Obs.]

Tend"en*cy (?), n.; pl. Tendencies (#). [L. tendents, -entis, p. pr. of tendere: cf. F. tendance. See Tend to move.] Direction or course toward any place, object, effect, or result; drift; causal or efficient influence to bring about an effect or result.

Writings of this kind, if conducted with candor, have a more particular tendency to the good of their country.


In every experimental science, there is a tendency toward perfection.


Syn. — Disposition; inclination; proneness; drift; scope; aim.

Tend"er (?), n. [From Tend to attend. Cf. Attender.] 1. One who tends; one who takes care of any person or thing; a nurse.

2. (Naut.) A vessel employed to attend other vessels, to supply them with provisions and other stores, to convey intelligence, or the like.

3. A car attached to a locomotive, for carrying a supply of fuel and water.

Ten"der (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tendered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tendering.] [F. tendre to stretch, stretch out, reach, L. tendere. See Tend to move.] 1. (Law) To offer in payment or satisfaction of a demand, in order to save a penalty or forfeiture; as, to tender the amount of rent or debt.

2. To offer in words; to present for acceptance.

You see how all conditions, how all minds, . . . tender down
Their services to Lord Timon.


Ten"der, n. 1. (Law) An offer, either of money to pay a debt, or of service to be performed, in order to save a penalty or forfeiture, which would be incurred by nonpayment or nonperformance; as, the tender of rent due, or of the amount of a note, with interest.

To constitute a legal tender, such money must be offered as the law prescribes. So also the tender must be at the time and place where the rent or debt ought to be paid, and it must be to the full amount due.

2. Any offer or proposal made for acceptance; as, a tender of a loan, of service, or of friendship; a tender of a bid for a contract.

A free, unlimited tender of the gospel.


3. The thing offered; especially, money offered in payment of an obligation. Shak.

Legal tender. See under Legal. — Tender of issue (Law), a form of words in a pleading, by which a party offers to refer the question raised upon it to the appropriate mode of decision. Burrill.

Ten"der, a. [Compar. Tenderer (?); superl. Tenderest.] [F. tendre, L. tener; probably akin to tenuis thin. See Thin.] 1. Easily impressed, broken, bruised, or injured; not firm or hard; delicate; as, tender plants; tender flesh; tender fruit.

2. Sensible to impression and pain; easily pained.

Our bodies are not naturally more tender than our faces.


3. Physically weak; not hardly or able to endure hardship; immature; effeminate.

The tender and delicate woman among you.

Deut. xxviii. 56.

4. Susceptible of the softer passions, as love, compassion, kindness; compassionate; pitiful; anxious for another's good; easily excited to pity, forgiveness, or favor; sympathetic.

The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.

James v. 11.

I am choleric by my nature, and tender by my temper.


5. Exciting kind concern; dear; precious.

I love Valentine,
Whose life's as tender to me as my soul!


6. Careful to save inviolate, or not to injure; — with of. "Tender of property." Burke.

The civil authority should be tender of the honor of God and religion.


7. Unwilling to cause pain; gentle; mild.

You, that are thus so tender o'er his follies,
Will never do him good.


8. Adapted to excite feeling or sympathy; expressive of the softer passions; pathetic; as, tender expressions; tender expostulations; a tender strain.

9. Apt to give pain; causing grief or pain; delicate; as, a tender subject. "Things that are tender and unpleasing." Bacon.

10. (Naut.) Heeling over too easily when under sail; — said of a vessel.

Tender is sometimes used in the formation of self- explaining compounds; as, tender-footed, tender-looking, tender-minded, tender-mouthed, and the like.

Syn. — Delicate; effeminate; soft; sensitive; compassionate; kind; humane; merciful; pitiful.

Ten"der (?), n. [Cf. F. tendre.] Regard; care; kind concern. [Obs.] Shak.

Ten"der, v. t. To have a care of; to be tender toward; hence, to regard; to esteem; to value. [Obs.]

For first, next after life, he tendered her good.


Tender yourself more dearly.


To see a prince in want would move a miser's charity. Our western princes tendered his case, which they counted might be their own.


Ten"der*foot` (?), n. A delicate person; one not inured to the hardship and rudeness of pioneer life. [Slang, Western U. S.]

Ten"der-heart`ed (?), a. Having great sensibility; susceptible of impressions or influence; affectionate; pitying; sensitive. — Ten"der-heart`ed*ly, adv. — Ten"der-heart`ed*ness, n.

Rehoboam was young and tender-hearted, and could not withstand them.

2 Chron. xiii. 7.

Be ye kind one to another, tender- hearted.

Eph. iv. 32.

Ten"der-heft`ed (?), a. Having great tenderness; easily moved. [Obs.] Shak.

Ten"der*ling (?), n. 1. One made tender by too much kindness; a fondling. [R.] W. Harrison (1586).

2. (Zoöl.) One of the first antlers of a deer.

Ten"der*loin` (?), n. A strip of tender flesh on either side of the vertebral column under the short ribs, in the hind quarter of beef and pork. It consists of the psoas muscles.

Ten"der*ly, adv. In a tender manner; with tenderness; mildly; gently; softly; in a manner not to injure or give pain; with pity or affection; kindly. Chaucer.

Ten"der*ness, n. The quality or state of being tender (in any sense of the adjective).

Syn. — Benignity; humanity; sensibility; benevolence; kindness; pity; clemency; mildness; mercy.

Ten"di*nous (?), a. [Cf. F. tendineux.] 1. Pertaining to a tendon; of the nature of tendon.

2. Full of tendons; sinewy; as, nervous and tendinous parts of the body.

Tend"ment (?), n. Attendance; care. [Obs.]

Ten"don (?), n. [F., fr. L. tendere to stretch, extend. See Tend to move.] (Anat.) A tough insensible cord, bundle, or band of fibrous connective tissue uniting a muscle with some other part; a sinew.

Tendon reflex (Physiol.), a kind of reflex act in which a muscle is made to contract by a blow upon its tendon. Its absence is generally a sign of disease. See Knee jerk, under Knee.

Ten"don*ous (?), a. Tendinous.

||Ten`do*syn`o*vi"tis (?), n. [NL. See Tendon, and Synovitis.] See Tenosynovitis.

Ten"drac (?), n. [See Tenrec.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small insectivores of the family Centetidæ, belonging to Ericulus, Echinope, and related genera, native of Madagascar. They are more or less spinose and resemble the hedgehog in habits. The rice tendrac (Oryzorictes hora) is very injurious to rice crops. Some of the species are called also tenrec.

Ten"dril (?), n. [Shortened fr. OF. tendrillon, fr. F. tendre tender; hence, properly, the tender branch or spring of a plant: cf. F. tendrille. See Tender, a., and cf. Tendron.] (Bot.) A slender, leafless portion of a plant by which it becomes attached to a supporting body, after which the tendril usually contracts by coiling spirally.

Tendrils may represent the end of a stem, as in the grapevine; an axillary branch, as in the passion flower; stipules, as in the genus Smilax; or the end of a leaf, as in the pea.

<! p. 1485 !>

Ten"dril (?), a. Clasping; climbing as a tendril. [R.] Dyer.

{ Ten"driled, Ten"drilled } (?), a. (Bot.) Furnished with tendrils, or with such or so many, tendrils. "The thousand tendriled vine." Southey.

Ten"dron (?), n. [F. Cf. Tendril.] A tendril. [Obs.] Holland.

Ten"dry (?), n. A tender; an offer. [Obs.] Heylin.

Tene (?), n. & v. See 1st and 2d Teen. [Obs.]

||Ten"e*bræ (?), n. [L., pl., darkness.] (R. C. Ch.) The matins and lauds for the last three days of Holy Week, commemorating the sufferings and death of Christ, — usually sung on the afternoon or evening of Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, instead of on the following days.

Te*neb"ri*cose` (?), a. [L. tenebricosus.] Tenebrous; dark; gloomy. [Obs.]

Ten`e*brif"ic (?), a. [L. tenebrae darkness + facere to make.] Rendering dark or gloomy; tenebrous; gloomy.

It lightens, it brightens,
The tenebrific scene.


Where light
Lay fitful in a tenebrific time.

R. Browning.

Ten`e*brif"ic*ous (?), a. Tenebrific.

Authors who are tenebrificous stars.


Te*ne"bri*ous (?), a. Tenebrous. Young.

Ten"e*brose` (?), a. Characterized by darkness or gloom; tenebrous.

Ten`e*bros"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tenebrous; tenebrousness. Burton.

Ten"e*brous (?), a. [L. tenebrosus, fr. tenebrae darkness: cf. F. ténébreux.] Dark; gloomy; dusky; tenebrious. — Ten"e*brous*ness, n.

The most dark, tenebrous night.

J. Hall (1565).

The towering and tenebrous boughts of the cypress.


Ten"e*ment (?), n. [OF. tenement a holding, a fief, F. tènement, LL. tenementum, fr. L. tenere to hold. See Tenant.] 1. (Feud. Law) That which is held of another by service; property which one holds of a lord or proprietor in consideration of some military or pecuniary service; fief; fee.

2. (Common Law) Any species of permanent property that may be held, so as to create a tenancy, as lands, houses, rents, commons, an office, an advowson, a franchise, a right of common, a peerage, and the like; — called also free or frank tenements.

The thing held is a tenement, the possessor of it a "tenant," and the manner of possession is called "tenure."


3. A dwelling house; a building for a habitation; also, an apartment, or suite of rooms, in a building, used by one family; often, a house erected to be rented.

4. Fig.: Dwelling; abode; habitation.

Who has informed us that a rational soul can inhabit no tenement, unless it has just such a sort of frontispiece?


Tenement house, commonly, a dwelling house erected for the purpose of being rented, and divided into separate apartments or tenements for families. The term is often applied to apartment houses occupied by poor families.

Syn. — House; dwelling; habitation. — Tenement, House. There may be many houses under one roof, but they are completely separated from each other by party walls. A tenement may be detached by itself, or it may be part of a house divided off for the use of a family.

Ten`e*men"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a tenement; capable of being held by tenants. Blackstone.

Ten`e*men"ta*ry (?), a. Capable of being leased; held by tenants. Spelman.

Ten"ent (?), n. [L. tenent they hold, 3d pers. pl. pres. of tenere.] A tenet. [Obs.] Bp. Sanderson.

Ten"er*al (?), a. [L. tener, - eris, tender, delicate.] (Zoöl.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a condition assumed by the imago of certain Neuroptera, after exclusion from the pupa. In this state the insect is soft, and has not fully attained its mature coloring.

Ten`er*iffe" (?), n. A white wine resembling Madeira in taste, but more tart, produced in Teneriffe, one of the Canary Islands; — called also Vidonia.

Te*ner"i*ty (?), n. [L. teneritas. See Tender, a.] Tenderness. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Te*nes"mic (?), a. (Med.) Of or pertaining to tenesmus; characterized by tenesmus.

||Te*nes"mus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to stretch: cf. L. tenesmos.] (Med.) An urgent and distressing sensation, as if a discharge from the intestines must take place, although none can be effected; — always referred to the lower extremity of the rectum.

Vesical tenesmus, a similar sensation as to the evacuation of urine, referred to the region of the bladder.

Ten"et (?), n. [L. tenet he holds, fr. tenere to hold. See Tenable.] Any opinion, principle, dogma, belief, or doctrine, which a person holds or maintains as true; as, the tenets of Plato or of Cicero.

That al animals of the land are in their kind in the sea, . . . is a tenet very questionable.

Sir T. Browne.

The religious tenets of his family he had early renounced with contempt.


Syn. — Dogma; doctrine; opinion; principle; position. See Dogma.

Ten"fold` (?), a. & adv. In tens; consisting of ten in one; ten times repeated.

The grisly Terror . . . grew tenfold
More dreadful and deform.


||Te"ni*a (?), n. [NL.] See Tænia.

Te"ni*oid (?), a. See Tænoid.

Ten"nant*ite (?), n. [Named after Smithson Tennant, an English chemist.] (Min.) A blackish lead- gray mineral, closely related to tetrahedrite. It is essentially a sulphide of arsenic and copper.

||Ten`né" (?), n. [Cf. Tawny.] (Her.) A tincture, rarely employed, which is considered as an orange color or bright brown. It is represented by diagonal lines from sinister to dexter, crossed by vertical lines.

Ten"nis (?), n. [OE. tennes, tenies, tenyse; of uncertain origin, perhaps fr. F. tenez hold or take it, fr. tenir to hold (see Tenable).] A play in which a ball is driven to and fro, or kept in motion by striking it with a racket or with the open hand. Shak.

His easy bow, his good stories, his style of dancing and playing tennis, . . . were familiar to all London.


Court tennis, the old game of tennis as played within walled courts of peculiar construction; — distinguished from lawn tennis. — Lawn tennis. See under Lawn, n.Tennis court, a place or court for playing the game of tennis. Shak.

Ten"nis, v. t. To drive backward and forward, as a ball in playing tennis. [R.] Spenser.

Ten"nu (?), n. (Zoöl.) The tapir.

Ten"-o'*clock` (?), n. (Bot.) A plant, the star-of-Bethlehem. See under Star.

Ten"on (?), n. [F., fr. tenir to hold. See Tenable.] (Carp. & Join.) A projecting member left by cutting away the wood around it, and made to insert into a mortise, and in this way secure together the parts of a frame; especially, such a member when it passes entirely through the thickness of the piece in which the mortise is cut, and shows on the other side. Cf. Tooth, Tusk.

Tenon saw, a saw with a thin blade, usually stiffened by a brass or steel back, for cutting tenons. [Corruptly written tenant saw.] Gwilt.

Ten"on, v. t. To cut or fit for insertion into a mortise, as the end of a piece of timber.

Te*no"ni*an (?), a. (Anat.) Discovered or described by M. Tenon, a French anatomist.

Tenonian capsule (Anat.), a lymphatic space inclosed by a delicate membrane or fascia (the fascia of Tenon) between the eyeball and the fat of the orbit; — called also capsule of Tenon.

Ten"or (?), n. [L., from tenere to hold; hence, properly, a holding on in a continued course: cf. F. teneur. See Tenable, and cf. Tenor a kind of voice.] 1. A state of holding on in a continuous course; manner of continuity; constant mode; general tendency; course; career.

Along the cool sequestered vale of life
They kept the noiseless tenor of their away.


2. That course of thought which holds on through a discourse; the general drift or course of thought; purport; intent; meaning; understanding.

When it [the bond] is paid according to the tenor.


Does not the whole tenor of the divine law positively require humility and meekness to all men?


3. Stamp; character; nature.

This success would look like chance, if it were perpetual, and always of the same tenor.


4. (Law) An exact copy of a writing, set forth in the words and figures of it. It differs from purport, which is only the substance or general import of the instrument. Bouvier.

5. [F. ténor, L. tenor, properly, a holding; — so called because the tenor was the voice which took and held the principal part, the plain song, air, or tune, to which the other voices supplied a harmony above and below: cf. It. tenore.] (Mus.) (a) The higher of the two kinds of voices usually belonging to adult males; hence, the part in the harmony adapted to this voice; the second of the four parts in the scale of sounds, reckoning from the base, and originally the air, to which the other parts were auxillary. (b) A person who sings the tenor, or the instrument that play it.

Old Tenor, New Tenor, Middle Tenor, different descriptions of paper money, issued at different periods, by the American colonial governments in the last century.

||Ten`o*syn`o*vi"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. te`nwn a tendon + E. synovitis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the synovial sheath enveloping a tendon.

Ten"o*tome (?), n. (Surg.) A slender knife for use in the operation of tenotomy.

Te*not"o*my (?), n. [Gr. te`nwn a tendon + te`mnein to cut.] (Surg.) The division of a tendon, or the act of dividing a tendon.

Ten"pen*ny (?), a. Valued or sold at ten pence; as, a tenpenny cake. See 2d Penny, n.

Ten"pen*ny, a. Denoting a size of nails. See 1st Penny.

Ten"pins (?), n. A game resembling ninepins, but played with ten pins. See Ninepins. [U. S.]

Ten"-pound`er (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large oceanic fish (Elops saurus) found in the tropical parts of all the oceans. It is used chiefly for bait.

Ten"rec (?), n. [From the native name: cf. F. tanrac, tanrec, tandrec.] (Zoöl.) A small insectivore (Centetes ecaudatus), native of Madagascar, but introduced also into the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius; — called also tanrec. The name is applied to other allied genera. See Tendrac.

Tense (?), n. [OF. tens, properly, time, F. temps time, tense. See Temporal of time, and cf. Thing.] (Gram.) One of the forms which a verb takes by inflection or by adding auxiliary words, so as to indicate the time of the action or event signified; the modification which verbs undergo for the indication of time.

The primary simple tenses are three: those which express time past, present, and future; but these admit of modifications, which differ in different languages.

Tense, a. [L. tensus, p. p. of tendere to stretch. See Tend to move, and cf. Toise.] Stretched tightly; strained to stiffness; rigid; not lax; as, a tense fiber.

The temples were sunk, her forehead was tense, and a fatal paleness was upon her.


— Tense"ly, adv. — Tense"ness, n.

Ten`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tensible; tensility.

Ten"si*ble (?), a. [See Tense, a.] Capable of being extended or drawn out; ductile; tensible.

Gold . . . is likewise the most flexible and tensible.


Ten"sile (?), a. [See Tense, a.] 1. Of or pertaining to extension; as, tensile strength.

2. Capable of extension; ductile; tensible. Bacon.

Ten"siled (?), a. Made tensile. [R.]

Ten*sil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tensile, or capable of extension; tensibility; as, the tensility of the muscles. Dr. H. Mere.

Ten"sion (?), n. [L. tensio, from tendere, tensum, to stretch: cf. F. tension. See Tense, a.] 1. The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained to stiffness; the state of being bent strained; as, the tension of the muscles, tension of the larynx.

2. Fig.: Extreme strain of mind or excitement of feeling; intense effort.

3. The degree of stretching to which a wire, cord, piece of timber, or the like, is strained by drawing it in the direction of its length; strain. Gwilt.

4. (Mech.) The force by which a part is pulled when forming part of any system in equilibrium or in motion; as, the tension of a srting supporting a weight equals that weight.

5. A device for checking the delivery of the thread in a sewing machine, so as to give the stitch the required degree of tightness.

6. (Physics) Expansive force; the force with which the particles of a body, as a gas, tend to recede from each other and occupy a larger space; elastic force; elasticity; as, the tension of vapor; the tension of air.

7. (Elec.) The quality in consequence of which an electric charge tends to discharge itself, as into the air by a spark, or to pass from a body of greater to one of less electrical potential. It varies as the quantity of electricity upon a given area.

Tension brace, or Tension member (Engin.), a brace or member designed to resist tension, or subjected to tension, in a structure. — Tension rod (Engin.), an iron rod used as a tension member to strengthen timber or metal framework, roofs, or the like.

Ten"sioned (?), a. Extended or drawn out; subjected to tension. "A highly tensioned string." Tyndall.

Ten"si*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being tense, or strained to stiffness; tension; tenseness.

Ten"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. tensif. See Tense, a.] Giving the sensation of tension, stiffness, or contraction.

A tensive pain from distension of the parts.


Ten"sor (?), n. [NL. See Tension.] 1. (Anat.) A muscle that stretches a part, or renders it tense.

2. (Geom.) The ratio of one vector to another in length, no regard being had to the direction of the two vectors; — so called because considered as a stretching factor in changing one vector into another. See Versor.

Ten"-strike` (?), n. 1. (Tenpins) A knocking down of all ten pins at one delivery of the ball. [U. S.]

2. Any quick, decisive stroke or act. [Colloq. U. S.]

Ten"sure (?), n. [L. tensura. See Tension.] Tension. [Obs.] Bacon.

Tent (?), n. [Sp. tinto, properly, deep-colored, fr. L. tinctus, p. p. of tingere to dye. See Tinge, and cf. Tint, Tinto.] A kind of wine of a deep red color, chiefly from Galicia or Malaga in Spain; — called also tent wine, and tinta.

Tent, n. [Cf. Attent, n.] 1. Attention; regard, care. [Obs. or Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Lydgate.

2. Intention; design. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Tent, v. t. To attend to; to heed; hence, to guard; to hinder. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Halliwell.

Tent, v. t. [OF. tenter. See Tempt.] To probe or to search with a tent; to keep open with a tent; as, to tent a wound. Used also figuratively.

I'll tent him to the quick.


Tent, n. [F. tente. See Tent to probe.] (Surg.) (a) A roll of lint or linen, or a conical or cylindrical piece of sponge or other absorbent, used chiefly to dilate a natural canal, to keep open the orifice of a wound, or to absorb discharges. (b) A probe for searching a wound.

The tent that searches
To the bottom of the worst.


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Tent (?), n. [OE. tente, F. tente, LL. tenta, fr. L. tendere, tentum, to stretch. See Tend to move, and cf. Tent a roll of lint.] 1. A pavilion or portable lodge consisting of skins, canvas, or some strong cloth, stretched and sustained by poles, — used for sheltering persons from the weather, especially soldiers in camp.

Within his tent, large as is a barn.


2. (Her.) The representation of a tent used as a bearing.

Tent bed, a high-post bedstead curtained with a tentlike canopy. — Tent caterpillar (Zoöl.), any one of several species of gregarious caterpillars which construct on trees large silken webs into which they retreat when at rest. Some of the species are very destructive to fruit trees. The most common American species is the larva of a bombycid moth (Clisiocampa Americana). Called also lackery caterpillar, and webworm.

Tent, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tented; p. pr. & vb. n. Tenting.] To lodge as a tent; to tabernacle. Shak.

We 're tenting to-night on the old camp ground.

W. Kittredge.

Ten"ta*cle (?), n. [NL. tentaculum, from L. tentare to handle, feel: cf. F. tentacule. See Tempt.] (Zoöl.) A more or less elongated process or organ, simple or branched, proceeding from the head or cephalic region of invertebrate animals, being either an organ of sense, prehension, or motion.

Tentacle sheath (Zoöl.), a sheathlike structure around the base of the tentacles of many mollusks.

Ten"ta*cled (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having tentacles.

Ten*tac"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. tentaculaire.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a tentacle or tentacles.

||Ten*tac`u*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A division of Ctenophora including those which have two long tentacles.

{ Ten*tac"u*late (?), Ten*tac"u*la`ted (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Having tentacles, or organs like tentacles; tentacled.

||Ten`ta*cu*lif"e*ra (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Suctoria, 1.

Ten`ta*cu*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Tentaculum + -ferous.] (Zoöl.) Producing or bearing tentacles.

Ten`ta*cu"li*form (?), a. (Zoöl.) Shaped like a tentacle.

Ten*tac"u*lite (?), n. (Paleon.) Any one of numerous species of small, conical fossil shells found in Paleozoic rocks. They are supposed to be pteropods.

Ten*tac"u*lo*cyst (?), n. [Tentaculum + cyst.] (Zoöl.) One of the auditory organs of certain medusæ; — called also auditory tentacle.

||Ten*tac"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Tentacula (#). [NL. See Tentacle.] 1. (Zoöl.) A tentacle.

2. (Anat.) One of the stiff hairs situated about the mouth, or on the face, of many animals, and supposed to be tactile organs; a tactile hair.

Tent"age (?), n. [From Tent a pavilion.] A collection of tents; an encampment. [Obs.] Drayton.

Ten*ta"tion (?), n. [L. tentatio: cf. F. tentation. See Temptation.] 1. Trial; temptation. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

2. (Mech.) A mode of adjusting or operating by repeated trials or experiments. Knight.

Ten*ta"tive (?), a. [L. tentare to try: cf. F. tentatif. See Tempt.] Of or pertaining to a trial or trials; essaying; experimental. "A slow, tentative manner." Carlyle. — Ten*ta"tive*ly, adv.

Ten*ta"tive, n. [Cf. F. tentative.] An essay; a trial; an experiment. Berkley.

Tent"ed (?), a. Covered with tents.

Ten"ter (?), n. 1. One who takes care of, or tends, machines in a factory; a kind of assistant foreman.

2. (Mach.) A kind of governor.

Ten"ter, n. [OE. tenture, tentoure, OF. tenture a stretching, spreading, F. tenture hangings, tapestry, from L. tendere, tentum, to stretch. See Tend to move.] A machine or frame for stretching cloth by means of hooks, called tenter-hooks, so that it may dry even and square.

Tenter ground, a place where tenters are erected. — Tenter-hook, a sharp, hooked nail used for fastening cloth on a tenter. — To be on the tenters, or on the tenter-hooks, to be on the stretch; to be in distress, uneasiness, or suspense. Hudibras.

Ten"ter, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tentered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tentering.] To admit extension.

Woolen cloth will tenter, linen scarcely.


Ten"ter, v. t. To hang or stretch on, or as on, tenters.

Tent"ful (?), n.; pl. Tentfuls (&?;). As much, or as many, as a tent will hold.

Tenth (?), a. [From Ten: cf. OE. tethe, AS. teó&?;a. See Ten, and cf. Tithe.] 1. Next in order after the ninth; coming after nine others.

2. Constituting or being one of ten equal parts into which anything is divided.

Tenth (?), n. 1. The next in order after the ninth; one coming after nine others.

2. The quotient of a unit divided by ten; one of ten equal parts into which anything is divided.

3. The tenth part of annual produce, income, increase, or the like; a tithe. Shak.

4. (Mus.) The interval between any tone and the tone represented on the tenth degree of the staff above it, as between one of the scale and three of the octave above; the octave of the third.

5. pl. (Eng. Law) (a) A temporary aid issuing out of personal property, and granted to the king by Parliament; formerly, the real tenth part of all the movables belonging to the subject. (b) (Eccl. Law) The tenth part of the annual profit of every living in the kingdom, formerly paid to the pope, but afterward transferred to the crown. It now forms a part of the fund called Queen Anne's Bounty. Burrill.

Tenth"ly, adv. In a tenth manner.

{ Tenth"me`ter, Tenth"me`tre } (?), n. (Physics) A unit for the measurement of many small lengths, such that 1010 of these units make one meter; the ten millionth part of a millimeter.

||Ten`thre*din"i*des (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a kind of wasp.] (Zoöl.) A group of Hymneoptera comprising the sawflies.

Ten"tif (?), a. Attentive. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ten"tif*ly, adv. Attentively. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ten*tig"i*nous (?), a. [L. tentigo, -inis, a tension, lecherousness, fr. tendere, tentum, to stretch.] 1. Stiff; stretched; strained. [Obs.] Johnson.

2. Lustful, or pertaining to lust. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Tent"mak`er (?), n. One whose occupation it is to make tents. Acts xviii. 3.

||Ten*to"ri*um (?), n. [L., a tent.] (Anat.) A fold of the dura mater which separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum and often incloses a process or plate of the skull called the bony tentorium.

Tent"o*ry (?), n. [L. tentorium a tent.] The awning or covering of a tent. [Obs.] Evelyn.

Tent"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of small fern, the wall rue. See under Wall.

Ten"u*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tenuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tenuating.] [L. tenuatus, p. p. of tenuare to make thin, fr. tenuis thin. See Tenuous.] To make thin; to attenuate. [R.]

Ten`u*i*fo"li*ous (?), a. [L. tenuis thin + folium a leaf.] (Bot.) Having thin or narrow leaves.

Te*nu"i*ous (?), a. [See Tenuous.] Rare or subtile; tenuous; — opposed to dense. [Obs.] Glanvill.

Ten`u*i*ros"ter (?), n.; pl. Tenuirosters (#). [NL., fr. L. tenuis thin + rostrum a beak.] (Zoöl.) One of the Tenuirostres.

Ten`u*i*ros"tral (?), a. (Zoöl.) Thin-billed; — applied to birds with a slender bill, as the humming birds.

||Ten`u*i*ros"tres (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) An artificial group of passerine birds having slender bills, as the humming birds.

||Ten"u*is (?), n.; pl. Tenues (#). [NL., fr. L. tenuis fine, thin. See Tenuous.] (Gr. Gram.) One of the three surd mutes κ, π, τ; — so called in relation to their respective middle letters, or medials, γ, β, δ, and their aspirates, χ, φ, θ. The term is also applied to the corresponding letters and articulate elements in other languages.

Te*nu"i*ty (?), n. [L. tenuitas, from tenuis thin: cf. F. ténuité. See Tenuous.] 1. The quality or state of being tenuous; thinness, applied to a broad substance; slenderness, applied to anything that is long; as, the tenuity of a leaf; the tenuity of a hair.

2. Rarily; rareness; thinness, as of a fluid; as, the tenuity of the air; the tenuity of the blood. Bacon.

3. Poverty; indigence. [Obs.] Eikon Basilike.

4. Refinement; delicacy.

Ten"u*ous (?), a. [L. tenuis thin. See Thin, and cf. Tenuis.] 1. Thin; slender; small; minute.

2. Rare; subtile; not dense; — said of fluids.

Ten"ure (?), n. [F. tenure, OF. teneure, fr. F. tenir to hold. See Tenable.] 1. The act or right of holding, as property, especially real estate.

That the tenure of estates might rest on equity, the Indian title to lands was in all cases to be quieted.


2. (Eng. Law) The manner of holding lands and tenements of a superior.

Tenure is inseparable from the idea of property in land, according to the theory of the English law; and this idea of tenure pervades, to a considerable extent, the law of real property in the United States, where the title to land is essentially allodial, and almost all lands are held in fee simple, not of a superior, but the whole right and title to the property being vested in the owner. Tenure, in general, then, is the particular manner of holding real estate, as by exclusive title or ownership, by fee simple, by fee tail, by courtesy, in dower, by copyhold, by lease, at will, etc.

3. The consideration, condition, or service which the occupier of land gives to his lord or superior for the use of his land.

4. Manner of holding, in general; as, in absolute governments, men hold their rights by a precarious tenure.

All that seems thine own,
Held by the tenure of his will alone.


Tenure by fee alms. (Law) See Frankalmoigne.

Te`o*cal"li (?), n.; pl. Teocallis (#). [Mexican.] Literally, God's house; a temple, usually of pyramidal form, such as were built by the aborigines of Mexico, Yucatan, etc.

And Aztec priests upon their teocallis
Beat the wild war-drums made of serpent's skin.


Te`o*sin"te (?), n. (Bot.) A large grass (Euchlæna luxurians) closely related to maize. It is native of Mexico and Central America, but is now cultivated for fodder in the Southern United States and in many warm countries. Called also Guatemala grass.

Tep"al (?), n. [F. tépale, fr. pétale, by transposition.] (Bot.) A division of a perianth. [R.]

Tep*ee" (?), n. An Indian wigwam or tent.

Tep`e*fac"tion (?), n. Act of tepefying.

Tep"e*fy (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Tepefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tepefying (?).] [L. tepere to be tepid + -fy; cf. L. tepefacere. See Tepid.] To make or become tepid, or moderately warm. Goldsmith.

Teph"ra*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; ashes + - mancy.] Divination by the ashes of the altar on which a victim had been consumed in sacrifice.

Teph"rite (?), n. [Gr. &?; ashes.] (Geol.) An igneous rock consisting essentially of plagioclase and either leucite or nephelite, or both.

Teph"ro*ite (?), n. [See Tephrosia.] (Min.) A silicate of manganese of an ash-gray color.

||Te*phro"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; ash- colored, from &?; ashes.] (Bot.) A genus of leguminous shrubby plants and herbs, mostly found in tropical countries, a few herbaceous species being North American. The foliage is often ashy-pubescent, whence the name.

The Tephrosia toxicaria is used in the West Indies and in Polynesia for stupefying fish. T. purpurea is used medicinally in the East Indies. T. Virginia is the goat's rue of the United States.

Tep"id (?), a. [L. tepidus, fr. tepere to be warm; akin to Skr. tap to be warm, tapas heat.] Moderately warm; lukewarm; as, a tepid bath; tepid rays; tepid vapors. — Tep"id*ness, n.

Te*pid"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. tépidité.] The quality or state of being tepid; moderate warmth; lukewarmness; tepidness. Jer. Taylor.

Te"por (?), n. [L., fr. tepere to be tepid.] Gentle heat; moderate warmth; tepidness. Arbuthnot.

Te*qui"la (?), n. An intoxicating liquor made from the maguey in the district of Tequila, Mexico.

Ter- (?). A combining form from L. ter signifying three times, thrice. See Tri-, 2.

Ter`a*con"ic (?), a. [Terebic + citraconic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained by the distillation of terebic acid, and homologous with citraconic acid.

Ter`a*cryl"ic (?), a. [Terpene + acrylic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid of the acrylic series, obtained by the distillation of terpenylic acid, as an only substance having a peculiar cheesy odor.

Ter"aph (?), n.; pl. Teraphs (&?;). See Teraphim.

Ter"a*phim (?), n. pl. [Heb. terphm.] Images connected with the magical rites used by those Israelites who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion. Teraphim were consulted by the Israelites for oracular answers. Dr. W. Smith (Bib. Dict.).

Ter"a*pin (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Terrapin.

Te*rat"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?; a wonder.] Wonderful; ominous; prodigious. [Obs.] Wollaston.

Ter`a*tog"e*ny (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a wonder, monster + the root of &?; to be born.] (Med.) The formation of monsters.

Ter"a*toid (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, monster + -oid.] Resembling a monster; abnormal; of a pathological growth, exceedingly complex or highly organized. S. D. Gross.

Ter`a*to*log"ic*al (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to teratology; as, teratological changes.

Ter`a*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a wonder, monster + -logy: cf. Gr. &?; a telling of wonders, and F. tératologie.] 1. That branch of biological science which treats of monstrosities, malformations, or deviations from the normal type of structure, either in plants or animals.

2. Affectation of sublimity; bombast. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ter`a*to"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, monster + -oma.] (Med.) A tumor, sometimes found in newborn children, which is made up of a heterigenous mixture of tissues, as of bone, cartilage and muscle.

Ter"bic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, terbium; also, designating certain of its compounds.

Ter"bi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Ytterby, in Sweden. See Erbium.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element, of uncertain identification, supposed to exist in certain minerals, as gadolinite and samarskite, with other rare ytterbium earth. Symbol Tr or Tb. Atomic weight 150.

Terce (?), n. See Tierce.

Ter"cel (?), n. See Tiercel. Called also tarsel, tassel. Chaucer.

Terce"let (?), n. (Zoöl.) A male hawk or eagle; a tiercelet. Chaucer.

Ter"cel*lene (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small male hawk. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ter*cen"te*na*ry (?), a. [L. ter thirce + E. centenary.] Including, or relating to, an interval of three hundred years. — n. The three hundredth anniversary of any event; also, a celebration of such an anniversary.

Ter"cet (?), n. [F., fr. It. terzetto, dim. of terzo, third, L. tertius. See Tierce, and cf. Terzetto.] 1. (Mus.) A triplet. Hiles.

2. (Poetry) A triplet; a group of three lines.

Ter"cine (?), n. [F., from L. tertius the third.] (Bot.) A cellular layer derived from the nucleus of an ovule and surrounding the embryo sac. Cf. Quintine.

Ter"e*bate (?), n. A salt of terebic acid.

Ter"e*bene (?), n. (Chem.) A polymeric modification of terpene, obtained as a white crystalline camphorlike substance; — called also camphene. By extension, any one of a group of related substances.

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Ter`e*ben"thene (?), n. (Chem.) Oil of turpentine. See Turpentine.

Te*reb"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, terbenthene (oil of turpentine); specifically, designating an acid, C7H10O4, obtained by the oxidation of terbenthene with nitric acid, as a white crystalline substance.

Ter`e*bi*len"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a complex acid, C7H8O4, obtained as a white crystalline substance by a modified oxidation of terebic acid.

Ter"e*binth (?), n. [L. terbinthus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. térébinthe. Cf. Turpentine.] (Bot.) The turpentine tree.

Ter`e*bin"thic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to turpentine; resembling turpentine; terbinthine; as, terbinthic qualities.

Ter`e*bin"thi*nate (?), a. Impregnating with the qualities of turpentine; terbinthine.

Ter`e*bin"thine (?), a. [L. terbinthinus, Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to turpentine; consisting of turpentine, or partaking of its qualities.

||Ter"e*bra (?), n.; pl. E. Terebras (#), L. Terebræ (#). [L., a borer.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of marine gastropods having a long, tapering spire. They belong to the Toxoglossa. Called also auger shell.

2. (Zoöl.) The boring ovipositor of a hymenopterous insect.

Ter"e*brant (?), a. [L. terebrans, -antis, p. pr.] (Zoöl.) Boring, or adapted for boring; — said of certain Hymenoptera, as the sawflies.

||Ter`e*bran"ti*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A division of Hymenoptera including those which have an ovipositor adapted for perforating plants. It includes the sawflies.

Ter"e*brate (?), v. t. [L. terebratus, p. p. of terebrare, from terebra a borer, terere to rub.] To perforate; to bore; to pierce. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ter"e*bra`ting (?), a. 1. (Zoöl.) Boring; perforating; — applied to molluskas which form holes in rocks, wood, etc.

2. (Med.) Boring; piercing; — applied to certain kinds of pain, especially to those of locomotor ataxia.

Ter`e*bra"tion (?), n. [L. terebratio.] The act of terebrating, or boring. [R.] Bacon.

||Ter`e*brat"u*la (?), n.; pl. Terebratulæ (#). [Nl., dim. fr. terebratus, p. p., perforated.] (Zoöl.) A genus of brachiopods which includes many living and some fossil species. The larger valve has a perforated beak, through which projects a short peduncle for attachment. Called also lamp shell.

Ter`e*brat"u*lid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of Terebratula or allied genera. Used also adjectively.

Ter`e*bra*tu"li*form (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having the general form of a terebratula shell.

Ter"e*dine (?), n. [F. térédine.] (Zoöl.) A borer; the teredo.

Te*re"do (?), n.; pl. E. Teredos (#), L. Teredines (#). [L., a worm that gnaws wood, clothes, etc.; akin to Gr. &?;, L. terere to rub.] (Zoöl.) A genus of long, slender, wormlike bivalve mollusks which bore into submerged wood, such as the piles of wharves, bottoms of ships, etc.; — called also shipworm. See Shipworm. See Illust. in App.

Ter*eph"tha*late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of terephthalic acid.

Ter`eph*thal"ic (?), a. [Terebene + phthalic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a dibasic acid of the aromatic series, metameric with phthalic acid, and obtained, as a tasteless white crystalline powder, by the oxidation of oil of turpentine; — called also paraphthalic acid. Cf. Phthalic.

Ter"et (?), a. Round; terete. [Obs.] Fotherby.

Te*rete" (?), a. [L. teres, - etis, rounded off, properly, rubbed off, fr. terere to rub.] Cylindrical and slightly tapering; columnar, as some stems of plants.

Te*re"tial (?), a. [See Terete.] (Anat.) Rounded; as, the teretial tracts in the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain of some fishes. Owen.

Ter"e*tous (?), a. Terete. [Obs.]

Ter"gal (?), a. [L. tergum the back.] (Anat. & Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to back, or tergum. See Dorsal.

Ter"gant (?), a. (Her.) Showing the back; as, the eagle tergant. [Written also tergiant.]

{ Ter*gem"i*nal (?), Ter*gem"i*nate (?), } a. [See Tergeminous.] (Bot.) Thrice twin; having three pairs of leaflets.

Ter*gem"i*nous (?), a. [L. tergeminus; ter thrice + geminus doubled at birth, twin-born. Cf. Trigeminous.] Threefold; thrice-paired. Blount.

Ter*gif"er*ous (?), a. [L. tergum the back + -ferous.] Carrying or bearing upon the back.

Tergiferous plants (Bot.), plants which bear their seeds on the back of their leaves, as ferns.

Ter"gite (?), n. (Zoöl.) The dorsal portion of an arthromere or somite of an articulate animal. See Illust. under Coleoptera.

Ter"gi*ver*sate (?), v. i. [L. tergiversatus, p. p. of tergiversari to turn one's back, to shift; tergum back + versare, freq. of vertere to turn. See Verse.] To shift; to practice evasion; to use subterfuges; to shuffle. [R.] Bailey.

Ter`gi*ver*sa"tion (?), n. [L. tergiversario: cf. F. tergiversation.] 1. The act of tergiversating; a shifting; shift; subterfuge; evasion.

Writing is to be preferred before verbal conferences, as being freer from passions and tergiversations.

Abp. Bramhall.

2. Fickleness of conduct; inconstancy; change.

The colonel, after all his tergiversations, lost his life in the king's service.


Ter"gi*ver*sa`tor (?), n. [L.] One who tergiversates; one who suffles, or practices evasion.

||Ter"gum (?), n.; pl. Terga (#). [L., the back.] (Zoöl.) (a) The back of an animal. (b) The dorsal piece of a somite of an articulate animal. (c) One of the dorsal plates of the operculum of a cirriped.

Te"rin (?), n. [F. tarin, Prov. F. tairin, térin, probably from the Picard tère tender.] (Zoöl.) A small yellow singing bird, with an ash-colored head; the European siskin. Called also tarin.

Term (?), n. [F. terme, L. termen, -inis, terminus, a boundary limit, end; akin to Gr. &?;, &?;. See Thrum a tuft, and cf. Terminus, Determine, Exterminate.] 1. That which limits the extent of anything; limit; extremity; bound; boundary.

Corruption is a reciprocal to generation, and they two are as nature's two terms, or boundaries.


2. The time for which anything lasts; any limited time; as, a term of five years; the term of life.

3. In universities, schools, etc., a definite continuous period during which instruction is regularly given to students; as, the school year is divided into three terms.

4. (Geom.) A point, line, or superficies, that limits; as, a line is the term of a superficies, and a superficies is the term of a solid.

5. (Law) A fixed period of time; a prescribed duration; as: (a) The limitation of an estate; or rather, the whole time for which an estate is granted, as for the term of a life or lives, or for a term of years. (b) A space of time granted to a debtor for discharging his obligation. (c) The time in which a court is held or is open for the trial of causes. Bouvier.

In England, there were formerly four terms in the year, during which the superior courts were open: Hilary term, beginning on the 11th and ending on the 31st of January; Easter term, beginning on the 15th of April, and ending on the 8th of May; Trinity term, beginning on the 22d day of May, and ending on the 12th of June; Michaelmas term, beginning on the 2d and ending on the 25th day of November. The rest of the year was called vacation. But this division has been practically abolished by the Judicature Acts of 1873, 1875, which provide for the more convenient arrangement of the terms and vacations. In the United States, the terms to be observed by the tribunals of justice are prescribed by the statutes of Congress and of the several States.

6. (Logic) The subject or the predicate of a proposition; one of the three component parts of a syllogism, each one of which is used twice.

The subject and predicate of a proposition are, after Aristotle, together called its terms or extremes.

Sir W. Hamilton.

The predicate of the conclusion is called the major term, because it is the most general, and the subject of the conclusion is called the minor term, because it is less general. These are called the extermes; and the third term, introduced as a common measure between them, is called the mean or middle term. Thus in the following syllogism, —

Every vegetable is combustible; Every tree is a vegetable; Therefore every tree is combustible, -

combustible, the predicate of the conclusion, is the major term; tree is the minor term; vegetable is the middle term.

7. A word or expression; specifically, one that has a precisely limited meaning in certain relations and uses, or is peculiar to a science, art, profession, or the like; as, a technical term. "Terms quaint of law." Chaucer.

In painting, the greatest beauties can not always be expressed for want of terms.


8. (Arch.) A quadrangular pillar, adorned on the top with the figure of a head, as of a man, woman, or satyr; — called also terminal figure. See Terminus, n., 2 and 3.

The pillar part frequently tapers downward, or is narrowest at the base. Terms rudely carved were formerly used for landmarks or boundaries. Gwilt.

9. (Alg.) A member of a compound quantity; as, a or b in a + b; ab or cd in ab - cd.

10. pl. (Med.) The menses.

11. pl. (Law) Propositions or promises, as in contracts, which, when assented to or accepted by another, settle the contract and bind the parties; conditions.

12. (Law) In Scotland, the time fixed for the payment of rents.

Terms legal and conventional in Scotland correspond to quarter days in England and Ireland. There are two legal terms — Whitsunday, May 15, and Martinmas, Nov. 11; and two conventional terms — Candlemas, Feb. 2, and Lammas day, Aug. 1. Mozley & W.

13. (Naut.) A piece of carved work placed under each end of the taffrail. J. Knowels.

In term, in set terms; in formal phrase. [Obs.]

I can not speak in term.


Term fee (Law) (a), a fee by the term, chargeable to a suitor, or by law fixed and taxable in the costs of a cause for each or any term it is in court. — Terms of a proportion (Math.), the four members of which it is composed. — To bring to terms, to compel (one) to agree, assent, or submit; to force (one) to come to terms. — To make terms, to come to terms; to make an agreement: to agree.

Syn. — Limit; bound; boundary; condition; stipulation; word; expression. — Term, Word. These are more frequently interchanged than almost any other vocables that occur of the language. There is, however, a difference between them which is worthy of being kept in mind. Word is generic; it denotes an utterance which represents or expresses our thoughts and feelings. Term originally denoted one of the two essential members of a proposition in logic, and hence signifies a word of specific meaning, and applicable to a definite class of objects. Thus, we may speak of a scientific or a technical term, and of stating things in distinct terms. Thus we say, "the term minister literally denotes servant;" "an exact definition of terms is essential to clearness of thought;" "no term of reproach can sufficiently express my indignation;" "every art has its peculiar and distinctive terms," etc. So also we say, "purity of style depends on the choice of words, and precision of style on a clear understanding of the terms used." Term is chiefly applied to verbs, nouns, and adjectives, these being capable of standing as terms in a logical proposition; while prepositions and conjunctions, which can never be so employed, are rarely spoken of as terms, but simply as words.

Term (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Termed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Terming.] [See Term, n., and cf. Terminate.] To apply a term to; to name; to call; to denominate.

Men term what is beyond the limits of the universe "imaginary space."


||Ter"ma (?), n. [NL. See Term, n.] (Anat.) The terminal lamina, or thin ventral part, of the anterior wall of the third ventricle of the brain. B. G. Wilder.

Ter"ma*gan*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being termagant; turbulence; tumultuousness; as, a violent termagancy of temper.

Ter"ma*gant (?), n. [OE. Trivigant, Termagant, Termagant (in sense 1), OF. Tervagan; cf. It. Trivigante.] 1. An imaginary being supposed by the Christians to be a Mohammedan deity or false god. He is represented in the ancient moralities, farces, and puppet shows as extremely vociferous and tumultous. [Obs.] Chaucer. "And oftentimes by Termagant and Mahound [Mahomet] swore." Spenser.

The lesser part on Christ believed well,
On Termagant the more, and on Mahound.


2. A boisterous, brawling, turbulent person; — formerly applied to both sexes, now only to women.

This terrible termagant, this Nero, this Pharaoh.

Bale (1543).

The slave of an imperious and reckless termagant.


Ter"ma*gant, a. Tumultuous; turbulent; boisterous; furious; quarrelsome; scolding. — Ter"ma*gant*ly, adv.

A termagant, imperious, prodigal, profligate wench.


||Ter`ma*ta"ri*um (?), n. [NL. See Termes.] (Zoöl.) Any nest or dwelling of termes, or white ants.

Ter"ma*ta*ry (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Termatarium.

Term"er (?), n. 1. One who resorted to London during the law term only, in order to practice tricks, to carry on intrigues, or the like. [Obs.] [Written also termor.] B. Jonson.

2. (Law) One who has an estate for a term of years or for life.

||Ter"mes (tr"mz), n.; pl. Termites (-m*tz). [L. termes, tarmes, -itis, a woodworm. Cf. Termite.] (Zoöl.) A genus of Pseudoneuroptera including the white ants, or termites. See Termite.

Ter"mi*na*ble (-mn**b'l), a. [See Terminate.] Capable of being terminated or bounded; limitable. — Ter"mi*na*ble*ness, n.

Terminable annuity, an annuity for a stated, definite number of years; — distinguished from life annuity, and perpetual annuity.

Ter"mi*nal (-nal), a. [L. terminals: cf. F. terminal. See Term, n.] 1. Of or pertaining to the end or extremity; forming the extremity; as, a terminal edge.

2. (Bot.) Growing at the end of a branch or stem; terminating; as, a terminal bud, flower, or spike.

Terminal moraine. See the Note under Moraine. — Terminal statue. See Terminus, n., 2 and 3. — Terminal velocity. (a) The velocity acquired at the end of a body's motion. (b) The limit toward which the velocity of a body approaches, as of a body falling through the air.

Ter"mi*nal, n. 1. That which terminates or ends; termination; extremity.

2. (Eccl.) Either of the ends of the conducting circuit of an electrical apparatus, as an inductorium, dynamo, or electric motor, usually provided with binding screws for the attachment of wires by which a current may be conveyed into or from the machine; a pole.

||Ter`mi*na"li*a (?), n. pl. [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) A festival celebrated annually by the Romans on February 23 in honor of Terminus, the god of boundaries.

Ter"mi*nant (?), n. [L. terminans, p. pr. of terminare.] Termination; ending. [R.] Puttenham.

Ter"mi*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Terminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Terminating.] [L. terminatus, p. p. of terminare. See Term.] 1. To set a term or limit to; to form the extreme point or side of; to bound; to limit; as, to terminate a surface by a line.

2. To put an end to; to make to cease; as, to terminate an effort, or a controversy.

3. Hence, to put the finishing touch to; to bring to completion; to perfect.

During this interval of calm and prosperity, he [Michael Angelo] terminated two figures of slaves, destined for the tomb, in an incomparable style of art.

J. S. Harford.

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Ter"mi*nate (?), v. i. 1. To be limited in space by a point, line, or surface; to stop short; to end; to cease; as, the torrid zone terminates at the tropics.

2. To come to a limit in time; to end; to close.

The wisdom of this world, its designs and efficacy, terminate on zhis side heaven.


Ter`mi*na"tion (?), n. [L. terminatio a bounding, fixing, determining: cf. F. terminasion, OF. also termination. See Term.] 1. The act of terminating, or of limiting or setting bounds; the act of ending or concluding; as, a voluntary termination of hostilities.

2. That which ends or bounds; limit in space or extent; bound; end; as, the termination of a line.

3. End in time or existence; as, the termination of the year, or of life; the termination of happiness.

4. End; conclusion; result. Hallam.

5. Last purpose of design. [R.]

6. A word; a term. [R. & Obs.] Shak.

7. (Gram.) The ending of a word; a final syllable or letter; the part added to a stem in inflection.

Ter`mi*na"tion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to termination; forming a termination.

Ter"mi*na*tive (?), a. Tending or serving to terminate; terminating; determining; definitive. Bp. Rust. — Ter"mi*na*tive*ly, adv. Jer. Taylor.

Ter"mi*na`tor (?), n. [L., he who limits or sets bounds.] 1. One who, or that which, terminates.

2. (Astron.) The dividing line between the illuminated and the unilluminated part of the moon.

Ter"mi*na*to*ry (?), a. Terminative.

Ter"mine (?), v. t. [Cf. F. terminer.] To terminate. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Ter"mi*ner (?), n. [F. terminer to bound, limit, end. See Terminate.] (Law) A determining; as, in oyer and terminer. See Oyer.

Ter"mi*nism (?), n. The doctrine held by the Terminists.

Ter"mi*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. terministe.] (Theol.) One of a class of theologians who maintain that God has fixed a certain term for the probation of individual persons, during which period, and no longer, they have the offer to grace. Murdock.

Ter`mi*no*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to terminology. — Ter`mi*no*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Ter`mi*nol"o*gy (?), n. [L. terminus term + -logy: cf. F. terminologie.] 1. The doctrine of terms; a theory of terms or appellations; a treatise on terms.

2. The terms actually used in any business, art, science, or the like; nomenclature; technical terms; as, the terminology of chemistry.

The barbarous effect produced by a German structure of sentence, and a terminology altogether new.

De Quincey.

Ter"mi*nus (?), n.; pl. Termini (#). [L. See Term.] 1. Literally, a boundary; a border; a limit.

2. (Myth.) The Roman divinity who presided over boundaries, whose statue was properly a short pillar terminating in the bust of a man, woman, satyr, or the like, but often merely a post or stone stuck in the ground on a boundary line.

3. Hence, any post or stone marking a boundary; a term. See Term, 8.

4. Either end of a railroad line; also, the station house, or the town or city, at that place.

Ter"mite (?), n.; pl. Termites (#). [F. See Termes.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of pseudoneoropterous insects belonging to Termes and allied genera; — called also white ant. See Illust. of White ant.

They are very abundant in tropical countries, and are noted for their destructive habits, their large nests, their remarkable social instincts, and their division of labor among the polymorphic individuals of several kinds. Besides the males and females, each nest has ordinary workers, and large-headed individuals called soldiers.

Term"less (?), a. 1. Having no term or end; unlimited; boundless; unending; as, termless time. [R.] "Termless joys." Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Inexpressible; indescribable. [R.] Shak.

Term"ly (?), a. Occurring every term; as, a termly fee. [R.] Bacon.

Term"ly, adv. Term by term; every term. [R.] "Fees . . . that are termly given." Bacon.

Ter`mo*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, boundary, end + -logy.] Terminology. [R.]

Term"or (?), n. (Law) Same as Termer, 2.

Tern (trn), n. [Dan. terne, tærne; akin to Sw. tärna, Icel. þerna; cf. NL. sterna.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of long-winged aquatic birds, allied to the gulls, and belonging to Sterna and various allied genera.

Terns differ from gulls chiefly in their graceful form, in their weaker and more slender bills and feet, and their longer and more pointed wings. The tail is usually forked. Most of the species are white with the back and wings pale gray, and often with a dark head. The common European tern (Sterna hirundo) is found also in Asia and America. Among other American species are the arctic tern (S. paradisæa), the roseate tern (S. Dougalli), the least tern (S. Antillarum), the royal tern (S. maxima), and the sooty tern (S. fuliginosa).

Hooded tern. See Fairy bird, under Fairy. — Marsh tern, any tern of the genus Hydrochelidon. They frequent marshes and rivers and feed largely upon insects. — River tern, any tern belonging to Seëna or allied genera which frequent rivers. — Sea tern, any tern of the genus Thalasseus. Terns of this genus have very long, pointed wings, and chiefly frequent seas and the mouths of large rivers.

Tern (?), a. [L. pl. terni three each, three; akin to tres three. See Three, and cf. Trine.] Threefold; triple; consisting of three; ternate.

Tern flowers (Bot.), flowers growing three and three together. — Tern leaves (Bot.), leaves arranged in threes, or three by three, or having three in each whorl or set. — Tern peduncles (Bot.), three peduncles growing together from the same axis. — Tern schooner (Naut.), a three-masted schooner.

Tern, n. [F. terne. See Tern, a.] That which consists of, or pertains to, three things or numbers together; especially, a prize in a lottery resulting from the favorable combination of three numbers in the drawing; also, the three numbers themselves.

She'd win a tern in Thursday's lottery.

Mrs. Browning.

Ter"na*ry (?), a. [L. ternarius, fr. terni. See Tern, a.] 1. Proceeding by threes; consisting of three; as, the ternary number was anciently esteemed a symbol of perfection, and held in great veneration.

2. (Chem.) Containing, or consisting of, three different parts, as elements, atoms, groups, or radicals, which are regarded as having different functions or relations in the molecule; thus, sodic hydroxide, NaOH, is a ternary compound.

Ter"na*ry, n.; pl. Ternaries (&?;). A ternion; the number three; three things taken together; a triad.

Some in ternaries, some in pairs, and some single.


Ter"nate (?), a. [NL. ternatus, fr. L. terni three each. See Tern, a.] Having the parts arranged by threes; as, ternate branches, leaves, or flowers. — Ter"nate*ly, adv.

Terne"plate` (?), n. [See Tern, a., and Plate.] Thin iron sheets coated with an alloy of lead and tin; — so called because made up of three metals.

Ter"ni*on (?), n. [L. ternio, fr. terni three each. See Tern, a.] The number three; three things together; a ternary. Bp. Hall.

Ter"pene (?), n. [See Turpentine.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of isomeric hydrocarbons of pleasant aromatic odor, occurring especially in coniferous plants and represented by oil of turpentine, but including also certain hydrocarbons found in some essential oils.

Ter*pen"tic (?), a. (Chem.) Terpenylic.

Ter`pe*nyl"ic (?), a. [Terpene + - yl + -ic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C8H12O4 (called also terpentic acid), homologous with terebic acid, and obtained as a white crystalline substance by the oxidation of oil of turpentine with chromic acid.

Ter"pi*lene (?), n. (Chem.) A polymeric form of terpene, resembling terbene.

Ter"pin (?), n. (Chem.) A white crystalline substance regarded as a hydrate of oil of turpentine.

Ter"pin*ol (?), n. [Terpin + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) Any oil substance having a hyacinthine odor, obtained by the action of acids on terpin, and regarded as a related hydrate.

Terp*sich"o*re (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; enjoyment (fr. &?; to gladden) + &?; dance, dancing.] (Gr. Myth.) The Muse who presided over the choral song and the dance, especially the latter.

Terp`sich*o*re"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Terpsichore; of or pertaining to dancing.

||Ter"ra (?), n. [It. & L. See Terrace.] The earth; earth.

Terra alba [L., white earth] (Com.), a white amorphous earthy substance consisting of burnt gypsum, aluminium silicate (kaolin), or some similar ingredient, as magnesia. It is sometimes used to adulterate certain foods, spices, candies, paints, etc. — Terra cotta. [It., fr. terra earth + cotta, fem. of cotto cooked, L. coctus, p. p. of coquere to cook. See Cook, n.] Baked clay; a kind of hard pottery used for statues, architectural decorations, figures, vases, and the like. — Terræ filius [L., son of the earth], formerly, one appointed to write a satirical Latin poem at the public acts in the University of Oxford; — not unlike the prevaricator at Cambridge, England. — Terra firma [L.], firm or solid earth, as opposed to water. — Terra Japonica. [NL.] Same as Gambier. It was formerly supposed to be a kind of earth from Japan. — Terra Lemnia [L., Lemnian earth], Lemnian earth. See under Lemnian. — Terra ponderosa [L., ponderous earth] (Min.), barite, or heavy spar. — Terra di Sienna. See Sienna.

Ter"race (?), n. [F. terrasse (cf. Sp. terraza, It. terrazza), fr. L. terra the earth, probably for tersa, originally meaning, dry land, and akin to torrere to parch, E. torrid, and thirst. See Thirst, and cf. Fumitory, Inter, v., Patterre, Terrier, Trass, Tureen, Turmeric.] 1. A raised level space, shelf, or platform of earth, supported on one or more sides by a wall, a bank of tuft, or the like, whether designed for use or pleasure.

2. A balcony, especially a large and uncovered one.

3. A flat roof to a house; as, the buildings of the Oriental nations are covered with terraces.

4. A street, or a row of houses, on a bank or the side of a hill; hence, any street, or row of houses.

5. (Geol.) A level plain, usually with a steep front, bordering a river, a lake, or sometimes the sea.

Many rivers are bordered by a series of terraces at different levels, indicating the flood plains at successive periods in their history.

Terrace epoch. (Geol.) See Drift epoch, under Drift, a.

Ter"race, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Terraced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Terracing (?).] To form into a terrace or terraces; to furnish with a terrace or terraces, as, to terrace a garden, or a building. Sir H. Wotton.

Clermont's terraced height, and Esher's groves.


Ter"ra*cul`ture (?), n. [L. terra the earth + cultura.] Cultivation on the earth; agriculture. [R.] — Ter`ra*cul"tur*al (#), a. [R.]

Ter"rane (?), n. [F. terrain, from L. terra earth.] (Geol.) A group of rocks having a common age or origin; — nearly equivalent to formation, but used somewhat less comprehensively.

Ter"ra*pin (?), n. [Probably of American Indian origin.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of tortoises living in fresh and brackish waters. Many of them are valued for food. [Written also terapin, terrapen, terrapene, and turapen.]

The yellow-bellied terrapin (Pseudemys acebra) of the Southern United States, the red-bellied terrapin (Pseudemys rugosa), native of the tributaries Chesapeake Bay (called also potter, slider, and redfender), and the diamond-back or salt-marsh terrapin (Malaclemmys palustris), are the most important American species. The diamond-back terrapin is native of nearly the whole of the Atlantic coast of the United States.

Alligator terrapin, the snapping turtle. — Mud terrapin, any one of numerous species of American tortoises of the genus Cinosternon. — Painted terrapin, the painted turtle. See under Painted. — Speckled terrapin, a small fresh-water American terrapin (Chelopus guttatus) having the carapace black with round yellow spots; — called also spotted turtle.

Ter*ra"que*ous (?), a. [L. terra the earth + E. aqueous.] Consisting of land and water; as, the earth is a terraqueous globe. Cudworth.

The grand terraqueous spectacle
From center to circumference unveiled.


Ter"rar (?), n. [LL. terrarius liber. See Terrier a collection of acknowledgments.] (O. Eng. Law) See 2d Terrier, 2.

Ter"ras (?), n. (Min.) See &?;rass.

Ter*reen" (?), n. See Turren.

Ter*re"i*ty (?), n. Quality of being earthy; earthiness. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Ter"rel (?), n. [NL. terrella, from L. terra the earth.] A spherical magnet so placed that its poles, equator, etc., correspond to those of the earth. [Obs.] Chambers.

Terre"mote` (?), n. [OF. terremote, terremoete, fr. L. terra the earth + movere, motum, to move.] An earthquake. [Obs.] Gower.

Ter*rene" (?), n. A tureen. [Obs.] Walpole.

Ter*rene", a. [L. terrenus, fr. terra the earth. See Terrace.] 1. Of or pertaining to the earth; earthy; as, terrene substance. Holland.

2. Earthy; terrestrial.

God set before him a mortal and immortal life, a nature celestial and terrene.

Sir W. Raleigh.

Be true and faithful to the king and his heirs, and truth and faith to bear of life and limb, and terrene honor.

O. Eng. Oath of Allegiance, quoted by Blackstone.

Common conceptions of the matters which lie at the basis of our terrene experience.


Ter*rene", n. [L. terrenum land, ground: cf. F. terrain.] 1. The earth's surface; the earth. [Poetic]

Tenfold the length of this terrene.


2. (Surv.) The surface of the ground.

Ter*ren"i*ty (?), n. Earthiness; worldliness. [Obs.] "A dull and low terrenity." Feltham.

Ter"re*ous (?), a. [L. terreus, fr. terra the earth. See Terrace.] Consisting of earth; earthy; as, terreous substances; terreous particles. [Obs.]

Terre"plein` (?), n. [F., fr. L. terra earth + planus even, level, plain.] (Fort.) The top, platform, or horizontal surface, of a rampart, on which the cannon are placed. See Illust. of Casemate.

Ter*res"tre (?), a. [OE., from OF. & F. terrestre.] Terrestrial; earthly. [Obs.] "His paradise terrestre." Chaucer.

Ter*res"tri*al (?), a. [L. terrestris, from terra the earth. See Terrace.] 1. Of or pertaining to the earth; existing on the earth; earthly; as, terrestrial animals. "Bodies terrestrial." 1 Cor. xv. 40.

2. Representing, or consisting of, the earth; as, a terrestrial globe. "The dark terrestrial ball." Addison.

3. Of or pertaining to the world, or to the present state; sublunary; mundane.

Vain labors of terrestrial wit.


A genius bright and base,
Of towering talents, and terrestrial aims.


4. Consisting of land, in distinction from water; belonging to, or inhabiting, the land or ground, in distinction from trees, water, or the like; as, terrestrial serpents.

The terrestrial parts of the globe.


5. Adapted for the observation of objects on land and on the earth; as, a terrestrial telescope, in distinction from an astronomical telescope.

— Ter*res"tri*al*ly, adv. — Ter*res"tri*al*ness, n.

Ter*res"tri*al, n. An inhabitant of the earth.

Ter*res"tri*fy (?), v. t. [L. terrestris terrestrial + -fy.] To convert or reduce into a condition like that of the earth; to make earthy. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ter*res"tri*ous (?), a. [See Terrestrial.] Terrestrial. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ter"ret (?), n. One of the rings on the top of the saddle of a harness, through which the reins pass.

Terre"-ten`ant (?), n. [F. terre earth, land + tenant, p. pr. of tenir to hold.] (Law) One who has the actual possession of land; the occupant. [Written also ter-tenant.]

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Terre"-verte` (?), n. [F., fr. terre earth + vert, verte, green.] An olive-green earth used as a pigment. See Glauconite.

Ter"ri*ble (?), a. [F., fr. L. terribilis, fr. terrere to frighten. See Terror.] 1. Adapted or likely to excite terror, awe, or dread; dreadful; formidable.

Prudent in peace, and terrible in war.


Thou shalt not be affrighted at them; for the Lord thy God is among you, a mighty God and terrible.

Deut. vii. 21.

2. Excessive; extreme; severe. [Colloq.]

The terrible coldness of the season.


Syn. — Terrific; fearful; frightful; formidable; dreadful; horrible; shocking; awful.

— Ter"ri*ble*ness, n. — Ter"ri*bly, adv.

||Ter*ric"o*læ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. terra + colere to inhabit.] (Zoöl.) A division of annelids including the common earthworms and allied species.

Ter`ri*en"ni*ak (?), n. (Zoöl.) The arctic fox.

Ter"ri*er (?), n. [CF. L. terere to rub, to rub away, terebra a borer.] An auger or borer. [Obs.]

Ter"ri*er, n. 1. [F. terrier, chien terrier, from terre the earth, L. terra; cf. F. terrier a burrow, LL. terrarium a hillock (hence the sense, a mound thrown up in making a burrow, a burrow). See Terrace, and cf. Terrier, 2.] (Zoöl.) One of a breed of small dogs, which includes several distinct subbreeds, some of which, such as the Skye terrier and Yorkshire terrier, have long hair and drooping ears, while others, at the English and the black-and-tan terriers, have short, close, smooth hair and upright ears.

Most kinds of terriers are noted for their courage, the acuteness of their sense of smell, their propensity to hunt burrowing animals, and their activity in destroying rats, etc. See Fox terrier, under Fox.

2. [F. terrier, papier terrier, LL. terrarius liber, i.e., a book belonging or pertaining to land or landed estates. See Terrier, 1, and cf. Terrar.] (Law) (a) Formerly, a collection of acknowledgments of the vassals or tenants of a lordship, containing the rents and services they owed to the lord, and the like. (b) In modern usage, a book or roll in which the lands of private persons or corporations are described by their site, boundaries, number of acres, or the like. [Written also terrar.]

Ter*rif"ic (?), a. [L. terrificus; fr. terrere to frighten + facere to make. See Terror, and Fact.] Causing terror; adapted to excite great fear or dread; terrible; as, a terrific form; a terrific sight.

Ter*rif"ic*al (?), a. Terrific. [R.]

Ter*rif"ic*al*ly, adv. In a terrific manner.

Ter"ri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Terrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Terrifying (?).] [L. terrere to frighten + -fy: cf. F. terrifier, L. terrificare. See Terrific, and - fy.] 1. To make terrible. [Obs.]

If the law, instead of aggravating and terrifying sin, shall give out license, it foils itself.


2. To alarm or shock with fear; to frighten.

When ye shall hear of wars . . . be not terrified.

Luke xxi. 9.

Ter*rig"e*nous (?), a. [L. terrigena, terrigenus; terra the earth + genere, gignere, to bring forth.] Earthborn; produced by the earth.

Ter`ri*to"ri*al (?), a. [L. territorialis: cf. F. territorial.] 1. Of or pertaining to territory or land; as, territorial limits; territorial jurisdiction.

2. Limited to a certain district; as, right may be personal or territorial.

3. Of or pertaining to all or any of the Territories of the United States, or to any district similarly organized elsewhere; as, Territorial governments.

Ter`ri*to"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Territorialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Territorializing (?).] 1. To enlarge by extension of territory.

2. To reduce to the condition of a territory.

Ter`ri*to"ri*al*ly, adv. In regard to territory; by means of territory.

Ter"ri*to*ried (?), a. Possessed of territory. [R.]

Ter"ri*to*ry (?), n.; pl. Territories (#). [L. territorium, from terra the earth: cf. F. territoire. See Terrace.] 1. A large extent or tract of land; a region; a country; a district.

He looked, and saw wide territory spread
Before him — towns, and rural works between.


2. The extent of land belonging to, or under the dominion of, a prince, state, or other form of government; often, a tract of land lying at a distance from the parent country or from the seat of government; as, the territory of a State; the territories of the East India Company.

3. In the United States, a portion of the country not included within the limits of any State, and not yet admitted as a State into the Union, but organized with a separate legislature, under a Territorial governor and other officers appointed by the President and Senate of the United States. In Canada, a similarly organized portion of the country not yet formed into a Province.

Ter"ror (?), n. [L. terror, akin to terrere to frighten, for tersere; akin to Gr. &?; to flee away, dread, Skr. tras to tremble, to be afraid, Russ. triasti to shake: cf. F. terreur. Cf. Deter.] 1. Extreme fear; fear that agitates body and mind; violent dread; fright.

Terror seized the rebel host.


2. That which excites dread; a cause of extreme fear.

Those enormous terrors of the Nile.


Rulers are not a terror to good works.

Rom. xiii. 3.

There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats.


Terror is used in the formation of compounds which are generally self-explaining: as, terror-fraught, terror-giving, terror-smitten, terror-stricken, terror-struck, and the like.

King of terrors, death. Job xviii. 14.Reign of Terror. (F. Hist.) See in Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.

Syn. — Alarm; fright; consternation; dread; dismay. See Alarm.

Ter"ror*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. terrorisme.] The act of terrorizing, or state of being terrorized; a mode of government by terror or intimidation. Jefferson.

Ter"ror*ist, n. [F. terroriste.] One who governs by terrorism or intimidation; specifically, an agent or partisan of the revolutionary tribunal during the Reign of Terror in France. Burke.

Ter"ror*ize (?), v. t. [Cf. F. terroriser.] To impress with terror; to coerce by intimidation.

Humiliated by the tyranny of foreign despotism, and terrorized by ecclesiastical authority.

J. A. Symonds.

Ter"ror*less, a. Free from terror. Poe.

Ter"ry (?), n. A kind of heavy colored fabric, either all silk, or silk and worsted, or silk and cotton, often called terry velvet, used for upholstery and trimmings.

||Ter*sanc"tus (?), n. [L. ter thrice + sanctus holy.] (Eccl.) An ancient ascription of praise (containing the word "Holy" — in its Latin form, "Sanctus" — thrice repeated), used in the Mass of the Roman Catholic Church and before the prayer of consecration in the communion service of the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal Church. Cf. Trisagion.

Terse (?), a. [Compar. Terser (?); superl. Tersest.] [L. tersus, p. p. of tergere to rub or wipe off.] 1. Appearing as if rubbed or wiped off; rubbed; smooth; polished. [Obs.]

Many stones, . . . although terse and smooth, have not this power attractive.

Sir T. Browne.

2. Refined; accomplished; — said of persons. [R. & Obs.] "Your polite and terse gallants." Massinger.

3. Elegantly concise; free of superfluous words; polished to smoothness; as, terse language; a terse style.

Terse, luminous, and dignified eloquence.


A poet, too, was there, whose verse
Was tender, musical, and terse.


Syn. — Neat; concise; compact. Terse, Concise. Terse was defined by Johnson "cleanly written", i. e., free from blemishes, neat or smooth. Its present sense is "free from excrescences," and hence, compact, with smoothness, grace, or elegance, as in the following lones of Whitehead: -

"In eight terse lines has Phædrus told
(So frugal were the bards of old)
A tale of goats; and closed with grace,
Plan, moral, all, in that short space."

It differs from concise in not implying, perhaps, quite as much condensation, but chiefly in the additional idea of "grace or elegance."

— Terse"ly, adv. — Terse"ness, n.

Ter*sul"phide (?), n. [Pref. ter- + sulphide.] (Chem.) A trisulphide.

Ter*sul"phu*ret (?), n. [Pref. ter- + sulphuret.] (Chem.) A trisulphide. [R.]

Ter"-ten`ant (?), n. See Terre- tenant.

Ter"tial (?), a. & n. [From L. tertius third, the tertial feathers being feathers of the third row. See Tierce.] (Zoöl.) Same as Tertiary.

Ter"tian (?), a. [L. tertianus, from tertius the third. See Tierce.] (Med.) Occurring every third day; as, a tertian fever.

Ter"tian, n. [L. tertiana (sc. febris): cf. OF. tertiane.] 1. (Med.) A disease, especially an intermittent fever, which returns every third day, reckoning inclusively, or in which the intermission lasts one day.

2. A liquid measure formerly used for wine, equal to seventy imperial, or eighty-four wine, gallons, being one third of a tun.

Ter"ti*a*ry (?), a. [L. tertiarius containing a third part, fr. tertius third: cf. F. tertiaire. See Tierce.] 1. Being of the third formation, order, or rank; third; as, a tertiary use of a word. Trench.

2. (Chem.) Possessing some quality in the third degree; having been subjected to the substitution of three atoms or radicals; as, a tertiary alcohol, amine, or salt. Cf. Primary, and Secondary.

3. (Geol.) Later than, or subsequent to, the Secondary.

4. (Zoöl.) Growing on the innermost joint of a bird's wing; tertial; — said of quills.

Tertiary age. (Geol.) See under Age, 8. — Tertiary color, a color produced by the mixture of two secondaries. "The so-called tertiary colors are citrine, russet, and olive." Fairholt.Tertiary period. (Geol.) (a) The first period of the age of mammals, or of the Cenozoic era. (b) The rock formation of that period; — called also Tertiary formation. See the Chart of Geology. — Tertiary syphilis (Med.), the third and last stage of syphilis, in which it invades the bones and internal organs.

Ter"ti*a*ry, n.; pl. Tertiaries (&?;). 1. (R. C. Ch.) A member of the Third Order in any monastic system; as, the Franciscan tertiaries; the Dominican tertiaries; the Carmelite tertiaries. See Third Order, under Third. Addis & Arnold.

2. (Geol.) The Tertiary era, period, or formation.

3. (Zoöl.) One of the quill feathers which are borne upon the basal joint of the wing of a bird. See Illust. of Bird.

Ter"ti*ate (?), v. t. [L. tertiatus, p. p. of tertiare to do for the third time, fr. tertius the third.] 1. To do or perform for the third time. [Obs. & R.] Johnson.

2. (Gun.) To examine, as the thickness of the metal at the muzzle of a gun; or, in general, to examine the thickness of, as ordnance, in order to ascertain its strength.

||Ter`u*ter"o (?), n. [Probably so named from its city.] (Zoöl.) The South American lapwing (Vanellus Cayennensis). Its wings are furnished with short spurs. Called also Cayenne lapwing.

||Ter"za ri"ma (?). [It., a third or triple rhyme.] A peculiar and complicated system of versification, borrowed by the early Italian poets from the Troubadours.

||Ter*zet"to (?), n. [It., dim. of terzo the third, L. tertius. See Tierce.] (Mus.) A composition in three voice parts; a vocal (rarely an instrumental) trio.

Tes"sel*ar (?), a. [L. tessella a small square piece, a little cube, dim. of tessera a square piece of stone, wood, etc., a die.] Formed of tesseræ, as a mosaic.

||Tes`sel*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tessellate.] (Zoöl.) A division of Crinoidea including numerous fossil species in which the body is covered with tessellated plates.

Tes"sel*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tessellated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tessellating.] [L. tessellatus tessellated. See Tessellar.] To form into squares or checkers; to lay with checkered work.

The floors are sometimes of wood, tessellated after the fashion of France.


Tes"sel*late (?), a. [L. tesselatus.] Tessellated.

Tes"sel*la`ted (?), a. 1. Formed of little squares, as mosaic work; checkered; as, a tessellated pavement.

2. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Marked like a checkerboard; as, a tessellated leaf.

Tes`sel*la"tion (?), n. The act of tessellating; also, the mosaic work so formed. J. Forsyth.

||Tes"se*ra (?), n.; pl. Tesseræ (#). [L., a square piece, a die. See Tessellar.] A small piece of marble, glass, earthenware, or the like, having a square, or nearly square, face, used by the ancients for mosaic, as for making pavements, for ornamenting walls, and like purposes; also, a similar piece of ivory, bone, wood, etc., used as a ticket of admission to theaters, or as a certificate for successful gladiators, and as a token for various other purposes. Fairholt.

Tes`se*ra"ic (?), a. Diversified by squares; done in mosaic; tessellated. [Obs.] Sir R. Atkyns (1712).

Tes"se*ral (?), a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or containing, tesseræ.

2. (Crystallog.) Isometric.

Tes"su*lar (?), a. (Crystallog.) Tesseral.

Test (?), n. [OE. test test, or cupel, potsherd, F. têt, from L. testum an earthen vessel; akin to testa a piece of burned clay, an earthen pot, a potsherd, perhaps for tersta, and akin to torrere to patch, terra earth (cf. Thirst, and Terrace), but cf. Zend tasta cup. Cf. Test a shell, Testaceous, Tester a covering, a coin, Testy, Tête-à- tête.] 1. (Metal.) A cupel or cupelling hearth in which precious metals are melted for trial and refinement.

Our ingots, tests, and many mo.


2. Examination or trial by the cupel; hence, any critical examination or decisive trial; as, to put a man's assertions to a test. "Bring me to the test." Shak.

3. Means of trial; as, absence is a test of love.

Each test every light her muse will bear.


4. That with which anything is compared for proof of its genuineness; a touchstone; a standard.

Life, force, and beauty must to all impart,
At once the source, and end, and test of art.


5. Discriminative characteristic; standard of judgment; ground of admission or exclusion.

Our test excludes your tribe from benefit.


6. Judgment; distinction; discrimination.

Who would excel, when few can make a test
Betwixt indifferent writing and the best?


7. (Chem.) A reaction employed to recognize or distinguish any particular substance or constituent of a compound, as the production of some characteristic precipitate; also, the reagent employed to produce such reaction; thus, the ordinary test for sulphuric acid is the production of a white insoluble precipitate of barium sulphate by means of some soluble barium salt.

Test act (Eng. Law), an act of the English Parliament prescribing a form of oath and declaration against transubstantiation, which all officers, civil and military, were formerly obliged to take within six months after their admission to office. They were obliged also to receive the sacrament according to the usage of the Church of England. Blackstone.Test object (Optics), an object which tests the power or quality of a microscope or telescope, by requiring a certain degree of excellence in the instrument to determine its existence or its peculiar texture or markings. — Test paper. (a) (Chem.) Paper prepared for use in testing for certain substances by being saturated with a reagent which changes color in some specific way when acted upon by those substances; thus, litmus paper is turned red by acids, and blue by alkalies, turmeric paper is turned brown by alkalies, etc. (b) (Law) An instrument admitted as a standard or comparison of handwriting in those jurisdictions in which comparison of hands is permitted as a mode of proving handwriting. — Test tube. (Chem.) (a) A simple tube of thin glass, closed at one end, for heating solutions and for performing ordinary reactions. (b) A graduated tube.

Syn. — Criterion; standard; experience; proof; experiment; trial. — Test, Trial. Trial is the wider term; test is a searching and decisive trial. It is derived from the Latin testa (earthen pot), which term was early applied to the fining pot, or crucible, in which metals are melted for trial and refinement. Hence the peculiar force of the word, as indicating a trial or criterion of the most decisive kind.

I leave him to your gracious acceptance, whose trial shall better publish his commediation.


Thy virtue, prince, has stood the test of fortune,
Like purest gold, that tortured in the furnace,
Comes out more bright, and brings forth all its weight.


Test, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tested; p. pr. & vb. n. Testing.] 1. (Metal.) To refine, as gold or silver, in a test, or cupel; to subject to cupellation.

2. To put to the proof; to prove the truth, genuineness, or quality of by experiment, or by some principle or standard; to try; as, to test the soundness of a principle; to test the validity of an argument.

Experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution.


3. (Chem.) To examine or try, as by the use of some reagent; as, to test a solution by litmus paper.

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Test (?), n. [L. testis. Cf. Testament, Testify.] A witness. [Obs.]

Prelates and great lords of England, who were for the more surety tests of that deed.

Ld. Berners.

Test, v. i. [L. testari. See Testament.] To make a testament, or will. [Obs.]

{ Test (?), ||Tes"ta (?), } n.; pl. E. Tests (#), L. Testæ (#). [L. testa a piece of burned clay, a broken piece of earthenware, a shell. See Test a cupel.] 1. (Zoöl.) The external hard or firm covering of many invertebrate animals.

The test of crustaceans and insects is composed largely of chitin; in mollusks it is composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, and is called the shell.

2. (Bot.) The outer integument of a seed; the episperm, or spermoderm.

Test"a*ble (?), a. [See Testament.] 1. Capable of being tested or proved.

2. Capable of being devised, or given by will.

||Tes*ta"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. testaceum a shelled anumal. See Testaceous.] (Zoöl.) Invertebrate animals covered with shells, especially mollusks; shellfish.

Tes*ta"cean (?), n. (Zoöl.) Onr of the Testacea.

Tes*ta`ce*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Testacea + -graphy: cf. F. testacéographie.] The science which treats of testaceans, or shellfish; the description of shellfish. [R.]

Tes*ta`ce*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Testacea + -logy: cf. F. testacéologie.] The science of testaceous mollusks; conchology. [R.]

Tes*ta"ceous (?), a. [L. testaceus, fr. testa a shell. See Testa.] 1. Of or pertaining to shells; consisted of a hard shell, or having a hard shell.

2. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Having a dull red brick color or a brownish yellow color.

Testaceous animals (Zoöl.), animals having a firm, calcareous shell, as oysters and clams, thus distinguished from crustaceous animals, whose shells are more thin and soft, and consist of several joints, or articulations, as lobsters and crabs.

Tes"ta*cy (?), n. [See Testate.] (Law) The state or circumstance of being testate, or of leaving a valid will, or testament, at death.

Tes"ta*ment (?), n. [F., fr. L. testamentum, fr. testari to be a witness, to make one's last will, akin to testis a witness. Cf. Intestate, Testify.] 1. (Law) A solemn, authentic instrument in writing, by which a person declares his will as to disposal of his estate and effects after his death.

This is otherwise called a will, and sometimes a last will and testament. A testament, to be valid, must be made by a person of sound mind; and it must be executed and published in due form of law. A man, in certain cases, may make a valid will by word of mouth only. See Nuncupative will, under Nuncupative.

2. One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; — often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter.

He is the mediator of the new testament . . . for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament.

Heb. ix. 15.

Holographic testament, a testament written wholly by the testator himself. Bouvier.

Tes`ta*men"tal (?), a. [L. testamentalis.] Of or pertaining to a testament; testamentary.

Thy testamental cup I take,
And thus remember thee.

J. Montgomery.

Tes`ta*men"ta*ry (?), a. [L. testamentarius: cf. F. testamentaire.] 1. Of or pertaining to a will, or testament; as, letters testamentary.

2. Bequeathed by will; given by testament.

How many testamentary charities have been defeated by the negligence or fraud of executors!


3. Done, appointed by, or founded on, a testament, or will; as, a testamentary guardian of a minor, who may be appointed by the will of a father to act in that capacity until the child becomes of age.

Tes`ta*men*ta"tion (?), n. The act or power of giving by testament, or will. [R.] Burke.

Tes"ta*men*tize (?), v. i. To make a will. [Obs.] Fuller.

||Tes*ta"mur (?), n. [L., we testify, fr. testari to testify.] (Eng. Universities) A certificate of merit or proficiency; — so called from the Latin words, Ita testamur, with which it commences.

Tes"tate (?), a. [L. testatus, p. p. of testari. See Testament.] (Law) Having made and left a will; as, a person is said to die testate. Ayliffe.

Tes"tate, n. (Law) One who leaves a valid will at death; a testate person. [R.]

Tes*ta"tion (?), n. [L. testatio.] A witnessing or witness. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Tes*ta"tor (?), n. [L.: cf. F. testateur.] (Law) A man who makes and leaves a will, or testament, at death.

Tes*ta"trix (?), n. [L.] (Law) A woman who makes and leaves a will at death; a female testator.

Tes"te (?), n. [So called fr. L. teste, abl. of testis a witness, because this was formerly the initial word in the clause.] (Law) (a) A witness. (b) The witnessing or concluding clause, duty attached; — said of a writ, deed, or the like. Burrill.

Tes"ter (?), n. [OE. testere a headpiece, helmet, OF. testiere, F. têtière a head covering, fr. OF. teste the head, F. tête, fr. L. testa an earthen pot, the skull. See Test a cupel, and cf. Testière.] 1. A headpiece; a helmet. [Obs.]

The shields bright, testers, and trappures.


2. A flat canopy, as over a pulpit or tomb. Oxf. Gross.

3. A canopy over a bed, supported by the bedposts.

No testers to the bed, and the saddles and portmanteaus heaped on me to keep off the cold.


Tes"ter, n. [For testern, teston, fr. F. teston, fr. OF. teste the head, the head of the king being impressed upon the coin. See Tester a covering, and cf. Testone, Testoon.] An old French silver coin, originally of the value of about eighteen pence, subsequently reduced to ninepence, and later to sixpence, sterling. Hence, in modern English slang, a sixpence; — often contracted to tizzy. Called also teston. Shak.

Tes"tern (?), n. A sixpence; a tester. [Obs.]

Tes"tern, v. t. To present with a tester. [Obs.] Shak.

||Tes"tes (?), n., pl. of Teste, or of Testis.

||Tes`ti*car"di*nes (?), n. pl. [NL. See Test a shell, and Cardo.] (Zoöl.) A division of brachiopods including those which have a calcareous shell furnished with a hinge and hinge teeth. Terebratula and Spirifer are examples.

Tes"ti*cle (?), n. [L. testiculus, dim. of testis a testicle, probably the same word as testis a witness, as being a witness to manhood. Cf. Test a witness.] (Anat.) One of the essential male genital glands which secrete the semen.

Tes"ti*cond (?), a. [L. testis testis + condere to hide.] (Zoöl.) Having the testicles naturally concealed, as in the case of the cetaceans.

Tes*tic"u*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the testicle.

Tes*tic"u*late (?), a. [NL. testiculatus.] (Bot.) (a) Shaped like a testicle, ovate and solid. (b) Having two tubers resembling testicles in form, as some species of orchis.

||Tes`ti*ère" (?), n. [OF. testiere. See Tester a headpiece.] A piece of plate armor for the head of a war horse; a tester.

Tes"tif (?), a. [See Testy.] Testy; headstrong; obstinate. [Obs.]

Testif they were and lusty for to play.


Tes`ti*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. testificatio: cf. OF. testification. See Testify.] The act of testifying, or giving testimony or evidence; as, a direct testification of our homage to God. South.

Tes"ti*fi*ca`tor (?), n. [NL.] A testifier.

Tes"ti*fi`er (?), n. One who testifies; one who gives testimony, or bears witness to prove anything; a witness.

Tes"ti*fy (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Testified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Testifying (?).] [OF. testifier, L. testificari; testis a witness + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See - fy, and cf. Attest, Contest, Detest, Protest, Testament.] 1. To make a solemn declaration, verbal or written, to establish some fact; to give testimony for the purpose of communicating to others a knowledge of something not known to them.

Jesus . . . needed not that any should testify of man, for he knew what was in man.

John ii. 25.

2. (Law) To make a solemn declaration under oath or affirmation, for the purpose of establishing, or making proof of, some fact to a court; to give testimony in a cause depending before a tribunal.

One witness shall not testify against any person to cause him to die.

Num. xxxv. 30.

3. To declare a charge; to protest; to give information; to bear witness; — with against.

O Israel, . . . I will testify against thee.

Ps. l. 7.

I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals.

Neh. xiii. 15.

Tes"ti*fy, v. t. 1. To bear witness to; to support the truth of by testimony; to affirm or declare solemny.

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.

John iii. 11.

2. (Law) To affirm or declare under oath or affirmation before a tribunal, in order to prove some fact.

Tes"ti*fy, adv. In a testy manner; fretfully; peevishly; with petulance.

Tes`ti*mo"ni*al (?), n. [Cf. OF. testimoniale, LL. testimonialis, L. testimoniales (sc. litteræ). See Testimonial, a.] 1. A writing or certificate which bears testimony in favor of one's character, good conduct, ability, etc., or of the value of a thing.

2. Something, as money or plate, presented to a preson as a token of respect, or of obligation for services rendered.

Tes`ti*mo"ni*al, a. [L. testimonialis: cf. F. testimonial.] Relating to, or containing, testimony.

Tes"ti*mo*ny (?), n.; pl. Testimonies (#). [L. testimonium, from testis a witness: cf. OF. testimoine, testemoine, testimonie. See Testify.] 1. A solemn declaration or affirmation made for the purpose of establishing or proving some fact.

Such declaration, in judicial proceedings, may be verbal or written, but must be under oath or affirmation.

2. Affirmation; declaration; as, these doctrines are supported by the uniform testimony of the fathers; the belief of past facts must depend on the evidence of human testimony, or the testimony of historians.

3. Open attestation; profession.

[Thou] for the testimony of truth, hast borne
Universal reproach.


4. Witness; evidence; proof of some fact.

When ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them.

Mark vi. 11.

5. (Jewish Antiq.) The two tables of the law.

Thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.

Ex. xxv. 16.

6. Hence, the whole divine revelation; the sacre&?; Scriptures.

The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

Ps. xix. 7.

Syn. — Proof; evidence; attestation; witness; affirmation; confirmation; averment. — Testimony, Proof, Evidence. Proof is the most familiar, and is used more frequently (though not exclusively) of facts and things which occur in the ordinary concerns of life. Evidence is a word of more dignity, and is more generally applied to that which is moral or intellectual; as, the evidences of Christianity, etc. Testimony is what is deposed to by a witness on oath or affirmation. When used figuratively or in a wider sense, the word testimony has still a reference to some living agent as its author, as when we speak of the testimony of conscience, or of doing a thing in testimony of our affection, etc. Testimony refers rather to the thing declared, evidence to its value or effect. "To conform our language more to common use, we ought to divide arguments into demonstrations, proofs, and probabilities; ba proofs, meaning such arguments from experience as leave no room for doubt or opposition." Hume. "The evidence of sense is the first and highest kind of evidence of which human nature is capable." Bp. Wilkins. "The proof of everything must be by the testimony of such as the parties produce." Spenser.

Tes"ti*mo*ny (?), v. t. To witness; to attest; to prove by testimony. [Obs.] Shak.

Tes"ti*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being testy; fretfulness; petulance.

Testiness is a disposition or aptness to be angry.


Test"ing (?), n. 1. The act of testing or proving; trial; proof.

2. (Metal.) The operation of refining gold or silver in a test, or cupel; cupellation.

Testing machine (Engin.), a machine used in the determination of the strength of materials, as iron, stone, etc., and their behavior under strains of various kinds, as elongation, bending, crushing, etc.

||Tes"tis (?), n.; pl. Testes (#). [L.] (Anat.) A testicle.

Tes"ton (?), n. A tester; a sixpence. [Obs.]

Tes*tone" (?), n. [Cf. Pg. testão, tostão. See Testoon.] A silver coin of Portugal, worth about sixpence sterling, or about eleven cents. Homans.

Tes*toon" (?), n. [It. testone. See Tester a coin.] An Italian silver coin. The testoon of Rome is worth 1s. 3d. sterling, or about thirty cents. Homans.

Tes*tu"di*nal (?), a. [See Testudo.] (Zoöl.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a tortoise.

Tes*tu`di*na"ri*ous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the shell of a tortoise; resembling a tortoise shell; having the color or markings of a tortoise shell.

||Tes*tu`di*na"ta (?), n. pl. [Nl. See Testudo.] (Zoöl.) An order of reptiles which includes the turtles and tortoises. The body is covered by a shell consisting of an upper or dorsal shell, called the carapace, and a lower or ventral shell, called the plastron, each of which consists of several plates.

{ Tes*tu"di*nate (?), Tes*tu"di*na`ted (?), } a. [L. testudinatus, fr. testudo, - inis, a tortoise, an arch or vault.] Resembling a tortoise shell in appearance or structure; roofed; arched; vaulted.

Tes`tu*din"e*ous (?), a. [L. testudineus.] Resembling the shell of a tortoise.

||Tes*tu"do (?), n.; pl. Testudines (#). [L., from testa the shell of shellfish, or of testaceous animals.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of tortoises which formerly included a large number of diverse forms, but is now restricted to certain terrestrial species, such as the European land tortoise (Testudo Græca) and the gopher of the Southern United States.

2. (Rom. Antiq.) A cover or screen which a body of troops formed with their shields or targets, by holding them over their heads when standing close to each other. This cover resembled the back of a tortoise, and served to shelter the men from darts, stones, and other missiles. A similar defense was sometimes formed of boards, and moved on wheels.

3. (Mus.) A kind of musical instrument. a species of lyre; — so called in allusion to the lyre of Mercury, fabled to have been made of the shell of a tortoise.

Tes"ty (?), a. [Compar. Testier (?); superl. Testiest.] [OF. testu obstinate, headstrong, F. têtu, fr. OF. teste the head, F. tête. See Test a cupel.] Fretful; peevish; petulant; easily irritated.

Must I observe you? must I stand and crouch
Under your testy humor?


I was displeased with myself; I was testy.


Te*tan"ic (?), a. [Cf. L. tetanicus suffering from tetanus, Gr. &?;, F. tétanique.] 1. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to tetanus; having the character of tetanus; as, a tetanic state; tetanic contraction.

This condition of muscle, this fusion of a number of simple spasms into an apparently smooth, continuous effort, is known as tetanus, or tetanic contraction.


2. (Physiol. & Med.) Producing, or tending to produce, tetanus, or tonic contraction of the muscles; as, a tetanic remedy. See Tetanic, n.

<! p. 1491 !>

Te*tan"ic (?), n. (Physiol. & Med.) A substance (notably nux vomica, strychnine, and brucine) which, either as a remedy or a poison, acts primarily on the spinal cord, and which, when taken in comparatively large quantity, produces tetanic spasms or convulsions.

Tet"a*nin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A poisonous base (ptomaine) formed in meat broth through the agency of a peculiar microbe from the wound of a person who has died of tetanus; — so called because it produces tetanus as one of its prominent effects.

Tet`a*ni*za"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The production or condition of tetanus.

Tet"a*nize (?), v. t. (Physiol.) To throw, as a muscle, into a state of permanent contraction; to cause tetanus in. See Tetanus, n., 2.

Tet"a*noid (?), a. [Tetanus + - oid.] (Med. & Physiol.) Resembling tetanus.

Tet`a*no*mo"tor (?), n. (Physiol.) An instrument from tetanizing a muscle by irritating its nerve by successive mechanical shocks.

||Tet"a*nus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; stretched, &?; to stretch.] 1. (Med.) A painful and usually fatal disease, resulting generally from a wound, and having as its principal symptom persistent spasm of the voluntary muscles. When the muscles of the lower jaw are affected, it is called locked-jaw, or lickjaw, and it takes various names from the various incurvations of the body resulting from the spasm.

2. (Physiol.) That condition of a muscle in which it is in a state of continued vibratory contraction, as when stimulated by a series of induction shocks.

Tet"a*ny (?), n. (Med.) A morbid condition resembling tetanus, but distinguished from it by being less severe and having intermittent spasms.

Te*tard" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A gobioid fish (Eleotris gyrinus) of the Southern United States; — called also sleeper.

Te*tar`to*he"dral (?), a. [Gr. &?; fourth + &?; base.] (Crystallog.) Having one fourth the number of planes which are requisite to complete symmetry. — Te*tar`to*he"dral*ly, adv.

Te*tar`to*he"drism (?), n. (Crystallog.) The property of being tetartohedral.

Te*taug" (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Tautog. [R.]

Tetch"i*ness, n. See Techiness.

Tetch"y (?), a. See Techy. Shak.

||Tête (?), n. [F., the head. See Tester a covering.] A kind of wig; false hair.

||Tête`-à-tête" (tt`*tt"), n. [F., head to head. See Tester a covering, Test a cupel.] 1. Private conversation; familiar interview or conference of two persons.

2. A short sofa intended to accomodate two persons.

||Tête`-à-tête", a. Private; confidential; familiar.

She avoided tête-à-tête walks with him.

C. Kingsley.

||Tête`-à-tête", adv. Face to face; privately or confidentially; familiarly. Prior.

||Tête`-de-pont" (tt`de*pôN"), n.; pl. Têtes-de-pont (#). [F., head of a bridge.] (Mil.) A work thrown up at the end of a bridge nearest the enemy, for covering the communications across a river; a bridgehead.

Te*tel" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large African antelope (Alcelaphus tora). It has widely divergent, strongly ringed horns.

Teth"er (?), n. [Formerly tedder, OE. tedir; akin to LG. tider, tier, Icel. tj&?;r, Dan. töir. √64.] A long rope or chain by which an animal is fastened, as to a stake, so that it can range or feed only within certain limits.

Teth"er, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tethered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tethering.] To confine, as an animal, with a long rope or chain, as for feeding within certain limits.

And by a slender cord was tethered to a stone.


Te*thy"dan (?), n. [See Tethys.] (Zoöl.) A tunicate.

||Te`thy*o"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Tethys + Gr. &?; form.] (Zoöl.) A division of Tunicata including the common attached ascidians, both simple and compound. Called also Tethioidea.

Te"thys (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; an oyster, or &?; a kind of ascidian.] (Zoöl.) A genus of a large naked mollusks having a very large, broad, fringed cephalic disk, and branched dorsal gills. Some of the species become a foot long and are brilliantly colored.

Tet"ra- (?). [Gr. te`tra-, from te`sares, te`ttares, four. See Four.] 1. A combining form or prefix signifying four, as in tetrabasic, tetrapetalous.

2. (Chem.) A combining form (also used adjectively) denoting four proportional or combining parts of the substance or ingredient denoted by the term to which it is prefixed, as in tetra-chloride, tetroxide.

Tet`ra*bas"ic (?), a. [Tetra- + basic.] (Chem.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monacid base; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by bases; quadribasic; — said of certain acids; thus, normal silicic acid, Si(OH)4, is a tetrabasic acid.

Tet`ra*bor"ic (?), a. [Tetra- + boric.] (Chem.) Same as Pyroboric.

||Tet`ra*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tetra-, and Branchia.] (Zoöl.) An order of Cephalopoda having four gills. Among living species it includes only the pearly nautilus. Numerous genera and species are found in the fossil state, such as Ammonites, Baculites, Orthoceras, etc.

Tet`ra*bran`chi*ate (?), a. [Tetra + branchiate.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Tetrabranchiata. — n. One of the Tetrabranchiata.

Tet`ra*car"pel (?), a. [Tetra- + carpellary.] (Bot.) Composed of four carpels.

Tet"ra*chord (?), n. [L. tetrachordon, Gr. &?;, from &?; four-stringed; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a chord: cf. F. tétrachorde.] (Anc. Mus.) A scale series of four sounds, of which the extremes, or first and last, constituted a fourth. These extremes were immutable; the two middle sounds were changeable.

Tet`ra*chot"o*mous (?), a. [Gr. te`tracha in four parts + te`mnein to cut.] (Bot.) Having a division by fours; separated into four parts or series, or into series of fours.

Tet*rac"id (?), a. [Tetra + acid.] (Chem.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monobasic acid; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement ba acids or acid atoms; — said of certain bases; thus, erythrine, C4H6(OH)4, is a tetracid alcohol.

Tet`ra*coc"cous (?), a. [See Tetra-, and Coccus.] (Bot.) Having four cocci, or carpels.

Tet`ra*co"lon (?), n. [Gr. &?; with four members; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; limb, member.] (Pros.) A stanza or division in lyric poetry, consisting of four verses or lines. Crabb.

||Te`tra*co*ral"la (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tetra-, and Corallum.] (Paleon.) Same as Rugosa.

Te*trac`ti*nel"lid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of sponge of the division Tetractinellida. Also used adjectively.

||Te*trac`ti*nel"li*da (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. te`tra- tetra- + &?;, &?;, ray, spoke.] (Zoöl.) A division of Spongiæ in which the spicules are siliceous and have four branches diverging at right angles. Called also Tetractinellinæ.

Tet"rad (?), n. [L. tetras, - adis, Gr. &?;, &?;: cf. F. tétrade.] 1. The number four; a collection of four things; a quaternion.

2. (Chem.) A tetravalent or quadrivalent atom or radical; as, carbon is a tetrad.

{ Tet`ra*dac"tyl, Tet`ra*dac"tyle } (?), a. [Cf. F. tétradactyle.] (Zoöl.) Tetradactylous.

Tet`ra*dac"tyl*ous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; finger, toe.] (Zoöl.) Having, or characterized by, four digits to the foot or hand.

Tet`ra*dec"ane (?), n. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; ten.] (Chem.) A light oily hydrocarbon, C14H30, of the marsh-gas series; — so called from the fourteen carbon atoms in the molecule.

||Tet`ra*de*cap"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tetra-, and Decapoda.] (Zoöl.) Same as Arthrostraca.

Tet*rad"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to a tetrad; possessing or having the characteristics of a tetrad; as, a carbon is a tetradic element.

Tet"ra*dite (?), n. [See Tetrad.] A person in some way remarkable with regard to the number four, as one born on the fourth day of the month, or one who reverenced four persons in the Godhead. Smart.

Tet"ra*don (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Tetrodon.

Tet"ra*dont (?), a. & n. (Zoöl.) See Tetrodont.

{ Tet"ra*drachm (?), ||Tet`ra*drach"ma (?), } n. [NL. tetradrachma, fr. Gr. tetra`drachmon; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + drachmh` drachm, drachma.] A silver coin among the ancient Greeks, of the value of four drachms. The Attic tetradrachm was equal to 3s. 3d. sterling, or about 76 cents.

Tet*rad"y*mite (?), n. [Gr. tetra`dymos fourfold. So named from its occurrence in compound twin crystals, or fourlings.] (Min.) A telluride of bismuth. It is of a pale steel-gray color and metallic luster, and usually occurs in foliated masses. Called also telluric bismuth.

||Tet`ra*dy*na"mi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; power.] (Bot.) A Linnæan class of plants having six stamens, four of which are longer than the others.

Tet`ra*dy*na"mi*an (?), n. (Bot.) A plant of the order Tetradynamia.

{ Tet`ra*dy*na"mi*an (?), Tet`ra*dyn"a*mous (?), } a. (Bot.) Belonging to the order Tetradynamia; having six stamens, four of which are uniformly longer than the others.

Tet"ra*gon (?), n. [L. tetragonum, Gr. tetra`gwnon; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + gwni`a corner, angle: cf. F. tétragone.] 1. (Geom.) A plane figure having four sides and angles; a quadrangle, as a square, a rhombus, etc.

2. (Astrol.) An aspect of two planets with regard to the earth when they are distant from each other ninety degrees, or the fourth of a circle. Hutton.

Te*trag"o*nal (?), a. 1. (Geom.) Of or pertaining to a tetragon; having four angles or sides; thus, the square, the parallelogram, the rhombus, and the trapezium are tetragonal fingers.

2. (Bot.) Having four prominent longitudinal angles.

3. (Crystallog.) Designating, or belonging to, a certain system of crystallization; dimetric. See Tetragonal system, under Crystallization.

||Tet`ra*gram"ma*ton (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a letter.] The mystic number four, which was often symbolized to represent the Deity, whose name was expressed by four letters among some ancient nations; as, the Hebrew JeHoVaH, Greek qeo`s, Latin deus, etc.

||Tet`ra*gyn"i*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. te`tra- (see Tetra-) + gynh` a woman, female.] (Bot.) A Linnæan order of plants having four styles.

{ Tet`ra*gyn"i*an (?), Te*trag"y*nous (?), } a. (Bot.) Belonging to the order Tetragynia; having four styles.

Tet`ra*he"dral (?), a. [See Tetrahedron.] 1. Having, or composed of, four sides.

2. (Crystallog.) (a) Having the form of the regular tetrahedron. (b) Pertaining or related to a tetrahedron, or to the system of hemihedral forms to which the tetrahedron belongs.

Tetrahedral angle (Geom.), a solid angle bounded or inclosed by four plane angles.

Tet`ra*he"dral*ly, adv. In a tetrahedral manner.

Tet`ra*he"drite (?), n. [So called because the crystals of the species are commonly tetrahedrons.] (Min.) A sulphide of antimony and copper, with small quantities of other metals. It is a very common ore of copper, and some varieties yield a considerable presentage of silver. Called also gray copper ore, fahlore, and panabase.

Tet`ra*he"dron (?), n. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; seat, base, fr. &?; to sit.] (Geom.) A solid figure inclosed or bounded by four triangles.

In crystallography, the regular tetrahedron is regarded as the hemihedral form of the regular octahedron.

Regular tetrahedron (Geom.), a solid bounded by four equal equilateral triangles; one of the five regular solids.

Tet`ra*hex`a*he"dral (?), a. (Crystallog.) Pertaining to a tetrahexahedron.

Tet`ra*hex`a*he"dron (?), n. [Tetra- + hexahedron.] (Crystallog.) A solid in the isometric system, bounded by twenty-four equal triangular faces, four corresponding to each face of the cube.

Tet`ra*kis*hex`a*he"dron (?), n. [Gr. &?; four times + E. hexahedron.] (Crystallog.) A tetrahexahedron.

Tet"ra*ko*sane` (?), n. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; twenty.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon, C24H50, resembling paraffin, and like it belonging to the marsh-gas series; — so called from having twenty-four atoms of carbon in the molecule.

Te*tral"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a speech, discourse: cf. F. tétralogie.] (Gr. Drama) A group or series of four dramatic pieces, three tragedies and one satyric, or comic, piece (or sometimes four tragedies), represented consequently on the Attic stage at the Dionysiac festival.

A group or series of three tragedies, exhibited together without a fourth piese, was called a trilogy.

||Te*tram"e*ra (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tetramerous.] (Zoöl.) A division of Coleoptera having, apparently, only four tarsal joints, one joint being rudimentary.

Te*tram"er*ous (?), a. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; part.] 1. (Bot.) Having the parts arranged in sets of four; as, a tetramerous flower.

2. (Zoöl.) Having four joints in each of the tarsi; — said of certain insects.

Te*tram"e*ter (?), n. [L. tetrametrus, Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a measure: cf. F. tétramètre.] (GR. & Latin Pros.) A verse or line consisting of four measures, that is, in iambic, trochaic, and anapestic verse, of eight feet; in other kinds of verse, of four feet.

Tet`ra*meth"yl*ene (?), n. [Tetra- + methylene.] (Chem.) (a) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C4H8, analogous to trimethylene, and regarded as the base of well-known series or derivatives. (b) Sometimes, an isomeric radical used to designate certain compounds which are really related to butylene.

Tet"ra*morph (?), n. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; form, figure: cf. Gr. &?; fourfold.] (Christian Art) The union of the four attributes of the Evangelists in one figure, which is represented as winged, and standing on winged fiery wheels, the wings being covered with eyes. The representations of it are evidently suggested by the vision of Ezekiel (ch. i.)

||Te*tran"dri*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?;, &?;, a man, male.] (Bot.) A Linnæan class of plants having four stamens.

{ Te*tran"dri*an (?), Te*tran"drous (?), } a. (Bot.) Belonging to the class Tetrandria.

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Te*tra"o*nid (?), n. [L. tetrao a heath cock, grouse, Gr. &?;: cf. F. tétraonide.] (Zoöl.) A bird belonging to the tribe of which the genus Tetrao is the type, as the grouse, partridge, quail, and the like. Used also adjectively.

Tet`ra*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Tetra- + petal.] (Bot.) Containing four distinct petals, or flower leaves; as, a tetrapetalous corolla.

{ Tet`ra*phar"ma*com (?), Tet`ra*phar"ma*cum (?) }, n. [NL. tetrapharmacon, L. tetrapharmacum, Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a drug.] (Med.) A combination of wax, resin, lard, and pitch, composing an ointment. Brande & C.

Tet`ra*phe"nol (?), n. [Tetra- + phenol.] (Chem.) Furfuran. [Obs.]

Te*traph"yl*lous (?), a. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; a leaf.] (Bot.) Having four leaves; consisting of four distinct leaves or leaflets.

||Tet"ra*pla (?), n.; etymologically pl., but syntactically sing. [NL., fr. Gr. tetraplo`os, tetraploy^s, fourfold.] A Bible consisting of four different Greek versions arranged in four columns by Origen; hence, any version in four languages or four columns.

||Tet`rap*neu"mo*na (?), n. pl. [NL. See Tetra-, and Pneumo-.] (Zoöl.) A division of Arachnida including those spiders which have four lungs, or pulmonary sacs. It includes the bird spiders (Mygale) and the trapdoor spiders. See Mygale.

Tet`rap*nue*mo"ni*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Tetrapneumona.

Tet"ra*pod (?), n. [Gr. &?; fourfooted; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?;, &?;, foot.] (Zoöl.) An insect characterized by having but four perfect legs, as certain of the butterflies.

Te*trap"o*dy (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] A set of four feet; a measure or distance of four feet.

Te*trap"ter*an (?), n. [See Tetrapterous.] (Zoöl.) An insect having four wings.

Te*trap"ter*ous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; wing.] (Zoöl.) Having four wings.

Tet"rap*tote (?), n. [L. tetraptotum, Gr. &?;.] (Gram.) A noun that has four cases only. Andrews.

Te"trarch (?), n. [L. tetrarches, Gr. &?;, &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a ruler, &?; to lead; rule: cf. F. tétrarque. See Arch, a.] (Rom. Antiq.) A Roman governor of the fourth part of a province; hence, any subordinate or dependent prince; also, a petty king or sovereign.

Te"trarch, a. Four. [Obs.] Fuller.

Te*trarch"ate (?), n. [Cf. F. tétrarchat.] (Rom. Antiq.) A tetrarchy.

Te*trarch"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to a tetrarch or tetrarchy. Bolingbroke.

Tet"rarch*y (?), n.; pl. Tetrarchies (#). [L. tetrarchia, Gr. &?;: cf. F. tétrarchie.] (Rom. Antiq.) The district under a Roman tetrarch; the office or jurisdiction of a tetrarch; a tetrarchate.

Tet`ra*schis"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; divided into four parts; te`tra- tetra- + &?; to split.] (Biol.) Characterized by division into four parts.

Tet`ra*sep"al*ous (?), a. [Tetra- + sepal.] (Bot.) Having four sepals.

Tet`ra*spas"ton (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; to draw, pull.] (Mach.) A machine in which four pulleys act together. Brande & C.

Tet`ra*sper"mous (?), a. [Tetra- + Gr. &?; a seed.] (Bot.) Having four seeds.

Tetraspermous plant, a plant which produces four seeds in each flower.

Tet"ra*spore (?), n. [Tetra- + spore.] (Bot.) A nonsexual spore, one of a group of four regularly occurring in red seaweeds. — Tet`ra*spor"ic (#), a.

Te*tras"tich (?), n. [L. tetrastichon, Gr. &?;; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a row, verse.] A stanza, epigram, or poem, consisting of four verses or lines. Pope.

Tet"ra*style (?), a. [L. tetrastylon, Gr. &?; with four pillars in front; te`tra- (see Tetra-) + &?; a column.] (Arch.) Having four columns in front; — said of a temple, portico, or colonnade. — n. A tetrastyle building.

{ Tet`ra*syl*lab"ic (?), Tet`ra*syl*lab"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. tétrasyllabique.] Consisting of, or having, four syllables; quadrisyllabic.

Tet"ra*syl`la*ble (?), n. [Tetra- + syllable: cf. Gr. &?; of four syllables.] A word consisting of four syllables; a quadrisyllable.

Tet`ra*the"cal (?), a. [Tetra- + thecal.] (Bot.) Having four loculaments, or thecæ.

Tet`ra*thi"on*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of tetrathionic acid.

Tet`ra*thi*on"ic (?), a. [Tetra- + thionic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a thionic derivative, H2S4O6, of sulphuric acid, obtained as a colorless, odorless liquid.

Tet`ra*tom"ic (?), a. [Tetra- + atomic.] (Chem.) (a) Consisting of four atoms; having four atoms in the molecule, as phosphorus and arsenic. (b) Having a valence of four; quadrivalent; tetravalent; sometimes, in a specific sense, having four hydroxyl groups, whether acid or basic.

Te*trav"a*lence (?), n. (Chem.) The quality or state of being tetravalent; quadrivalence.

Te*trav"a*lent (?), a. [Tetra- + L. valens, -entis, p. pr.] (Chem.) Having a valence of four; tetratomic; quadrivalent.

Te*trax"ile (?), a. [Tetra- + axile.] (Zoöl.) Having four branches diverging at right angles; — said of certain spicules of sponges.

Tet*raz"o- (?), a. [Tetra- + azo- .] (Chem.) A combining form (also used adjectively), designating any one of a series of double derivatives of the azo and diazo compounds containing four atoms of nitrogen.

Tet"ra*zone (?), n. (Chem.) Any one of a certain series of basic compounds containing a chain of four nitrogen atoms; for example, ethyl tetrazone, (C2H5)2N. N2.N(C2H5)2, a colorless liquid having an odor of leeks.

{ Tet"ric (?), Tet"ri*cal (?), } a. [L. tetricus, taetricus, from teter, taeter, offensive, foul.] Forward; perverse; harsh; sour; rugged. [Obs.] — Tet"ric*al*ness, n.

Te*tric"i*ty (?), n. [L. tetricitas, taetricitas.] Crabbedness; perverseness. [Obs.]

Tet"ric*ous (?), a. Tetric. [Obs.]

Te*trin"ic (?), a. [See Tetra-.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a complex ketonic acid, C5H6O3, obtained as a white crystalline substance; — so called because once supposed to contain a peculiar radical of four carbon atoms. Called also acetyl-acrylic acid.

Tet"ro*don (?), n. [Tetra- + Gr. &?;, &?;, tooth.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of plectognath fishes belonging to Tetrodon and allied genera. Each jaw is furnished with two large, thick, beaklike, bony teeth. [Written also tetradon.]

The skin is usually spinous, and the belly is capable of being greatly distended by air or water. It includes the swellfish, puffer (a), and similar species.

Tet"ro*dont (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the tetrodons. — n. A tetrodon. [Written also tetradont, and tetraodont.]

Tet"rol (?), n. [Tetra- + benzol.] (Chem.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C4H4, analogous to benzene; — so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.

Tetrol phenol, furfuran. [Obs.]

Tet*rol"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C3H3.CO2H, of the acetylene series, homologous with propiolic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Tet*rox"ide (?), n. [Tetra- + oxide.] (Chem.) An oxide having four atoms of oxygen in the molecule; a quadroxide; as, osmium tetroxide, OsO&?;.

Tet"ryl (?), n. [Tetra- + -yl.] (Chem.) Butyl; — so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.

Tet"ryl*ene (?), n. [Tetra- + ethylene.] (Chem.) Butylene; — so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.

Tet"ter (?), n. [OE. teter, AS. teter, tetr; akin to G. zitter, zittermal, OHG. zittaroch, Skr. dadru, dadruka, a sort of skin disease. √63, 240.] (Med.) A vesicular disease of the skin; herpes. See Herpes.

Honeycomb tetter (Med.), favus. — Moist tetter (Med.), eczema. — Scaly tetter (Med.), psoriasis. — Tetter berry (Bot.), the white bryony.

Tet"ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tettered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tettering.] To affect with tetter. Shak.

Tet"ter*ous (?), a. Having the character of, or pertaining to, tetter.

Tet"ter-tot`ter (?), n. [See Teeter.] A certain game of children; seesaw; — called also titter- totter, and titter-cum-totter.

Tet"ter*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A plant used as a remedy for tetter, — in England the calendine, in America the bloodroot.

Tet`ti*go"ni*an (?), n. [Gr. &?;, dim. of &?; a kind of grasshopper.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of Hemiptera belonging to Tettigonia and allied genera; a leaf hopper.

Tet"tish (?), a. [Cf. Testy.] Captious; testy. [Written also teatish.] [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

||Tet"tix (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a kind of grasshopper.] 1. (Zoöl.) The cicada. [Obs. or R.]

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of small grasshoppers.

Tet"ty (?), a. Testy; irritable. [Obs.] Burton.

Teu"fit (?), n. (Zoöl.) The lapwing; — called also teuchit. [Prov. Eng.]

Teuk (?), n. (Zoöl.) The redshank. [Prov. Eng.]

Teu"ton (?), n.; pl. E. Teutons (#), L. Teutones (#). [L. Teutones, Teutoni, the name of a Germanic people, probably akin to E. Dutch. Cf. Dutch.] 1. One of an ancient German tribe; later, a name applied to any member of the Germanic race in Europe; now used to designate a German, Dutchman, Scandinavian, etc., in distinction from a Celt or one of a Latin race.

2. A member of the Teutonic branch of the Indo- European, or Aryan, family.

Teu*ton"ic (?), a. [L. Teutonicus, from Teutoni, or Teutones. See Teuton.] 1. Of or pertaining to the Teutons, esp. the ancient Teutons; Germanic.

2. Of or pertaining to any of the Teutonic languages, or the peoples who speak these languages.

Teutonic languages, a group of languages forming a division of the Indo-European, or Aryan, family, and embracing the High German, Low German, Gothic, and Scandinavian dialects and languages. - - Teutonic order, a military religious order of knights, established toward the close of the twelfth century, in imitation of the Templars and Hospitalers, and composed chiefly of Teutons, or Germans. The order rapidly increased in numbers and strength till it became master of all Prussia, Livonia, and Pomerania. In its decay it was abolished by Napoleon; but it has been revived as an honorary order.

Teu*ton"ic (?), n. The language of the ancient Germans; the Teutonic languages, collectively.

Teu*ton"i*cism (?), n. A mode of speech peculiar to the Teutons; a Teutonic idiom, phrase, or expression; a Teutonic mode or custom; a Germanism.

Tew (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tewed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tewing.] [OE. tewen, tawen. √64. See Taw, v.] 1. To prepare by beating or working, as leather or hemp; to taw.

2. Hence, to beat; to scourge; also, to pull about; to maul; to tease; to vex. [Obs. or Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Tew, v. i. To work hard; to strive; to fuse. [Local]

Tew, v. t. [Cf. Taw to tow, Tow, v. t.] To tow along, as a vessel. [Obs.] Drayton.

Tew, n. A rope or chain for towing a boat; also, a cord; a string. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Te"wan (?), n. (Ethnol.) A tribe of American Indians including many of the Pueblos of New Mexico and adjacent regions.

Tewed (?), a. Fatigued; worn with labor or hardship. [Obs. or Local] Mir. for Mag.

Tew"el (?), n. [OE. tuel, OF. tuiel, tuel, F. tuyau; of Teutonic origin; cf. Dan. tud, D. tuit, Prov. G. zaute. Cf. Tuyère.] 1. A pipe, funnel, or chimney, as for smoke. Chaucer.

2. The tuyère of a furnace.

Te"whit (?), n. (Zoöl.) The lapwing; — called also teewheep. [Prov. Eng.]

Tew"taw (?), v. t. [See Tew, v. t.] To beat; to break, as flax or hemp. [Obs.] Mortimer.

Tex"as (?), n. A structure on the hurricane deck of a steamer, containing the pilot house, officers' cabins, etc. [Western U. S.] Knight.

Text (tkst), n. [F. texte, L. textus, texture, structure, context, fr. texere, textum, to weave, construct, compose; cf. Gr. te`ktwn carpenter, Skr. taksh to cut, carve, make. Cf. Context, Mantle, n., Pretext, Tissue, Toil a snare.] 1. A discourse or composition on which a note or commentary is written; the original words of an author, in distinction from a paraphrase, annotation, or commentary. Chaucer.

2. (O. Eng. Law) The four Gospels, by way of distinction or eminence. [R.]

3. A verse or passage of Scripture, especially one chosen as the subject of a sermon, or in proof of a doctrine.

How oft, when Paul has served us with a text,
Has Epictetus, Plato, Tully, preached!


4. Hence, anything chosen as the subject of an argument, literary composition, or the like; topic; theme.

5. A style of writing in large characters; text- hand also, a kind of type used in printing; as, German text.

Text blindness. (Physiol.) See Word blindness, under Word. — Text letter, a large or capital letter. [Obs.] — Text pen, a kind of metallic pen used in engrossing, or in writing text- hand.

Text, v. t. To write in large characters, as in text hand. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Text"-book` (?), n. 1. A book with wide spaces between the lines, to give room for notes.

2. A volume, as of some classical author, on which a teacher lectures or comments; hence, any manual of instruction; a schoolbook.

Text"-hand` (?), n. A large hand in writing; — so called because it was the practice to write the text of a book in a large hand and the notes in a smaller hand.

Tex"tile (?), a. [L. textilis, fr. texere to weave: cf. F. textile. See Text.] Pertaining to weaving or to woven fabrics; as, textile arts; woven, capable of being woven; formed by weaving; as, textile fabrics.

Textile cone (Zoöl.), a beautiful cone shell (Conus textilis) in which the colors are arranged so that they resemble certain kinds of cloth.

Tex"tile, n. That which is, or may be, woven; a fabric made by weaving. Bacon.

Text"man (?), n.; pl. Textmen (&?;). One ready in quoting texts. [R.] Bp. Sanderston.

Tex*to"ri*al (?), a. [L. textorius, fr. textor a weaver, fr. texere, textum, to weave.] Of or pertaining to weaving. T. Warton.

Tex"trine (?), a. [L. textrinus, for textorinus, fr. textor a weaver.] Of or pertaining to weaving, textorial; as, the textrine art. Denham.

Tex"tu*al (?), a. [OE. textuel, F. textuel.] 1. Of, pertaining to, or contained in, the text; as, textual criticism; a textual reading. Milton.

2. Serving for, or depending on, texts. Bp. Hall.

3. Familiar with texts or authorities so as to cite them accurately. "I am not textuel." Chaucer.

Tex"tu*al*ist, n. A textman; a textuary. Lightfoot.

Tex"tu*al*ly, adv. In a textual manner; in the text or body of a work; in accordance with the text.

Tex"tu*a*rist (?), n. A textuary. [R.]

Tex"tu*a*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. textuaire.] 1. Contained in the text; textual. Sir T. Browne.

2. Serving as a text; authoritative. Glanvill.

Tex"tu*a*ry, n. [Cf. F. textuaire.] 1. One who is well versed in the Scriptures; a textman. Bp. Bull.

2. One who adheres strictly or rigidly to the text.

Tex"tu*el (?), a. Textual. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tex"tu*ist, n. A textualist; a textman. [Obs.]

The crabbed textualists of his time.


Tex"tur*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to texture.

Tex"ture (?), n. [L. textura, fr. texere, textum, to weave: cf. F. texture. See Text.] 1. The act or art of weaving. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

2. That which woven; a woven fabric; a web. Milton.

Others, apart far in the grassy dale,
Or roughening waste, their humble texture weave.


3. The disposition or connection of threads, filaments, or other slender bodies, interwoven; as, the texture of cloth or of a spider's web.

4. The disposition of the several parts of any body in connection with each other, or the manner in which the constituent parts are united; structure; as, the texture of earthy substances or minerals; the texture of a plant or a bone; the texture of paper; a loose or compact texture.

5. (Biol.) A tissue. See Tissue.

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Tex"ture (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Textured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Texturing.] To form a texture of or with; to interweave. [R.]

Tex"tur*y (?), n. The art or process of weaving; texture. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Teyne (?), n. [See Tain.] A thin plate of metal. [Obs.] "A teyne of silver." Chaucer.

Th. In Old English, the article the, when the following word began with a vowel, was often written with elision as if a part of the word. Thus in Chaucer, the forms thabsence, tharray, thegle, thend, thingot, etc., are found for the absence, the array, the eagle, the end, etc.

{ Thack (?), Thack"er (?) }. See Thatch, Thatcher. [Obs. or Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Thak (?), v. t. To thwack. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Thal`a*men*ceph"a*lon (?), n. [NL. See Thalamus, and Encephalon.] (Anat.) The segment of the brain next in front of the midbrain, including the thalami, pineal gland, and pituitary body; the diencephalon; the interbrain.

Tha*lam"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a thalamus or to thalami.

{ Thal`a*mi*flo"ral (?), Thal`a*mi*flo"rous (?), } a. [See Thalamus, and Floral.] (Bot.) Bearing the stamens directly on the receptacle; — said of a subclass of polypetalous dicotyledonous plants in the system of De Candolle.

Thal"a*mo*cœle` (?), n. [Thalamic + Gr. koi^los hollow.] (Anat.) The cavity or ventricle of the thalamencephalon; the third ventricle.

||Thal`a*moph"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. qa`lamos chamber + &?; to bear.] (Zoöl.) Same as Foraminifera.

||Thal"a*mus (?), n.; pl. Thalami (#). [L. thalamus chamber, Gr. qa`lamos.] 1. (Anat.) A mass of nervous matter on either side of the third ventricle of the brain; — called also optic thalamus.

2. (Bot.) (a) Same as Thallus. (b) The receptacle of a flower; a torus.

Tha*las"si*an (?), n. [From Gr. &?; the sea.] (Zoöl.) Any sea tortoise.

Tha*las"sic (?), a. [Gr. &?; the sea.] (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the sea; — sometimes applied to rocks formed from sediments deposited upon the sea bottom.

Thal`as*sin"i*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of Thalaassinidæ, a family of burrowing macrurous Crustacea, having a long and soft abdomen.

Thal`as*sog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; sea + -graphy.] The study or science of the life of marine organisms. Agassiz.

||Tha"ler (?), n. [G. See Dollar.] A German silver coin worth about three shillings sterling, or about 73 cents.

Tha*li"a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Qa`leia, originally, blooming, luxuriant, akin to qa`llein to be luxuriant.] (Class. Myth.) (a) That one of the nine Muses who presided over comedy. (b) One of the three Graces. (c) One of the Nereids.

||Tha`li*a"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Thalia.] (Zoöl.) A division of Tunicata comprising the free-swimming species, such as Salpa and Doliolum.

Tha*li"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Thalia; hence, of or pertaining to comedy; comic.

Thal"late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of a hypothetical thallic acid.

Thal"lene (?), n. (Chem.) A hydrocarbon obtained from coal-tar residues, and remarkable for its intense yellowish green fluorescence.

Thal"lic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to thallium; derived from, or containing, thallium; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with the thallous compounds; as, thallic oxide.

Thal"line (?), a. (Bot.) Consisting of a thallus.

Thal"line (?), n. [Gr. &?; a young shoot or branch.] (Chem.) An artificial alkaloid of the quinoline series, obtained as a white crystalline substance, C10H13NO, whose salts are valuable as antipyretics; - - so called from the green color produced in its solution by certain oxidizing agents.

Thal"li*ous (?), a. (Chem.) See Thallous.

Thal"li*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; young or green shoot or branch, twig. So called from a characteristic bright green line in its spectrum.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the aluminium group found in some minerals, as certain pyrites, and also in the lead-chamber deposit in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. It is isolated as a heavy, soft, bluish white metal, easily oxidized in moist air, but preserved by keeping under water. Symbol Tl. Atomic weight 203.7.

Thal"lo*gen (?), n. [Gr. &?; young shoot or branch, frond + -gen.] (Bot.) One of a large class or division of the vegetable kingdom, which includes those flowerless plants, such as fungi, algæ, and lichens, that consist of a thallus only, composed of cellular tissue, or of a congeries of cells, or even of separate cells, and never show a distinction into root, stem, and leaf.

Thal"loid (?), a. [Thallus + - oid.] (Bot.) Resembling, or consisting of, thallus.

Thal"lo*phyte (?), n. [Gr. &?; young shoot + &?; plant.] (Bot.) Same as Thallogen.

Thal"lous (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to thallium; derived from, or containing, thallium; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a lower valence as contrasted with the thallic compounds. [Written also thallious.]

||Thal"lus (?), n.; pl. Thalli (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; young shoot or branch, frond.] (Bot.) A solid mass of cellular tissue, consisting of one or more layers, usually in the form of a flat stratum or expansion, but sometimes erect or pendulous, and elongated and branching, and forming the substance of the thallogens.

{ Tham"muz (?), Tam"muz (?), } n. [Heb. thammz.] 1. A deity among the ancient Syrians, in honor of whom the Hebrew idolatresses held an annual lamentation. This deity has been conjectured to be the same with the Phœnician Adon, or Adonis. Milton.

2. The fourth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, — supposed to correspond nearly with our month of July.

Tham"no*phile (?), n. [Gr. qa`mnos a bush + fi`los loving.] (Zoöl.) A bush shrike.

||Tha"myn (?), n. (Zoöl.) An Asiatic deer (Rucervus Eldi) resembling the swamp deer; — called also Eld's deer.

Than (n), conj. [OE. than, thon, then, thanne, thonne, thenne, than, then, AS. ðanne, ðonne, ðænne; akin to D. dan, OHG. danne, G. dann then, denn than, for, Goth. þan then, and to E. the, there, that. See That, and cf. Then.] A particle expressing comparison, used after certain adjectives and adverbs which express comparison or diversity, as more, better, other, otherwise, and the like. It is usually followed by the object compared in the nominative case. Sometimes, however, the object compared is placed in the objective case, and than is then considered by some grammarians as a preposition. Sometimes the object is expressed in a sentence, usually introduced by that; as, I would rather suffer than that you should want.

Behold, a greater than Solomon is here.

Matt. xii. 42.

Which when Beelzebub perceived, than whom,
Satan except, none higher sat.


It's wiser being good than bad;
It's safer being meek than fierce;
It's fitter being sane than mad.

R. Browning.

Than, adv. Then. See Then. [Obs.] Gower.

Thanne longen folk to gon on pilgrimages.


Than"age (?), n. The district in which a thane anciently had jurisdiction; thanedom.

Than"a*toid (?), a. [Gr. qa`natos death + -oid.] Deathlike; resembling death. Dunglison.

Than`a*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. qa`natos + -logy.] A description, or the doctrine, of death. Dunglison.

Than`a*top"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. qa`natos death + 'o`psis view.] A view of death; a meditation on the subject of death. Bryant.

Thane (thn), n. [OE. thein, þein, AS. þegen, þegn; akin to OHG. degan a follower, warrior, boy, MHG. degen a hero, G. degen hero, soldier, Icel. þegn a thane, a freeman; probably akin to Gr. te`knon a child, ti`ktein to bear, beget, or perhaps to Goth. þius servant, AS. þeów, G. dienen to serve.] A dignitary under the Anglo-Saxons and Danes in England. Of these there were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Conquest, this title was disused, and baron took its place.

Among the ancient Scots, thane was a title of honor, which seems gradually to have declined in its significance. Jamieson.

Thane"dom (?), n. The property or jurisdiction of a thane; thanage. Sir W. Scott.

Thane"hood (?), n. The character or dignity of a thane; also, thanes, collectively. J. R. Green.

Thane"ship, n. The state or dignity of a thane; thanehood; also, the seignioralty of a thane.

Thank (thk), n.; pl. Thanks (#). [AS. þanc, þonc, thanks, favor, thought; akin to OS. thank favor, pleasure, thanks, D. & G. dank thanks, Icel. þökk, Dan. tak, Sw. tack, Goth. þagks thanks; — originally, a thought, a thinking. See Think.] A expression of gratitude; an acknowledgment expressive of a sense of favor or kindness received; obligation, claim, or desert, or gratitude; — now generally used in the plural. "This ceremonial thanks." Massinger.

If ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same.

Luke vi. 33.

What great thank, then, if any man, reputed wise and constant, will neither do, nor permit others under his charge to do, that which he approves not, especially in matter of sin?


Thanks, thanks to thee, most worthy friend,
For the lesson thou hast taught.


His thanks, Her thanks, etc., of his or her own accord; with his or her good will; voluntary. [Obs.]

Full sooth is said that love ne lordship,
Will not, his thanks, have no fellowship.


In thank, with thanks or thankfulness. [Obs.] — Thank offering, an offering made as an expression of thanks.

Thank (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thanking.] [AS. þancian. See Thank, n.] To express gratitude to (anyone) for a favor; to make acknowledgments to (anyone) for kindness bestowed; — used also ironically for blame.

"Graunt mercy, lord, that thank I you," quod she.


I thank thee for thine honest care.


Weigh the danger with the doubtful bliss,
And thank yourself if aught should fall amiss.


Thank"ful (?), a. [AS. þancfull.] 1. Obtaining or deserving thanks; thankworthy. [R.]

Ladies, look here; this is the thankful glass
That mends the looker's eyes; this is the well
That washes what it shows.


2. Impressed with a sense of kindness received, and ready to acknowledge it; grateful.

Be thankful unto him, and bless his name.

Ps. c. 4.

— Thank"ful*ly, adv. — Thank"ful*ness, n.

Thank"less, a. 1. Not acknowledging favors; not expressing thankfulness; unthankful; ungrateful.

That she may feel
How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is
To have a thankless child!


2. Not obtaining or deserving thanks; unacceptable; as, a thankless task.

To shepherd thankless, but by thieves that love the night allowed.


— Thank"less*ly (#), adv. — Thank"less*ness, n.

Thank"ly, adv. Thankfully. [Obs.] Sylvester (Du Bartas).

Thanks"give (?), v. t. To give or dedicate in token of thanks. [Obs. or R.] Mede.

Thanks"giv`er (?), n. One who gives thanks, or acknowledges a kindness. Barrow.

Thanks"giv`ing (?), n. 1. The act of rending thanks, or expressing gratitude for favors or mercies.

Every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving.

1 Tim. iv. 4.

In the thanksgiving before meat.


And taught by thee the Church prolongs
Her hymns of high thanksgiving still.


2. A public acknowledgment or celebration of divine goodness; also, a day set apart for religious services, specially to acknowledge the goodness of God, either in any remarkable deliverance from calamities or danger, or in the ordinary dispensation of his bounties.

In the United States it is now customary for the President by proclamation to appoint annually a day (usually the last Thursday in November) of thanksgiving and praise to God for the mercies of the past year. This is an extension of the custom long prevailing in several States in which an annual Thanksgiving day has been appointed by proclamation of the governor.

Thank"wor`thi*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being thankworthy.

Thank"wor`thy (?), a. Deserving thanks; worthy of gratitude; mreitorious.

For this thankworthy, if a man, for conscience toward God, endure grief, suffering wrongfully.

1 Pet. ii. 19.

Thar (?), n. (Zoöl.) A goatlike animal (Capra Jemlaica) native of the Himalayas. It has small, flattened horns, curved directly backward. The hair of the neck, shoulders, and chest of the male is very long, reaching to the knees. Called also serow, and imo. [Written also thaar, and tahr.]

Thar, v. impersonal, pres. [OE. thar, þarf, AS. þearf, infin. þurfan to need; akin to OHG. durfan, G. dürfen to be allowed, Icel. þurfa to need, Goth. þaúrban.] It needs; need. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

What thar thee reck or care?


Tharms (?), n. pl. [AS. þearm a gut; akin to D. & G. darm, Icel. þarmr, Sw. & Dan. tarm. √53.] Twisted guts. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Ascham.

Tha"ros (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small American butterfly (Phycoides tharos) having the upper surface of the wings variegated with orange and black, the outer margins black with small white crescents; — called also pearl crescent.

That (?), pron., a., conj., & adv. [AS. ðæt, neuter nom. & acc. sing. of the article (originally a demonstrative pronoun). The nom. masc. s, and the nom. fem. seó are from a different root. AS. ðæt is akin to D. dat, G. das, OHG. daz, Sw. & Dan. det, Icel. þat (masc. s, fem. s), Goth. þata (masc. sa, fem. s), Gr. &?; (masc. &?;, fem. &?;), Skr. tat (for tad, masc. sas, fem. s); cf. L. istud that. √184. Cf. The, Their, They, Them, This, Than, Since.] 1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers; as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket are good apples.

The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the most celebrated princes.


That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes precedes, the sentence referred to.

That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked.

Gen. xviii. 25.

And when Moses heard that, he was content.

Lev. x. 20.

I will know your business, Harry, that I will.


That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic and French ceci, generally refers to that which is nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter, and that to the former.

Two principles in human nature reign;
Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;
Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call.


If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that.

James iv. 16.

2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city.

Matt. x. 15.

The woman was made whole from that hour.

Matt. ix. 22.

That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the article the, especially in the phrases that one, that other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone, th'tother (now written t'other).

Upon a day out riden knightes two . . .
That one of them came home, that other not.


3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which, serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either singular or plural.

He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself shame.

Prov. ix. 7.

A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline to the greater probabilities.

Bp. Wilkins.

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If the relative clause simply conveys an additional idea, and is not properly explanatory or restrictive, who or which (rarely that) is employed; as, the king that (or who) rules well is generally popular; Victoria, who (not that) rules well, enjoys the confidence of her subjects. Ambiguity may in some cases be avoided in the use of that (which is restrictive) instead of who or which, likely to be understood in a coördinating sense. Bain.

That was formerly used for that which, as what is now; but such use is now archaic.

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen.

John iii. 11.

That I have done it is thyself to wite [blame].


That, as a relative pronoun, cannot be governed by a preposition preceding it, but may be governed by one at the end of the sentence which it commences.

The ship that somebody was sailing in.

Sir W. Scott.

In Old English, that was often used with the demonstratives he, his, him, etc., and the two together had the force of a relative pronoun; thus, that he = who; that his = whose; that him = whom.

I saw to-day a corpse yborn to church
That now on Monday last I saw him wirche [work].


Formerly, that was used, where we now commonly use which, as a relative pronoun with the demonstrative pronoun that as its antecedent.

That that dieth, let it die; and that that is to cut off, let it be cut off.

Zech. xi. 9.

4. As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a demonstrative pronoun. It is used, specifically: —

(a) To introduce a clause employed as the object of the preceding verb, or as the subject or predicate nominative of a verb.

She tells them 't is a causeless fantasy,
And childish error, that they are afraid.


I have shewed before, that a mere possibility to the contrary, can by no means hinder a thing from being highly credible.

Bp. Wilkins.

(b) To introduce, a reason or cause; — equivalent to for that, in that, for the reason that, because.

He does hear me;
And that he does, I weep.


(c) To introduce a purpose; — usually followed by may, or might, and frequently preceded by so, in order, to the end, etc.

These things I say, that ye might be saved.

John v. 34.

To the end that he may prolong his days.

Deut. xvii. 20.

(d) To introduce a consequence, result, or effect; — usually preceded by so or such, sometimes by that.

The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings.


He gazed so long
That both his eyes were dazzled.


(e) To introduce a clause denoting time; — equivalent to in which time, at which time, when.

So wept Duessa until eventide,
That shining lamps in Jove's high course were lit.


Is not this the day
That Hermia should give answer of her choice?


(f) In an elliptical sentence to introduce a dependent sentence expressing a wish, or a cause of surprise, indignation, or the like.

Ha, cousin Silence, that thou hadst seen that that this knight and I have seen!


O God, that right should thus overcome might!


That was formerly added to other conjunctions or to adverbs to make them emphatic.

To try if that our own be ours or no.


That is sometimes used to connect a clause with a preceding conjunction on which it depends.

When he had carried Rome and that we looked
For no less spoil than glory.


5. As adverb: To such a degree; so; as, he was that frightened he could say nothing. [Archaic or in illiteral use.]

All that, everything of that kind; all that sort.

With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that.


The rank is but the guinea's stamp,
The man's the gowd [gold] for a'that.


For that. See under For, prep.In that. See under In, prep.

Thatch (?), n. [OE. thak, AS. þæc a roof; akin to þeccean to cover, D. dak a roof, dekken to cover, G. dach a roof, decken 8cover, Icel. þak a roof, Sw. tak, Dan. tag, Lith. stgas, Ir. teagh a house, Gael. teach, tigh, W. ty, L. tegere to cover, toga a toga, Gr. &?;, &?;, a roof, &?; to cover, Skr. sthag. Cf. Deck, Integument, Tile, Toga.] 1. Straw, rushes, or the like, used for making or covering the roofs of buildings, or of stacks of hay or grain.

2. (Bot.) A name in the West Indies for several kinds of palm, the leaves of which are used for thatching.

Thatch sparrow, the house sparrow. [Prov. Eng.]

Thatch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thatched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thatching.] [From Thatch, n.: cf. OE. thecchen, AS. &?;eccean to cover.] To cover with, or with a roof of, straw, reeds, or some similar substance; as, to thatch a roof, a stable, or a stack of grain.

Thatch"er (?), n. One who thatches.

Thatch"ing, n. 1. The act or art of covering buildings with thatch; so as to keep out rain, snow, etc.

2. The materials used for this purpose; thatch.

Thaught (?), n. (Naut.) See Thwart.

Thau`ma*tol"a*try (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a wonder + &?; worship.] Worship or undue admiration of wonderful or miraculous things. [R.]

The thaumatolatry by which our theology has been debased for more than a century.


Thau"ma*trope (?), n. [Gr. &?; a wonder + &?; to turn.] (Opt.) An optical instrument or toy for showing the presistence of an impression upon the eyes after the luminous object is withdrawn.

It consists of a card having on its opposite faces figures of two different objects, or halves of the same object, as a bird and a cage, which, when the card is whirled rapidlz round a diameter by the strings that hold it, appear to the eye combined in a single picture, as of a bird in its cage.

Thau"ma*turge (?), n. [See Thaumaturgus.] A magician; a wonder worker. Lowell.

{ Thau`ma*tur"gic (?), Thau`ma*tur"gic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to thaumaturgy; magical; wonderful. Burton.

Thau`ma*tur"gics (?), n. Feats of legerdemain, or magical performances.

Thau`ma*tur"gist (?), n. One who deals in wonders, or believes in them; a wonder worker. Carlyle.

||Thau`ma*tur"gus (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; wonder-working; &?; a wonder + &?; work.] A miracle worker; — a title given by the Roman Catholics to some saints.

Thau"ma*tur`gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] The act or art of performing something wonderful; magic; legerdemain. T. Warton.

Thave (?), n. Same as Theave. [Prov. Eng.]

Thaw (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Thawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thawing.] [AS. þwian, þwan; akin to D. dovijen, G. tauen, thauen (cf. also verdauen 8digest, OHG. douwen, firdouwen), Icel. þeyja, Sw. töa, Dan. töe, and perhaps to Gr. &?; to melt. √56.] 1. To melt, dissolve, or become fluid; to soften; — said of that which is frozen; as, the ice thaws.

2. To become so warm as to melt ice and snow; — said in reference to the weather, and used impersonally.

3. Fig.: To grow gentle or genial.

Thaw, v. t. To cause (frozen things, as earth, snow, ice) to melt, soften, or dissolve.

Thaw, n. The melting of ice, snow, or other congealed matter; the resolution of ice, or the like, into the state of a fluid; liquefaction by heat of anything congealed by frost; also, a warmth of weather sufficient to melt that which is congealed. Dryden.

Thaw"y (?), a. Liquefying by heat after having been frozen; thawing; melting.

The (?), v. i. See Thee. [Obs.] Chaucer. Milton.

The (, when emphatic or alone; , obscure before a vowel; e, obscure before a consonant; 37), definite article. [AS. ðe, a later form for earlier nom. sing. masc. s, formed under the influence of the oblique cases. See That, pron.] A word placed before nouns to limit or individualize their meaning.

The was originally a demonstrative pronoun, being a weakened form of that. When placed before adjectives and participles, it converts them into abstract nouns; as, the sublime and the beautiful. Burke. The is used regularly before many proper names, as of rivers, oceans, ships, etc.; as, the Nile, the Atlantic, the Great Eastern, the West Indies, The Hague. The with an epithet or ordinal number often follows a proper name; as, Alexander the Great; Napoleon the Third. The may be employed to individualize a particular kind or species; as, the grasshopper shall be a burden. Eccl. xii. 5.

The, adv. [AS. ð, ð, instrumental case of s, seó, ðæt, the definite article. See 2d The.] By that; by how much; by so much; on that account; — used before comparatives; as, the longer we continue in sin, the more difficult it is to reform. "Yet not the more cease I." Milton.

So much the rather thou, Celestial Light,
Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers


||The"a (?), n. [NL. See Tea.] (Bot.) A genus of plants found in China and Japan; the tea plant.

It is now commonly referred to the genus Camellia.

The*an"dric (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; god + &?;, &?;, a man.] Relating to, or existing by, the union of divine and human operation in Christ, or the joint agency of the divine and human nature. Murdock.

{ The`an*throp"ic (?), The`an*throp"ic*al (?), } a. Partaking of, or combining, both divinity and humanity. [R.]

The gorgeous and imposing figures of his [Homer's] theanthropic sytem.


The*an"thro*pism (?), n. [Gr. &?; god + &?; man.] 1. A state of being God and man. [R.] Coleridge.

2. The ascription of human atributes to the Deity, or to a polytheistic deity; anthropomorphism. Gladstone.

The*an"thro*pist (?), n. One who advocates, or believes in, theanthropism.

The*an"thro*py (?), n. Theanthropism.

The*ar"chic (?), a. [Gr. &?;. See Thearchy.] Divinely sovereign or supreme. [R.]

He [Jesus] is the thearchic Intelligence.


The"ar*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?; god + - archy: cf. Gr. &?; the supreme deity.] Government by God; divine sovereignty; theocracy.

{ The"a*ter, The"a*tre } (?), n. [F. théâtre, L. theatrum, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to see, view; cf. Skr. dhy to meditate, think. Cf. Theory.] 1. An edifice in which dramatic performances or spectacles are exhibited for the amusement of spectators; anciently uncovered, except the stage, but in modern times roofed.

2. Any room adapted to the exhibition of any performances before an assembly, as public lectures, scholastic exercises, anatomical demonstrations, surgical operations, etc.

3. That which resembles a theater in form, use, or the like; a place rising by steps or gradations, like the seats of a theater. Burns.

Shade above shade, a woody theater
Of stateliest view.


4. A sphere or scheme of operation. [Obs.]

For if a man can be partaker of God's theater, he shall likewise be partaker of God's rest.


5. A place or region where great events are enacted; as, the theater of war.

{ The"a*tin, The"a*tine } (?), n. [F. théatin, It. theatino.] (R. C. Ch.) 1. One of an order of Italian monks, established in 1524, expressly to oppose Reformation, and to raise the tone of piety among Roman Catholics. They hold no property, nor do they beg, but depend on what Providence sends. Their chief employment is preaching and giving religious instruction.

Their name is derived from Theate, or Chieti, a city of Naples, the archbishop of which was a principal founder of the order; but they bore various names; as, Regular Clerks of the Community, Pauline Monks, Apostolic Clerks, and Regular Clerks of the Divine Providence. The order never flourished much out of Italy.

2. (R. C. Ch.) One of an order of nuns founded by Ursula Benincasa, who died in 1618.

The"a*tral (?), a. [L. theatralis: cf. F. théatral.] Of or pertaining to a theater; theatrical. [Obs.]

The*at"ric (?), a. Theatrical.

Woods over woods in gay, theatric pride.


The*at"ric*al (?), a. [L. theatricus, Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to a theater, or to the scenic representations; resembling the manner of dramatic performers; histrionic; hence, artificial; as, theatrical performances; theatrical gestures. — The*at`ri*cal"i*ty (#), n. — The*at"ric*al*ly (#), adv.

No meretricious aid whatever has been called in — no trick, no illusion of the eye, nothing theatrical.

R. Jefferies.

The*at"ric*als (?), n. pl. Dramatic performances; especially, those produced by amateurs.

Such fashionable cant terms as ‘theatricals,' and ‘musicals,' invented by the flippant Topham, still survive among his confraternity of frivolity.

I. Disraeli.

Theave (?), n. [Cf. W. dafad a sheep, ewe.] A ewe lamb of the first year; also, a sheep three years old. [Written also thave.] [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

The*ba"ic (?), a. [L. thebaicus, Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to Thebes in Egypt; specifically, designating a version of the Bible preserved by the Copts, and esteemed of great value by biblical scholars. This version is also called the Sahidic version.

The"ba*id (?), n. [L. Thebais, - idis.] A Latin epic poem by Statius about Thebes in Bœotia.

The*ba"ine (?), n. [So called from a kind of Egyptian opium produced at Thebes.] (Chem.) A poisonous alkaloid, C19H21NO3, found in opium in small quantities, having a sharp, astringent taste, and a tetanic action resembling that of strychnine.

The"ban (?), a. [L. Thebanus.] Of or pertaining to Thebes.

Theban year (Anc. Chron.), the Egyptian year of 365 days and 6 hours. J. Bryant.

The"ban, n. A native or inhabitant of Thebes; also, a wise man.

I'll talk a word with this same learned Theban.


||The"ca (?), n.; pl. Thecæ (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?; a case to put anything in. See Tick a cover.] 1. A sheath; a case; as, the theca, or cell, of an anther; the theca, or spore case, of a fungus; the theca of the spinal cord.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) The chitinous cup which protects the hydranths of certain hydroids. (b) The more or less cuplike calicle of a coral. (c) The wall forming a calicle of a coral.

The"cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a theca; as, a thecal abscess.

The"ca*phore (?), n. [Theca + Gr. &?; to bear: cf. F. thécaphore.] (Bot.) (a) A surface or organ bearing a theca, or covered with thecæ. (b) See Basigynium.

The*cas"po*rous (?), a. (Bot.) Having the spores in thecæ, or cases.

||The*ca"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; a case.] (Zoöl.) Same as Thecophora.

Thec"la (?), n. Any one of many species of small delicately colored butterflies belonging to Thecla and allied genera; — called also hairstreak, and elfin.

The`co*dac"tyl (?), n. [&?; case + &?; finger.] (Zoöl.) Any one of a group of lizards of the Gecko tribe, having the toes broad, and furnished with a groove in which the claws can be concealed.

The"co*dont (?), a. [Gr. &?; a case + &?;, &?;, a tooth.] 1. (Anat.) Having the teeth inserted in sockets in the alveoli of the jaws.

2. (Paleon.) Of or pertaining to the thecodonts.

The"co*dont, n. (Paleon.) One of the Thecodontia.

||The`co*don"ti*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Paleon.) A group of fossil saurians having biconcave vertebræ and the teeth implanted in sockets.

||The*coph"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; a case + &?; to bear.] (Zoöl.) A division of hydroids comprising those which have the hydranths in thecæ and the gonophores in capsules. The campanularians and sertularians are examples. Called also Thecata. See Illust. under Hydroidea.

||The`co*so"ma*ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Theca, and Soma.] (Zoöl.) An order of Pteropoda comprising those species which have a shell. See Pteropoda. — The`co*so"ma*tous (#), a.

The"dom (?), n. [Thee to prosper + -dom.] Success; fortune; luck; chance. [Obs.]

Evil thedom on his monk's snout.


Thee (?), v. i. [AS. &?;eón; akin to OS. thhan, D. gedijen, G. gedeihen, OHG. gidihan, Goth. &?;eihan, Lith. tekti to fall to the lot of. Cf. Tight, a.] To thrive; to prosper. [Obs.] "He shall never thee." Chaucer.

Well mote thee, as well can wish your thought.


Thee (?), pron. [AS. ð, acc. & dat. of ð thou. See Thou.] The objective case of thou. See Thou.

Thee is poetically used for thyself, as him for himself, etc.

This sword hath ended him; so shall it thee,
Unless thou yield thee as my prisoner.


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Theft (?), n. [OE. thefte, AS. þiéfðe, þfðe, þeófðe. See Thief.] 1. (Law) The act of stealing; specifically, the felonious taking and removing of personal property, with an intent to deprive the rightful owner of the same; larceny.

To constitute theft there must be a taking without the owner's consent, and it must be unlawful or felonious; every part of the property stolen must be removed, however slightly, from its former position; and it must be, at least momentarily, in the complete possession of the thief. See Larceny, and the Note under Robbery.

2. The thing stolen. [R.]

If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, . . . he shall restore double.

Ex. xxii. 4.

Theft"bote` (?), n. [Theft + bote compensation.] (Law) The receiving of a man's goods again from a thief, or a compensation for them, by way of composition, with the intent that the thief shall escape punishment.

Thegn (?), n. Thane. See Thane. E. A. Freeman.

Thegn"hood (?), n. Thanehood. E. A. Freeman.

The"i*form (?), a. [NL. thea tea, the tea plant + -form: cf. F. théiforme.] Having the form of tea.

The"ine (?), n. [F. théine, fr. NL. thea. See Theiform.] (Chem.) See Caffeine. Called also theina.

Their (?), pron. & a. [OE. thair, fr. Icel. þeirra, þeira, of them, but properly gen. pl. of the definite article; akin to AS. ðra, ðra, gen. pl. of the definite article, or fr. AS. ðra, influenced by the Scandinavian use. See That.] The possessive case of the personal pronoun they; as, their houses; their country.

The possessive takes the form theirs (&?;) when the noun to which it refers is not expressed, but implied or understood; as, our land is richest, but theirs is best cultivated.

Nothing but the name of zeal appears
'Twixt our best actions and the worst of theirs.


The"ism (?), n. [From Gr. &?; God; probably akin to &?; to pray for, &?; spoken by God, decreed: cf. F. théisme. Cf. Enthusiasm, Pantheon, Theology.] The belief or acknowledgment of the existence of a God, as opposed to atheism, pantheism, or polytheism.

The"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. théiste. See Theism.] One who believes in the existence of a God; especially, one who believes in a personal God; — opposed to atheist.

{ The*is"tic (?), The*is"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to theism, or a theist; according to the doctrine of theists.

Thel*phu"si*an (?), n. [Gr. &?; nipple + &?; to blow, to puff.] (Zoöl.) One of a tribe of fresh-water crabs which live in or on the banks of rivers in tropical countries.

The*lyt"o*kous (th*lt"*ks), a. [Gr. qh^lys female + to`kos a bringing forth.] (Zoöl.) Producing females only; — said of certain female insects.

Them (m), pron. [AS. ðm, dat. pl. of the article, but influenced by the Scand. use of the corresponding form þeim as a personal pronoun. See They.] The objective case of they. See They.

Go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves.

Matt. xxv. 9.

Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father.

Matt. xxv. 34.

Them is poetically used for themselves, as him for himself, etc.

Little stars may hide them when they list.


The*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. thématique.] 1. (Gram.) Of or pertaining to the theme of a word. See Theme, n., 4.

2. (Mus.) Of or pertaining to a theme, or subject.

Thematic catalogue (Mus.), a catalogue of musical works which, besides the title and other particulars, gives in notes the theme, or first few measures, of the whole work or of its several movements.

Theme (?), n. [OE. teme, OF. teme, F. thème, L. thema, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to set, place. See Do, and cf. Thesis.] 1. A subject or topic on which a person writes or speaks; a proposition for discussion or argument; a text.

My theme is alway one and ever was.


And when a soldier was the theme, my name
Was not far off.


2. Discourse on a certain subject.

Then ran repentance and rehearsed his theme.

Piers Plowman.

It was the subject of my theme.


3. A composition or essay required of a pupil. Locke.

4. (Gram.) A noun or verb, not modified by inflections; also, that part of a noun or verb which remains unchanged (except by euphonic variations) in declension or conjugation; stem.

5. That by means of which a thing is done; means; instrument. [Obs.] Swift.

6. (Mus.) The leading subject of a composition or a movement.

The"mis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; that which is laid down or established by usage, law, prob. fr. &?; to set, place.] (Gr. Myth.) The goddess of law and order; the patroness of existing rights.

Them*selves" (?), pron. The plural of himself, herself, and itself. See Himself, Herself, Itself.

Then (n), adv. [Originally the same word as than. See Than.] 1. At that time (referring to a time specified, either past or future).

And the Canaanite was then in the land.

Gen. xii. 6.

Now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.

1 Cor. xiii. 12.

2. Soon afterward, or immediately; next; afterward.

First be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

Matt. v. 24.

3. At another time; later; again.

One while the master is not aware of what is done, and then in other cases it may fall out to be own act.


By then. (a) By that time. (b) By the time that. [Obs.]

But that opinion, I trust, by then this following argument hath been well read, will be left for one of the mysteries of an indulgent Antichrist.


Now and then. See under Now, adv.Till then, until that time; until the time mentioned. Milton.

Then is often used elliptically, like an adjective, for then existing; as, the then administration.

Then (?), conj. 1. Than. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. In that case; in consequence; as a consequence; therefore; for this reason.

If all this be so, then man has a natural freedom.


Now, then, be all thy weighty cares away.


Syn. — Therefore. Then, Therefore. Both these words are used in reasoning; but therefore takes the lead, while then is rather subordinate or incidental. Therefore states reasons and draws inferences in form; then, to a great extent, takes the point as proved, and passes on to the general conclusion. "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God." Rom. v. 1. "So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." Rom. x. 17.

Then"a*days (?), adv. At that time; then; in those days; — correlative to nowadays. [R.]

{ The"nal (?), The"nar (?), } a. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the thenar; corresponding to thenar; palmar.

The"nar (?), n. (Anat.) (a) The palm of the hand. (b) The prominence of the palm above the base of the thumb; the thenar eminence; the ball of the thumb. Sometimes applied to the corresponding part of the foot.

The*nard"ite (?), n. [Named after the French chemist, L. J. Thénard.] (Min.) Anhydrous sodium sulphate, a mineral of a white or brown color and vitreous luster.

Thence (?), adv. [OE. thenne, thanne, and (with the adverbal -s; see -wards) thennes, thannes (hence thens, now written thence), AS. ðanon, ðanan, ðonan; akin to OHG. dannana, dannn, dann, and G. von dannen, E. that, there. See That.] 1. From that place. "Bid him thence go." Chaucer.

When ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them.

Mark vi. 11.

It is not unusual, though pleonastic, to use from before thence. Cf. Hence, Whence.

Then I will send, and fetch thee from thence.

Gen. xxvii. 45.

2. From that time; thenceforth; thereafter.

There shall be no more thence an infant of days.

Isa. lxv. 20.

3. For that reason; therefore.

Not to sit idle with so great a gift
Useless, and thence ridiculous, about him.


4. Not there; elsewhere; absent. [Poetic] Shak.

Thence`forth" (?), adv. From that time; thereafter.

If the salt have lost his savor, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing.

Matt. v. 13.

This word is sometimes preceded by from, — a redundancy sanctioned by custom. Chaucer. John. xix. 12.

Thence`for"ward (?), adv. From that time onward; thenceforth.

Thence`from" (?), adv. From that place. [Obs.]

The`o*bro"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a god + &?; food, fr. &?; to eat: cf. F. théobrome.] (Bot.) A genus of small trees. See Cacao.

The`o*bro"mic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid extracted from cacao butter (from the Theobroma Cacao), peanut oil (from Arachis hypogæa), etc., as a white waxy crystalline substance.

The`o*bro"mine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloidal ureide, C7H8N4O2, homologous with and resembling caffeine, produced artificially, and also extracted from cacao and chocolate (from Theobroma Cacao) as a bitter white crystalline substance; — called also dimethyl xanthine.

The`o*chris"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; God + &?; anointed, fr. &?; to anoint.] Anointed by God.

The*oc"ra*cy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; God + &?; to be strong, to rule, fr. &?; strength: cf. F. théocratie. See Theism, and cf. Democracy.] 1. Government of a state by the immediate direction or administration of God; hence, the exercise of political authority by priests as representing the Deity.

2. The state thus governed, as the Hebrew commonwealth before it became a kingdom.

The*oc"ra*sy (?), n. [Gr. &?; union of the soul with God; &?; God + &?; a mixing, akin to &?; to mix.] 1. A mixture of the worship of different gods, as of Jehovah and idols.

This syncretistic theocracy by no means excludes in him [Solomon] the proper service of idols.

J. Murphy.

2. (Philos.) An intimate union of the soul with God in contemplation, — an ideal of the Neoplatonists and of some Oriental mystics.

The"o*crat (?), n. One who lives under a theocratic form of government; one who in civil affairs conforms to divine law.

{ The`o*crat"ic (?), The`o*crat"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. théocratique.] Of or pertaining to a theocracy; administred by the immediate direction of God; as, the theocratical state of the Israelites.

The*od"i*cy (?), n. [NL. theodicæa, fr. Gr. &?; God + &?; right, justice: cf. F. théodicée.] 1. A vindication of the justice of God in ordaining or permitting natural and moral evil.

2. That department of philosophy which treats of the being, perfections, and government of God, and the immortality of the soul. Krauth-Fleming.

The*od"o*lite (?), n. [Probably a corruption of the alidade. See Alidade.] An instrument used, especially in trigonometrical surveying, for the accurate measurement of horizontal angles, and also usually of vertical angles. It is variously constructed.

The theodolite consists principally of a telescope, with cross wires in the focus of its object glass, clamped in Y's attached to a frame that is mounted so as to turn both on vertical and horizontal axes, the former carrying a vernier plate on a horizontal graduated plate or circle for azimuthal angles, and the latter a vertical graduated arc or semicircle for altitudes. The whole is furnished with levels and adjusting screws and mounted on a tripod.

The*od`o*lit"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a theodolite; made by means of a theodolite; as, theodolitic observations.

The`o*gon"ic (?), a. Of or relating to theogony.

The*og"o*nism (?), n. Theogony. [R.]

The*og"o*nist (?), n. A writer on theogony.

The*og"o*ny (?), n. [L. theogonia, Gr. &?;; &?; a god + the root of &?; to be born. See Theism, and Genus.] The generation or genealogy of the gods; that branch of heathen theology which deals with the origin and descent of the deities; also, a poem treating of such genealogies; as, the Theogony of Hesiod.

The*ol"o*gas`ter (?), n. [Formed like poetaster: cf. F. théologastre.] A pretender or quack in theology. [R.] Burton.

The*ol"o*ger (?), n. A theologian. Cudworth.

The`o*lo"gi*an (?), n. [Cf. F. théologien, L. theologus, Gr. &?;. See Theology.] A person well versed in theology; a professor of theology or divinity; a divine.

The`o*log"ic (?), a. Theological.

The`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [L. theologicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. théologique.] Of or pertaining to theology, or the science of God and of divine things; as, a theological treatise. — The`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

The`o*log"ics (?), n. Theology. Young.

The*ol"o*gist (?), n. A theologian.

The*ol"o*gize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Theologized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Theologizing (?).] [Cf. F. théologiser.] To render theological; to apply to divinity; to reduce to a system of theology.

School divinity was but Aristotle's philosophy theologized.


The*ol"o*gize, v. i. To frame a system of theology; to theorize or speculate upon theological subjects.

The*ol"o*gi`zer (?), n. One who theologizes; a theologian. [R.] Boyle.

The"o*logue (?), n. [Cf. L. theologus, Gr. &?;, and E. philologue.] 1. A theologian. Dryden.

Ye gentle theologues of calmer kind.


He [Jerome] was the theologue — and the word is designation enough.

I. Taylor.

2. A student in a theological seminary. [Written also theolog.] [Colloq. U. S.]

The*ol"o*gy (?), n.; pl. Theologies (#). [L. theologia, Gr. &?;; &?; God + &?; discourse: cf. F. théologie. See Theism, and Logic.] The science of God or of religion; the science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God, his laws and government, the doctrines we are to believe, and the duties we are to practice; divinity; (as more commonly understood) "the knowledge derivable from the Scriptures, the systematic exhibition of revealed truth, the science of Christian faith and life."

Many speak of theology as a science of religion [instead of "science of God"] because they disbelieve that there is any knowledge of God to be attained.

Prof. R. Flint (Enc. Brit.).

Theology is ordered knowledge; representing in the region of the intellect what religion represents in the heart and life of man.


Ascetic theology, Natural theology. See Ascetic, Natural. — Moral theology, that phase of theology which is concerned with moral character and conduct. — Revealed theology, theology which is to be learned only from revelation. — Scholastic theology, theology as taught by the scholastics, or as prosecuted after their principles and methods. — Speculative theology, theology as founded upon, or influenced by, speculation or metaphysical philosophy. — Systematic theology, that branch of theology of which the aim is to reduce all revealed truth to a series of statements that together shall constitute an organized whole. E. G. Robinson (Johnson's Cyc.).

The*om"a*chist (?), n. [Cf. Gr. &?;.] One who fights against the gods; one who resists God of the divine will.

The*om"a*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; a god + &?; a battle.] 1. A fighting against the gods, as the battle of the gaints with the gods.

2. A battle or strife among the gods. Gladstone.

3. Opposition to God or the divine will. Bacon.

The"o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; a god + - mancy: cf. F. théomancie, Gr. &?; a spirit of prophecy,.] A kind of divination drawn from the responses of oracles among heathen nations.

{ The`o*pa*thet"ic (?), The`o*path"ic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a theopathy.

The*op"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. &?; God + &?;, &?;, to suffer, feel.] Capacity for religious affections or worship.

The`o*phan"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a theopany; appearing to man, as a god.

The*oph"a*ny (?), n.; pl. - nies (#). [Gr. &?;; &?; God + &?; to appear.] A manifestation of God to man by actual appearance, usually as an incarnation.

<! p. 1496 !>

The`o*phil`an*throp"ic (?), a. Pertaining to theophilanthropy or the theophilanthropists.

The`o*phi*lan"thro*pism (?), n. The doctrine of the theophilanthropists; theophilanthropy.

The`o*phi*lan"thro*pist (?), n. [Cf. F. théophilanthrope.] (Eccl. Hist.) A member of a deistical society established at Paris during the French revolution.

The`o*phi*lan"thro*py (?), n. [Gr. &?; God + E. philanthropy.] Theophilanthropism. Macaulay.

The`o*phil`o*soph"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; God + E. philosophic.] Combining theism and philosophy, or pertaining to the combination of theism and philosophy.

The`op*neus"ted (?), a. Divinely inspired; theopneustic. [R.]

The`op*neus"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; inspired of God; &?; God + &?; to blow, to breathe.] Given by the inspiration of the Spirit of God.

The"op*neus`ty (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] Divine inspiration; the supernatural influence of the Divine Spirit in qualifying men to receive and communicate revealed truth.

The*or"bist (?), n. (Mus.) One who plays on a theorbo.

The*or"bo (?), n. [F. théorbe, téorbe, formerly tuorbe, tiorbe, It. tiorba.] (Mus.) An instrument made like large lute, but having two necks, with two sets of pegs, the lower set holding the strings governed by frets, while to the upper set were attached the long bass strings used as open notes.

A larger form of theorbo was also called the archlute, and was used chiefly, if not only, as an accompaniment to the voice. Both have long fallen into disuse.

The"o*rem (?), n. [L. theorema, Gr. &?; a sight, speculation, theory, theorem, fr. &?; to look at, &?; a spectator: cf. F. théorème. See Theory.] 1. That which is considered and established as a principle; hence, sometimes, a rule.

Not theories, but theorems (&?;), the intelligible products of contemplation, intellectual objects in the mind, and of and for the mind exclusively.


By the theorems,
Which your polite and terser gallants practice,
I re-refine the court, and civilize
Their barbarous natures.


2. (Math.) A statement of a principle to be demonstrated.

A theorem is something to be proved, and is thus distinguished from a problem, which is something to be solved. In analysis, the term is sometimes applied to a rule, especially a rule or statement of relations expressed in a formula or by symbols; as, the binomial theorem; Taylor's theorem. See the Note under Proposition, n., 5.

Binomial theorem. (Math.) See under Binomial. — Negative theorem, a theorem which expresses the impossibility of any assertion. — Particular theorem (Math.), a theorem which extends only to a particular quantity. — Theorem of Pappus. (Math.) See Centrobaric method, under Centrobaric. — Universal theorem (Math.), a theorem which extends to any quantity without restriction.

The"o*rem, v. t. To formulate into a theorem.

{ The`o*re*mat"ic (?), The`o*re*mat"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to a theorem or theorems; comprised in a theorem; consisting of theorems.

The`o*rem"a*tist (?), n. One who constructs theorems.

The`o*rem"ic (?), a. Theorematic. Grew.

{ The`o*ret"ic (?), The`o*ret"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. L. theoreticus, F. théorétique.] Pertaining to theory; depending on, or confined to, theory or speculation; speculative; terminating in theory or speculation: not practical; as, theoretical learning; theoretic sciences. — The`o*ret"ic*al*ly, adv.

The`o*ret"ics (?), n. The speculative part of a science; speculation.

At the very first, with our Lord himself, and his apostles, as represented to us in the New Testament, morals come before contemplation, ethics before theoretics.

H. B. Wilson.

The*or"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. théorique. See Theory.] 1. Of or pertaining to the theorica.

2. (pron. &?;) Relating to, or skilled in, theory; theoretically skilled. [Obs.]

A man but young,
Yet old in judgment, theoric and practic
In all humanity.


The"o*ric (?), n. [OF. theorique; cf. L. theorice.] Speculation; theory. [Obs.] Shak.

||The*or"i*ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?; belonging to &?; a public spectacle. See Theory.] (Gr. Antiq.) Public moneys expended at Athens on festivals, sacrifices, and public entertainments (especially theatrical performances), and in gifts to the people; — also called theoric fund.

The*or"ic*al (?), a. Theoretic. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

The*or"ic*al*ly, adv. In a theoretic manner. [Obs.]

The"o*rist (?), n. [Cf. F. théoriste.] One who forms theories; one given to theory and speculation; a speculatist. Cowper.

The greatest theoretists have given the preference to such a government as that which obtains in this kingdom.


The`o*ri*za"tion (?), n. The act or product of theorizing; the formation of a theory or theories; speculation.

The"o*rize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Theorized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Theorizing (?).] [Cf. F. théoriser.] To form a theory or theories; to form opinions solely by theory; to speculate.

The"o*ri`zer (?), n. One who theorizes or speculates; a theorist.

The"o*ry (?), n.; pl. Theories (#). [F. théorie, L. theoria, Gr. &?; a beholding, spectacle, contemplation, speculation, fr. &?; a spectator, &?; to see, view. See Theater.] 1. A doctrine, or scheme of things, which terminates in speculation or contemplation, without a view to practice; hypothesis; speculation.

"This word is employed by English writers in a very loose and improper sense. It is with them usually convertible into hypothesis, and hypothesis is commonly used as another term for conjecture. The terms theory and theoretical are properly used in opposition to the terms practice and practical. In this sense, they were exclusively employed by the ancients; and in this sense, they are almost exclusively employed by the Continental philosophers." Sir W. Hamilton.

2. An exposition of the general or abstract principles of any science; as, the theory of music.

3. The science, as distinguished from the art; as, the theory and practice of medicine.

4. The philosophical explanation of phenomena, either physical or moral; as, Lavoisier's theory of combustion; Adam Smith's theory of moral sentiments.

Atomic theory, Binary theory, etc. See under Atomic, Binary, etc.

Syn. — Hypothesis, speculation. — Theory, Hypothesis. A theory is a scheme of the relations subsisting between the parts of a systematic whole; an hypothesis is a tentative conjecture respecting a cause of phenomena.

{ The"o*soph (?), The*os"o*pher (?), } n. A theosophist.

{ The`o*soph"ic (?), The`o*soph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. théosophique.] Of or pertaining to theosophy. — The`o*soph"ic*al*ly, adv.

The*os"o*phism (?), n. [Cf. F. théosophisme.] Belief in theosophy. Murdock.

The*os"o*phist (?), n. One addicted to theosophy.

The theosophist is one who gives you a theory of God, or of the works of God, which has not reason, but an inspiration of his own, for its basis.

R. A. Vaughan.

The*os`o*phis"tic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to theosophy; theosophical.

The*os"o*phize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Theosophized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Theosophizing.] To practice theosophy. [R.]

The*os"o*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; knowledge of things divine, fr. &?; wise in the things of God; &?; God + &?; wise: cf. F. théosophie.] Any system of philosophy or mysticism which proposes to attain intercourse with God and superior spirits, and consequent superhuman knowledge, by physical processes, as by the theurgic operations of some ancient Platonists, or by the chemical processes of the German fire philosophers; also, a direct, as distinguished from a revealed, knowledge of God, supposed to be attained by extraordinary illumination; especially, a direct insight into the processes of the divine mind, and the interior relations of the divine nature.

||Ther`a*peu"tæ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (pl. &?;) an attendant, servant, physician. See Therapeutic.] (Eccl. Hist.) A name given to certain ascetics said to have anciently dwelt in the neighborhood of Alexandria. They are described in a work attributed to Philo, the genuineness and credibility of which are now much discredited.

{ Ther`a*peu"tic (?), Ther`a*peu"tic*al (?), } a. [F. thérapeutique, Gr. &?;, from &?; attendant, servant, &?; to serve, take care of, treat medically, &?; attendant, servant.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to the healing art; concerned in discovering and applying remedies for diseases; curative. "Therapeutic or curative physic." Sir T. Browne.

Medicine is justly distributed into "prophylactic," or the art of preserving health, and therapeutic, or the art of restoring it.

I. Watts.

Ther`a*peu"tic, n. One of the Therapeutæ.

Ther`a*peu"tics (?), n. [Cf. F. thérapeutique.] That part of medical science which treats of the discovery and application of remedies for diseases.

Ther`a*peu"tist (?), n. One versed in therapeutics, or the discovery and application of remedies.

Ther"a*py (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] Therapeutics.

There (?), adv. [OE. ther, AS. ðr; akin to D. daar, G. da, OHG. dr, Sw. & Dan. der, Icel. & Goth. þar, Skr. tarhi then, and E. that. √184. See That, pron.] 1. In or at that place. "[They] there left me and my man, both bound together." Shak.

The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Ge. ii. 8.

In distinction from here, there usually signifies a place farther off. "Darkness there might well seem twilight here." Milton.

2. In that matter, relation, etc.; at that point, stage, etc., regarded as a distinct place; as, he did not stop there, but continued his speech.

The law that theaten'd death becomes thy friend
And turns it to exile; there art thou happy.


3. To or into that place; thither.

The rarest that e'er came there.


There is sometimes used by way of exclamation, calling the attention to something, especially to something distant; as, there, there! see there! look there! There is often used as an expletive, and in this use, when it introduces a sentence or clause, the verb precedes its subject.

A knight there was, and that a worthy man.


There is a path which no fowl knoweth.

Job xxviii. 7.

Wherever there is a sense or perception, there some idea is actually produced.


There have been that have delivered themselves from their ills by their good fortune or virtue.


There is much used in composition, and often has the sense of a pronoun. See Thereabout, Thereafter, Therefrom, etc.

There was formerly used in the sense of where.

Spend their good there it is reasonable.


Here and there, in one place and another.

Syn. — See Thither.

{ There"a*bout` (?), There"a*bouts` (?), } adv. [The latter spelling is less proper, but more commonly used.] 1. Near that place.

2. Near that number, degree, or quantity; nearly; as, ten men, or thereabouts.

Five or six thousand horse . . . or thereabouts.


Some three months since, or thereabout.


3. Concerning that; about that. [R.]

What will ye dine? I will go thereabout.


They were much perplexed thereabout.

Luke xxiv. 4.

There*af"ter (?), adv. [AS. ðræfter after that. See There, and After.] 1. After that; afterward.

2. According to that; accordingly.

I deny not but that it is of greatest concernment in the church and commonwealth to have a vigilant eye how books demean themselves as well as men; and thereafter to confine, imprison, and do sharpest justice on them as malefactors.


3. Of that sort. [Obs.] "My audience is not thereafter." Latimer.

There"a*gain` (?), adv. In opposition; against one's course. [Obs.]

If that him list to stand thereagain.


There"-a*nent` (?), adv. Concerning that. [Scot.]

There*at" (?), adv. 1. At that place; there.

Wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat.

Matt. vii. 13.

2. At that occurrence or event; on that account.

Every error is a stain to the beauty of nature; for which cause it blusheth thereat.


{ There`be*fore" (?), There`bi*forn" (?), } adv. Before that time; beforehand. [Obs.]

Many a winter therebiforn.


There*by" (?), adv. 1. By that; by that means; in consequence of that.

Acquaint now thyself with him, and be at peace; thereby good shall come unto thee.

Job xxii. 21.

2. Annexed to that. "Thereby hangs a tale." Shak.

3. Thereabout; — said of place, number, etc. Chaucer.

There*for" (?), adv. [There + for. Cf. Therefore.] For that, or this; for it.

With certain officers ordained therefore.


There"fore (?), conj. & adv. [OE. therfore. See There, and Fore, adv., For, and cf. Therefor.] 1. For that or this reason, referring to something previously stated; for that.

I have married a wife, and therefore I can not come.

Luke xiv. 20.

Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore?

Matt. xix. 27.

2. Consequently; by consequence.

He blushes; therefore he is guilty.


Syn. — See Then.

There*from" (?), adv. From this or that.

Turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left.

John. xxiii. 6.

There*in" (?), adv. In that or this place, time, or thing; in that particular or respect. Wyclif.

He pricketh through a fair forest,
Therein is many a wild beast.


Bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein.

Gen. ix. 7.

Therein our letters do not well agree.


There`in*to" (?), adv. Into that or this, or into that place. Bacon.

Let not them . . . enter thereinto.

Luke xxi. 21.

There*of" (?), adv. Of that or this.

In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.

Gen. ii. 17.

The`re*ol"o*gy (?), n. Therapeutios.

There*on" (?), adv. [AS. &?;&?;ron. See There, and On.] On that or this. Chaucer.

Then the king said, Hang him thereon.

Esther vii. 9.

There*out" (?), adv. 1. Out of that or this.

He shall take thereout his handful of the flour.

Lev. ii. 2.

2. On the outside; out of doors. [Obs.] Chaucer.

There*to" (?), adv. 1. To that or this. Chaucer.

2. Besides; moreover. [Obs.] Spenser.

Her mouth full small, and thereto soft and red.


There`to*fore" (?), adv. Up to that time; before then; — correlative with heretofore.

There*un"der (?), adv. Under that or this.

There`un*to" (?), adv. Unto that or this; thereto; besides. Shak.

There`up*on" (?), adv. 1. Upon that or this; thereon. "They shall feed thereupon." Zeph. ii. 7.

2. On account, or in consequence, of that; therefore.

[He] hopes to find you forward, . . .
And thereupon he sends you this good news.


3. Immediately; at once; without delay.

There*while" (?), adv. At that time; at the same time. [Obs.] Laud.

There*with" (?), adv. 1. With that or this. "I have learned in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content." Phil. iv. 11.

2. In addition; besides; moreover.

To speak of strength and therewith hardiness.


3. At the same time; forthwith. [Obs.] Johnson.

There`with*al" (?), adv. 1. Over and above; besides; moreover. [Obs.] Daniel.

And therewithal it was full poor and bad.


2. With that or this; therewith; at the same time.

Thy slanders I forgive; and therewithal
Remit thy other forfeits.


And therewithal one came and seized on her,
And Enid started waking.


Therf (?), a. [AS. &?;eorf; akin to OHG. derb, Icel. &?;jarfr.] Not fermented; unleavened; - - said of bread, loaves, etc. [Obs.]

Pask and the feast of therf loaves.


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{ The"ri*ac (?), ||The*ri"a*ca (?), } n. [L. theriaca an antidote against the bite of serpents, Gr. &?;: cf. F. thériaque. See Treacle.] 1. (Old Med.) An ancient composition esteemed efficacious against the effects of poison; especially, a certain compound of sixty-four drugs, prepared, pulverized, and reduced by means of honey to an electuary; — called also theriaca Andromachi, and Venice treacle.

2. Treacle; molasses. British Pharm.

{ The"ri*ac (?), The*ri"a*cal (?), } a. [Cf. F. thériacal.] Of or pertaining to theriac; medicinal. "Theriacal herbs." Bacon.

The"ri*al (?), a. Theriac. [R.] Holland.

The"ri*o*dont (?), n. (Paleon.) One of the Theriodontia. Used also adjectively.

||The`ri*o*don"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Paleon.) Same as Theriodontia.

||The`ri*o*don"ti*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (dim. of &?; a beast) + &?;, &?;, a tooth.] (Paleon.) An extinct order of reptiles found in the Permian and Triassic formations in South Africa. In some respects they resembled carnivorous mammals. Called also Theromorpha.

They had biconcave vertebræ, ambulatory limbs, and a well- developed pelvis and shoulder girdle. Some of the species had large maxillary teeth. The head somewhat resembled that of a turtle. The Dicynodont is one of the best-known examples. See Dicynodont.

The`ri*ot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; wild beast + &?; to cut.] Zoötomy.

||Ther"mæ (?), n. pl. [L. See Thermal.] Springs or baths of warm or hot water.

Ther"mal (?), a. [L. thermae hot springs, fr. Gr. &?;, pl. of &?; heat, fr. &?; hot, warm, &?; to warm, make hot; perhaps akin to L. formus warm, and E. forceps.] Of or pertaining to heat; warm; hot; as, the thermal unit; thermal waters.

The thermal condition of the earth.

J. D. Forbes.

Thermal conductivity, Thermal spectrum. See under Conductivity, and Spectrum. — Thermal unit (Physics), a unit chosen for the comparison or calculation of quantities of heat. The unit most commonly employed is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram or one pound of water from zero to one degree Centigrade. See Calorie, and under Unit.

Ther"mal*ly, adv. In a thermal manner.

Ther*met"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; heat + &?; measure + -graph.] A self-registering thermometer, especially one that registers the maximum and minimum during long periods. Nichol.

Ther"mic (?), a. [Gr. &?; heat.] Of or pertaining to heat; due to heat; thermal; as, thermic lines.

Thermic balance. See Bolometer. — Thermic fever (Med.), the condition of fever produced by sunstroke. See Sunstroke. — Thermic weight. (Mech.) Same as Heat weight, under Heat.

||Ther`mi`dor" (?), n. [F., fr. Gr. &?; warm, hot.] The eleventh month of the French republican calendar, — commencing July 19, and ending August 17. See the Note under Vendémiaire.

Ther*mif"u*gine (?), n. [Gr. &?; heat + L. fugere to flee.] (Chem.) An artificial alkaloid of complex composition, resembling thalline and used as an antipyretic, — whence its name.

Ther"mo- (?). A combining form from Gr. qe`rmh heat, qermo`s hot, warm; as in thermochemistry, thermodynamic.

Ther`mo*ba*rom"e*ter (?), n. [Thermo- + barometer.] (Physics) An instrument for determining altitudes by the boiling point of water.

Ther`mo*bat"ter*y (?), n. [Thermo- + battery.] A thermoelectric battery; a thermopile.

Ther`mo*cau"ter*y (?), n. [Thermo- + cautery.] (Surg.) Cautery by the application of heat.

Paquelin's thermocautery, thermocautery by means of a hollow platinum point, which is kept constantly hot by the passage through it of benzine vapor.

{ Ther`mo*chem"ic (?), Ther`mo*chem"ic*al (?), } a. (Chem. Physics) Of or pertaining to thermochemistry; obtained by, or employed in, thermochemistry.

Ther`mo*chem"is*try (?), n. [Thermo- + chemistry.] That branch of chemical science which includes the investigation of the various relations existing between chemical action and that manifestation of force termed heat, or the determination of the heat evolved by, or employed in, chemical actions.

Ther*moch"ro*sy (?), n. [Thermo- + Gr. &?; coloring.] (Physics) The property possessed by heat of being composed, like light, of rays of different degrees of refrangibility, which are unequal in rate or degree of transmission through diathermic substances.

Ther"mo*cur`rent (?), n. [Thermo- + current.] (Physics) A current, as of electricity, developed, or set in motion, by the action of heat.

Ther`mo*dy*nam"ic (?), a. [Thermo- + dynamic.] (Physics) Relating to thermodynamics; caused or operated by force due to the application of heat.

Thermodynamic function. See Heat weight, under Heat.

Ther`mo*dy*nam"ics (?), n. The science which treats of the mechanical action or relations of heat.

Ther`mo*e*lec"tric (?), a. (Physics) Pertaining to thermoelectricity; as, thermoelectric currents.

Ther`mo*e`lec*tric"i*ty (?), n. [Thermo- + electricity: cf. F. thermoélectricité.] (Physics) Electricity developed in the action of heat. See the Note under Electricity.

Ther`mo*e`lec*trom"e*ter (?), n. [Thermo- + electrometer.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current in the heat which it produces, or for determining the heat developed by such a current.

Ther"mo*gen (?), n. [Thermo- + - gen.] (Old Chem.) Caloric; heat; regarded as a material but imponderable substance.

Ther`mo*gen"ic (?), a. (Physiol.) Relating to heat, or to the production of heat; producing heat; thermogenous; as, the thermogenic tissues.

Ther*mog"e*nous (?), a. [Thermo- + -genous.] (Physiol.) Producing heat; thermogenic.

Ther"mo*graph (?), n. [Thermo- + - graph.] (Physics) An instrument for automatically recording indications of the variation of temperature.

Ther*mol"o*gy (thr"ml"*j), n. [Thermo- + -logy.] A discourse on, or an account of, heat. Whewell.

Ther*mol"y*sis (-*ss), n. [Thermo- + Gr. ly`ein to loose.] (Chem.) The resolution of a compound into parts by heat; dissociation by heat.

Ther"mo*lyze (thr"m*lz), v. t. (Chem.) To subject to thermolysis; to dissociate by heat.

Ther`mo*mag"net*ism (-mg"nt*z'm), n. [Thermo- + magnetism.] Magnetism as affected or caused by the action of heat; the relation of heat to magnetism.

Ther*mom"e*ter (thr*mm"*tr), n. [Thermo- + -meter: cf. F. thermomètre. See Thermal.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring temperature, founded on the principle that changes of temperature in bodies are accompanied by proportional changes in their volumes or dimensions.

The thermometer usually consists of a glass tube of capillary bore, terminating in a bulb, and containing mercury or alcohol, which expanding or contracting according to the temperature to which it is exposed, indicates the degree of heat or cold by the amount of space occupied, as shown by the position of the top of the liquid column on a graduated scale. See Centigrade, Fahrenheit, and Réaumur.

To reduce degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Centigrade, substract 32° and multiply by ; to reduce degrees Centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit, multiply by and add 32°.

Air thermometer, Balance thermometer, etc. See under Air, Balance, etc. — Metallic thermometer, a form of thermometer indicating changes of temperature by the expansion or contraction of rods or strips of metal. — Register thermometer, or Self-registering thermometer, a thermometer that registers the maximum and minimum of temperature occurring in the interval of time between two consecutive settings of the instrument. A common form contains a bit of steel wire to be pushed before the column and left at the point of maximum temperature, or a slide of enamel, which is drawn back by the liquid, and left within it at the point of minimum temperature.

{ Ther`mo*met"ric (?), Ther`mo*met"ric*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. thermométrique.] 1. Of or pertaining to a thermometer; as, the thermometrical scale or tube.

2. Made, or ascertained, by means of a thermometer; as, thermometrical observations.

Ther`mo*met"ric*al*ly (?), adv. In a thermometrical manner; by means of a thermometer.

Ther`mo*met"ro*graph (?), n. [Thermo- + Gr. &?; measure + -graph.] (Physics) An instrument for recording graphically the variations of temperature, or the indications of a thermometer.

Ther*mom"e*try (?), n. The estimation of temperature by the use of a thermometric apparatus.

Ther`mo*mul"ti*pli`er (?), n. [Thermo- + multiplier.] Same as Thermopile.

Ther"mo*pile (?), n. [Thermo- + pile a heap.] (Physics) An instrument of extreme sensibility, used to determine slight differences and degrees of heat. It is composed of alternate bars of antimony and bismuth, or any two metals having different capacities for the conduction of heat, connected with an astatic galvanometer, which is very sensibly affected by the electric current induced in the system of bars when exposed even to the feeblest degrees of heat.

Ther"mo*scope (?), n. [Thermo- + - scope.] (Physics) An instrument for indicating changes of temperature without indicating the degree of heat by which it is affected; especially, an instrument contrived by Count Rumford which, as modified by Professor Leslie, was afterward called the differential thermometer.

Ther`mo*scop"ic (?), a. (Physics) Of or pertaining to the thermoscope; made by means of the thermoscope; as, thermoscopic observations.

Ther"mo*stat (?), n. [Thermo- + Gr. &?; to make to stand.] (Physics) A self-acting apparatus for regulating temperature by the unequal expansion of different metals, liquids, or gases by heat, as in opening or closing the damper of a stove, or the like, as the heat becomes greater or less than is desired.

Ther`mo*stat"ic (?), a. (Physics) Of or pertaining to the thermostat; made or effected by means of the thermostat.

Ther`mo*sys*tal"tic (?), a. [Thermo- + systaltic.] (Physiol.) Influenced in its contraction by heat or cold; — said of a muscle.

Ther`mo*tax"ic (?), a. [Thermo- + Gr. &?; arrangement.] (Physiol.) Pertaining to, or connected with, the regulation of temperature in the animal body; as, the thermotaxic nervous system.

Ther`mo*ten"sion (?), n. [Thermo- + tension.] A process of increasing the strength of wrought iron by heating it to a determinate temperature, and giving to it, while in that state, a mechanical strain or tension in the direction in which the strength is afterward to be exerted.

{ Ther*mot"ic (?), Ther*mot"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?; heat, fr. &?; hot.] Of or pertaining to heat; produced by heat; as, thermotical phenomena. Whewell.

Ther*mot"ics (?), n. The science of heat. Whewell.

Ther`mo*trop"ic (?), a. (Bot.) Manifesting thermotropism.

Ther*mot"ro*pism (?), n. [Thermo- + Gr. &?; to turn.] (Bot.) The phenomenon of turning towards a source of warmth, seen in the growing parts of some plants.

Ther"mo*type (?), n. [Thermo- + - type.] A picture (as of a slice of wood) obtained by first wetting the object slightly with hydrochloric or dilute sulphuric acid, then taking an impression with a press, and next strongly heating this impression.

Ther*mot"y*py (?), n. The art or process of obtaining thermotypes.

Ther`mo*vol*ta"ic (?), a. [Thermo- + voltaic.] (Physics) Of or relating to heat and electricity; especially, relating to thermal effects produced by voltaic action. Faraday.

||The`ro*mor"pha (?), n. pl. [NL.: Gr. &?; beast + &?; form.] (Paleon.) See Theriodonta.

||The*rop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a beast + &?;, &?;, foot.] (Paleon.) An order of carnivorous dinosaurs in which the feet are less birdlike, and hence more like those of an ordinary quadruped, than in the Ornithopoda. It includes the rapacious genera Megalosaurus, Creosaurus, and their allies.

||The*sau"rus (?), n.; pl. Thesauri (#). [L. See Treasure.] A treasury or storehouse; hence, a repository, especially of knowledge; — often applied to a comprehensive work, like a dictionary or cyclopedia.

These (z), pron. [OE. þes, þæs, a variant of þas, pl. of þes, thes, this. See This, and cf. Those.] The plural of this. See This.

Thes"i*cle (?), n. [Dim. of thesis.] A little or subordinate thesis; a proposition.

The"sis (?), n.; pl. Theses (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to place, set. See Do, and cf. Anathema, Apothecary, Epithet, Hypothesis, Parenthesis, Theme, Tick a cover.] 1. A position or proposition which a person advances and offers to maintain, or which is actually maintained by argument.

2. Hence, an essay or dissertation written upon specific or definite theme; especially, an essay presented by a candidate for a diploma or degree.

I told them of the grave, becoming, and sublime deportment they should assume upon this mystical occasion, and read them two homilies and a thesis of my own composing, to prepare them.


3. (Logic) An affirmation, or distinction from a supposition or hypothesis.

4. (Mus.) The accented part of the measure, expressed by the downward beat; — the opposite of arsis.

5. (Pros.) (a) The depression of the voice in pronouncing the syllables of a word. (b) The part of the foot upon which such a depression falls.

Thes"mo*thete (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; that which is established, a law (fr. &?; to set) + &?; a giver (also fr. &?;).] (Gr. Antiq.) A lawgiver; a legislator; one of the six junior archons at Athens.

Thes"pi*an (?), a. [From L. Thespis, Gr. &?;, the founder of the Greek drama.] Of or pertaining to Thespis; hence, relating to the drama; dramatic; as, the Thespian art. — n. An actor.

Thes*sa"li*an (?), a. [Cf. L. Thessalius.] Of or pertaining to Thessaly in Greece. Shak.n. A native or inhabitant of Thessaly.

Thes`sa*lo"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Thessalonica, a city of Macedonia. — n. A native or inhabitant of Thessalonica.

The"ta (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. qh^ta, the Greek letter θ, .] A letter of the Greek alphabet corresponding to th in English; — sometimes called the unlucky letter, from being used by the judges on their ballots in passing condemnation on a prisoner, it being the first letter of the Greek qa`natos, death.

Theta function (Math.), one of a group of functions used in developing the properties of elliptic functions.

Thet"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?; fit for placing, fr. &?; to set, lay down. See Thesis.] Laid down; absolute or positive, as a law. Dr. H. More.

The"tine (?), n. [Thio + ether + sulphine.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of complex basic sulphur compounds analogous to the sulphines.

{ The*ur"gic (?), The*ur"gic*al (?), } a. [L. theurgicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. théurgique.] Of or pertaining to theurgy; magical.

Theurgic hymns, songs of incantation.

The"ur*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. théurgiste.] One who pretends to, or is addicted to, theurgy. Hallywell.

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The"ur*gy (th"r*j), n. [L. theurgia, Gr. qeoyrgi`a, fr. qeoyrgo`s doing the works of God; qeo`s God + 'e`rgon work: cf. F. théurgie. See Theism, and Work.] 1. A divine work; a miracle; hence, magic; sorcery.

2. A kind of magical science or art developed in Alexandria among the Neoplatonists, and supposed to enable man to influence the will of the gods by means of purification and other sacramental rites. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

3. In later or modern magic, that species of magic in which effects are claimed to be produced by supernatural agency, in distinction from natural magic.

Thew (th), n. [Chiefly used in the plural Thews (thz).] [OE. thew, þeau, manner, habit, strength, AS. þeáw manner, habit (cf. þwan to drive); akin to OS. thau custom, habit, OHG. dou. √56.] 1. Manner; custom; habit; form of behavior; qualities of mind; disposition; specifically, good qualities; virtues. [Obs.]

For her great light
Of sapience, and for her thews clear.


Evil speeches destroy good thews.

Wyclif (1 Cor. xv. 33).

To be upbrought in gentle thews and martial might.


2. Muscle or strength; nerve; brawn; sinew. Shak.

And I myself, who sat apart
And watched them, waxed in every limb;
I felt the thews of Anakim,
The pules of a Titan's heart.


Thewed (thd), a. 1. Furnished with thews or muscles; as, a well-thewed limb.

2. Accustomed; mannered. [Obs.] John Skelton.

Yet would not seem so rude and thewed ill.


Thew"y (?), a. Having strong or large thews or muscles; muscular; sinewy; strong.

They (), pron. pl.; poss. Theirs; obj. Them. [Icel. þeir they, properly nom. pl. masc. of s, s, þat, a demonstrative pronoun, akin to the English definite article, AS. s, seó, ðæt, nom. pl. ð. See That.] The plural of he, she, or it. They is never used adjectively, but always as a pronoun proper, and sometimes refers to persons without an antecedent expressed.

Jolif and glad they went unto here [their] rest
And casten hem [them] full early for to sail.


They of Italy salute you.

Heb. xiii. 24.

Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness.

Matt. v. 6.

They is used indefinitely, as our ancestors used man, and as the French use on; as, they say (French on dit), that is, it is said by persons not specified.

Thi*al"dine (?), n. [Thio- + aldehyde + -ine.] (Chem.) A weak nitrogenous sulphur base, C6H13NS2.

Thi"al*ol (?), n. [Thio- + alcohol + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) A colorless oily liquid, (C2H5)2S2, having a strong garlic odor; — called also ethyl disulphide. By extension, any one of the series of related compounds.

Thib"e*tan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Thibet. — n. A native or inhabitant of Thibet.

Thib"et cloth` (?). (a) A fabric made of coarse goat's hair; a kind of camlet. (b) A kind of fine woolen cloth, used for dresses, cloaks, etc.

Thi*be"tian (?), a. & n. Same as Thibetan.

Thi"ble (?), n. A slice; a skimmer; a spatula; a pudding stick. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Ainsworth.

Thick (thk), a. [Compar. Thicker (-r); superl. Thickest.] [OE. thicke, AS. þicce; akin to D. dik, OS. thikki, OHG. dicchi thick, dense, G. dick thick, Icel. þykkr, þjökkr, and probably to Gael. & Ir. tiugh. Cf. Tight.] 1. Measuring in the third dimension other than length and breadth, or in general dimension other than length; - - said of a solid body; as, a timber seven inches thick.

Were it as thick as is a branched oak.


My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins.

1 Kings xii. 10.

2. Having more depth or extent from one surface to its opposite than usual; not thin or slender; as, a thick plank; thick cloth; thick paper; thick neck.

3. Dense; not thin; inspissated; as, thick vapors. Also used figuratively; as, thick darkness.

Make the gruel thick and slab.


4. Not transparent or clear; hence, turbid, muddy, or misty; as, the water of a river is apt to be thick after a rain. "In a thick, misty day." Sir W. Scott.

5. Abundant, close, or crowded in space; closely set; following in quick succession; frequently recurring.

The people were gathered thick together.

Luke xi. 29.

Black was the forest; thick with beech it stood.


6. Not having due distinction of syllables, or good articulation; indistinct; as, a thick utterance.

7. Deep; profound; as, thick sleep. [R.] Shak.

8. Dull; not quick; as, thick of fearing. Shak.

His dimensions to any thick sight were invincible.


9. Intimate; very friendly; familiar. [Colloq.]

We have been thick ever since.

T. Hughes.

Thick is often used in the formation of compounds, most of which are self-explaining; as, thick-barred, thick-bodied, thick-coming, thick-cut, thick-flying, thick- growing, thick-leaved, thick-lipped, thick-necked, thick-planted, thick-ribbed, thick-shelled, thick-woven, and the like.

Thick register. (Phon.) See the Note under Register, n., 7. — Thick stuff (Naut.), all plank that is more than four inches thick and less than twelve. J. Knowles.

Syn. — Dense; close; compact; solid; gross; coarse.

Thick, n. 1. The thickest part, or the time when anything is thickest.

In the thick of the dust and smoke.


2. A thicket; as, gloomy thicks. [Obs.] Drayton.

Through the thick they heard one rudely rush.


He through a little window cast his sight
Through thick of bars, that gave a scanty light.


Thick-and-thin block (Naut.), a fiddle block. See under Fiddle. — Through thick and thin, through all obstacles and difficulties, both great and small.

Through thick and thin she followed him.


He became the panegyrist, through thick and thin, of a military frenzy.


Thick (thk), adv. [AS. þicce.] 1. Frequently; fast; quick.

2. Closely; as, a plat of ground thick sown.

3. To a great depth, or to a greater depth than usual; as, land covered thick with manure.

Thick and threefold, in quick succession, or in great numbers. [Obs.] L'Estrange.

Thick, v. t. & i. [Cf. AS. þiccian.] To thicken. [R.]

The nightmare Life-in-death was she,
Who thicks man's blood with cold.


Thick"bill` (?), n. The bullfinch. [Prov. Eng.]

Thick"en (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thickened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thickening.] To make thick (in any sense of the word). Specifically: —

(a) To render dense; to inspissate; as, to thicken paint.

(b) To make close; to fill up interstices in; as, to thicken cloth; to thicken ranks of trees or men.

(c) To strengthen; to confirm. [Obs.]

And this may to thicken other proofs.


(d) To make more frequent; as, to thicken blows.

Thick"en, v. i. To become thick. "Thy luster thickens when he shines by." Shak.

The press of people thickens to the court.


The combat thickens, like the storm that flies.


Thick"en*ing, n. Something put into a liquid or mass to make it thicker.

Thick"et (?), n. [AS. þiccet. See Thick, a.] A wood or a collection of trees, shrubs, etc., closely set; as, a ram caught in a thicket. Gen. xxii. 13.

Thick"head` (?), n. 1. A thick-headed or stupid person. [Colloq.]

2. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of Australian singing birds of the genus Pachycephala. The males of some of the species are bright-colored. Some of the species are popularly called thrushes.

Thick"-head`ed, a. Having a thick skull; stupid.

Thick"ish, a. Somewhat thick.

Thick"-knee` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A stone curlew. See under Stone.

Thick"ly, adv. In a thick manner; deeply; closely.

Thick"ness, n. [AS. &?;icnes.] The quality or state of being thick (in any of the senses of the adjective).

Thick"set` (?), a. 1. Close planted; as, a thickset wood; a thickset hedge. Dryden.

2. Having a short, thick body; stout.

Thick"set`, n. 1. A close or thick hedge.

2. A stout, twilled cotton cloth; a fustian corduroy, or velveteen. McElrath.

Thick"skin` (?), n. A coarse, gross person; a person void of sensibility or sinsitiveness; a dullard.

Thick"-skinned` (?), a. Having a thick skin; hence, not sensitive; dull; obtuse. Holland.

Thick"skull` (?), n. A dullard, or dull person; a blockhead; a numskull. Entick.

Thick"-skulled` (?), a. Having a thick skull; hence, dull; heavy; stupid; slow to learn.

Thick" wind` (?). (Far.) A defect of respiration in a horse, that is unassociated with noise in breathing or with the signs of emphysema.

Thick"-wind`ed, a. (Far.) Affected with thick wind.

Thid"er (?), adv. Thither. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thid"er*ward (?), adv. Thitherward. [Obs.]

Thief (thf), n.; pl. Thieves (thvz). [OE. thef, theef, AS. þeóf; akin to OFries. thiaf, OS. theof, thiof, D. dief, G. dieb, OHG. diob, Icel. þjfr, Sw. tjuf, Dan. tyv, Goth. þiufs, þiubs, and perhaps to Lith. tupeti to squat or crouch down. Cf. Theft.] 1. One who steals; one who commits theft or larceny. See Theft.

There came a privy thief, men clepeth death.


Where thieves break through and steal.

Matt. vi. 19.

2. A waster in the snuff of a candle. Bp. Hall.

Thief catcher. Same as Thief taker. — Thief leader, one who leads or takes away a thief. L'Estrange.Thief taker, one whose business is to find and capture thieves and bring them to justice. — Thief tube, a tube for withdrawing a sample of a liquid from a cask. — Thieves' vinegar, a kind of aromatic vinegar for the sick room, taking its name from the story that thieves, by using it, were enabled to plunder, with impunity to health, in the great plague at London. [Eng.]

Syn. — Robber; pilferer. — Thief, Robber. A thief takes our property by stealth; a robber attacks us openly, and strips us by main force.

Take heed, have open eye, for thieves do foot by night.


Some roving robber calling to his fellows.


Thief"ly, a. & adv. Like a thief; thievish; thievishly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thi"ë*none (?), n. [Thiënyl + ketone.] (Chem.) A ketone derivative of thiophene obtained as a white crystalline substance, (C4H3S)2.CO, by the action of aluminium chloride and carbonyl chloride on thiophene.

Thi"ë*nyl (?), n. [Thiophene + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical C4H3S, regarded as the essential residue of thiophene and certain of its derivatives.

Thieve (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Thieved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thieving.] [AS. geþeófian.] To practice theft; to steal.

Thiev"er*y (?), n. 1. The practice of stealing; theft; thievishness.

Among the Spartans, thievery was a practice morally good and honest.


2. That which is stolen. [Obs.] Shak.

Thiev"ish, a. 1. Given to stealing; addicted to theft; as, a thievish boy, a thievish magpie.

2. Like a thief; acting by stealth; sly; secret.

Time's thievish progress to eternity.


3. Partaking of the nature of theft; accomplished by stealing; dishonest; as, a thievish practice.

Or with a base and biosterous sword enforce
A thievish living on the common road.


— Thiev"ish*ly, adv. — Thiev"ish*ness, n.

Thigh (th), n. [OE. thi, þih, þeh, AS. þeóh; akin to OFries. thiach, D. dij, dije, OHG. dioh, thioh, Icel. þj thigh, rump, and probably to Lith. taukas fat of animals, tukti to become fat, Russ. tuke fat of animals. √56.] 1. (Anat.) The proximal segment of the hind limb between the knee and the trunk. See Femur.

2. (Zoöl.) The coxa, or femur, of an insect.

Thigh bone (Anat.), the femur.

Thilk (?), pron. [Cf. Ilk same.] That same; this; that. [Obs.] "I love thilk lass." Spenser.

Thou spake right now of thilke traitor death.


Thill (?), n. [OE. thille, AS. &?;ille a board, plank, beam, thill; akin to &?;el a plank, D. deel a plank, floor, G. diele, OHG. dili, dilla, Icel. &?;ilja a plank, planking, a thwart, &?;ili a wainscot, plank; cf. Skr. tala a level surface. √236. Cf. Fill a thill, Deal a plank.] 1. One of the two long pieces of wood, extending before a vehicle, between which a horse is hitched; a shaft.

2. (Mining) The floor of a coal mine. Raymond.

Thill coupling, a device for connecting the thill of a vehicle to the axle.

Thill"er (?), n. The horse which goes between the thills, or shafts, and supports them; also, the last horse in a team; — called also thill horse.

Thim"ble (?), n. [OE. thimbil, AS. &?;&?;mel, fr. &?;&?;ma a thumb. √56. See Thumb.] 1. A kind of cap or cover, or sometimes a broad ring, for the end of the finger, used in sewing to protect the finger when pushing the needle through the material. It is usually made of metal, and has upon the outer surface numerous small pits to catch the head of the needle.

2. (Mech.) Any thimble-shaped appendage or fixure. Specifically: — (a) A tubular piece, generally a strut, through which a bolt or pin passes. (b) A fixed or movable ring, tube, or lining placed in a hole. (c) A tubular cone for expanding a flue; — called ferrule in England.

3. (Naut.) A ring of thin metal formed with a grooved circumference so as to fit within an eye-spice, or the like, and protect it from chafing.

Thim"ble*ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), common in America.

Thim"ble*eye` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The chub mackerel. See under Chub.

Thim"ble*ful (?), n.; pl. Thimblefuls (&?;). As much as a thimble will hold; a very small quantity.

For a thimbleful of golf, a thimbleful of love.


Thim"ble*rig` (?), n. A sleight-of-hand trick played with three small cups, shaped like thimbles, and a small ball or little pea.

Thim"ble*rig`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thimblerigged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thimblerigging.] To swindle by means of small cups or thimbles, and a pea or small ball placed under one of them and quickly shifted to another, the victim laying a wager that he knows under which cup it is; hence, to cheat by any trick.

Thim"ble*rig`ger (?), n. One who cheats by thimblerigging, or tricks of legerdemain.

Thim"ble*weed` (?), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the composite genus Rudbeckia, coarse herbs somewhat resembling the sunflower; — so called from their conical receptacles.

Thin (?), a. [Compar. Thiner (?); superl. Thinest.] [OE. thinne, thenne, thunne, AS. þynne; akin to D. dun, G. dünn, OHG. dunni, Icel. þunnr, Sw. tunn, Dan. tynd, Gael. & Ir. tana, W. teneu, L. tenuis, Gr. &?; (in comp.) stretched out, &?; stretched, stretched out, long, Skr. tanu thin, slender; also to AS. &?;enian to extend, G. dehnen, Icel. &?;enja, Goth. &?;anjan (in comp.), L. tendere to stretch, tenere to hold, Gr. &?; to stretch, Skr. tan. √51 & 237. Cf. Attenuate, Dance, Tempt, Tenable, Tend to move, Tenous, Thunder, Tone.] 1. Having little thickness or extent from one surface to its opposite; as, a thin plate of metal; thin paper; a thin board; a thin covering.

2. Rare; not dense or thick; — applied to fluids or soft mixtures; as, thin blood; thin broth; thin air. Shak.

In the day, when the air is more thin.


Satan, bowing low
His gray dissimulation, disappeared,
Into thin air diffused.


3. Not close; not crowded; not filling the space; not having the individuals of which the thing is composed in a close or compact state; hence, not abundant; as, the trees of a forest are thin; the corn or grass is thin.

Ferrara is very large, but extremely thin of people.


4. Not full or well grown; wanting in plumpness.

Seven thin ears . . . blasted with the east wind.

Gen. xli. 6.

5. Not stout; slim; slender; lean; gaunt; as, a person becomes thin by disease.

6. Wanting in body or volume; small; feeble; not full.

Thin, hollow sounds, and lamentable screams.


7. Slight; small; slender; flimsy; wanting substance or depth or force; superficial; inadequate; not sufficient for a covering; as, a thin disguise.

My tale is done, for my wit is but thin.


Thin is used in the formation of compounds which are mostly self-explaining; as, thin-faced, thin-lipped, thin-peopled, thin-shelled, and the like.

Thin section. See under Section.

Thin, adv. Not thickly or closely; in a seattered state; as, seed sown thin.

Spain is thin sown of people.


Thin, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thinned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thinning.] [Cf. AS. geþynnian.] To make thin (in any of the senses of the adjective).

Thin, v. i. To grow or become thin; — used with some adverbs, as out, away, etc.; as, geological strata thin out, i. e., gradually diminish in thickness until they disappear.

Thine (n), pron. & a. [OE. thin, AS. ðn, originally gen. of ðu, ð, thou; akin to G. dein thine, Icel. þinn, possessive pron., þn, gen. of þ thou, Goth. þeins, possessive pron., þeina, gen. of þu thou. See Thou, and cf. Thy.] A form of the possessive case of the pronoun thou, now superseded in common discourse by your, the possessive of you, but maintaining a place in solemn discourse, in poetry, and in the usual language of the Friends, or Quakers.

In the old style, thine was commonly shortened to thi (thy) when used attributively before words beginning with a consonant; now, thy is used also before vowels. Thine is often used absolutely, the thing possessed being understood.

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Thing (thng), n. [AS. þing a thing, cause, assembly, judicial assembly; akin to þingan to negotiate, þingian to reconcile, conciliate, D. ding a thing, OS. thing thing, assembly, judicial assembly, G. ding a thing, formerly also, an assembly, court, Icel. þing a thing, assembly, court, Sw. & Dan. ting; perhaps originally used of the transaction of or before a popular assembly, or the time appointed for such an assembly; cf. G. dingen to bargain, hire, MHG. dingen to hold court, speak before a court, negotiate, Goth. þeihs time, perhaps akin to L. tempus time. Cf. Hustings, and Temporal of time.] 1. Whatever exists, or is conceived to exist, as a separate entity, whether animate or inanimate; any separable or distinguishable object of thought.

God made . . . every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind.

Gen. i. 25.

He sent after this manner; ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt.

Gen. xiv. 23.

A thing of beauty is a joy forever.


2. An inanimate object, in distinction from a living being; any lifeless material.

Ye meads and groves, unconscious things!


3. A transaction or occurrence; an event; a deed.

[And Jacob said] All these things are against me.

Gen. xlii. 36.

Which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things.

Matt. xxi. 24.

4. A portion or part; something.

Wicked men who understand any thing of wisdom.


5. A diminutive or slighted object; any object viewed as merely existing; — often used in pity or contempt.

See, sons, what things you are!


The poor thing sighed, and . . . turned from me.


I'll be this abject thing no more.


I have a thing in prose.


6. pl. Clothes; furniture; appurtenances; luggage; as, to pack or store one's things. [Colloq.]

Formerly, the singular was sometimes used in a plural or collective sense.

And them she gave her moebles and her thing.


Thing was used in a very general sense in Old English, and is still heard colloquially where some more definite term would be used in careful composition.

In the garden [he] walketh to and fro,
And hath his things [i. e., prayers, devotions] said full courteously.


Hearkening his minstrels their things play.


7. (Law) Whatever may be possessed or owned; a property; — distinguished from person.

8. [In this sense pronounced tng.] In Scandinavian countries, a legislative or judicial assembly. Longfellow.

Things personal. (Law) Same as Personal property, under Personal. — Things real. Same as Real property, under Real.

Think (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thought (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thinking.] [OE. thinken, properly, to seem, from AS. þyncean (cf. Methinks), but confounded with OE. thenken to think, fr. AS. þencean (imp. þhte); akin to D. denken, dunken, OS. thenkian, thunkian, G. denken, dünken, Icel. þekkja to perceive, to know, þykkja to seem, Goth. þagkjan, þaggkjan, to think, þygkjan to think, to seem, OL. tongere to know. Cf. Thank, Thought.] 1. To seem or appear; - - used chiefly in the expressions methinketh or methinks, and methought.

These are genuine Anglo-Saxon expressions, equivalent to it seems to me, it seemed to me. In these expressions me is in the dative case.

2. To employ any of the intellectual powers except that of simple perception through the senses; to exercise the higher intellectual faculties.

For that I am
I know, because I think.


3. Specifically: — (a) To call anything to mind; to remember; as, I would have sent the books, but I did not think of it.

Well thought upon; I have it here.


(b) To reflect upon any subject; to muse; to meditate; to ponder; to consider; to deliberate.

And when he thought thereon, he wept.

Mark xiv. 72.

He thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits?

Luke xii. 17.

(c) To form an opinion by reasoning; to judge; to conclude; to believe; as, I think it will rain to-morrow.

Let them marry to whom they think best.

Num. xxxvi. 6.

(d) To purpose; to intend; to design; to mean.

I thought to promote thee unto great honor.

Num. xxiv. 11.

Thou thought'st to help me.


(e) To presume; to venture.

Think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father.

Matt. iii. 9.

To think, in a philosophical use as yet somewhat limited, designates the higher intellectual acts, the acts preëminently rational; to judge; to compare; to reason. Thinking is employed by Hamilton as "comprehending all our collective energies." It is defined by Mansel as "the act of knowing or judging by means of concepts,"by Lotze as "the reaction of the mind on the material supplied by external influences." See Thought.

To think better of. See under Better. — To think much of, or To think well of, to hold in esteem; to esteem highly.

Syn. — To expect; guess; cogitate; reflect; ponder; contemplate; meditate; muse; imagine; suppose; believe. See Expect, Guess.

Think, v. t. 1. To conceive; to imagine.

Charity . . . thinketh no evil.

1 Cor. xiii. 4,5.

2. To plan or design; to plot; to compass. [Obs.]

So little womanhood
And natural goodness, as to think the death
Of her own son.

Beau. & Fl.

3. To believe; to consider; to esteem.

Nor think superfluous other's aid.


To think much, to esteem a great matter; to grudge. [Obs.] "[He] thought not much to clothe his enemies." Milton.To think scorn. (a) To disdain. [Obs.] "He thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone." Esther iii. 6. (b) To feel indignation. [Obs.]

Think"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being thought or conceived; cogitable. Sir W. Hamilton.

Think"er (?), n. One who thinks; especially and chiefly, one who thinks in a particular manner; as, a close thinker; a deep thinker; a coherent thinker.

Think"ing, a. Having the faculty of thought; cogitative; capable of a regular train of ideas; as, man is a thinking being. — Think"ing*ly, adv.

Think"ing, n. The act of thinking; mode of thinking; imagination; cogitation; judgment.

I heard a bird so sing,
Whose music, to my thinking, pleased the king.


Thin"ly (?), a. In a thin manner; in a loose, scattered manner; scantily; not thickly; as, ground thinly planted with trees; a country thinly inhabited.

Thin"ner (?), n. One who thins, or makes thinner.

Thin"ness, n. The quality or state of being thin (in any of the senses of the word).

Thin"nish (?), a. Somewhat thin.

Thin"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, shore + -lite.] (Min.) A calcareous tufa, in part crystalline, occurring on a large scale as a shore deposit about the Quaternary lake basins of Nevada.

Thin"-skinned` (?), a. Having a thin skin; hence, sensitive; irritable.

Thi"o- (?). [Gr. &?; brimstone, sulphur.] (Chem.) A combining form (also used adjectively) denoting the presence of sulphur. See Sulpho-.

Thi`o*car"bon*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A sulphocarbonate.

Thi`o*car*bon"ic (?), a. [Thio- + carbonic.] (Chem.) Same as Sulphocarbonic.

Thi`o*cy"a*nate (?), n. (Chem.) Same as Sulphocyanate.

Thi`o*cy*an"ic (?), a. [Thio- + cyanic.] (Chem.) Same as Sulphocyanic.

Thi`o*naph"thene (?), n. [Thiophene + naphthalene.] (Chem.) A double benzene and thiophene nucleus, C8H6S, analogous to naphthalene, and like it the base of a large series of derivatives. [Written also thionaphtene.]

Thi*on"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; brimstone, sulphur.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to sulphur; containing or resembling sulphur; specifically, designating certain of the thio compounds; as, the thionic acids. Cf. Dithionic, Trithionic, Tetrathionic, etc.

Thi"on*ine (?), n. [Gr. &?; brimstone, sulphur.] (Chem.) An artificial red or violet dyestuff consisting of a complex sulphur derivative of certain aromatic diamines, and obtained as a dark crystalline powder; — called also phenylene violet.

Thi"on*ol (?), n. [Thionine + - ol.] (Chem.) A red or violet dyestuff having a greenish metallic luster. It is produced artificially, by the chemical dehydration of thionine, as a brown amorphous powder.

Thi*on"o*line (?), n. (Chem.) A beautiful fluorescent crystalline substance, intermediate in composition between thionol and thionine.

Thi"on*yl (?), n. [Thionic + - yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical SO, regarded as an essential constituent of certain sulphurous compounds; as, thionyl chloride.

Thi"o*phene (?), n. [Thio- + phenyl + -ene.] (Chem.) A sulphur hydrocarbon, C4H4S, analogous to furfuran and benzene, and acting as the base of a large number of substances which closely resemble the corresponding aromatic derivatives.

Thi`o*phen"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, thiophene; specifically, designating a certain acid analogous to benzoic acid.

Thi`o*phe"nol (?), n. [Thio- + phenol.] (Chem.) A colorless mobile liquid, C6H5.SH, of an offensive odor, and analogous to phenol; — called also phenyl sulphydrate.

Thi*oph"thene (?), n. [Abbreviated from thionaphthene.] (Chem.) A double thiophene nucleus, C6H4S2, analogous to thionaphthene, and the base of a large series of compounds. [Written also thiophtene.]

Thi`o*sul"phate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of thiosulphuric acid; — formerly called hyposulphite.

The sodium salt called in photography by the name sodium hyposulphite, being used as a solvent for the excess of unchanged silver chloride, bromide, and iodide on the sensitive plate.

Thi`o*sul*phur"ic (?), a. [Thio- + sulphuric.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an unstable acid, H2S2O3, analogous to sulphuric acid, and formerly called hyposulphurous acid.

Thi`o*to"lene (?), n. [Thio- + toluene.] (Chem.) A colorless oily liquid, C4H3S.CH3, analogous to, and resembling, toluene; — called also methyl thiophene.

Thi*ox"ene (?), n. [Thiophene + xylene.] (Chem.) Any one of three possible metameric substances, which are dimethyl derivatives of thiophene, like the xylenes from benzene.

Third (thrd), a. [OE. thirde, AS. þridda, fr. þr, þreó, three; akin to D. derde third, G. dritte, Icel. þriði, Goth. þridja, L. tertius, Gr. tri`tos, Skr. ttya. See Three, and cf. Riding a jurisdiction, Tierce.] 1. Next after the second; coming after two others; — the ordinal of three; as, the third hour in the day. "The third night." Chaucer.

2. Constituting or being one of three equal parts into which anything is divided; as, the third part of a day.

Third estate. (a) In England, the commons, or the commonalty, who are represented in Parliament by the House of Commons. (b) In France, the tiers état. See Tiers état. Third order (R. C. Ch.), an order attached to a monastic order, and comprising men and women devoted to a rule of pious living, called the third rule, by a simple vow if they remain seculars, and by more solemn vows if they become regulars. See Tertiary, n., 1. — Third person (Gram.), the person spoken of. See Person, n., 7. — Third sound. (Mus.) See Third, n., 3.

Third (?), n. 1. The quotient of a unit divided by three; one of three equal parts into which anything is divided.

2. The sixtieth part of a second of time.

3. (Mus.) The third tone of the scale; the mediant.

4. pl. (Law) The third part of the estate of a deceased husband, which, by some local laws, the widow is entitled to enjoy during her life.

Major third (Mus.), an interval of two tones. — Minor third (Mus.), an interval of a tone and a half.

Third"-bor`ough (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) An under constable. Shak. Johnson.

Third"ings (?), n. pl. (Eng. Law) The third part of the corn or grain growing on the ground at the tenant's death, due to the lord for a heriot, as within the manor of Turfat in Herefordshire.

Third"ly, adv. In the third place. Bacon.

Third"-pen`ny (?), n. (A.S. Law) A third part of the profits of fines and penalties imposed at the country court, which was among the perquisites enjoyed by the earl.

Thirl (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thirled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thirling.] [See Thrill.] To bore; to drill or thrill. See Thrill. [Obs. or Prov.]

That with a spear was thirled his breast bone.


Thirl"age (?), n. [Cf. Thrall.] (Scots Law) The right which the owner of a mill possesses, by contract or law, to compel the tenants of a certain district, or of his sucken, to bring all their grain to his mill for grinding. Erskine.

Thirst (?), n. [OE. thirst, þurst, AS. þurst, þyrst; akin to D. dorst, OS. thurst, G. durst, Icel. þorsti, Sw. & Dan. törst, Goth. þaúrstei thirst, þaúrsus dry, withered, þaúrsieþ mik I thirst, gaþaírsan to wither, L. torrere to parch, Gr. te`rsesqai to become dry, tesai`nein to dry up, Skr. tsh to thirst. √54. Cf. Torrid.] 1. A sensation of dryness in the throat associated with a craving for liquids, produced by deprivation of drink, or by some other cause (as fear, excitement, etc.) which arrests the secretion of the pharyngeal mucous membrane; hence, the condition producing this sensation.

Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us, and our children . . . with thirst?

Ex. xvii. 3.

With thirst, with cold, with hunger so confounded.


2. Fig.: A want and eager desire after anything; a craving or longing; — usually with for, of, or after; as, the thirst for gold. "Thirst of worldy good." Fairfax. "The thirst I had of knowledge." Milton.

Thirst, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thirsted; p. pr. & vb. n. Thirsting.] [AS. þyrstan. See Thirst, n.] 1. To feel thirst; to experience a painful or uneasy sensation of the throat or fauces, as for want of drink.

The people thirsted there for water.

Ex. xvii. 3.

2. To have a vehement desire.

My soul thirsteth for . . . the living God.

Ps. xlii. 2.

Thirst, v. t. To have a thirst for. [R.]

He seeks his keeper's flesh, and thirsts his blood.


Thirst"er (?), n. One who thirsts.

Thirst"i*ly (?), adv. In a thirsty manner.

Thirst"i*ness, n. The state of being thirsty; thirst.

Thirs"tle (?), n. The throstle. [Prov. Eng.]

Thirst"y (?), a. [Compar. Thirstier (?); superl. Thirstiest.] [AS. þurstig. See Thirst, n.] 1. Feeling thirst; having a painful or distressing sensation from want of drink; hence, having an eager desire.

Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink, for I am thirsty.

Judges iv. 19.

2. Deficient in moisture; dry; parched.

A dry and thirsty land, where no water is.

Ps. lxiii. 1.

When in the sultry glebe I faint,
Or on the thirsty mountain pant.


Thir"teen` (thr"tn`), a. [OE. threttene, AS. þreótne, þreótyne. See Three, and Ten, and cf. Thirty.] One more than twelve; ten and three; as, thirteen ounces or pounds.

Thir"teen`, n. 1. The number greater by one than twelve; the sum of ten and three; thirteen units or objects.

2. A symbol representing thirteen units, as 13 or xiii.

Thir"teenth` (?), a. [From Thirteen: cf. AS. þreóteóða.] 1. Next in order after the twelfth; the third after the tenth; — the ordinal of thirteen; as, the thirteenth day of the month.

2. Constituting or being one of thirteen equal parts into which anything is divided.

Thir"teenth`, n. 1. The quotient of a unit divided by thirteen; one of thirteen equal parts into which anything is divided.

2. The next in order after the twelfth.

3. (Mus.) The interval comprising an octave and a sixth.

Thir"ti*eth (?), a. [From Thirty: cf. AS. þrtigða.] 1. Next in order after the twenty-ninth; the tenth after the twentieth; — the ordinal of thirty; as, the thirtieth day of the month.

2. Constituting or being one of thirty equal parts into which anything is divided.

Thir"ti*eth, n. The quotient of a unit divided by thirty; one of thirty equal parts.

Thir"ty (?), a. [OE. thritty, AS. þrtig, þrittig; akin to D. dertig, G. dreissig, Icel. þrjtu, þrjtigi, þrir teger, Goth. þreis tigjus, i.e., three tens. See Three, and Ten, and cf. Thirteen.] Being three times ten; consisting of one more than twenty-nine; twenty and ten; as, the month of June consists of thirty days.

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Thir"ty (?), n.; pl. Thirties (&?;). 1. The sum of three tens, or twenty and ten; thirty units or objects.

2. A symbol expressing thirty, as 30, or XXX.

Thir"ty-sec`ond (?), a. Being one of thirty-two equal parts into which anything is divided.

Thirty-second note (Mus.), the thirty- second part of a whole note; a demi-semiquaver.

This (s), pron. & a.; pl. These (z). [OE. this, thes, AS. ðs, masc., ðeós, fem., ðis, neut.; akin to OS. these, D. deze, G. dieser, OHG. diser, deser, Icel. þessi; originally from the definite article + a particle -se, -si; cf. Goth. sai behold. See The, That, and cf. These, Those.] 1. As a demonstrative pronoun, this denotes something that is present or near in place or time, or something just mentioned, or that is just about to be mentioned.

When they heard this, they were pricked in their heart.

Acts ii. 37.

But know this, that if the good man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched.

Matt. xxiv. 43.

2. As an adjective, this has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun; as, this book; this way to town.

This may be used as opposed or correlative to that, and sometimes as opposed to other or to a second this. See the Note under That, 1.

This way and that wavering sails they bend.


A body of this or that denomination is produced.


Their judgment in this we may not, and in that we need not, follow.


Consider the arguments which the author had to write this, or to design the other, before you arraign him.


Thy crimes . . . soon by this or this will end.


This, like a, every, that, etc., may refer to a number, as of years, persons, etc., taken collectively or as a whole.

This twenty years have I been with thee..

Gen. xxxi. 38.

I have not wept this years; but now
My mother comes afresh into my eyes.


This"tle (?), n. [OE. thistil, AS. þistel; akin to D. & G. distel, OHG. distila, distil, Icel. þistill, Sw. tistel, Dan. tidsel; of uncertain origin.] (Bot.) Any one of several prickly composite plants, especially those of the genera Cnicus, Craduus, and Onopordon. The name is often also applied to other prickly plants.

Blessed thistle, Carduus benedictus, so named because it was formerly considered an antidote to the bite of venomous creatures. — Bull thistle, Cnicus lanceolatus, the common large thistle of neglected pastures. — Canada thistle, Cnicus arvensis, a native of Europe, but introduced into the United States from Canada. — Cotton thistle, Onopordon Acanthium. — Fuller's thistle, the teasel. — Globe thistle, Melon thistle, etc. See under Globe, Melon, etc. — Pine thistle, Atractylis gummifera, a native of the Mediterranean region. A vicid gum resin flows from the involucre. — Scotch thistle, either the cotton thistle, or the musk thistle, or the spear thistle; — all used national emblems of Scotland. — Sow thistle, Sonchus oleraceus. — Spear thistle. Same as Bull thistle. — Star thistle, a species of Centaurea. See Centaurea. — Torch thistle, a candelabra-shaped plant of the genus Cereus. See Cereus. — Yellow thistle, Cincus horridulus.

Thistle bird (Zoöl.), the American goldfinch, or yellow-bird (Spinus tristis); — so called on account of its feeding on the seeds of thistles. See Illust. under Goldfinch. — Thistle butterfly (Zoöl.), a handsomely colored American butterfly (Vanessa cardui) whose larva feeds upon thistles; — called also painted lady. — Thistle cock (Zoöl.), the corn bunting (Emberiza militaria). [Prov. Eng.] — Thistle crown, a gold coin of England of the reign of James I., worth four shillings. — Thistle finch (Zoöl.), the goldfinch; — so called from its fondness for thistle seeds. [Prov. Eng.] — Thistle funnel, a funnel having a bulging body and flaring mouth.

This"tly (?), a. 1. Overgrown with thistles; as, thistly ground.

2. Fig.: Resembling a thistle or thistles; sharp; pricking.

In such a world, so thorny, and where none
Finds happiness unblighted, or, if found,
Without some thistly sorrow at its side.


Thith"er (?), adv. [OE. thider, AS. ðider; akin to E. that; cf. Icel. þaðra there, Goth. þaþr thence. See That, and The.] 1. To that place; — opposed to hither.

This city is near; . . . O, let me escape thither.

Gen. xix. 20.

Where I am, thither ye can not come.

John vii. 34.

2. To that point, end, or result; as, the argument tended thither.

Hither and thither, to this place and to that; one way and another.

Syn. — There. Thither, There. Thither properly denotes motion toward a place; there denotes rest in a place; as, I am going thither, and shall meet you there. But thither has now become obsolete, except in poetry, or a style purposely conformed to the past, and there is now used in both senses; as, I shall go there to-morrow; we shall go there together.

Thith"er (?), a. 1. Being on the farther side from the person speaking; farther; — a correlative of hither; as, on the thither side of the water. W. D. Howells.

2. Applied to time: On the thither side of, older than; of more years than. See Hither, a. Huxley.

Thith"er*to` (?), adv. To that point; so far. [Obs.]

Thith"er*ward (?), adv. To ward that place; in that direction.

They shall ask the way to Zion, with their faces thitherward.

Jer. l. 5.

Thit"see (?), n. [Written also theesee, and thietsie.] 1. (Bot.) The varnish tree of Burmah (Melanorrhœa usitatissima).

2. A black varnish obtained from the tree.

||Thlip"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; pressure, fr. &?; to press.] (Med.) Compression, especially constriction of vessels by an external cause.

Tho (), def. art. The. [Obs.] Spenser.

Tho, pron. pl. Those. [Obs.]

This knowen tho that be to wives bound.


Tho, adv. [AS. þ.] Then. [Obs.] Spenser.

To do obsequies as was tho the guise.


Tho, conj. Though. [Reformed spelling.]

Thole (?), n. [Written also thowel, and thowl.] [OE. thol, AS. þol; akin to D. dol, Icel. þollr a fir tree, a young fir, a tree, a thole.] 1. A wooden or metal pin, set in the gunwale of a boat, to serve as a fulcrum for the oar in rowing. Longfellow.

2. The pin, or handle, of a scythe snath.

Thole pin. Same as Thole.

Thole, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tholed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tholing.] [OE. þolen, þolien, AS. þolian; akin to OS. tholn, OHG. doln, G. geduld patience, dulden to endure, Icel. þola, Sw. tåla, Dan. taale, Goth. þulan, L. tolerate, tulisse, to endure, bear, tollere to lift, bear, Gr. &?; to bear, Skr. tul to lift. √55. Cf. Tolerate.] To bear; to endure; to undergo. [Obs. or Scot.] Gower.

So much woe as I have with you tholed.


To thole the winter's steely dribble.


Thole, v. i. To wait. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

{ Tho*mæ"an, Tho*me"an} (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A member of the ancient church of Christians established on the Malabar coast of India, which some suppose to have been originally founded by the Apostle Thomas.

{ Tho"mism (?), Tho"ma*ism (?), } n. (Eccl. Hist.) The doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, esp. with respect to predestination and grace.

Tho"mist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Thomas Aquinas. See Scotist.

Tho"mite (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A Thomæan.

Thom"sen*o*lite (?), n. [Named after Dr. J. Thomsen of Copenhagen. See -lite.] (Min.) A fluoride of aluminium, calcium, and sodium occurring with the cryolite of Greenland.

Thom"sen's dis*ease" (?). [From Thomsen, a physician of Sleswick.] (Med.) An affection apparently congenital, consisting in tonic contraction and stiffness of the voluntary muscles occurring after a period of muscular inaction.

Thom*so"ni*an (?), a. (Med.) Of or pertaining to Thomsonianism. — n. A believer in Thomsonianism; one who practices Thomsonianism.

Thom*so"ni*an*ism (?), n. (Med.) An empirical system which assumes that the human body is composed of four elements, earth, air, fire, and water, and that vegetable medicines alone should be used; — from the founder, Dr. Samuel Thomson, of Massachusetts.

Thom"son*ite (?), n. [From R. D. Thomson, of Glasgow.] (Min.) A zeolitic mineral, occurring generally in masses of a radiated structure. It is a hydrous silicate of aluminia, lime, and soda. Called also mesole, and comptonite.

Thong (?), n. [OE. thong, þwong, thwang, AS. þwang; akin to Icel. þvengr a thong, latchet. √57. Cf. Twinge.] A strap of leather; especially, one used for fastening anything.

And nails for loosened spears, and thongs for shields, provide.


Thong seal (Zoöl.), the bearded seal. See the Note under Seal.

Tho"oid (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, the jacal + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a group of carnivores, including the wovels and the dogs.

Thor (?), n. [Icel. þrs. Cf. Thursday.] (Scand. Myth.) The god of thunder, and son of Odin.

||Tho`ra*cen*te"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; thorax + &?; pricking, from &?; to prick, stab.] (Surg.) The operation of puncturing the chest wall so as to let out liquids contained in the cavity of the chest.

Tho*rac"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. thoracique.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the thorax, or chest.

Thoracic duct (Anat.), the great trunk of the lymphatic vessels, situated on the ventral side of the vertebral column in the thorax and abdomen. See Illust. of Lacteal.

Tho*rac"ic, n. [Cf. F. thoracique.] (Zoöl.) One of a group of fishes having the ventral fins placed beneath the thorax or beneath the pectorial fins.

||Tho*rac"i*ca (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A division of cirripeds including those which have six thoracic segments, usually bearing six pairs of cirri. The common barnacles are examples.

Tho`ra*com"e*ter (?), n. (Physiol.) Same as Stethometer.

Tho`ra*co*plas"ty (?), n. [Thorax + plasty.] (Med.) A remodeling or reshaping of the thorax; especially, the operation of removing the ribs, so as to obliterate the pleural cavity in cases of empyema.

||Tho`ra*cos"tra*ca (?), n. pl. [NL. See Thorax, and Ostracoid, a.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of Crustacea, having a dorsal shield or carapec&?; &?;&?;niting all, or nearly all, of the thoracic somites to the head. It includes the crabs, lobsters, shrimps, and similar species.

Tho`ra*cot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, thorax + &?; to cut.] (Surg.) The operation of opening the pleural cavity by incision.

Tho"ral (?), a. [L. torus a couch, bed.] Of or pertaining to a bed. [R.]

Tho"rax (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] 1. (Anat.) The part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen, containing that part of the body cavity the walls of which are supported by the dorsal vertebræ, the ribs, and the sternum, and which the heart and lungs are situated; the chest.

In mammals the thoracic cavity is completely separated from the abdominal by the diaphragm, but in birds and many reptiles the separation is incomplete, while in other reptiles, and in amphibians and fishes, there is no marked separation and no true thorax.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) The middle region of the body of an insect, or that region which bears the legs and wings. It is composed of three united somites, each of which is composed of several distinct parts. See Illust. in Appendix. and Illust. of Coleoptera. (b) The second, or middle, region of the body of a crustacean, arachnid, or other articulate animal. In the case of decapod Crustacea, some writers include under the term thorax only the three segments bearing the maxillipeds; others include also the five segments bearing the legs. See Illust. in Appendix.

3. (Antiq.) A breastplate, cuirass, or corselet; especially, the breastplate worn by the ancient Greeks.

Tho"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Thorite.] (Chem.) A rare white earthy substance, consisting of the oxide of thorium; — formerly called also thorina.

Thor"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to thorium; designating the compounds of thorium.

Tho"rite (?), n. [So called by Berzelius from the Scandinavian god Thor. See Thor.] (Min.) A mineral of a brown to black color, or, as in the variety orangite, orange-yellow. It is essentially a silicate of thorium.

Tho"ri*um (?), n. [NL. See Thorite.] (Chem.) A metallic element found in certain rare minerals, as thorite, pyrochlore, monazite, etc., and isolated as an infusible gray metallic powder which burns in the air and forms thoria; — formerly called also thorinum. Symbol Th. Atomic weight 232.0.

Thorn (?), n. [AS. þorn; akin to OS. & OFries. thorn, D. doorn, G. dorn, Dan. torn, Sw. törne, Icel. þorn, Goth. þaúrnus; cf. Pol. tarn, Russ. tern' the blackthorn, ternie thorns, Skr. ta grass, blade of grass. √53.] 1. A hard and sharp-pointed projection from a woody stem; usually, a branch so transformed; a spine.

2. (Bot.) Any shrub or small tree which bears thorns; especially, any species of the genus Cratægus, as the hawthorn, whitethorn, cockspur thorn.

3. Fig.: That which pricks or annoys as a thorn; anything troublesome; trouble; care.

There was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me.

2 Cor. xii. 7.

The guilt of empire, all its thorns and cares,
Be only mine.


4. The name of the Anglo-Saxon letter &?;, capital form &?;. It was used to represent both of the sounds of English th, as in thin, then. So called because it was the initial letter of thorn, a spine.

Thorn apple (Bot.), Jamestown weed. — Thorn broom (Bot.), a shrub that produces thorns. — Thorn hedge, a hedge of thorn-bearing trees or bushes. — Thorn devil. (Zoöl.) See Moloch, 2. — Thorn hopper (Zoöl.), a tree hopper (Thelia cratægi) which lives on the thorn bush, apple tree, and allied trees.

Thorn, v. t. To prick, as with a thorn. [Poetic]

I am the only rose of all the stock
That never thorn'd him.


Thorn"back` (?), n. 1. (Zoöl.) A European skate (Raia clavata) having thornlike spines on its back.

2. (Zoöl.) The large European spider crab or king crab (Maia squinado).

Thorn"bill` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small, brilliantly colored American birds of the genus Rhamphomicron. They have a long, slender, sharp bill, and feed upon honey, insects, and the juice of the sugar cane.

<! p. 1501 !>

Thorn"bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small South American bird (Anumbius anumbii) allied to the ovenbirds of the genus Furnarius). It builds a very large and complex nest of twigs and thorns in a bush or tree.

Thorn"but (?), n. [Thorn + -but as in halibut; cf. G. dornbutt.] (Zoöl.) The turbot.

Thorn"-head`ed (?), a. Having a head armed with thorns or spines.

Thorn-headed worm (Zoöl.), any worm of the order Acanthocephala; — called also thornhead.

Thorn"less, a. Destitute of, or free from, thorns.

Thorn"set` (?), a. Set with thorns. Dyer.

Thorn"tail` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A beautiful South American humming bird (Gouldia Popelairii), having the six outer tail feathers long, slender, and pointed. The head is ornamented with a long, pointed crest.

Thorn"y (?), a. [Compar. Thornier (?); superl. Thorniest.] [Cf. AS. þorniht.] 1. Full of thorns or spines; rough with thorns; spiny; as, a thorny wood; a thorny tree; a thorny crown.

2. Like a thorn or thorns; hence, figuratively, troublesome; vexatious; harassing; perplexing. "The thorny point of bare distress." Shak.

The steep and thorny way to heaven.


Thorny rest-harrow (Bot.), rest- harrow. — Thorny trefoil, a prickly plant of the genus Fagonia (F. Cretica, etc.).

Thor"o (?), a. Thorough. [Reformed spelling.]

Thor"ough (?), prep. [See Through.] Through. [Obs.] Spenser. Shak.

Thor"ough, a. 1. Passing through; as, thorough lights in a house. [Obs.]

2. Passing through or to the end; hence, complete; perfect; as, a thorough reformation; thorough work; a thorough translator; a thorough poet.

Thor"ough, adv. 1. Thoroughly. [Obs. or Colloq.] Chaucer.

2. Through. [Obs.] Shak.

Thor"ough, n. A furrow between two ridges, to drain off the surface water. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Thor"ough bass` (?). (Mus.) The representation of chords by figures placed under the base; figured bass; basso continuo; — sometimes used as synonymous with harmony.

Thor"ough-brace` (?), n. A leather strap supporting the body of a carriage, and attached to springs, or serving as a spring. See Illust. of Chaise.

Thor"ough*bred` (?), a. Bred from the best blood through a long line; pure-blooded; — said of stock, as horses. Hence, having the characteristics of such breeding; mettlesome; courageous; of elegant form, or the like. — n. A thoroughbred animal, especially a horse.

Thor"ough*fare` (?), n. [AS. þurhfaru.] 1. A passage through; a passage from one street or opening to another; an unobstructed way open to the public; a public road; hence, a frequented street.

A large and splendid thoroughfare.


2. A passing or going through; passage. [R.]

[Made] Hell and this world — one realm, one continent
Of easy thoroughfare.


Thor"ough*go`ing (?), a. 1. Going through, or to the end or bottom; very thorough; complete.

2. Going all lengths; extreme; thoroughplaced; — less common in this sense.

Thor"ough-light`ed (?), a. (Arch.) Provided with thorough lights or windows at opposite sides, as a room or building. Gwilt.

Thor"ough*ly, adv. In a thorough manner; fully; entirely; completely.

Thor"ough*ness, n. The quality or state of being thorough; completeness.

Thor"ough*paced` (?), a. Perfect in what is undertaken; complete; going all lengths; as, a thoroughplaced Tory or Whig.

If she be a thoroughplaced impostor.

Sir W. Scott.

Thor"ough*pin` (?), n. (Far.) A disease of the hock (sometimes of the knee) of a horse, caused by inflammation of the synovial membrane and a consequent excessive secretion of the synovial fluid; — probably so called because there is usually an oval swelling on each side of the leg, appearing somewhat as if a pin had been thrust through.

Thor"ough*sped` (?), a. Fully accomplished; thoroughplaced. [R.] Swift.

Thor"ough*stitch` (?), adv. So as to go the whole length of any business; fully; completely. [Obs.]

Preservance alone can carry us thoroughstitch.


Thor"ough*wax` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) An umbelliferous plant (Bupleurum rotundifolium) with perfoliate leaves. (b) Thoroughwort.

Thor"ough*wort` (?), n. Same as Boneset.

Thor"ow (?), prep. Through. [Obs.] "Thorow bramble, pits, and floods." Beau. & Fl.

Thor"ow, a. Thorough. [Obs.] Hakluyt.

{ Thorp, Thorpe} (thôrp), n. [AS. þorp; akin to OS. & OFries. thorp, D. dorp, G. dorf, Icel. þorp, Dan. torp, Sw. torp a cottage, a little farm, Goth. þaúrp a field, and probably to Lith. troba a building, a house, W. tref a hamlet, Ir. treabh a farmed village, a tribe, clan, Gael. treabhair houses, and perhaps to L. turba a crowd, mult. Cf. Dorp.] A group of houses in the country; a small village; a hamlet; a dorp; — now chiefly occurring in names of places and persons; as, Althorp, Mablethorpe. "Within a little thorp I staid." Fairfax.

Then thorpe and byre arose in fire.


Those (?), pron. [OE. þos, þas, AS. ðs, nom. and acc. pl. of ðs this. See This, and cf. These.] The plural of that. See That.

||Thoth (?), n. 1. (Myth.) The god of eloquence and letters among the ancient Egyptians, and supposed to be the inventor of writing and philosophy. He corresponded to the Mercury of the Romans, and was usually represented as a human figure with the head of an ibis or a lamb.

2. (Zoöl.) The Egyptian sacred baboon.

Thou (?), pron. [Sing.: nom. Thou; poss. Thy (?) or Thine (&?;); obj. Thee (?). Pl.: nom. You (&?;); poss. Your (?) or Yours (&?;); obj. You.] [OE. thou, þu, AS. ð, ðu; akin to OS. & OFries. thu, G., Dan. & Sw. du, Icel. þ, Goth. þu, Russ. tui, Ir. & Gael. tu, W. ti, L. tu, Gr. sy`, Dor. ty`, Skr. tvam. √185. Cf. Thee, Thine, Te Deum.] The second personal pronoun, in the singular number, denoting the person addressed; thyself; the pronoun which is used in addressing persons in the solemn or poetical style.

Art thou he that should come?

Matt. xi. 3.

"In Old English, generally, thou is the language of a lord to a servant, of an equal to an equal, and expresses also companionship, love, permission, defiance, scorn, threatening: whilst ye is the language of a servant to a lord, and of compliment, and further expresses honor, submission, or entreaty." Skeat.

Thou is now sometimes used by the Friends, or Quakers, in familiar discourse, though most of them corruptly say thee instead of thou.

Thou, v. t. To address as thou, esp. to do so in order to treat with insolent familiarity or contempt.

If thou thouest him some thrice, it shall not be amiss.


Thou, v. i. To use the words thou and thee in discourse after the manner of the Friends. [R.]

Though (), conj. [OE. thogh, þah, AS. ðeáh, ðh, ðh; akin to OS. thh, OFries. thach, D. & G. doch but, yet, OHG. doh but, yet though, Icel. þ yet, nevertheless, Sw. dock, Dan. dog, Goth. þáuh, þáu, than, or, yet; of uncertain origin. √184.] Granting, admitting, or supposing that; notwithstanding that; if.

Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him.

Job xiii. 15.

Not that I so affirm, though so it seem.


It is compounded with all in although. See Although.

As though, as if.

In the vine were three branches; and it was as though it budded.

Gen. xl. 10.

Though, adv. However; nevertheless; notwithstanding; — used in familiar language, and in the middle or at the end of a sentence.

I would not be as sick though for his place.


A good cause would do well, though.


Thought (?), imp. & p. p. of Think.

Thought, n. [OE. þoght, þouht, AS. þht, geþht, fr. þencean to think; akin to D. gedachte thought, MHG. dht, gedht, Icel. þttr, þtti. See Think.] 1. The act of thinking; the exercise of the mind in any of its higher forms; reflection; cogitation.

Thought can not be superadded to matter, so as in any sense to render it true that matter can become cogitative.

Dr. T. Dwight.

2. Meditation; serious consideration.

Pride, of all others the most dangerous fault,
Proceeds from want of sense or want of thought.


3. That which is thought; an idea; a mental conception, whether an opinion, judgment, fancy, purpose, or intention.

Thus Bethel spoke, who always speaks his thought.


Why do you keep alone, . . .
Using those thoughts which should indeed have died
With them they think on?


Thoughts come crowding in so fast upon me, that my only difficulty is to choose or to reject.


All their thoughts are against me for evil.

Ps. lvi. 5.

4. Solicitude; anxious care; concern.

Hawis was put in trouble, and died with thought and anguish before his business came to an end.


Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink.

Matt. vi. 25.

5. A small degree or quantity; a trifle; as, a thought longer; a thought better. [Colloq.]

If the hair were a thought browner.


Thought, in philosophical usage now somewhat current, denotes the capacity for, or the exercise of, the very highest intellectual functions, especially those usually comprehended under judgment.

This [faculty], to which I gave the name of the "elaborative faculty," — the faculty of relations or comparison, — constitutes what is properly denominated thought.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Syn. — Idea; conception; imagination; fancy; conceit; notion; supposition; reflection; consideration; meditation; contemplation; cogitation; deliberation.

Thought"ful (?), a. 1. Full of thought; employed in meditation; contemplative; as, a man of thoughtful mind.

War, horrid war, your thoughtful walks invades.


2. Attentive; careful; exercising the judgment; having the mind directed to an object; as, thoughtful of gain; thoughtful in seeking truth. Glanvill.

3. Anxious; solicitous; concerned.

Around her crowd distrust, and doubt, and fear,
And thoughtful foresight, and tormenting care.


Syn. — Considerate; deliberate; contemplative; attentive; careful; wary; circumspect; reflective; discreet. — Thoughtful, Considerate. He who is habitually thoughtful rarely neglects his duty or his true interest; he who is considerate pauses to reflect and guard himself against error. One who is not thoughtful by nature, if he can be made considerate, will usually be guarded against serious mistakes. "He who is thoughtful does not forget his duty; he who is considerate pauses, and considers properly what is his duty. It is a recommendation to a subordinate person to be thoughtful in doing what is wished of him; it is the recommendation of a confidential person to be considerate, as he has often to judge according to his own discretion. Crabb.

— Thought"ful*ly, adv. — Thought"ful*ness, n.

Thought"less, adv. 1. Lacking thought; careless; inconsiderate; rash; as, a thoughtless person, or act.

2. Giddy; gay; dissipated. [R.] Johnson.

3. Deficient in reasoning power; stupid; dull.

Thoughtless as monarch oaks that shade the plain.


— Thought"less*ly, adv. — Thought"less*ness, n.

Thou"sand (?), n. [OE. þousend, þusend, AS. þsend; akin to OS. thsundig, thsind, OFries. thusend, D. duizend, G. tausend, OHG. tsunt, dsunt, Icel. þsund, þshund, Sw. tusen, Dan. tusind, Goth. þsundi, Lith. tukstantis, Russ. tuisiacha; of uncertain origin.] 1. The number of ten hundred; a collection or sum consisting of ten times one hundred units or objects.

2. Hence, indefinitely, a great number.

A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand.

Ps. xci. 7.

The word thousand often takes a plural form. See the Note under Hundred.

3. A symbol representing one thousand units; as, 1,000, M or CI.

Thou"sand, a. 1. Consisting of ten hundred; being ten times one hundred.

2. Hence, consisting of a great number indefinitely. "Perplexed with a thousand cares." Shak.

Thou"sand*fold` (?), a. Multiplied by a thousand.

Thou"sand legs` (?). (Zoöl.) A millepid, or galleyworm; — called also thousand-legged worm.

Thou"sandth (?), a. 1. Next in order after nine hundred and ninty-nine; coming last of a thousand successive individuals or units; — the ordinal of thousand; as, the thousandth part of a thing.

2. Constituting, or being one of, a thousand equal parts into which anything is divided; the tenth of a hundredth.

3. Occurring as being one of, or the last one of, a very great number; very small; minute; — used hyperbolically; as, to do a thing for the thousandth time.

Thou"sandth, n. The quotient of a unit divided by a thousand; one of a thousand equal parts into which a unit is divided.

{ Thow"el (?), Thowl (?), } n. [See Thole.] (Naut.) (a) A thole pin. (b) A rowlock.

I would sit impatiently thinking with what an unusual amount of noise the oars worked in the thowels.


Thra"cian (?), a. Of or pertaining to Thrace, or its people. — n. A native or inhabitant of Thrace.

Thrack (?), v. t. To load or burden; as, to thrack a man with property. [Obs.] South.

Thrack"scat (?), n. Metal still in the mine. [Obs.]

Thral"dom (?), n. [Icel. &?;rældmr. See Thrall, and -dom.] The condition of a thrall; slavery; bondage; state of servitude. [Written also thralldom.]

Women are born to thraldom and penance
And to be under man's governance.


He shall rule, and she in thraldom live.


Thrall (?), n. [OE. thral, þral, Icel. þræll, perhaps through AS. þrl; akin to Sw. träl, Dan. træl, and probably to AS. þrægian to run, Goth. þragjan, Gr. tre`chein; cf. OHG. dregil, drigil, a servant.] 1. A slave; a bondman. Chaucer.

Gurth, the born thrall of Cedric.

Sir W. Scott.

2. Slavery; bondage; servitude; thraldom. Tennyson.

He still in thrall
Of all-subdoing sleep.


3. A shelf; a stand for barrels, etc. [Prov. Eng.]

Thrall, a. Of or pertaining to a thrall; in the condition of a thrall; bond; enslaved. [Obs.] Spenser.

The fiend that would make you thrall and bond.


Thrall, v. t. To enslave. [Obs. or Poetic] Spenser.

Thrall"dom (?), n. Thraldom.

Thrall"-less, a. (a) Having no thralls. (b) Not enslaved; not subject to bonds.

Thrall"-like` (?), a. Resembling a thrall, or his condition, feelings, or the like; slavish.

Servile and thrall-like fear.


Thra"nite (?), n. [Gr. &?;, from &?; a bench, form, especially the topmost of the three benches in a trireme.] (Gr. Antiq.) One of the rowers on the topmost of the three benches in a trireme.

Thrap"ple (?), n. [Also thropple, corrupted fr. throttle.] Windpipe; throttle. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

{ Thrash (?), Thresh (?) }, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thrashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thrashing.] [OE. þreschen, þreshen, to beat, AS. þerscan, þrescan; akin to D. dorschen, OD. derschen, G. dreschen, OHG. dreskan, Icel. þreskja, Sw. tröska, Dan. tærske, Goth. þriskan, Lith. traszketi to rattle, Russ. treskate to burst, crackle, tresk' a crash, OSlav. troska a stroke of lighting. Cf. Thresh.] 1. To beat out grain from, as straw or husks; to beat the straw or husk of (grain) with a flail; to beat off, as the kernels of grain; as, to thrash wheat, rye, or oats; to thrash over the old straw.

The wheat was reaped, thrashed, and winnowed by machines.

H. Spencer.

2. To beat soundly, as with a stick or whip; to drub.

{ Thrash, Thresh}, v. t. 1. To practice thrashing grain or the like; to perform the business of beating grain from straw; as, a man who thrashes well.

2. Hence, to labor; to toil; also, to move violently.

I rather would be Mævius, thrash for rhymes,
Like his, the scorn and scandal of the times.


Thrash"el (?), n. An instrument to thrash with; a flail. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

{ Thrash"er (?), Thresh"er (?) }, n. 1. One who, or that which, thrashes grain; a thrashing machine.

2. (Zoöl.) A large and voracious shark (Alopias vulpes), remarkable for the great length of the upper lobe of its tail, with which it beats, or thrashes, its prey. It is found both upon the American and the European coasts. Called also fox shark, sea ape, sea fox, slasher, swingle-tail, and thrasher shark.

3. (Zoöl.) A name given to the brown thrush and other allied species. See Brown thrush.

Sage thrasher. (Zoöl.) See under Sage. — Thrasher whale (Zoöl.), the common killer of the Atlantic.

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Thrash"ing (?), a. & n. from Thrash, v.

Thrashing floor, Threshing-floor, or Threshing floor, a floor or area on which grain is beaten out. — Thrashing machine, a machine for separating grain from the straw.

Thra*son"ic*al (?), a. [From Thrso, the name of a braggart soldier in Terence's "Eunuch:" cf. L. Thrasonianus.] Of or pertaining to Thraso; like, or becoming to, Thraso; bragging; boastful; vainglorious. — Thra*son"ic*al*ly, adv.

Cæsar's thrasonical brag of 'I came, saw, and overcame.'


Thraste (thräst), v. t. [imp. Thraste; p. p. Thrast.] To thrust. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thrave (thrv), n. [OE. þrave, þreve, Icel. þrefi; akin to Dan. trave; cf. Icel. þrfa to grasp.] 1. Twenty-four (in some places, twelve) sheaves of wheat; a shock, or stook. [Prov. Eng.]

2. The number of two dozen; also, an indefinite number; a bunch; a company; a throng. "The worst of a thrave." [Obs.] Landsdowne MS.

He sends forth thraves of ballads to the sale.

Bp. Hall.

Thraw (thr), n. & v. See Throse. [Scot.] Burns.

Thread (thrd), n. [OE. threed, þred, AS. þrd; akin to D. draad, G. draht wire, thread, OHG. drt, Icel. þrðr a thread, Sw. tråd, Dan. traad, and AS. þrwan to twist. See Throw, and cf. Third.] 1. A very small twist of flax, wool, cotton, silk, or other fibrous substance, drawn out to considerable length; a compound cord consisting of two or more single yarns doubled, or joined together, and twisted.

2. A filament, as of a flower, or of any fibrous substance, as of bark; also, a line of gold or silver.

3. The prominent part of the spiral of a screw or nut; the rib. See Screw, n., 1.

4. Fig.: Something continued in a long course or tenor; a,s the thread of life, or of a discourse. Bp. Burnet.

5. Fig.: Composition; quality; fineness. [Obs.]

A neat courtier,
Of a most elegant thread.

B. Jonson.

Air thread, the fine white filaments which are seen floating in the air in summer, the production of spiders; gossamer. — Thread and thrum, the good and bad together. [Obs.] Shak.Thread cell (Zoöl.), a lasso cell. See under Lasso. — Thread herring (Zoöl.), the gizzard shad. See under Gizzard. — Thread lace, lace made of linen thread. — Thread needle, a game in which children stand in a row, joining hands, and in which the outer one, still holding his neighbor, runs between the others; — called also thread the needle.

Thread, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Threaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Threading.] 1. To pass a thread through the eye of; as, to thread a needle.

2. To pass or pierce through as a narrow way; also, to effect or make, as one's way, through or between obstacles; to thrid.

Heavy trading ships . . . threading the Bosphorus.


They would not thread the gates.


3. To form a thread, or spiral rib, on or in; as, to thread a screw or nut.

Thread"bare` (?), a. 1. Worn to the naked thread; having the nap worn off; threadbare clothes. "A threadbare cope." Chaucer.

2. Fig.: Worn out; as, a threadbare subject; stale topics and threadbare quotations. Swift.

Thread"bare`ness, n. The state of being threadbare.

Thread"en (?), a. Made of thread; as, threaden sails; a threaden fillet. [Obs.] Shak.

Thread"er (?), n. 1. A device for assisting in threading a needle.

2. A tool or machine for forming a thread on a screw or in a nut.

Thread"fin` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of fishes belonging to Polynemus and allied genera. They have numerous long pectoral filaments.

Thread"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The cutlass fish. (b) A carangoid fish (Caranx gallus, or C. crinitus) having the anterior rays of the soft dorsal and anal fins prolonged in the form of long threads.

Thread"i*ness (?), n. Quality of being thready.

Thread"-shaped` (?), a. Having the form of a thread; filiform.

Thread"worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any long, slender nematode worm, especially the pinworm and filaria.

Thread"y (?), a. 1. Like thread or filaments; slender; as, the thready roots of a shrub.

2. Containing, or consisting of, thread.

Threap (thrp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Threaped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Threaping.] [AS. þreápian to reprove.] [Written also threpe, and threip.] 1. To call; to name. [Obs.]

2. To maintain obstinately against denial or contradiction; also, to contend or argue against (another) with obstinacy; to chide; as, he threaped me down that it was so. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Burns.

3. To beat, or thrash. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

4. To cozen, or cheat. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Threap, v. i. To contend obstinately; to be pertinacious. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

It's not for a man with a woman to threap.

Percy's Reliques.

Threap (?), n. An obstinate decision or determination; a pertinacious affirmation. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

He was taken a threap that he would have it finished before the year was done.


Threat (thrt), n. [AS. þreát, akin to þreótan to vex, G. verdriessen, OHG. irdriozan, Icel. þrjta to fail, want, lack, Goth. usþriutan to vex, to trouble, Russ. trudite to impose a task, irritate, vex, L. trudere to push. Cf. Abstruse, Intrude, Obstrude, Protrude.] The expression of an intention to inflict evil or injury on another; the declaration of an evil, loss, or pain to come; menace; threatening; denunciation.

There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats.


Threat, v. t. & i. [OE. þreten, AS. þreátian. See Threat, n.] To threaten. [Obs. or Poetic] Shak.

Of all his threating reck not a mite.


Our dreaded admiral from far they threat.


Threat"en (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Threatened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Threatening.] [OE. þretenen. See Threat, v. t.] 1. To utter threats against; to menace; to inspire with apprehension; to alarm, or attempt to alarm, as with the promise of something evil or disagreeable; to warn.

Let us straitly threaten them, that they speak henceforth to no man in this name.

Acts iv. 17.

2. To exhibit the appearance of (something evil or unpleasant) as approaching; to indicate as impending; to announce the conditional infliction of; as, to threaten war; to threaten death. Milton.

The skies look grimly
And threaten present blusters.


Syn. — To menace. — Threaten, Menace. Threaten is Anglo-Saxon, and menace is Latin. As often happens, the former is the more familiar term; the latter is more employed in formal style. We are threatened with a drought; the country is menaced with war.

By turns put on the suppliant and the lord:
Threatened this moment, and the next implored.


Of the sharp ax
Regardless, that o'er his devoted head
Hangs menacing.


Threat"en, v. i. To use threats, or menaces; also, to have a threatening appearance.

Though the seas threaten, they are merciful.


Threat"en*er (?), n. One who threatens. Shak.

Threat"en*ing, a. & n. from Threaten, v. — Threat"en*ing*ly, adv.

Threatening letters (Law), letters containing threats, especially those designed to extort money, or to obtain other property, by menaces; blackmailing letters.

Threat"ful (?), a. Full of threats; having a menacing appearance. Spenser. — Threat"ful*ly, adv.

Threave (?), n. Same as Thrave. [Obs.]

Three (?), a. [OE. þre, þreo, þri, AS. þr, masc., þreó, fem. and neut.; akin to OFries. thre, OS. thria, threa, D. drie, G. drei, OHG. dr, Icel. þrr, Dan. & Sw. tre, Goth. þreis, Lith. trys, Ir., Gael. & W. tri, Russ. tri, L. tres, Gr. trei^s, Skr. tri. √301. Cf. 3d Drilling, Tern, a., Third, Thirteen, Thirty, Tierce, Trey, Tri-, Triad, Trinity, Tripod.] One more than two; two and one. "I offer thee three things." 2 Sam. xxiv. 12.

Three solemn aisles approach the shrine.


Three is often joined with other words, forming compounds signifying divided into, composed of, or containing, three parts, portions, organs, or the like; as, three-branched, three-capsuled, three-celled, three-cleft, three-edged, three-foot, three- footed, three-forked, three-grained, three-headed, three-legged, three-mouthed, three-nooked, three-petaled, three-pronged, three-ribbed, three-seeded, three-stringed, three-toed, and the like.

Three, n. 1. The number greater by a unit than two; three units or objects.

2. A symbol representing three units, as 3 or iii.

Rule of three. (Arith.) See under Rule, n.

Three"-coat` (?), a. (Arch.) Having or consisting of three coats; — applied to plastering which consists of pricking-up, floating, and a finishing coat; or, as called in the United States, a scratch coat, browning, and finishing coat.

Three"-cor`nered (?), a. 1. Having three corners, or angles; as, a three-cornered hat.

2. (Bot.) Having three prominent longitudinal angles; as, a three-cornered stem.

Three"-deck`er (?), n. (Naut.) A vessel of war carrying guns on three decks.

Three"-flow`ered (?), a. (Bot.) Bearing three flowers together, or only three flowers.

Three"fold` (?), a. [OE. þreofald; cf. AS. þrfeald.] Consisting of three, or thrice repeated; triple; as, threefold justice.

A threefold cord is not quickly broken.

Eccl. iv. 12.

Three"-hand`ed (?), a. Said of games or contests where three persons play against each other, or two against one; as, a three-handed game of cards.

{ Three"-leafed` (?), Three"-leaved` (?), } a. (Bot.) (a) Producing three leaves; as, three-leaved nightshade. (b) Consisting of three distinct leaflets; having the leaflets arranged in threes.

Three-leaved nightshade. See Trillium.

Three"-lobed` (?), a. Having three lobes.

Three-lobed leaf (Bot.), a leaf divided into three parts, the sinuses extending not more than half way to the middle, and either the parts of the sinuses being rounded.

Three"-nerved` (?), a. Having three nerves.

Three-nerved leaf (Bot.), a leaf having three distinct and prominent ribs, or nerves, extending from the base.

Three"-part`ed (?), a. Divided into, or consisting of, three parts; tripartite.

Three-parted leaf (Bot.), a leaf divided into three parts down to the base, but not entirely separate.

Three"pence (?), n. A small silver coin of three times the value of a penny. [Eng.]

Three"pen*ny (?), a. Costing or worth three pence; hence, worth but little; poor; mean.

Three"-pile` (?), n. An old name for the finest and most costly kind of velvet, having a fine, thick pile.

I have served Prince Florizel and in my time wore three- pile.


Three"-piled` (?), a. 1. Having the quality of three-pile; best; most costly. [R.]

Thou art good velvet; thou 'rt three-piled piece.


2. Fig.: Extravagant; exaggerated; high- flown. "Three-piled hyperboles." Shak.

3. Accustomed to wearing three-pile; hence, of high rank, or wealth. [Obs.] "Three-piled people." Beau. & Fl.

Three"-ply` (?), a. Consisting of three distinct webs inwrought together in weaving, as cloth or carpeting; having three strands; threefold.

Three"-point`ed (?), a. (Bot.) Having three acute or setigerous points; tricuspidate.

Three"-quar`ter (?), a. (Paint.) Measuring thirty inches by twenty-five; — said of portraitures.

Three-quarter length, a portrait showing the figure to the hips only.

Three"-score` (?), a. Thrice twenty; sixty.

Three"-sid`ed (?), a. Having three sides, especially three plane sides; as, a three-sided stem, leaf, petiole, peduncle, scape, or pericarp.

Three"-square` (?), a. Having a cross section in the form of an equilateral triangle; — said especially of a kind of file.

Three"-valved` (?), a. Consisting of, or having, three valves; opening with three valves; as, a three-valved pericarp.

Three"-way` (?), a. Connected with, or serving to connect, three channels or pipes; as, a three-way cock or valve.

Threne (?), n. [L. threnus, Gr. &?;. Cf. Drone.] Lamentation; threnody; a dirge. Shak.

The threns . . . of the prophet Jeremiah.

Jer. Taylor.

{ Thre*net"ic (?), Thre*net"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;. See Threne.] Pertaining to a threne; sorrowful; mournful.

Thren"ode (?), n. A threne, or threnody; a dirge; a funeral song.

Thren"o*dist (?), n. One who composes, delivers, or utters, a threnode, or threnody.

Thren"o*dy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; a dirge + &?; a song. See Threne, and Ode.] A song of lamentation; a threnode. Sir T. Herbert.

Threpe (?), v. t. [See Threap.] To call; to term. [Obs.] "Luna silver we threpe." Chaucer.

Threp*sol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; nourishment + -logy.] (Med.) The doctrine of nutrition; a treatise on nutrition.

Thresh (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Threshed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Threshing.] Same as Thrash.

He would thresh, and thereto dike and delve.


Thresh"er (?), n. Same as Thrasher.

Thresh"-fold` (?), n. Threshold. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thresh"old (?), n. [OE. threswold, þreshwold, AS. þrescwald, þerscwald, þerscold, þrescold, fr. þrescan, þerscan, to thresh; akin to Icel. þreskjöde, þröskuldr, Sw. tröskel, Dan. tærskel. See Thrash.] 1. The plank, stone, or piece of timber, which lies under a door, especially of a dwelling house, church, temple, or the like; the doorsill; hence, entrance; gate; door.

2. Fig.: The place or point of entering or beginning, entrance; outset; as, the threshold of life.

Thresh"wold` (?), n. Threshold. [Obs.]

Threste (?), v. t. [imp. Threste; p. p. & Threst.] To thrust. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thret"teen` (?), a. Thirteen. [Obs. or Scot.]

Thret"ty (?), a. Thirty. [Obs. or Scot.] Burns.

Threw (?), imp. of Throw.

Thrib"ble (?), a. Triple; treble; threefold. [Prov. Eng. or Colloq.] Halliwell.

Thrice (?), adv. [OE. thries; thrie thrice (AS. þriga, þriwa) + - s, the adverbal suffix. See Three, and -wards.] 1. Three times. "Thrice in vain." Spenser.

Verily I say unto thee. That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.

Matt. xxvi. 34.

2. In a threefold manner or degree; repeatedly; very.

Thrice noble lord, let me entreat of you
To pardon me.


Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.


Thrice is often used, generally with an intensive force, to form compounds which are usually of obvious meaning; as, in thrice-blessed, thrice-favored, thrice-hallowed, thrice-happy, thrice-told, and the like.

Thrice"cock` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The missel thrush. [Prov. Eng.]

Thrid (?), a. Third. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thrid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thridded; p. pr. & vb. n. Thridding.] [A variant of thread.] 1. To pass through in the manner of a thread or a needle; to make or find a course through; to thread.

Some thrid the mazy ringlets of her hair.


And now he thrids the bramble bush.

J. R. Drake.

I began
To thrid the musky-circled mazes.


2. To make or effect (a way or course) through something; as, to thrid one's way through a wood.

Thrid, n. Thread; continuous line. [Archaic]

I resume the thrid of my discourse.


Thri"fal`low (?), v. t. See Thryfallow, and Trifallow. [R.] Tusser.

Thrift (?), n. [Icel. þrift. See Thrive.] 1. A thriving state; good husbandry; economical management in regard to property; frugality.

The rest, . . . willing to fall to thrift, prove very good husbands.


2. Success and advance in the acquisition of property; increase of worldly goods; gain; prosperity. "Your thrift is gone full clean." Chaucer.

I have a mind presages me such thrift.


3. Vigorous growth, as of a plant.

4. (Bot.) One of several species of flowering plants of the genera Statice and Armeria.

Common thrift (Bot.), Armeria vulgaris; — also called sea pink.

Syn. — Frugality; economy; prosperity; gain; profit.

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Thrift"i*ly (?), adv. 1. In a thrifty manner.

2. Carefully; properly; becomingly. [Obs.]

A young clerk . . . in Latin thriftily them gret [greeted].


Thrift"i*ness, n. The quality or state of being thrifty; thrift.

Thrift"less, a. Without thrift; not prudent or prosperous in money affairs. — Thrift"less*ly, adv. — Thrift"less*ness, n.

Thrift"y (?), a. [Compar. Thriftier (?); superl. Thriftiest.] 1. Given to, or evincing, thrift; characterized by economy and good menegement of property; sparing; frugal.

Her chaffer was so thrifty and so new.


I am glad he hath so much youth and vigor left, of which he hath not been thrifty.


2. Thriving by industry and frugality; prosperous in the acquisition of worldly goods; increasing in wealth; as, a thrifty farmer or mechanic.

3. Growing rapidly or vigorously; thriving; as, a thrifty plant or colt.

4. Secured by thrift; well husbanded. [R.]

I have five hundred crowns,
The thrifty hire I saved under your father.


5. Well appearing; looking or being in good condition; becoming. [Obs.]

I sit at home, I have no thrifty cloth.


Syn. — Frugal; sparing; economical; saving; careful.

Thrill (thrl), n. [See Trill.] A warbling; a trill.

Thrill, n. [AS. þyrel an aperture. See Thrill, v. t.] A breathing place or hole; a nostril, as of a bird.

Thrill, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thrilled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thrilling.] [OE. thrillen, þirlen, þurlen, to pierce; all probably fr. AS. þyrlian, þyrelian, Fr. þyrel pierced; as a noun, a hole, fr. þurh through; probably akin to D. drillen to drill, to bore. √53. See Through, and cf. Drill to bore, Nostril, Trill to trickle.] 1. To perforate by a pointed instrument; to bore; to transfix; to drill. [Obs.]

He pierced through his chafed chest
With thrilling point of deadly iron brand.


2. Hence, to affect, as if by something that pierces or pricks; to cause to have a shivering, throbbing, tingling, or exquisite sensation; to pierce; to penetrate.

To bathe in flery floods, or to reside
In thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice.


Vivid and picturesque turns of expression which thrill the &?;eader with sudden delight.

M. Arnold.

The cruel word her tender heart so thrilled,
That sudden cold did run through every vein.


3. To hurl; to throw; to cast. [Obs.]

I'll thrill my javelin.


Thrill, v. i. 1. To pierce, as something sharp; to penetrate; especially, to cause a tingling sensation that runs through the system with a slight shivering; as, a sharp sound thrills through the whole frame.

I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins.


2. To feel a sharp, shivering, tingling, or exquisite sensation, running through the body.

To seek sweet safety out
In vaults and prisons, and to thrill and shake.


Thrill, n. 1. A drill. See 3d Drill, 1.

2. A sensation as of being thrilled; a tremulous excitement; as, a thrill of horror; a thrill of joy. Burns.

Thrill"ant (?), a. Piercing; sharp; thrilling. [Obs.] "His thrillant spear." Spenser.

Thrill"ing, a. Causing a thrill; causing tremulous excitement; deeply moving; as, a thrilling romance. — Thrill"ing*ly, adv. — Thrill"ing*ness, n.

Thring (?), v. t. & i. [imp. Throng (?).] [AS. þringan. See Throng.] To press, crowd, or throng. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Thrips (?), n. [L., a woodworm, Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous small species of Thysanoptera, especially those which attack useful plants, as the grain thrips (Thrips cerealium).

The term is also popularly applied to various other small injurious insects.

Thrist (?), n. Thrist. [Obs.] Spenser.

Thrit"tene` (?), a. Thirteen. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thrive (thrv), v. i. [imp. Throve (thrv) or Thrived (thrvd); p. p. Thrived or Thriven (thrv"'n); p. pr. & vb. n. Thriving.] [OE. þriven, Icel. þrfask; probably originally, to grasp for one's self, from þrfa to grasp; akin to Dan. trives to thrive, Sw. trifvas. Cf. Thrift.] 1. To prosper by industry, economy, and good management of property; to increase in goods and estate; as, a farmer thrives by good husbandry.

Diligence and humility is the way to thrive in the riches of the understanding, as well as in gold.

I. Watts.

2. To prosper in any business; to have increase or success. "They by vices thrive." Sandys.

O son, why sit we here, each other viewing
Idly, while Satan, our great author, thrives?


And so she throve and prospered.


3. To increase in bulk or stature; to grow vigorously or luxuriantly, as a plant; to flourish; as, young cattle thrive in rich pastures; trees thrive in a good soil.

Thriv"en (?), p. p. of Thrive.

Thriv"er (?), n. One who thrives, or prospers.

Thriv"ing*ly, adv. In a thriving manner.

Thriv"ing*ness, n. The quality or condition of one who thrives; prosperity; growth; increase.

Thro' (?). A contraction of Through.

Throat (thrt), n. [OE. throte, AS. þrote, þrotu; akin to OHG. drozza, G. drossel; cf. OFries. & D. stort. Cf. Throttle.] 1. (Anat.) (a) The part of the neck in front of, or ventral to, the vertebral column. (b) Hence, the passage through it to the stomach and lungs; the pharynx; — sometimes restricted to the fauces.

I can vent clamor from my throat.


2. A contracted portion of a vessel, or of a passage way; as, the throat of a pitcher or vase.

3. (Arch.) The part of a chimney between the gathering, or portion of the funnel which contracts in ascending, and the flue. Gwilt.

4. (Naut.) (a) The upper fore corner of a boom-and-gaff sail, or of a staysail. (b) That end of a gaff which is next the mast. (c) The angle where the arm of an anchor is joined to the shank. Totten.

5. (Shipbuilding) The inside of a timber knee.

6. (Bot.) The orifice of a tubular organ; the outer end of the tube of a monopetalous corolla; the faux, or fauces.

Throat brails (Naut.), brails attached to the gaff close to the mast. — Throat halyards (Naut.), halyards that raise the throat of the gaff. — Throat pipe (Anat.), the windpipe, or trachea. — To give one the lie in his throat, to accuse one pointedly of lying abominably. — To lie in one's throat, to lie flatly or abominably.

Throat, v. t. 1. To utter in the throat; to mutter; as, to throat threats. [Obs.] Chapman.

2. To mow, as beans, in a direction against their bending. [Prov. Eng.]

Throat"band` (?), n. Same as Throatlatch.

Throat"boll` (?), n. [Throat + boll a ball.] The Adam's apple in the neck. [Obs. or R.]

By the throatboll he caught Aleyn.


Throat"ing, n. (Arch.) A drip, or drip molding.

Throat"latch` (?), n. A strap of a bridle, halter, or the like, passing under a horse's throat.

Throat"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Campanula Trachelium) formerly considered a remedy for sore throats because of its throat-shaped corolla.

Throat"y (?), a. Guttural; hoarse; having a guttural voice. "Hard, throaty words." Howell.

Throb (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Throbbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Throbbing.] [OE. þrobben; of uncertain origin; cf. Russ. trepete a trembling, and E. trepidation.] To beat, or pulsate, with more than usual force or rapidity; to beat in consequence of agitation; to palpitate; — said of the heart, pulse, etc.

My heart
Throbs to know one thing.


Here may his head lie on my throbbing breast.


Throb, n. A beat, or strong pulsation, as of the heart and arteries; a violent beating; a papitation:

The impatient throbs and longings of a soul
That pants and reaches after distant good.


Throd"den (?), v. i. [Prov. E. throdden, throddle, fat, thriving; cf. Icel. throask to grow.] To grow; to thrive. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.

Throe (?), n. [OE. þrowe, þrawe, AS. þreá a threatening, oppression, suffering, perhaps influenced by Icel. þr a throe, a pang, a longing; cf. AS. þreowian to suffer.] 1. Extreme pain; violent pang; anguish; agony; especially, one of the pangs of travail in childbirth, or purturition.

Prodogious motion felt, and rueful throes.


2. A tool for splitting wood into shingles; a frow.

Throe, v. i. To struggle in extreme pain; to be in agony; to agonize.

Throe, v. t. To put in agony. [R.] Shak.

||Throm*bo"sis (?), n. [NL. See Thrombus.] (Med.) The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot formed at the site of obstruction; — distinguished from embolism, which is produced by a clot or foreign body brought from a distance. — Throm*bot"ic (#), a.

||Throm"bus (?), n.; pl. Thrombi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a lump, a clot of blood.] (Med.) (a) A clot of blood formed of a passage of a vessel and remaining at the site of coagulation. (b) A tumor produced by the escape of blood into the subcutaneous cellular tissue.

Throne (?), n. [OE. trone, F. trône, L. thronus, Gr. &?;; cf. &?; a bench, &?; a footstool, &?; to set one's self, to sit, Skr. dharaa supporting, dh to hold fast, carry, and E. firm, a.] 1. A chair of state, commonly a royal seat, but sometimes the seat of a prince, bishop, or other high dignitary.

The noble king is set up in his throne.


High on a throne of royal state.


2. Hence, sovereign power and dignity; also, the one who occupies a throne, or is invested with sovereign authority; an exalted or dignified personage.

Only in the throne will I be greater than thou.

Gen. xli. 40.

To mold a mighty state's decrees,
And shape the whisper of the throne.


3. pl. A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy; — a meaning given by the schoolmen. Milton.

Great Sire! whom thrones celestial ceaseless sing.


Throne, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Throned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Throning.] 1. To place on a royal seat; to enthrone. Shak.

2. To place in an elevated position; to give sovereignty or dominion to; to exalt.

True image of the Father, whether throned
In the bosom of bliss, and light of light.


Throne (?), v. i. To be in, or sit upon, a throne; to be placed as if upon a throne. Shak.

Throne"less, a. Having no throne.

Throng (?), n. [OE. þrong, þrang, AS. geþrang, fr. þringan to crowd, to press; akin to OS. thringan, D. & G. dringen, OHG. dringan, Icel. þryngva, þröngva, Goth. þriehan, D. & G. drang a throng, press, Icel. þröng a throng, Lith. trenkti to jolt, tranksmas a tumult. Cf. Thring.] 1. A multitude of persons or of living beings pressing or pressed into a close body or assemblage; a crowd.

2. A great multitude; as, the heavenly throng.

Syn. — Throng, Multitude, Crowd. Any great number of persons form a multitude; a throng is a large number of persons who are gathered or are moving together in a collective body; a crowd is composed of a large or small number of persons who press together so as to bring their bodies into immediate or inconvenient contact. A dispersed multitude; the throngs in the streets of a city; the crowd at a fair or a street fight. But these distinctions are not carefully observed.

So, with this bold opposer rushes on
This many-headed monster, multitude.


Not to know me argues yourselves unknown,
The lowest of your throng.


I come from empty noise, and tasteless pomp,
From crowds that hide a monarch from himself.


Throng, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Thronged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thronging.] To crowd together; to press together into a close body, as a multitude of persons; to gather or move in multitudes.

I have seen the dumb men throng to see him.


Throng, v. t. 1. To crowd, or press, as persons; to oppress or annoy with a crowd of living beings.

Much people followed him, and thronged him.

Mark v. 24.

2. To crowd into; to fill closely by crowding or pressing into, as a hall or a street. Shak.

Throng, a. Thronged; crowded; also, much occupied; busy. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Bp. Sanderson.

To the intent the sick . . . should not lie too throng.

Robynson (More's Utopia).

Throng"ly, adv. In throngs or crowds. [Obs.]

Throp (?), n. A thorp. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Throp"ple (?), n. [Cf. Thrapple, and see Throttle.] The windpipe. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Throp"ple, v. t. To throttle. [Prov. Eng.]

Thros"tle (?), n. [OE. throsel, AS. þrostle, þrosle; akin to MHG. trostel, G. drossel, Icel. þröstr, Sw. trast, Lith. strazdas, L. turdus. √238. Cf. Thrush the bird.] 1. (Zoöl.) The song thrush. See under Song.

2. A machine for spinning wool, cotton, etc., from the rove, consisting of a set of drawing rollers with bobbins and flyers, and differing from the mule in having the twisting apparatus stationary and the processes continuous; — so called because it makes a singing noise.

Throstle cock, the missel thrush. [Prov. Eng.]

Thros"tling (?), n. [Cf. Throttle.] A disease of bovine cattle, consisting of a swelling under the throat, which, unless checked, causes strangulation.

Throt"tle (?), n. [Dim. of throat. See Throat.] 1. The windpipe, or trachea; the weasand. Sir W. Scott.

2. (Steam Engine) The throttle valve.

Throttle lever (Steam Engine), the hand lever by which a throttle valve is moved, especially in a locomotive. — Throttle valve (Steam Engine), a valve moved by hand or by a governor for regulating the supply of steam to the steam chest. In one form it consists of a disk turning on a transverse axis.

Throt"tle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Throttled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Throttling (?).] 1. To compress the throat of; to choke; to strangle.

Grant him this, and the Parliament hath no more freedom than if it sat in his noose, which, when he pleases to draw together with one twitch of his negative, shall throttle a whole nation, to the wish of Caligula, in one neck.


2. To utter with breaks and interruption, in the manner of a person half suffocated. [R.]

Throttle their practiced accent in their fears.


3. To shut off, or reduce flow of, as steam to an engine.

Throt"tle, v. i. 1. To have the throat obstructed so as to be in danger of suffocation; to choke; to suffocate.

2. To breathe hard, as when nearly suffocated.

Throt"tler (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, throttles, or chokes.

2. (Zoöl.) See Flasher, 3 (b). [Prov. Eng.]

Through (?), prep. [OE. thurgh, þurh, þuruh, þoruh, AS. þurh; akin to OS. thurh, thuru, OFries. thruch, D. door, OHG. durh, duruh, G. durch, Goth. þaírh; cf. Ir. tri, tre, W. trwy. √53. Cf. Nostril, Thorough, Thrill.] 1. From end to end of, or from side to side of; from one surface or limit of, to the opposite; into and out of at the opposite, or at another, point; as, to bore through a piece of timber, or through a board; a ball passes through the side of a ship.

2. Between the sides or walls of; within; as, to pass through a door; to go through an avenue.

Through the gate of ivory he dismissed
His valiant offspring.


3. By means of; by the agency of.

Through these hands this science has passed with great applause.

Sir W. Temple.

Material things are presented only through their senses.


4. Over the whole surface or extent of; as, to ride through the country; to look through an account.

5. Among or in the midst of; — used to denote passage; as, a fish swims through the water; the light glimmers through a thicket.

6. From the beginning to the end of; to the end or conclusion of; as, through life; through the year.

Through, adv. 1. From one end or side to the other; as, to pierce a thing through.

2. From beginning to end; as, to read a letter through.

3. To the end; to a conclusion; to the ultimate purpose; as, to carry a project through.

Through was formerly used to form compound adjectives where we now use thorough; as, through-bred; through- lighted; through-placed, etc.

To drop through, to fall through; to come to naught; to fail. — To fall through. See under Fall, v. i.

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Through (?), a. Going or extending through; going, extending, or serving from the beginning to the end; thorough; complete; as, a through line; a through ticket; a through train. Also, admitting of passage through; as, a through bridge.

Through bolt, a bolt which passes through all the thickness or layers of that which it fastens, or in which it is fixed. — Through bridge, a bridge in which the floor is supported by the lower chords of the tissues instead of the upper, so that travel is between the trusses and not over them. Cf. Deck bridge, under Deck. — Through cold, a deep- seated cold. [Obs.] Holland.Through stone, a flat gravestone. [Scot.] [Written also through stane.] Sir W. Scott.Through ticket, a ticket for the whole journey. — Through train, a train which goes the whole length of a railway, or of a long route.

Through"ly, adv. Thoroughly. [Obs.] Bacon.

Wash me throughly from mine iniquity.

Ps. li. 2.

To dare in fields is valor; but how few
Dare to be throughly valiant to be true?


Through*out" (?), prep. Quite through; from one extremity to the other of; also, every part of; as, to search throughout the house.

Nor to their idle orbs doth sight appear
Of sun, or moon, or star, throughout the year.


Through*out", adv. In every part; as, the cloth was of a piece throughout.

Throve (?), imp. of Thrive.

Throw (thr), n. [See Throe.] Pain; especially, pain of travail; throe. [Obs.] Spenser. Dryden.

Throw, n. [AS. þrh, þrg.] Time; while; space of time; moment; trice. [Obs.] Shak.

I will with Thomas speak a little throw.


Throw, v. t. [imp. Threw (thr); p. p. Thrown (thrn); p. pr. & vb. n. Throwing.] [OE. þrowen, þrawen, to throw, to twist, AS. þrwan to twist, to whirl; akin to D. draaijen, G. drehen, OHG. drjan, L. terebra an auger, gimlet, Gr. &?; to bore, to turn, &?; to pierce, &?; a hole. Cf. Thread, Trite, Turn, v. t.] 1. To fling, cast, or hurl with a certain whirling motion of the arm, to throw a ball; — distinguished from to toss, or to bowl.

2. To fling or cast in any manner; to drive to a distance from the hand or from an engine; to propel; to send; as, to throw stones or dust with the hand; a cannon throws a ball; a fire engine throws a stream of water to extinguish flames.

3. To drive by violence; as, a vessel or sailors may be thrown upon a rock.

4. (Mil.) To cause to take a strategic position; as, he threw a detachment of his army across the river.

5. To overturn; to prostrate in wrestling; as, a man throws his antagonist.

6. To cast, as dice; to venture at dice.

Set less than thou throwest.


7. To put on hastily; to spread carelessly.

O'er his fair limbs a flowery vest he threw.


8. To divest or strip one's self of; to put off.

There the snake throws her enameled skin.


9. (Pottery) To form or shape roughly on a throwing engine, or potter's wheel, as earthen vessels.

10. To give forcible utterance to; to cast; to vent.

I have thrown
A brave defiance in King Henry's teeth.


11. To bring forth; to produce, as young; to bear; — said especially of rabbits.

12. To twist two or more filaments of, as silk, so as to form one thread; to twist together, as singles, in a direction contrary to the twist of the singles themselves; — sometimes applied to the whole class of operations by which silk is prepared for the weaver. Tomlinson.

To throw away. (a) To lose by neglect or folly; to spend in vain; to bestow without a compensation; as, to throw away time; to throw away money. (b) To reject; as, to throw away a good book, or a good offer. — To throw back. (a) To retort; to cast back, as a reply. (b) To reject; to refuse. (c) To reflect, as light. — To throw by, to lay aside; to discard; to neglect as useless; as, to throw by a garment. — To throw down, to subvert; to overthrow; to destroy; as, to throw down a fence or wall. — To throw in. (a) To inject, as a fluid. (b) To put in; to deposit with others; to contribute; as, to throw in a few dollars to help make up a fund; to throw in an occasional comment. (c) To add without enumeration or valuation, as something extra to clinch a bargain. — To throw off. (a) To expel; to free one's self from; as, to throw off a disease. (b) To reject; to discard; to abandon; as, to throw off all sense of shame; to throw off a dependent. (c) To make a start in a hunt or race. [Eng.] — To throw on, to cast on; to load. — To throw one's self down, to lie down neglectively or suddenly. — To throw one's self on or upon. (a) To fall upon. (b) To resign one's self to the favor, clemency, or sustain power of (another); to repose upon. — To throw out. (a) To cast out; to reject or discard; to expel. "The other two, whom they had thrown out, they were content should enjoy their exile." Swift. "The bill was thrown out." Swift. (b) To utter; to give utterance to; to speak; as, to throw out insinuation or observation. "She throws out thrilling shrieks." Spenser. (c) To distance; to leave behind. Addison. (d) To cause to project; as, to throw out a pier or an abutment. (e) To give forth; to emit; as, an electric lamp throws out a brilliant light. (f) To put out; to confuse; as, a sudden question often throws out an orator. — To throw over, to abandon the cause of; to desert; to discard; as, to throw over a friend in difficulties. — To throw up. (a) To resign; to give up; to demit; as, to throw up a commission. "Experienced gamesters throw up their cards when they know that the game is in the enemy's hand." Addison. (b) To reject from the stomach; to vomit. (c) To construct hastily; as, to throw up a breastwork of earth.

Throw (?), v. i. To perform the act of throwing or casting; to cast; specifically, to cast dice.

To throw about, to cast about; to try expedients. [R.]

Throw, n. 1. The act of hurling or flinging; a driving or propelling from the hand or an engine; a cast.

He heaved a stone, and, rising to the throw,
He sent it in a whirlwind at the foe.


2. A stroke; a blow. [Obs.]

Nor shield defend the thunder of his throws.


3. The distance which a missile is, or may be, thrown; as, a stone's throw.

4. A cast of dice; the manner in which dice fall when cast; as, a good throw.

5. An effort; a violent sally. [Obs.]

Your youth admires
The throws and swellings of a Roman soul.


6. (Mach.) The extreme movement given to a sliding or vibrating reciprocating piece by a cam, crank, eccentric, or the like; travel; stroke; as, the throw of a slide valve. Also, frequently, the length of the radius of a crank, or the eccentricity of an eccentric; as, the throw of the crank of a steam engine is equal to half the stroke of the piston.

7. (Pottery) A potter's wheel or table; a jigger. See 2d Jigger, 2 (a).

8. A turner's lathe; a throwe. [Prov. Eng.]

9. (Mining) The amount of vertical displacement produced by a fault; — according to the direction it is designated as an upthrow, or a downthrow.

Throw"-crook` (?), n. (Agric.) An instrument used for twisting ropes out of straw.

Throwe (?), n. A turning lathe. [Prov. Eng.]

Throw"er (?), n. One who throws. Specifically: (a) One who throws or twists silk; a throwster. (b) One who shapes vessels on a throwing engine.

Throw"ing, a. & n. from Throw, v.

Throwing engine, Throwing mill, Throwing table, or Throwing wheel (Pottery), a machine on which earthenware is first rudely shaped by the hand of the potter from a mass of clay revolving rapidly on a disk or table carried by a vertical spindle; a potter's wheel.

Thrown (?), a. & p. p. from Throw, v.

Thrown silk, silk thread consisting of two or more singles twisted together like a rope, in a direction contrary to that in which the singles of which it is composed are twisted. M'Culloch.Thrown singles, silk thread or cord made by three processes of twisting, first into singles, two or more of which are twisted together making dumb singles, and several of these twisted together to make thrown singles.

Throw"-off` (?), n. A start in a hunt or a race. [Eng.]

Throw"ster (?), n. [Throw + - ster.] One who throws or twists silk; a thrower.

Thru (?), prep., adv. & a. Through. [Ref. spelling.]

Thrum (?), n. [OE. thrum, throm; akin to OD. drom, D. dreum, G. trumm, lump, end, fragment, OHG. drum end, Icel. &?;römr edge, brim, and L. terminus a limit, term. Cf. Term.] [Written also thrumb.] 1. One of the ends of weaver's threads; hence, any soft, short threads or tufts resembling these.

2. Any coarse yarn; an unraveled strand of rope.

3. (Bot.) A threadlike part of a flower; a stamen.

4. (Mining) A shove out of place; a small displacement or fault along a seam.

5. (Naut.) A mat made of canvas and tufts of yarn.

Thrum cap, a knitted cap. Halliwell. - - Thrum hat, a hat made of coarse woolen cloth. Minsheu.

Thrum, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thrummed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thrumming.] 1. To furnish with thrums; to insert tufts in; to fringe.

Are we born to thrum caps or pick straw?


2. (Naut.) To insert short pieces of rope- yarn or spun yarn in; as, to thrum a piece of canvas, or a mat, thus making a rough or tufted surface. Totten.

Thrum, v. i. [CF. Icel. &?;ruma to rattle, to thunder, and E. drum.] 1. To play rudely or monotonously on a stringed instrument with the fingers; to strum.

2. Hence, to make a monotonous drumming noise; as, to thrum on a table.

Thrum, v. t. 1. To play, as a stringed instrument, in a rude or monotonous manner.

2. Hence, to drum on; to strike in a monotonous manner; to thrum the table.

Thrum"-eyed` (?), a. (Bot.) Having the anthers raised above the stigma, and visible at the throat of the corolla, as in long-stamened primroses; — the reverse of pin- eyed.

Thrum"my (?), a. Like thrums; made of, furnished with, or characterized by, thrums. Dampier.

On her head thrummy cap she had.


Thrum"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of amaranth (Amarantus caudatus). Dr. Prior.

Thru*out" (?). Throughout. [Ref. spelling.]

Thrush (?), n. [OE. þrusche, AS. þrysce; akin to OHG. drosca, droscea, droscela, and E. throstle. Cf. Throstle.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of singing birds belonging to Turdus and allied genera. They are noted for the sweetness of their songs.

Among the best-known European species are the song thrush or throstle (Turdus musicus), the missel thrush (see under Missel), the European redwing, and the blackbird. The most important American species are the wood thrush (Turdus mustelinus), Wilson's thrush (T. fuscescens), the hermit thrush (see under Hermit), Swainson's thrush (T. Aliciæ), and the migratory thrush, or American robin (see Robin).

2. (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of singing birds more or less resembling the true thrushes in appearance or habits; as the thunderbird and the American brown thrush (or thrasher). See Brown thrush.

Ant thrush. See Ant thrush, Breve, and Pitta. — Babbling thrush, any one of numerous species of Asiatic timaline birds; — called also babbler. — Fruit thrush, any species of bulbul. — Shrike thrush. See under Shrike. — Stone thrush, the missel thrush; — said to be so called from its marbled breast. — Thrush nightingale. See Nightingale, 2. - - Thrush tit, any one of several species of Asiatic singing birds of the genus Cochoa. They are beautifully colored birds allied to the tits, but resembling thrushes in size and habits. — Water thrush. (a) The European dipper. (b) An American warbler (Seiurus Noveboracensis).

Thrush (?), n. [Akin to Dan. tröske, Sw. trosk; cf. Dan. tör dry, Sw. torr, Icel. þurr, AS. þyrr, OE. thrust thrist, E. thrist.] 1. (Med.) An affection of the mouth, fauces, etc., common in newly born children, characterized by minute ulcers called aphthæ. See Aphthæ.

2. (Far.) An inflammatory and suppurative affection of the feet in certain animals. In the horse it is in the frog.

Thrush"el (?), n. The song thrush. [Prov. Eng.]

Thrush"er (?), n. The song thrush. [Prov. Eng.]

Thrust (?), n. & v. Thrist. [Obs.] Spenser.

Thrust, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thrust (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thrusting.] [OE. &?;rusten, &?;risten, &?;resten, Icel. &?;r&?;st&?; to thrust, press, force, compel; perhaps akin to E. threat.] 1. To push or drive with force; to drive, force, or impel; to shove; as, to thrust anything with the hand or foot, or with an instrument.

Into a dungeon thrust, to work with slaves.


2. To stab; to pierce; — usually with through.

To thrust away or from, to push away; to reject. — To thrust in, to push or drive in. — To thrust off, to push away. - - To thrust on, to impel; to urge. — To thrust one's self in or into, to obtrude upon, to intrude, as into a room; to enter (a place) where one is not invited or not welcome. — To thrust out, to drive out or away; to expel. — To thrust through, to pierce; to stab. "I am eight times thrust through the doublet." Shak.To thrust together, to compress.

Thrust, v. i. 1. To make a push; to attack with a pointed weapon; as, a fencer thrusts at his antagonist.

2. To enter by pushing; to squeeze in.

And thrust between my father and the god.


3. To push forward; to come with force; to press on; to intrude. "Young, old, thrust there in mighty concourse." Chapman.

To thrust to, to rush upon. [Obs.]

As doth an eager hound
Thrust to an hind within some covert glade.


Thrust, n. 1. A violent push or driving, as with a pointed weapon moved in the direction of its length, or with the hand or foot, or with any instrument; a stab; — a word much used as a term of fencing.

[Polites] Pyrrhus with his lance pursues,
And often reaches, and his thrusts renews.


2. An attack; an assault.

One thrust at your pure, pretended mechanism.

Dr. H. More.

3. (Mech.) The force or pressure of one part of a construction against other parts; especially (Arch.), a horizontal or diagonal outward pressure, as of an arch against its abutments, or of rafters against the wall which support them.

4. (Mining) The breaking down of the roof of a gallery under its superincumbent weight.

Thrust bearing (Screw Steamers), a bearing arranged to receive the thrust or endwise pressure of the screw shaft. — Thrust plane (Geol.), the surface along which dislocation has taken place in the case of a reversed fault.

Syn. — Push; shove; assault; attack. Thrust, Push, Shove. Push and shove usually imply the application of force by a body already in contact with the body to be impelled. Thrust, often, but not always, implies the impulse or application of force by a body which is in motion before it reaches the body to be impelled.

Thrust"er (?), n. One who thrusts or stabs.

Thrust"ing, n. 1. The act of pushing with force.

2. (Dairies) (a) The act of squeezing curd with the hand, to expel the whey. (b) pl. The white whey, or that which is last pressed out of the curd by the hand, and of which butter is sometimes made. [Written also thrutchthings.] [Prov. Eng.]

Thrusting screw, the screw of a screw press, as for pressing curd in making cheese. [R.]

Thrus"tle (?), n. (Zoöl.) The throstle, or song thrust. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

When he heard the thrustel sing.


Thryes (?), a. Thrice. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thry"fal`low (?), v. t. [Perhaps fr. thrice + fallow. Cf. Trifallow.] To plow for the third time in summer; to trifallow. [R.] [Written also thrifallow.] Tusser.

Thud (thd), n. [Cf. AS. þden a whirlwind, violent wind, or E. thump.] A dull sound without resonance, like that produced by striking with, or striking against, some comparatively soft substance; also, the stroke or blow producing such sound; as, the thrud of a cannon ball striking the earth.

At every new thud of the blast, a sob arose.


At intervals there came some tremendous thud on the side of the steamer.

C. Mackay.

Thug (?), n. [Hind. thag a deceiver, robber.] One of an association of robbers and murderers in India who practiced murder by stealthy approaches, and from religious motives. They have been nearly exterminated by the British government.

Thug*gee" (?), n. [Hind. &?;hag.] The practice of secret or stealthy murder by Thugs. "One of the suppressors of Thuggee." J. D. Hooker.

{ Thug"ger*y (?), Thug"gism (?), } n. Thuggee.

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||Thu"ja (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; an African tree with sweet-smelling wood.] (Bot.) A genus of evergreen trees, thickly branched, remarkable for the distichous arrangement of their branches, and having scalelike, closely imbricated, or compressed leaves. [Written also thuya.] See Thyine wood.

Thuja occidentalis is the Arbor vitæ of the Eastern and Northern United States. T. gigantea of North-waetern America is a very large tree, there called red cedar, and canoe cedar, and furnishes a useful timber.

||Thu"le (?), n. [L. Thule, Thyle, Gr. &?;, &?;.] The name given by ancient geographers to the northernmost part of the habitable world. According to some, this land was Norway, according to others, Iceland, or more probably Mainland, the largest of the Shetland islands; hence, the Latin phrase ultima Thule, farthest Thule.

Thu"li*a (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) Oxide of thulium.

Thu"li*um (?), n. [NL. See Thule.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of uncertain properties and identity, said to have been found in the mineral gadolinite.

Thumb (?), n. [OE. thombe, thoumbe, þume, AS. þma; akin to OFries. thma, D. duim, G. daumen, OHG. dmo, Icel. þumall, Dan. tommelfinger, Sw. tumme, and perhaps to L. tumere to swell. √56. Cf. Thimble, Tumid.] The short, thick first digit of the human hand, differing from the other fingers in having but two phalanges; the pollex. See Pollex.

Upon his thumb he had of gold a ring.


Thumb band, a twist of anything as thick as the thumb. Mortimer.Thumb blue, indigo in the form of small balls or lumps, used by washerwomen to blue linen, and the like. — Thumb latch, a door latch having a lever formed to be pressed by the thumb. — Thumb mark. (a) The mark left by the impression of a thumb, as on the leaves of a book. Longfellow. (b) The dark spot over each foot in finely bred black and tan terriers. — Thumb nut, a nut for a screw, having wings to grasp between the thumb and fingers in turning it; also, a nut with a knurled rim for the same perpose. — Thumb ring, a ring worn on the thumb. Shak.Thumb stall. (a) A kind of thimble or ferrule of iron, or leather, for protecting the thumb in making sails, and in other work. (b) (Mil.) A buckskin cushion worn on the thumb, and used to close the vent of a cannon while it is sponged, or loaded. — Under one's thumb, completely under one's power or influence; in a condition of subservience. [Colloq.]

Thumb, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thumbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thumbing (?).] 1. To handle awkwardly. Johnson.

2. To play with the thumbs, or with the thumbs and fingers; as, to thumb over a tune.

3. To soil or wear with the thumb or the fingers; to soil, or wear out, by frequent handling; also, to cover with the thumb; as, to thumb the touch-hole of a cannon.

He gravely informed the enemy that all his cards had been thumbed to pieces, and begged them to let him have a few more packs.


Thumb, v. i. To play with the thumb or thumbs; to play clumsily; to thrum.

Thumb"bird` (?), n. The goldcrest. [Prov. Eng.]

Thumbed (?), a. 1. Having thumbs.

2. Soiled by handling.

Thumb"kin (?), n. An instrument of torture for compressing the thumb; a thumbscrew.

Thumb"less, a. Without a thumb. Darwin.

Thumb"screw` (?), n. 1. A screw having a flat-sided or knurled head, so that it may be turned by the thumb and forefinger.

2. An old instrument of torture for compressing the thumb by a screw; a thumbkin.

Thum"mie (?), n. The chiff-chaff. [Prov. Eng.]

Thum"mim (?), n. pl. [Heb., pl. of thm perfection.] A mysterious part or decoration of the breastplate of the Jewish high priest. See the note under Urim.

Thump (?), n. [Probably of imitative origin; perhaps influenced by dump, v.t.] 1. The sound made by the sudden fall or blow of a heavy body, as of a hammer, or the like.

The distant forge's swinging thump profound.


With heavy thump, a lifeless lump,
They dropped down, one by one.


2. A blow or knock, as with something blunt or heavy; a heavy fall.

The watchman gave so great a thump at my door, that I awaked at the knock.


Thump, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thumped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thumping.] To strike or beat with something thick or heavy, or so as to cause a dull sound.

These bastard Bretons; whom our hathers
Have in their own land beaten, bobbed, and thumped.


Thump, v. i. To give a thump or thumps; to strike or fall with a heavy blow; to pound.

A watchman at midnight thumps with his pole.


Thump"er (?), n. One who, or that which, thumps.

Thump"ing, a. Heavy; large. [Colloq.]

Thun"der (?), n. [OE. þunder, þonder, þoner, AS. þunor; akin to þunian to stretch, to thunder, D. donder thunder, G. donner, OHG. donar, Icel. þrr Thor, L. tonare to thunder, tonitrus thunder, Gr. to`nos a stretching, straining, Skr. tan to stretch. √52. See Thin, and cf. Astonish, Detonate, Intone, Thursday, Tone.] 1. The sound which follows a flash of lightning; the report of a discharge of atmospheric electricity.

2. The discharge of electricity; a thunderbolt. [Obs.]

The revenging gods
'Gainst parricides did all their thunders bend.


3. Any loud noise; as, the thunder of cannon.

4. An alarming or statrling threat or denunciation.

The thunders of the Vatican could no longer strike into the heart of princes.


Thunder pumper. (Zoöl.) (a) The croaker (Haploidontus grunniens). (b) The American bittern or stake-driver. — Thunder rod, a lightning rod. [R.] — Thunder snake. (Zoöl.) (a) The chicken, or milk, snake. (b) A small reddish ground snake (Carphophis, or Celuta, amœna) native to the Eastern United States; — called also worm snake. — Thunder tube, a fulgurite. See Fulgurite.

Thun"der (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Thundered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thundering.] [AS. þunrian. See Thunder, n.] 1. To produce thunder; to sound, rattle, or roar, as a discharge of atmospheric electricity; — often used impersonally; as, it thundered continuously.

Canst thou thunder with a voice like him?

Job xl. 9.

2. Fig.: To make a loud noise; esp. a heavy sound, of some continuance.

His dreadful voice no more
Would thunder in my ears.


3. To utter violent denunciation.

Thun"der, v. t. To emit with noise and terror; to utter vehemently; to publish, as a threat or denunciation.

Oracles severe
Were daily thundered in our general's ear.


An archdeacon, as being a prelate, may thunder out an ecclesiastical censure.


Thun"der*bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) An Australian insectivorous singing bird (Pachycephala gutturalis). The male is conspicuously marked with black and yellow, and has a black crescent on the breast. Called also white-throated thickhead, orange-breasted thrust, black-crowned thrush, guttural thrush, and black-breasted flycatcher.

Thun"der*bolt` (?), n. 1. A shaft of lightning; a brilliant stream of electricity passing from one part of the heavens to another, or from the clouds to the earth.

2. Something resembling lightning in suddenness and effectiveness.

The Scipios' worth, those thunderbolts of war.


3. Vehement threatening or censure; especially, ecclesiastical denunciation; fulmination.

He severely threatens such with the thunderbolt of excommunication.


4. (Paleon.) A belemnite, or thunderstone.

Thunderbolt beetle (Zoöl.), a long- horned beetle (Arhopalus fulminans) whose larva bores in the trunk of oak and chestnut trees. It is brownish and bluish-black, with W-shaped whitish or silvery markings on the elytra.

Thun"der*burst` (?), n. A burst of thunder.

Thun"der*clap` (?), n. A sharp burst of thunder; a sudden report of a discharge of atmospheric electricity. "Thunderclaps that make them quake." Spenser.

When suddenly the thunderclap was heard.


Thun"der*cloud` (?), n. A cloud charged with electricity, and producing lightning and thunder.

Thun"der*er (?), n. One who thunders; — used especially as a translation of L. tonans, an epithet applied by the Romans to several of their gods, esp. to Jupiter.

That dreadful oath which binds the Thunderer.


Thun"der*fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large European loach (Misgurnus fossilis).

Thun"der*head` (?), n. A rounded mass of cloud, with shining white edges; a cumulus, — often appearing before a thunderstorm.

Thun"der*ing, a. 1. Emitting thunder.

Roll the thundering chariot o'er the ground.

J. Trumbull.

2. Very great; — often adverbially. [Slang]

— Thun"der*ing*ly, adv.

Thun"der*ing, n. Thunder. Rev. iv. 5.

Thun"der*less, a. Without thunder or noise.

Thun"der*ous (?), a. [Written also thundrous.] 1. Producing thunder. [R.]

How he before the thunderous throne doth lie.


2. Making a noise like thunder; sounding loud and deep; sonorous.

— Thun"der*ous*ly, adv.

Thun"der*proof` (?), a. Secure against the effects of thunder or lightning.

Thun"der*show`er (?), n. A shower accompanied with lightning and thunder.

Thun"der*stone` (?), n. 1. A thunderbolt, — formerly believed to be a stone.

Fear no more the lightning flash,
Nor the all-dreaded thunderstone.


2. (Paleon.) A belemnite. See Belemnite.

Thun"der*storm` (?), n. A storm accompanied with lightning and thunder.

Thun"der*strike` (?), v. t. [imp. Thunderstruck (?); p. p. Thunderstruck, -strucken (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Thunderstriking.] 1. To strike, blast, or injure by, or as by, lightning. [R.] Sir P. Sidney.

2. To astonish, or strike dumb, as with something terrible; — rarely used except in the past participle.

drove before him, thunderstruck.


Thun"der*worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small, footless, burrowing, snakelike lizard (Rhineura Floridana) allied to Amphisbæna, native of Florida; — so called because it leaves its burrows after a thundershower.

Thun"der*y (?), a. Accompanied with thunder; thunderous. [R.] "Thundery weather." Pennant.

Thun"drous (?), a. Thunderous; sonorous. "Scraps of thunderous epic." Tennyson.

Thun"ny (?), n. (Zoöl.) The tunny. [R.]

Thurgh (?), prep. Through. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Thurgh"fare` (?), n. Thoroughfare. [Obs.]

This world is but a thurghfare full of woe.


Thu"ri*ble (?), n. [L. thuribulum, turibulum, from thus, thuris, or better tus, turis, frankincense, fr. Gr. &?; a sacrifice, an offering, from &?; to sacrifice.] (R. C. Ch.) A censer of metal, for burning incense, having various forms, held in the hand or suspended by chains; — used especially at mass, vespers, and other solemn services. Fairholt.

Thu*rif"er*ous (?), a. [L. thurifer, turifer; thus frankincense + -ferre to bear.] Producing or bearing frankincense.

Thu`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. thus incense + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See -fy.] The act of fuming with incense, or the act of burning incense.

Thu*rin"gi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Thuringia, a country in Germany, or its people. — n. A native, or inhabitant of Thuringia.

Thu*rin"gite (?), n. [From Thuringia, where it is found.] (Min.) A mineral occurring as an aggregation of minute scales having an olive-green color and pearly luster. It is a hydrous silicate of aluminia and iron.

Thurl (?), n. [AS. þyrel a hole. √53. See Thirl, Thrill.] 1. A hole; an aperture. [Obs.]

2. (Mining) (a) A short communication between adits in a mine. (b) A long adit in a coalpit.

Thurl, v. t. [See Thrill.] 1. To cut through; to pierce. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

2. (Mining) To cut through, as a partition between one working and another.

Thurl"ing, n. (Mining) Same as Thurl, n., 2 (a).

Thur"rok (?), n. [AS. þurruc a boat.] The hold of a ship; a sink. [Obs.]

Small drops of water that enter through a little crevice into the thurrok and into the bottom of a ship.


Thurs"day (?), n. [OE. þursdei, þorsday, from the Scand. name Thor + E. day. Icel. þrr Thor, the god of thunder, is akin to AS. þunor thunder; D. Donderdag Thursday, G. Donnerstag, Icel. þrsdagr, Sw. & Dan. Torsdag. √52. See Thor, Thunder, and Day.] The fifth day of the week, following Wednesday and preceding Friday.

Holy Thursday. See under Holy.

Thurst (?), n. (Coal Mining) The ruins of the fallen roof resulting from the removal of the pillars and stalls. Raymond.

||Thus (?), n. [L. thus, better tus, frankincense. See Thurible.] The commoner kind of frankincense, or that obtained from the Norway spruce, the long-leaved pine, and other conifers.

Thus (us), adv. [OE. thus, AS. ðus; akin to OFries. & OS. thus, D. dus, and E. that; cf. OHG. sus. See That.] 1. In this or that manner; on this wise.

Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.

Gen. vi. 22.

Thus God the heaven created, thus the earth.


2. To this degree or extent; so far; so; as, thus wise; thus peaceble; thus bold. Shak.

Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds.


Thus"sock (?), n. See Tussock. [Obs.]

Thu"ya (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Thuja.

Thu"yin (?), n. (Chem.) A substance extracted from trees of the genus Thuja, or Thuya, and probably identical with quercitrin. [Written also thujin.]

Thwack (thwk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thwacked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thwacking.] [Cf. OE. thakken to stroke, AS. þaccian, E. whack.] 1. To strike with something flat or heavy; to bang, or thrash: to thump. "A distant thwacking sound." W. Irving.

2. To fill to overflow. [Obs.] Stanyhurst.

Thwack, n. A heavy blow with something flat or heavy; a thump.

With many a stiff thwack, many a bang,
Hard crab tree and old iron rang.


Thwaite (?), n. (Zoöl.) The twaite.

Thwaite, n. [CF. Icel. þveit a piece of land, fr. þvta to cut. See Thwite, and cf. Doit, and Twaite land cleared of woods.] Forest land cleared, and converted to tillage; an assart. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Thwaite occurs in composition as the last element in many names of places in the north of England; as, in Rosthwaite, Stonethwaite.

Thwart (?), a. [OE. þwart, þwert, a. and adv., Icel. þvert, neut. of þverr athwart, transverse, across; akin to AS. þweorh perverse, transverse, cross, D. dwars, OHG. dwerah, twerh, G. zwerch, quer, Dan. & Sw. tver athwart, transverse, Sw. tvär cross, unfriendly, Goth. þwaírhs angry. Cf. Queer.] 1. Situated or placed across something else; transverse; oblique.

Moved contrary with thwart obliquities.


2. Fig.: Perverse; crossgrained. [Obs.] Shak.

Thwart, adv. [See Thwart, a.] Thwartly; obliquely; transversely; athwart. [Obs.] Milton.

Thwart, prep. Across; athwart. Spenser.

Thwart ships. See Athwart ships, under Athwart.

Thwart, n. (Naut.) A seat in an open boat reaching from one side to the other, or athwart the boat.

Thwart, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thwarted; p. pr. & vb. n. Thwarting.] 1. To move across or counter to; to cross; as, an arrow thwarts the air. [Obs.]

Swift as a shooting star
In autumn thwarts the night.


2. To cross, as a purpose; to oppose; to run counter to; to contravene; hence, to frustrate or defeat.

If crooked fortune had not thwarted me.


The proposals of the one never thwarted the inclinations of the other.


Thwart, v. i. 1. To move or go in an oblique or crosswise manner. [R.]

2. Hence, to be in opposition; to clash. [R.]

Any proposition . . . that shall at all thwart with internal oracles.


Thwart"er (?), n. (Far.) A disease in sheep, indicated by shaking, trembling, or convulsive motions.

Thwart"ing*ly, adv. In a thwarting or obstructing manner; so as to thwart.

Thwart"ly, adv. Transversely; obliquely.

Thwart"ness, n. The quality or state of being thwart; obliquity; perverseness.

<! p. 1506 !>

Thwite (?), v. t. [AS. þwtan. See Whittle, and cf. Thwaite a piece of land.] To cut or clip with a knife; to whittle. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Chaucer.

Thwit"tle (?), v. t. [See Thwite, and Whittle.] To cut or whittle. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Palsgrave.

Thwit"tle, n. A small knife; a whittle. [Written also thwitel.] [Obs.] "A Sheffield thwittle." Chaucer.

Thy (?), pron. [OE. thi, shortened from thin. See Thine, Thou.] Of thee, or belonging to thee; the more common form of thine, possessive case of thou; — used always attributively, and chiefly in the solemn or grave style, and in poetry. Thine is used in the predicate; as, the knife is thine. See Thine.

Our father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done.

Matt. vi. 9,10.

These are thy glorious works, Parent of good.


Thy"ine wood` (?). [Gr. &?; &?;, fr. &?;, adj., pertaining to the tree &?; or &?;, an African tree with sweet-smelling wood.] (Bot.) The fragrant and beautiful wood of a North African tree (Callitris quadrivalvis), formerly called Thuja articulata. The tree is of the Cedar family, and furnishes a balsamic resin called sandarach. Rev. xviii. 12.

Thy"la*cine (?), n. [Gr. &?; a sack.] (Zoöl.) The zebra wolf. See under Wolf.

Thym"ate (?), n. (Chem.) A compound of thymol analogous to a salt; as, sodium thymate.

Thyme (tm), n. [OE. tyme, L. thymum, Gr. qy`mon, qy`mos; cf. qy`ein, to sacrifice, qy`os a sacrifice, offering, incense: cf. F. thym; — perhaps so named because of its sweet smell. Cf. Fume, n.] (Bot.) Any plant of the labiate genus Thymus. The garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a warm, pungent aromatic, much used to give a relish to seasoning and soups.

Ankle deep in moss and flowery thyme.


Cat thyme, a labiate plant (Teucrium Marum) of the Mediterranean religion. Cats are said to be fond of rolling on it. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).Wild thyme, Thymus Serpyllum, common on banks and hillsides in Europe.

I know a bank where the wild thyme blows.


Thym"ene (?), n. (Chem.) A liquid terpene obtained from oil of thyme.

Thym"i*a*tech`ny (?), n. [Gr. &?; incense + te`chnh art.] (Med.) The art of employing perfumes in medicine. [R.] Dunglison.

Thym"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the thymus gland.

Thy"mic (?), a. (Med. Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, thyme; as, thymic acid.

Thym"ol (?), n. [Thyme + -ol.] (Chem.) A phenol derivative of cymene, C10H13.OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties; — called also hydroxy cymene.

||Thy"mus (?), a. [NL., fr. Gr. qy`mos.] (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the thymus gland. — n. The thymus gland.

Thymus gland, or Thymus body, a ductless gland in the throat, or in the neighboring region, of nearly all vertebrates. In man and other mammals it is the throat, or neck, sweetbread, which lies in the upper part of the thorax and lower part of the throat. It is largest in fetal and early life, and disappears or becomes rudimentary in the adult.

Thym"y (?), a. Abounding with thyme; fragrant; as, a thymy vale. Akenside.

Where'er a thymy bank he found,
He rolled upon the fragrant ground.


Thy"ro- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the thyroid body or the thyroid cartilage; as, thyrohyal.

Thy`ro*a*ryt"e*noid (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.

Thy`ro*hy"al (?), n. (Anat.) One of the lower segments in the hyoid arch, often consolidated with the body of the hyoid bone and forming one of its great horns, as in man.

Thy`ro*hy"oid (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and the hyoid arch.

Thy"roid (?), a. [Gr. &?; shield-shaped; &?; a large, oblong shield (from &?; a door) + &?; form: cf. F. thyroïde, thyréoïde.] 1. Shaped like an oblong shield; shield-shaped; as, the thyroid cartilage.

2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the thyroid body, thyroid cartilage, or thyroid artery; thyroideal.

Thyroid cartilage. See under Larynx. - - Thyroid body, or Thyroid gland (Anat.), a glandlike but ductless body, or pair of bodies, of unknown function, in the floor of the mouth or the region of the larynx. In man and most mammals it is a highly vascular organ, partly surrounding the base of the larynx and the upper part of the trachea. — Thyroid dislocation (Surg.), dislocation of the thigh bone into the thyroid foramen. — Thyroid foramen, the obturator foramen.

Thy*roid"e*al (?), a. (Anat.) Thyroid.

Thy*rot"o*my (?), n. [Thyro- + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Surg.) The operation of cutting into the thyroid cartilage.

Thyrse (thrs), n. [Cf. F. thyrse.] A thyrsus.

{ Thyr"soid (thr"soid), Thyr*soid"al (thr*soid"al), } a. [Gr. &?;; &?; thyrsus + &?; form, shape: cf. F. thyrsoïde.] Having somewhat the form of a thyrsus.

||Thyr"sus (?), n.; pl. Thyrsi (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;. Cf. Torso.] 1. A staff entwined with ivy, and surmounted by a pine cone, or by a bunch of vine or ivy leaves with grapes or berries. It is an attribute of Bacchus, and of the satyrs and others engaging in Bacchic rites.

A good to grow on graves
As twist about a thyrsus.

Mrs. Browning.

In my hand I bear
The thyrsus, tipped with fragrant cones of pine.


2. (Bot.) A species of inflorescence; a dense panicle, as in the lilac and horse-chestnut.

||Thy`sa*nop"ter (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Thysanoptera.

||Thy`sa*nop"te*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; a fringe + &?; a wing.] (Zoöl.) A division of insects, considered by some writers a distinct order, but regarded by others as belonging to the Hemiptera. They are all of small size, and have narrow, broadly fringed wings with rudimentary nervures. Most of the species feed upon the juices of plants, and some, as those which attack grain, are very injurious to crops. Called also Physopoda. See Thrips.

Thy`sa*nop"ter*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Thysanoptera.

Thy`sa*nop"ter*ous (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Thysanoptera.

||Thys`a*nu"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; fringe + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) An order of wingless hexapod insects which have setiform caudal appendages, either bent beneath the body to form a spring, or projecting as bristles. It comprises the Cinura, or bristletails, and the Collembola, or springtails. Called also Thysanoura. See Lepisma, and Podura.

Thys`a*nu"ran (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Thysanura. Also used adjectively.

Thys`a*nu"rous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Thysanura.

Thys"be (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Thisbe maiden beloved by Pyramus, Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) A common clearwing moth (Hemaris thysbe).

Thy*self" (?), pron. An emphasized form of the personal pronoun of the second person; — used as a subject commonly with thou; as, thou thyself shalt go; that is, thou shalt go, and no other. It is sometimes used, especially in the predicate, without thou, and in the nominative as well as in the objective case.

Thyself shalt see the act.


Ere I do thee, thou to thyself wast cruel.


Ti"ar (?), n. [Cf. F. tiare. See Tiara.] A tiara. [Poetic] Milton. Tennyson.

Ti*a"ra (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;, &?;; of Persian origin.] 1. A form of headdress worn by the ancient Persians. According to Xenophon, the royal tiara was encircled with a diadem, and was high and erect, while those of the people were flexible, or had rims turned over.

2. The pope's triple crown. It was at first a round, high cap, but was afterward encompassed with a crown, subsequently with a second, and finally with a third. Fig.: The papal dignity.

Ti*a"raed (?), a. Adorned with, or wearing, a tiara.

Tib"-cat` (?), n. A female cat. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

||Tib"i*a (?), n.; pl. Tibiæ (#). [L.] 1. (Anat.) The inner, or preaxial, and usually the larger, of the two bones of the leg or hind limb below the knee.

2. (Zoöl.) The fourth joint of the leg of an insect. See Illust. under Coleoptera, and under Hexapoda.

3. (Antiq.) A musical instrument of the flute kind, originally made of the leg bone of an animal.

Tib"i*al (?), a. [L. tibialis, fr. tibia the shin bone; also, a pipe or flute, originally made of a bone: cf. F. tibial.] 1. Of or pertaining to a tibia.

2. Of or pertaining to a pipe or flute.

Tibial spur (Zoöl.), a spine frequently borne on the tibia of insects. See Illust. under Coleoptera.

Tib"i*al, n. (Anat.) A tibial bone; a tibiale.

||Tib`i*a"le (?), n.; pl. Tibialia (#). [NL.] (Anat.) The bone or cartilage of the tarsus which articulates with the tibia and corresponds to a part of the astragalus in man and most mammals.

Ti*bic"i*nate (?), v. i. [L. tibicinare.] To play on a tibia, or pipe. [R.]

Tib"i*o- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the tibia; as, tibiotarsus, tibiofibular.

Tib`i*o*tar"sal (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to both to the tibia and the tarsus; as, the tibiotarsal articulation. (b) Of or pertaining to the tibiotarsus.

Tib`i*o*tar"sus (?), n.; pl. Tibiotarsi (&?;). (Anat.) The large bone between the femur and tarsometatarsus in the leg of a bird. It is formed by the union of the proximal part of the tarsus with the tibia.

Tib"rie (?), n. (Zoöl.) The pollack. [Prov. Eng.]

Tic (?), n. [F.] (Med.) A local and habitual convulsive motion of certain muscles; especially, such a motion of some of the muscles of the face; twitching; velication; — called also spasmodic tic. Dunglison.

Tic douloureux (&?;). [F., fr. tic a knack, a twitching + douloureux painful.] (Med.) Neuralgia in the face; face ague. See under Face.

||Ti*cal" (?), n. 1. A bean-shaped coin of Siam, worth about sixty cents; also, a weight equal to 236 grains troy. Malcom.

2. A money of account in China, reckoning at about $1.60; also, a weight of about four ounces avoirdupois.

Tice (?), v. t. [Aphetic form of entice.] To entice. [Obs.] The Coronation.

Tice, n. (Cricket) A ball bowled to strike the ground about a bat's length in front of the wicket.

Tice"ment (?), n. Enticement. [Obs.]

Tich"or*rhine (?), n. [Gr. &?; a wall + &?;, &?;, the nose.] (Paleon.) A fossil rhinoceros with a vertical bony medial septum supporting the nose; the hairy rhinoceros.

Tick (?), n. [Abbrev. from ticket.] Credit; trust; as, to buy on, or upon, tick.

Tick, v. i. 1. To go on trust, or credit.

2. To give tick; to trust.

Tick, n. [OE. tike, teke; akin to D. teek, G. zecke. Cf. Tike a tick.] (Zoöl.) (a) Any one of numerous species of large parasitic mites which attach themselves to, and suck the blood of, cattle, dogs, and many other animals. When filled with blood they become ovate, much swollen, and usually livid red in color. Some of the species often attach themselves to the human body. The young are active and have at first but six legs. (b) Any one of several species of dipterous insects having a flattened and usually wingless body, as the bird ticks (see under Bird) and sheep tick (see under Sheep).

Tick bean, a small bean used for feeding horses and other animals. — Tick trefoil (Bot.), a name given to many plants of the leguminous genus Desmodium, which have trifoliate leaves, and joined pods roughened with minute hooked hairs by which the joints adhere to clothing and to the fleece of sheep.

Tick, n. [LL. techa, teca, L. theca case, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to put. See Thesis.] 1. The cover, or case, of a bed, mattress, etc., which contains the straw, feathers, hair, or other filling.

2. Ticking. See Ticking, n.

Tick, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ticked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ticking.] [Probably of imitative origin; cf. D. tikken, LG. ticken.] 1. To make a small or repeating noise by beating or otherwise, as a watch does; to beat.

2. To strike gently; to pat.

Stand not ticking and toying at the branches.


Tick, n. 1. A quick, audible beat, as of a clock.

2. Any small mark intended to direct attention to something, or to serve as a check. Dickens.

3. (Zoöl.) The whinchat; — so called from its note. [Prov. Eng.]

Death tick. (Zoöl.) See Deathwatch.

Tick, v. t. To check off by means of a tick or any small mark; to score.

When I had got all my responsibilities down upon my list, I compared each with the bill and ticked it off.


Tick"en (?), n. See Ticking. [R.] R. Browning.

Tick"er (?), n. [See Tick.] One who, or that which, ticks, or produces a ticking sound, as a watch or clock, a telegraphic sounder, etc.

Tick"et (?), n. [F. étiquette a label, ticket, fr. OF. estiquette, or OF. etiquet, estiquet; both of Teutonic origin, and akin to E. stick. See Stick, n. & v., and cf. Etiquette, Tick credit.] A small piece of paper, cardboard, or the like, serving as a notice, certificate, or distinguishing token of something. Specifically: —

(a) A little note or notice. [Obs. or Local]

He constantly read his lectures twice a week for above forty years, giving notice of the time to his auditors in a ticket on the school doors.


(b) A tradesman's bill or account. [Obs.]

Hence the phrase on ticket, on account; whence, by abbreviation, came the phrase on tick. See 1st Tick.

Your courtier is mad to take up silks and velvets
On ticket for his mistress.

J. Cotgrave.

(c) A certificate or token of right of admission to a place of assembly, or of passage in a public conveyance; as, a theater ticket; a railroad or steamboat ticket.

(d) A label to show the character or price of goods.

(e) A certificate or token of a share in a lottery or other scheme for distributing money, goods, or the like.

(f) (Politics) A printed list of candidates to be voted for at an election; a set of nominations by one party for election; a ballot. [U. S.]

The old ticket forever! We have it by thirty-four votes.

Sarah Franklin (1766).

Scratched ticket, a ticket from which the names of one or more of the candidates are scratched out. — Split ticket, a ticket representing different divisions of a party, or containing candidates selected from two or more parties. — Straight ticket, a ticket containing the regular nominations of a party, without change. — Ticket day (Com.), the day before the settling or pay day on the stock exchange, when the names of the actual purchasers are rendered in by one stockbroker to another. [Eng.] Simmonds.Ticket of leave, a license or permit given to a convict, or prisoner of the crown, to go at large, and to labor for himself before the expiration of his sentence, subject to certain specific conditions. [Eng.] Simmonds.Ticket porter, a licensed porter wearing a badge by which he may be identified. [Eng.]

Tick"et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ticketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Ticketing.] 1. To distinguish by a ticket; to put a ticket on; as, to ticket goods.

2. To furnish with a tickets; to book; as, to ticket passengers to California. [U. S.]

Tick"et*ing, n. A periodical sale of ore in the English mining districts; — so called from the tickets upon which are written the bids of the buyers.

Tick"ing (?), n. [From Tick a bed cover. Cf. Ticken.] A strong, closely woven linen or cotton fabric, of which ticks for beds are made. It is usually twilled, and woven in stripes of different colors, as white and blue; — called also ticken.

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Tic"kle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tickled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tickling (?).] [Perhaps freq. of tick to beat; pat; but cf. also AS. citelian to tickle, D. kittelen, G. kitzlen, OHG. chizziln, chuzziln, Icel. kitla. Cf. Kittle, v. t.] 1. To touch lightly, so as to produce a peculiar thrilling sensation, which commonly causes laughter, and a kind of spasm which become dengerous if too long protracted.

If you tickle us, do we not laugh?


2. To please; to gratify; to make joyous.

Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw.


Such a nature
Tickled with good success, disdains the shadow
Which he treads on at noon.


Tic"kle, v. i. 1. To feel titillation.

He with secret joy therefore
Did tickle inwardly in every vein.


2. To excite the sensation of titillation. Shak.

Tic"kle, a. 1. Ticklish; easily tickled. [Obs.]

2. Liable to change; uncertain; inconstant. [Obs.]

The world is now full tickle, sikerly.


So tickle is the state of earthy things.


3. Wavering, or liable to waver and fall at the slightest touch; unstable; easily overthrown. [Obs.]

Thy head stands so tickle on thy shoulders, that a milkmaid, if she be in love, may sigh it off.


Tic"kle-foot`ed (?), a. Uncertain; inconstant; slippery. [Obs. & R.] Beau. & Fl.

Tick"len*burg (?), n. A coarse, mixed linen fabric made to be sold in the West Indies.

Tic"kle*ness (?), n. Unsteadiness. [Obs.]

For hoard hath hate, and climbing tickleness.


Tic"kler (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, tickles.

2. Something puzzling or difficult.

3. A book containing a memorandum of notes and debts arranged in the order of their maturity. [Com. Cant, U. S.] Bartlett.

4. A prong used by coopers to extract bungs from casks. [Eng.]

Tic"klish (?), a. 1. Sensible to slight touches; easily tickled; as, the sole of the foot is very ticklish; the hardened palm of the hand is not ticklish. Bacon.

2. Standing so as to be liable to totter and fall at the slightest touch; unfixed; easily affected; unstable.

Can any man with comfort lodge in a condition so dismally ticklish?


3. Difficult; nice; critical; as, a ticklish business.

Surely princes had need, in tender matters and ticklish times, to beware what they say.


— Tic"klish*ly, adv. — Tic"klish*ness, n.

Tick"seed` (?), n. [Tick the insect + seed; cf. G. wanzensamen, literally, bug seed.] 1. A seed or fruit resembling in shape an insect, as that of certain plants.

2. (Bot.) (a) Same as Coreopsis. (b) Any plant of the genus Corispermum, plants of the Goosefoot family.

Tick"tack` (?), n. [See Tick to beat, to pat, and (for sense 2) cf. Tricktrack.] 1. A noise like that made by a clock or a watch.

2. A kind of backgammon played both with men and pegs; tricktrack.

A game at ticktack with words.


Tick"tack`, adv. With a ticking noise, like that of a watch.

Tic`po*lon"ga (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) A very venomous viper (Daboia Russellii), native of Ceylon and India; — called also cobra monil.

Tid (?), a. [Cf. AS. tedre, tydere, weak, tender.] Tender; soft; nice; — now only used in tidbit.

Tid"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to tides; caused by tides; having tides; periodically rising and falling, or following and ebbing; as, tidal waters.

The tidal wave of deeper souls
Into our inmost being rolls,
And lifts us unawares
Out of all meaner cares.


Tidal air (Physiol.), the air which passes in and out of the lungs in ordinary breathing. It varies from twenty to thirty cubic inches. — Tidal basin, a dock that is filled at the rising of the tide. — Tidal wave. (a) See Tide wave, under Tide. Cf. 4th Bore. (b) A vast, swift wave caused by an earthquake or some extraordinary combination of natural causes. It rises far above high-water mark and is often very destructive upon low-lying coasts.

Tid"bit` (?), n. [Tid + bit.] A delicate or tender piece of anything eatable; a delicious morsel. [Written also titbit.]

Tid"de (?), obs. imp. of Tide, v. i. Chaucer.

{ Tid"der (?), Tid"dle (?), } v. t. [Cf. AS. tyderian to grow tender. See Tid.] To use with tenderness; to fondle. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Tide (?), n. [AS. td time; akin to OS. & OFries. td, D. tijd, G. zeit, OHG. zt, Icel. t&?;, Sw. & Dan. tid, and probably to Skr. aditi unlimited, endless, where a- is a negative prefix. √58. Cf. Tidings, Tidy, Till, prep., Time.] 1. Time; period; season. [Obsoles.] "This lusty summer's tide." Chaucer.

And rest their weary limbs a tide.


Which, at the appointed tide,
Each one did make his bride.


At the tide of Christ his birth.


2. The alternate rising and falling of the waters of the ocean, and of bays, rivers, etc., connected therewith. The tide ebbs and flows twice in each lunar day, or the space of a little more than twenty-four hours. It is occasioned by the attraction of the sun and moon (the influence of the latter being three times that of the former), acting unequally on the waters in different parts of the earth, thus disturbing their equilibrium. A high tide upon one side of the earth is accompanied by a high tide upon the opposite side. Hence, when the sun and moon are in conjunction or opposition, as at new moon and full moon, their action is such as to produce a greater than the usual tide, called the spring tide, as represented in the cut. When the moon is in the first or third quarter, the sun's attraction in part counteracts the effect of the moon's attraction, thus producing under the moon a smaller tide than usual, called the neap tide.

The flow or rising of the water is called flood tide, and the reflux, ebb tide.

3. A stream; current; flood; as, a tide of blood. "Let in the tide of knaves once more; my cook and I'll provide." Shak.

4. Tendency or direction of causes, influences, or events; course; current.

There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.


5. Violent confluence. [Obs.] Bacon.

6. (Mining) The period of twelve hours.

Atmospheric tides, tidal movements of the atmosphere similar to those of the ocean, and produced in the same manner by the attractive forces of the sun and moon. — Inferior tide. See under Inferior, a.To work double tides. See under Work, v. t.Tide day, the interval between the occurrences of two consecutive maxima of the resultant wave at the same place. Its length varies as the components of sun and moon waves approach to, or recede from, one another. A retardation from this cause is called the lagging of the tide, while the acceleration of the recurrence of high water is termed the priming of the tide. See Lag of the tide, under 2d Lag. — Tide dial, a dial to exhibit the state of the tides at any time. — Tide gate. (a) An opening through which water may flow freely when the tide sets in one direction, but which closes automatically and prevents the water from flowing in the other direction. (b) (Naut.) A place where the tide runs with great velocity, as through a gate. — Tide gauge, a gauge for showing the height of the tide; especially, a contrivance for registering the state of the tide continuously at every instant of time. Brande & C.Tide lock, a lock situated between an inclosed basin, or a canal, and the tide water of a harbor or river, when they are on different levels, so that craft can pass either way at all times of the tide; — called also guard lock. — Tide mill. (a) A mill operated by the tidal currents. (b) A mill for clearing lands from tide water. — Tide rip, a body of water made rough by the conflict of opposing tides or currents. — Tide table, a table giving the time of the rise and fall of the tide at any place. - - Tide water, water affected by the flow of the tide; hence, broadly, the seaboard. — Tide wave, or Tidal wave, the swell of water as the tide moves. That of the ocean is called primitive; that of bays or channels derivative. Whewell.Tide wheel, a water wheel so constructed as to be moved by the ebb or flow of the tide.

Tide (?), v. t. To cause to float with the tide; to drive or carry with the tide or stream.

They are tided down the stream.


Tide, v. i. [AS. tdan to happen. See Tide, n.] 1. To betide; to happen. [Obs.]

What should us tide of this new law?


2. To pour a tide or flood.

3. (Naut.) To work into or out of a river or harbor by drifting with the tide and anchoring when it becomes adverse.

Tid"ed (?), a. Affected by the tide; having a tide. "The tided Thames." Bp. Hall.

Tide"less, a. Having no tide.

Tide"-rode` (?), a. (Naut.) Swung by the tide when at anchor; — opposed to wind-rode.

Tides"man (?), n.; pl. Tidesmen (&?;). A customhouse officer who goes on board of a merchant ship to secure payment of the duties; a tidewaiter.

Tide"wait`er (?), n. A customhouse officer who watches the landing of goods from merchant vessels, in order to secure payment of duties. Swift.

Tide"way` (?), n. Channel in which the tide sets.

Tid"ife (?), n. The blue titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]

The "tidif" mentioned in Chaucer is by some supposed to be the titmouse, by others the wren.

Ti"di*ly (?), adv. In a tidy manner.

Ti"di*ness, n. The quality or state of being tidy.

Ti"ding (?), n. Tidings. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ti"dings (?), n. pl. [OE. tidinge, ti&?;inge, tidinde, from or influenced by Icel. t&?;indi; akin to Dan. tidende, Sw. tidning, G. zeung, AS. tdan to happen, E. betide, tide. See Tide, v. i. & n.] Account of what has taken place, and was not before known; news.

I shall make my master glad with these tidings.


Full well the busy whisper, circling round,
Conveyed the dismal tidings when he frowned.


Although tidings is plural in form, it has been used also as a singular. By Shakespeare it was used indiscriminately as a singular or plural.

Now near the tidings of our comfort is.


Tidings to the contrary
Are brought your eyes.


Syn. — News; advice; information; intelligence. — Tidings, News. The term news denotes recent intelligence from any quarter; the term tidings denotes intelligence expected from a particular quarter, showing what has there betided. We may be indifferent as to news, but are always more or less interested in tidings. We read the news daily; we wait for tidings respecting an absent friend or an impending battle. We may be curious to hear the news; we are always anxious for tidings.

Evil news rides post, while good news baits.


What tidings dost thou bring?


Tid"ley (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The wren. (b) The goldcrest. [Prov. Eng.]

Tid*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Tide + - logy.] A discourse or treatise upon the tides; that part of science which treats of tides. J. S. Mill.

Ti"dy (?), n. (Zoöl.) The wren; — called also tiddy. [Prov. Eng.]

The tidy for her notes as delicate as they.


This name is probably applied also to other small singing birds, as the goldcrest.

Ti"dy, a. [Compar. Tidier (?); superl. Tidiest.] [From Tide time, season; cf. D. tijdig timely, G. zeitig, Dan. & Sw. tidig.] 1. Being in proper time; timely; seasonable; favorable; as, tidy weather. [Obs.]

If weather be fair and tidy.


2. Arranged in good order; orderly; appropriate; neat; kept in proper and becoming neatness, or habitually keeping things so; as, a tidy lass; their dress is tidy; the apartments are well furnished and tidy.

A tidy man, that tened [injured] me never.

Piers Plowman.

Ti"dy, n.; pl. Tidies (&?;). 1. A cover, often of tatting, drawn work, or other ornamental work, for the back of a chair, the arms of a sofa, or the like.

2. A child's pinafore. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Ti"dy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tidied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tidying.] To put in proper order; to make neat; as, to tidy a room; to tidy one's dress.

Ti"dy, v. i. To make things tidy. [Colloq.]

I have tidied and tidied over and over again.


Ti"dy*tips` (?), n. (Bot.) A California composite plant (Layia platyglossa), the flower of which has yellow rays tipped with white.

Tie (?), n.; pl. Ties (#). [AS. tge, t&?;ge, tge. √64. See Tie, v. t.] 1. A knot; a fastening.

2. A bond; an obligation, moral or legal; as, the sacred ties of friendship or of duty; the ties of allegiance.

No distance breaks the tie of blood.


3. A knot of hair, as at the back of a wig. Young.

4. An equality in numbers, as of votes, scores, etc., which prevents either party from being victorious; equality in any contest, as a race.

5. (Arch. & Engin.) A beam or rod for holding two parts together; in railways, one of the transverse timbers which support the track and keep it in place.

6. (Mus.) A line, usually straight, drawn across the stems of notes, or a curved line written over or under the notes, signifying that they are to be slurred, or closely united in the performance, or that two notes of the same pitch are to be sounded as one; a bind; a ligature.

7. pl. Low shoes fastened with lacings.

Bale tie, a fastening for the ends of a hoop for a bale.

Tie, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tied (?) (Obs. Tight (&?;)); p. pr. & vb. n. Tying (?).] [OE. ti&?;en, teyen, AS. tgan, tiégan, fr. teág, teáh, a rope; akin to Icel. taug, and AS. teón to draw, to pull. See Tug, v. t., and cf. Tow to drag.] 1. To fasten with a band or cord and knot; to bind. "Tie the kine to the cart." 1 Sam. vi. 7.

My son, keep thy father's commandment, and forsake not the law of thy mother: bind them continually upon thine heart, and tie them about thy neck.

Prov. vi. 20,21.

2. To form, as a knot, by interlacing or complicating a cord; also, to interlace, or form a knot in; as, to tie a cord to a tree; to knit; to knot. "We do not tie this knot with an intention to puzzle the argument." Bp. Burnet.

3. To unite firmly; to fasten; to hold.

In bond of virtuous love together tied.


4. To hold or constrain by authority or moral influence, as by knotted cords; to oblige; to constrain; to restrain; to confine.

Not tied to rules of policy, you find
Revenge less sweet than a forgiving mind.


5. (Mus.) To unite, as notes, by a cross line, or by a curved line, or slur, drawn over or under them.

6. To make an equal score with, in a contest; to be even with.

To ride and tie. See under Ride. — To tie down. (a) To fasten so as to prevent from rising. (b) To restrain; to confine; to hinder from action. — To tie up, to confine; to restrain; to hinder from motion or action.

Tie, v. i. To make a tie; to make an equal score.

Tie"bar` (?), n. A flat bar used as a tie.

Tie"beam` (?), n. (Arch.) A beam acting as a tie, as at the bottom of a pair of principal rafters, to prevent them from thrusting out the wall. See Illust. of Timbers, under Roof. Gwilt.

Ti"er (?), n. One who, or that which, ties.

Ti"er, n. [See Tire a headdress.] A chold's apron covering the upper part of the body, and tied with tape or cord; a pinafore. [Written also tire.]

Tier (?), n. [Perhaps fr. OF. tire, F. tire; probably of Teutonic origin; cf. OHG. ziar ornament, G. zier, AS. tr glory, tiér row, rank. But cf. also F. tirer to draw, pull; of Teutonic origin. Cf. Attire, v. t., Tire a headdress, but also Tirade.] A row or rank, especially one of two or more rows placed one above, or higher than, another; as, a tier of seats in a theater.

Tiers of a cable, the ranges of fakes, or windings, of a cable, laid one within another when coiled.

Tierce (?), n. [F. tierce a third, from tiers, tierce, third, fr. L. tertius the third; akin to tres three. See Third, Three, and cf. Terce, Tercet, Tertiary.] 1. A cask whose content is one third of a pipe; that is, forty-two wine gallons; also, a liquid measure of forty-two wine, or thirty-five imperial, gallons.

2. A cask larger than a barrel, and smaller than a hogshead or a puncheon, in which salt provisions, rice, etc., are packed for shipment.

3. (Mus.) The third tone of the scale. See Mediant.

4. A sequence of three playing cards of the same suit. Tierce of ace, king, queen, is called tierce-major.

5. (Fencing) A position in thrusting or parrying in which the wrist and nails are turned downward.

6. (R. C. Ch.) The third hour of the day, or nine a. m,; one of the canonical hours; also, the service appointed for that hour.

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Tier*cé" (?), a. [F.] (Her.) Divided into three equal parts of three different tinctures; — said of an escutcheon.

{ Tier"cel (?), Tierce"let (?), } n. [OE. tercel, tercelet, F. tiercelet, a dim. of (assumed) tiercel, or LL. tertiolus, dim. fr. L. tertius the third; — so called, according to some, because every third bird in the nest is a male, or, according to others, because the male is the third part less than female. Cf. Tercel.] (Falconry) The male of various falcons, esp. of the peregrine; also, the male of the goshawk. Encyc. Brit.

Tierce"-ma`jor (?), n. [Cf. F. tierce majeure.] (Card Playing) See Tierce, 4.

Tier"cet (?), n. [F. tercet. See Tercet.] (Pros.) A triplet; three lines, or three lines rhyming together.

Tie"-rod (?), n. A rod used as a tie. See Tie.

||Tiers` é`tat" (?). [F.] The third estate, or commonalty, in France, answering to the commons in Great Britain; — so called in distinction from, and as inferior to, the nobles and clergy.

The refusal of the clergy and nobility to give the tiers état a representation in the States-general proportioned to their actual numbers had an important influence in bringing on the French Revolution of 1789. Since that time the term has been purely historical.

Tie"tick (?), n. The meadow pipit. [Prov. Eng].

Tie"wig` (?), n. A wig having a tie or ties, or one having some of the curls tied up; also, a wig tied upon the head. Wright. V. Knox.

Tiff (?), n. [Originally, a sniff, sniffing; cf. Icel. &?;efr a smell, &?;efa to sniff, Norw. tev a drawing in of the breath, teva to sniff, smell, dial. Sw. tüv smell, scent, taste.] 1. Liquor; especially, a small draught of liquor. "Sipping his tiff of brandy punch." Sir W. Scott.

2. A fit of anger or peevishness; a slight altercation or contention. See Tift. Thackeray.

Tiff, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tiffed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tiffing.] To be in a pet.

She tiffed with Tim, she ran from Ralph.


Tiff, v. t. [OE. tiffen, OF. tiffer, tifer, to bedizen; cf. D. tippen to clip the points or ends of the hair, E. tip, n.] To deck out; to dress. [Obs.] A. Tucker.

Tif"fa*ny (?), n. [OE. tiffenay; cf. OF. tiffe ornament, tiffer to adjust, adorn. See Tiff to dress.] A species of gause, or very silk.

The smoke of sulphur . . . is commonly used by women to whiten tiffanies.

Sir T. Browne.

Tif"fin (?), n. [Properly, tiffing a quaffing, a drinking. See Tiff, n.] A lunch, or slight repast between breakfast and dinner; — originally, a Provincial English word, but introduced into India, and brought back to England in a special sense.

Tiff"ish (?), a. Inclined to tiffs; peevish; petulant.

Tift (?), n. [Cf. Norw. teft a scent. See Tiff, n.] A fit of pettishness, or slight anger; a tiff.

After all your fatigue you seem as ready for a tift with me as if you had newly come from church.

Blackwood's Mag.

Tig (?), n. 1. A game among children. See Tag.

2. A capacious, flat-bottomed drinking cup, generally with four handles, formerly used for passing around the table at convivial entertainment.

||Ti*gel"la (?), n. [NL., from F. tige stem or stock.] (Bot.) That part of an embryo which represents the young stem; the caulicle or radicle.

Ti*gelle" (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) Same as Tigella.

Ti"ger (?), n. [OE. tigre, F. tigre, L. tigris, Gr. ti`gris; probably of Persian origin; cf. Zend tighra pointed, tighri an arrow, Per. tr; perhaps akin to E. stick, v.t.; — probably so named from its quickness.] 1. A very large and powerful carnivore (Felis tigris) native of Southern Asia and the East Indies. Its back and sides are tawny or rufous yellow, transversely striped with black, the tail is ringed with black, the throat and belly are nearly white. When full grown, it equals or exceeds the lion in size and strength. Called also royal tiger, and Bengal tiger.

2. Fig.: A ferocious, bloodthirsty person.

As for heinous tiger, Tamora.


3. A servant in livery, who rides with his master or mistress. Dickens.

4. A kind of growl or screech, after cheering; as, three cheers and a tiger. [Colloq. U. S.]

5. A pneumatic box or pan used in refining sugar.

American tiger. (Zoöl.) (a) The puma. (b) The jaguar. — Clouded tiger (Zoöl.), a handsome striped and spotted carnivore (Felis macrocelis or F. marmorata) native of the East Indies and Southern Asia. Its body is about three and a half feet long, and its tail about three feet long. Its ground color is brownish gray, and the dark markings are irregular stripes, spots, and rings, but there are always two dark bands on the face, one extending back from the eye, and one from the angle of the mouth. Called also tortoise-shell tiger. — Mexican tiger (Zoöl.), the jaguar. — Tiger beetle (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of active carnivorous beetles of the family Cicindelidæ. They usually inhabit dry or sandy places, and fly rapidly. — Tiger bittern. (Zoöl.) See Sun bittern, under Sun. — Tiger cat (Zoöl.), any one of several species of wild cats of moderate size with dark transverse bars or stripes somewhat resembling those of the tiger. — Tiger flower (Bot.), an iridaceous plant of the genus Tigridia (as T. conchiflora, T. grandiflora, etc.) having showy flowers, spotted or streaked somewhat like the skin of a tiger. — Tiger grass (Bot.), a low East Indian fan palm (Chamærops Ritchieana). It is used in many ways by the natives. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).Tiger lily. (Bot.) See under Lily. — Tiger moth (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of moths of the family Arctiadæ which are striped or barred with black and white or with other conspicuous colors. The larvæ are called woolly bears. — Tiger shark (Zoöl.), a voracious shark (Galeocerdo maculatus or tigrinus) more or less barred or spotted with yellow. It is found in both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Called also zebra shark. — Tiger shell (Zoöl.), a large and conspicuously spotted cowrie (Cypræa tigris); — so called from its fancied resemblance to a tiger in color and markings. Called also tiger cowrie. — Tiger wolf (Zoöl.), the spotted hyena (Hyæna crocuta). — Tiger wood, the variegated heartwood of a tree (Machærium Schomburgkii) found in Guiana.

Ti"ger-eye` (?), n. (Min.) A siliceous stone of a yellow color and chatoyant luster, obtained in South Africa and much used for ornament. It is an altered form of the mineral crocidolite. See Crocidolite.

Ti"ger-foot` (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Tiger's-foot.

Ti"ger-foot`ed, a. Hastening to devour; furious.

Ti"ger*ine (?), a. Tigerish; tigrine. [R.]

Ti"ger*ish, a. Like a tiger; tigrish.

Ti"ger's-foot` (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to some species of morning-glory (Ipomœa) having the leaves lobed in pedate fashion.

Tigh (?), n. [Perhaps akin to tight.] A close, or inclosure; a croft. [Obs.] Cowell.

Tight (?), obs. p. p. of Tie. Spenser.

Tight, a. [Compar. Tighter (?); superl. Tightest.] [OE. tight, thiht; probably of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. &?;ttr, Dan. tæt, Sw. tät: akin to D. & G. dicht thick, tight, and perhaps to E. thee to thrive, or to thick. Cf. Taut.] 1. Firmly held together; compact; not loose or open; as, tight cloth; a tight knot.

2. Close, so as not to admit the passage of a liquid or other fluid; not leaky; as, a tight ship; a tight cask; a tight room; — often used in this sense as the second member of a compound; as, water-tight; air-tight.

3. Fitting close, or too close, to the body; as, a tight coat or other garment.

4. Not ragged; whole; neat; tidy.

Clad very plain, but clean and tight.


I'll spin and card, and keep our children tight.


5. Close; parsimonious; saving; as, a man tight in his dealings. [Colloq.]

6. Not slack or loose; firmly stretched; taut; — applied to a rope, chain, or the like, extended or stretched out.

7. Handy; adroit; brisk. [Obs.] Shak.

8. Somewhat intoxicated; tipsy. [Slang]

9. (Com.) Pressing; stringent; not easy; firmly held; dear; — said of money or the money market. Cf. Easy, 7.

Tight, v. t. To tighten. [Obs.]

Tight"en (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tightened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tightening.] To draw tighter; to straiten; to make more close in any manner.

Just where I please, with tightened rein
I'll urge thee round the dusty plain.


Tightening pulley (Mach.), a pulley which rests, or is forced, against a driving belt to tighten it.

Tight"en*er (?), n. That which tightens; specifically (Mach.), a tightening pulley.

Tight"er (?), n. A ribbon or string used to draw clothes closer. [Obs.]

Tight"ly, adv. In a tight manner; closely; nearly.

Tight"ness, n. The quality or condition of being tight.

Tights (?), n. pl. Close-fitting garments, especially for the lower part of the body and the legs.

Tig"lic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C4H7CO2H (called also methyl crotonic acid), homologous with crotonic acid, and obtained from croton oil (from Croton Tiglium) as a white crystalline substance.

Ti"gress (?), n. [From Tiger: cf. F. tigresse.] (Zoöl.) The female of the tiger. Holland.

Ti"grine (?), a. [L. tigrinus, fr. tigris a tiger.] 1. Of or pertaining to a tiger; like a tiger.

2. (Zoöl.) Resembling the tiger in color; as, the tigrine cat (Felis tigrina) of South America.

Ti"grish (?), a. Resembling a tiger; tigerish.

Tike (?), n. (Zoöl.) A tick. See 2d Tick. [Obs.]

Tike, n. [Icel. tk a bitch; akin to Sw. tik.] 1. A dog; a cur. "Bobtail tike or trundle-tail." Shak.

2. A countryman or clown; a boorish person.

Ti"kus (?), n. (Zoöl.) The bulau.

Til (?), prep. & conj. See Till. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Til"bu*ry (?), n.; pl. Tilburies (#). [Probably from Tilburyfort, in the Country of Essex, in England.] A kind of gig or two-wheeled carriage, without a top or cover. [Written also tilburgh.]

||Til"de (?), n. [Sp., fr. L. titulus a superscription, title, token, sign. See Title, n.] The accentual mark placed over n, and sometimes over l, in Spanish words [thus, ñ, ], indicating that, in pronunciation, the sound of the following vowel is to be preceded by that of the initial, or consonantal, y.

Tile (?), v. t. [See 2d Tiler.] To protect from the intrusion of the uninitiated; as, to tile a Masonic lodge.

Tile, n. [OE. tile, tigel, AS. tigel, tigol, fr. L. tegula, from tegere to cover. See Thatch, and cf. Tegular.] 1. A plate, or thin piece, of baked clay, used for covering the roofs of buildings, for floors, for drains, and often for ornamental mantel works.

2. (Arch.) (a) A small slab of marble or other material used for flooring. (b) A plate of metal used for roofing.

3. (Metal.) A small, flat piece of dried earth or earthenware, used to cover vessels in which metals are fused.

4. A draintile.

5. A stiff hat. [Colloq.] Dickens.

Tile drain, a drain made of tiles. — Tile earth, a species of strong, clayey earth; stiff and stubborn land. [Prov. Eng.] — Tile kiln, a kiln in which tiles are burnt; a tilery. — Tile ore (Min.), an earthy variety of cuprite. — Tile red, light red like the color of tiles or bricks. — Tile tea, a kind of hard, flat brick tea. See Brick tea, under Brick.

Tile, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tiling.] 1. To cover with tiles; as, to tile a house.

2. Fig.: To cover, as if with tiles.

The muscle, sinew, and vein,
Which tile this house, will come again.


Tile"-drain` (?), v. t. To drain by means of tiles; to furnish with a tile drain.

Tile"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large, edible, deep-water food fish (Lopholatilus chamæleonticeps) more or less thickly covered with large, round, yellow spots.

It was discovered off the Eastern coast of the United States in 1880, and was abundant in 1881, but is believed to have become extinct in 1882.

Til"er (?), n. A man whose occupation is to cover buildings with tiles. Bancroft.

Til"er, n. [Of uncertain origin, but probably from E. tile, n.] A doorkeeper or attendant at a lodge of Freemasons. [Written also tyler.]

Til"er*y (?), n.; pl. Tileries (#). [From Tile; cf. F. tuilerie, fr. tuile a tile, L. tegula.] A place where tiles are made or burned; a tile kiln.

Tile"stone` (?), n. 1. (Geol.) A kind of laminated shale or sandstone belonging to some of the layers of the Upper Silurian.

2. A tile of stone.

Til`i*a"ceous (?), a. [OE. tilia the linden tree.] (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Tiliaceæ) of which the linden (Tilia) is the type. The order includes many plants which furnish a valuable fiber, as the jute.

Til"ing (?), n. 1. A surface covered with tiles, or composed of tiles.

They . . . let him down through the tiling.

Luke v. 19.

2. Tiles, collectively.

Till (?), n. [Abbrev. from lentil.] A vetch; a tare. [Prov. Eng.]

Till, n. [Properly, a drawer, from OE. tillen to draw. See Tiller the lever of a rudder.] A drawer. Specifically: (a) A tray or drawer in a chest. (b) A money drawer in a shop or store.

Till alarm, a device for sounding an alarm when a money drawer is opened or tampered with.

Till, n. 1. (Geol.) A deposit of clay, sand, and gravel, without lamination, formed in a glacier valley by means of the waters derived from the melting glaciers; — sometimes applied to alluvium of an upper river terrace, when not laminated, and appearing as if formed in the same manner.

2. A kind of coarse, obdurate land. Loudon.

Till, prep. [OE. til, Icel. til; akin to Dan. til, Sw. till, OFries. til, also to AS. til good, excellent, G. ziel end, limit, object, OHG. zil, Goth. tils, gatils, fit, convenient, and E. till to cultivate. See Till, v. t.] To; unto; up to; as far as; until; — now used only in respect to time, but formerly, also, of place, degree, etc., and still so used in Scotland and in parts of England and Ireland; as, I worked till four o'clock; I will wait till next week.

He . . . came till an house.


Women, up till this
Cramped under worse than South-sea-isle taboo.


Similar sentiments will recur to every one familiar with his writings — all through them till the very end.

Prof. Wilson.

Till now, to the present time. — Till then, to that time.

<! p. 1509 !>

Till (?), conj. As far as; up to the place or degree that; especially, up to the time that; that is, to the time specified in the sentence or clause following; until.

And said unto them, Occupy till I come.

Luke xix. 13.

Mediate so long till you make some act of prayer to God.

Jer. Taylor.

There was no outbreak till the regiment arrived.


This use may be explained by supposing an ellipsis of when, or the time when, the proper conjunction or conjunctive adverb begin when.

Till, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tilled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tilling.] [OE. tilen, tilien, AS. tilian, teolian, to aim, strive for, till; akin to OS. tilian to get, D. telen to propagate, G. zielen to aim, ziel an end, object, and perhaps also to E. tide, time, from the idea of something fixed or definite. Cf. Teal, Till, prep..] 1. To plow and prepare for seed, and to sow, dress, raise crops from, etc., to cultivate; as, to till the earth, a field, a farm.

No field nolde [would not] tilye.

P. Plowman.

the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

Gen. iii. 23.

2. To prepare; to get. [Obs.] W. Browne.

Till, v. i. To cultivate land. Piers Plowman.

Till"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being tilled; fit for the plow; arable.

Till"age (?), n. 1. The operation, practice, or art of tilling or preparing land for seed, and keeping the ground in a proper state for the growth of crops.

2. A place tilled or cultivated; cultivated land.

Syn. — Cultivation; culture; husbandry; farming; agriculture.

||Til*land"si*a (?), n. [NL. So named after Prof. Tillands, of Abo, in Finland.] (Bot.) A genus of epiphytic endogenous plants found in the Southern United States and in tropical America. Tillandsia usneoides, called long moss, black moss, Spanish moss, and Florida moss, has a very slender pendulous branching stem, and forms great hanging tufts on the branches of trees. It is often used for stuffing mattresses.

Till"er (?), n. [From Till, v. t.] One who tills; a husbandman; a cultivator; a plowman.

Till"er, n. [AS. telgor a small branch. Cf. Till to cultivate.] 1. (Bot.) (a) A shoot of a plant, springing from the root or bottom of the original stalk; a sucker. (b) A sprout or young tree that springs from a root or stump.

2. A young timber tree. [Prov. Eng.] Evelyn.

Till"er, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Tillered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tillering.] To put forth new shoots from the root, or round the bottom of the original stalk; as, wheat or rye tillers; some spread plants by tillering. [Sometimes written tillow.]

Till"er, n. [From OE. tillen, tullen, to draw, pull; probably fr. AS. tyllan in fortyllan to lead astray; or cf. D. tillen to lift up. Cf. Till a drawer.] 1. (Naut.) A lever of wood or metal fitted to the rudder head and used for turning side to side in steering. In small boats hand power is used; in large vessels, the tiller is moved by means of mechanical appliances. See Illust. of Rudder. Cf. 2d Helm, 1.

2. The stalk, or handle, of a crossbow; also, sometimes, the bow itself. [Obs.]

You can shoot in a tiller.

Beau. & Fl.

3. The handle of anything. [Prov. Eng.]

4. A small drawer; a till. Dryden.

Tiller rope (Naut.), a rope for turning a tiller. In a large vessel it forms the connection between the fore end of the tiller and the steering wheel.

{ Til"ley (?), n., or Til"ley seed` (?) }. (Bot.) The seeds of a small tree (Croton Pavana) common in the Malay Archipelago. These seeds furnish croton oil, like those of Croton Tiglium. [Written also tilly.]

Till"man (?), n.; pl. Tillmen (&?;). A man who tills the earth; a husbandman. [Obs.] Tusser.

Til"lo*dont (?), n. One of the Tillodontia.

||Til`lo*don"ti*a (?), n. pl. (Paleon.) An extinct group of Mammalia found fossil in the Eocene formation. The species are related to the carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Called also Tillodonta.

Til"lot (tl"lt), n. A bag made of thin glazed muslin, used as a wrapper for dress goods. McElrath.

Til"low (?), v. i. See 3d Tiller.

Til"ly-val`ly (?), interj., adv., or a. A word of unknown origin and signification, formerly used as expressive of contempt, or when anything said was rejected as trifling or impertinent. [Written also tille-vally, tilly-fally, tille-fally, and otherwise.] Shak.

||Til"mus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. tilmo`s, fr. ti`llein to pluck, pull.] (Med.) Floccillation.

Tilt (tlt), n. [OE. telt (perhaps from the Danish), teld, AS. teld, geteld; akin to OD. telde, G. zelt, Icel. tjald, Sw. tält, tjäll, Dan. telt, and AS. beteldan to cover.] 1. A covering overhead; especially, a tent. Denham.

2. The cloth covering of a cart or a wagon.

3. (Naut.) A cloth cover of a boat; a small canopy or awning extended over the sternsheets of a boat.

Tilt boat (Naut.), a boat covered with canvas or other cloth. — Tilt roof (Arch.), a round-headed roof, like the canopy of a wagon.

Tilt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tilted; p. pr. & vb. n. Tilting.] To cover with a tilt, or awning.

Tilt, v. t. [OE. tilten, tulten, to totter, fall, AS. tealt unstable, precarious; akin to tealtrian to totter, to vacillate, D. tel amble, ambling pace, G. zelt, Icel. tölt an ambling pace, tölta to amble. Cf. Totter.] 1. To incline; to tip; to raise one end of for discharging liquor; as, to tilt a barrel.

2. To point or thrust, as a lance.

Sons against fathers tilt the fatal lance.

J. Philips.

3. To point or thrust a weapon at. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

4. To hammer or forge with a tilt hammer; as, to tilt steel in order to render it more ductile.

Tilt, v. i. 1. To run or ride, and thrust with a lance; to practice the military game or exercise of thrusting with a lance, as a combatant on horseback; to joust; also, figuratively, to engage in any combat or movement resembling that of horsemen tilting with lances.

He tilts
With piercing steel at bold Mercutio's breast.


Swords out, and tilting one at other's breast.


But in this tournament can no man tilt.


The fleet, swift tilting, o'er the &?;urges flew.


2. To lean; to fall partly over; to tip.

The trunk of the body is kept from tilting forward by the muscles of the back.


Tilt (?), n. 1. A thrust, as with a lance. Addison.

2. A military exercise on horseback, in which the combatants attacked each other with lances; a tournament.

3. See Tilt hammer, in the Vocabulary.

4. Inclination forward; as, the tilt of a cask.

Full tilt, with full force. Dampier.

Tilt"er (?), n. 1. One who tilts, or jousts; hence, one who fights.

Let me alone to match your tilter.


2. One who operates a tilt hammer.

Tilth (?), n. [AS. til&?;, fr. tilian to till. See Till to cultivate.] 1. The state of being tilled, or prepared for a crop; culture; as, land is good tilth.

The tilth and rank fertility of its golden youth.

De Quincey.

2. That which is tilled; tillage ground. [R.]

And so by tilth and grange . . .
We gained the mother city.


Tilt" ham`mer (?). A tilted hammer; a heavy hammer, used in iron works, which is lifted or tilted by projections or wipers on a revolving shaft; a trip hammer.

Tilt"ing (?), n. 1. The act of one who tilts; a tilt.

2. The process by which blister steel is rendered ductile by being forged with a tilt hammer.

Tilting helmet, a helmet of large size and unusual weight and strength, worn at tilts.

Tilt"-mill` (?), n. A mill where a tilt hammer is used, or where the process of tilting is carried on.

Til" tree` (?). (Bot.) See Teil.

Tilt"-up` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Tip-up.

Tilt"-yard` (?), n. A yard or place for tilting. "The tilt-yard of Templestowe." Sir W. Scott.

Ti"mal (?), n. (Zoöl.) The blue titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]

Tim"a*line (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the genus Timalus or family Timalidæ, which includes the babblers thrushes, and bulbuls.

Tim"bal (?), n. A kettledrum. See Tymbal.

Tim"ber (?), n. [Probably the same word as timber sort of wood; cf. Sw. timber, LG. timmer, MHG. zimber, G. zimmer, F. timbre, LL. timbrium. Cf. Timmer.] (Com.) A certain quantity of fur skins, as of martens, ermines, sables, etc., packed between boards; being in some cases forty skins, in others one hundred and twenty; — called also timmer. [Written also timbre.]

Tim"ber, n. [F. timbre. See Timbre.] (Her.) The crest on a coat of arms. [Written also timbre.]

Tim"ber, v. t. To surmount as a timber does. [Obs.]

Tim"ber, n. [AS. timbor, timber, wood, building; akin to OFries. timber, D. timmer a room, G. zimmer, OHG. zimbar timber, a dwelling, room, Icel. timbr timber, Sw. timmer, Dan. tömmer, Goth. timrjan to build, timrja a builder, L. domus a house, Gr. &?; house, &?; to build, Skr. dama a house. √62. Cf. Dome, Domestic.] 1. That sort of wood which is proper for buildings or for tools, utensils, furniture, carriages, fences, ships, and the like; — usually said of felled trees, but sometimes of those standing. Cf. Lumber, 3.

And ta'en my fiddle to the gate, . . .
And fiddled in the timber!


2. The body, stem, or trunk of a tree.

3. Fig.: Material for any structure.

Such dispositions are the very errors of human nature; and yet they are the fittest timber to make politics of.


4. A single piece or squared stick of wood intended for building, or already framed; collectively, the larger pieces or sticks of wood, forming the framework of a house, ship, or other structure, in distinction from the covering or boarding.

So they prepared timber . . . to build the house.

1 Kings v. 18.

Many of the timbers were decayed.

W. Coxe.

5. Woods or forest; wooden land. [Western U. S.]

6. (Shipbuilding) A rib, or a curving piece of wood, branching outward from the keel and bending upward in a vertical direction. One timber is composed of several pieces united.

Timber and room. (Shipbuilding) Same as Room and space. See under Room. — Timber beetle (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of beetles the larvæ of which bore in timber; as, the silky timber beetle (Lymexylon sericeum). — Timber doodle (Zoöl.), the American woodcock. [Local, U. S.] — Timber grouse (Zoöl.), any species of grouse that inhabits woods, as the ruffed grouse and spruce partridge; — distinguished from prairie grouse. — Timber hitch (Naut.), a kind of hitch used for temporarily marking fast a rope to a spar. See Illust. under Hitch. — Timber mare, a kind of instrument upon which soldiers were formerly compelled to ride for punishment. Johnson.Timber scribe, a metal tool or pointed instrument for marking timber. Simmonds.Timber sow. (Zoöl.) Same as Timber worm, below. Bacon.Timber tree, a tree suitable for timber. — Timber worm (Zoöl.), any larval insect which burrows in timber. — Timber yard, a yard or place where timber is deposited.

Tim"ber (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Timbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Timbering.] To furnish with timber; — chiefly used in the past participle.

His bark is stoutly timbered.


Tim"ber, v. i. 1. To light on a tree. [Obs.]

2. (Falconry) To make a nest.

Tim"bered (?), a. 1. Furnished with timber; — often compounded; as, a well-timbered house; a low-timbered house. L'Estrange.

2. Built; formed; contrived. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.

3. Massive, like timber. [Obs.]

His timbered bones all broken, rudely rumbled.


4. Covered with growth timber; wooden; as, well- timbered land.

Tim"ber*head` (?), n. (Naut.) The top end of a timber, rising above the gunwale, and serving for belaying ropes, etc.; — called also kevel head.

Tim"ber*ing, n. The act of furnishing with timber; also, timbers, collectively; timberwork; timber.

Tim"ber*ling (?), n. [Timber + - ling.] A small tree. [Eng.]

Tim"ber*man (?), n.; pl. Timbermen (&?;). (Mining) A man employed in placing supports of timber in a mine. Weale.

Tim"ber*work` (?), n. Work made of timbers.

Tim"bre (?), n. See 1st Timber.

Tim"bre, n. [F., a bell to be struck with a hammer, sound, tone, stamp, crest, in OF., a timbrel. Cf. Timbrel.] 1. (Her.) The crest on a coat of arms.

2. (Mus.) The quality or tone distinguishing voices or instruments; tone color; clang tint; as, the timbre of the voice; the timbre of a violin. See Tone, and Partial tones, under Partial.

Tim"brel (?), n. [Dim. of OE. timbre, OF. timbre; probably fr. L. typmanum, Gr. &?; a kettledrum, but influenced perhaps by Ar. tabl a drum; cf. Per. tambal a drum. See Tympanum, and cf. 2d Timbre, Tymbal.] (Mus.) A kind of drum, tabor, or tabret, in use from the highest antiquity.

Miriam . . . took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.

Ex. xv. 20.

{ Tim"breled, Tim"brelled} (?), a. Sung to the sound of the timbrel. "In vain with timbreled anthems dark." Milton.

Tim`bu*rine" (?), n. A tambourine. [Obs.]

Time (?), n.; pl. Times (#). [OE. time, AS. tma, akin to td time, and to Icel. tmi, Dan. time an hour, Sw. timme. √58. See Tide, n.] 1. Duration, considered independently of any system of measurement or any employment of terms which designate limited portions thereof.

The time wasteth [i. e. passes away] night and day.


I know of no ideas . . . that have a better claim to be accounted simple and original than those of space and time.


2. A particular period or part of duration, whether past, present, or future; a point or portion of duration; as, the time was, or has been; the time is, or will be.

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets.

Heb. i. 1.

3. The period at which any definite event occurred, or person lived; age; period; era; as, the Spanish Armada was destroyed in the time of Queen Elizabeth; — often in the plural; as, ancient times; modern times.

4. The duration of one's life; the hours and days which a person has at his disposal.

Believe me, your time is not your own; it belongs to God, to religion, to mankind.


5. A proper time; a season; an opportunity.

There is . . . a time to every purpose.

Eccl. iii. 1.

The time of figs was not yet.

Mark xi. 13.

6. Hour of travail, delivery, or parturition.

She was within one month of her time.


7. Performance or occurrence of an action or event, considered with reference to repetition; addition of a number to itself; repetition; as, to double cloth four times; four times four, or sixteen.

Summers three times eight save one.


8. The present life; existence in this world as contrasted with immortal life; definite, as contrasted with infinite, duration.

Till time and sin together cease.


9. (Gram.) Tense.

10. (Mus.) The measured duration of sounds; measure; tempo; rate of movement; rhythmical division; as, common or triple time; the musician keeps good time.

Some few lines set unto a solemn time.

Beau. & Fl.

Time is often used in the formation of compounds, mostly self-explaining; as, time-battered, time-beguiling, time-consecrated, time-consuming, time-enduring, time-killing, time-sanctioned, time-scorner, time-wasting, time-worn, etc.

Absolute time, time irrespective of local standards or epochs; as, all spectators see a lunar eclipse at the same instant of absolute time. — Apparent time, the time of day reckoned by the sun, or so that 12 o'clock at the place is the instant of the transit of the sun's center over the meridian. - - Astronomical time, mean solar time reckoned by counting the hours continuously up to twenty-four from one noon to the next. — At times, at distinct intervals of duration; now and then; as, at times he reads, at other times he rides. — Civil time, time as reckoned for the purposes of common life in distinct periods, as years, months, days, hours, etc., the latter, among most modern nations, being divided into two series of twelve each, and reckoned, the first series from midnight to noon, the second, from noon to midnight. — Common time (Mil.), the ordinary time of marching, in which ninety steps, each twenty-eight inches in length, are taken in one minute. — Equation of time. See under Equation, n.In time. (a) In good season; sufficiently early; as, he arrived in time to see the exhibition. (b) After a considerable space of duration; eventually; finally; as, you will in time recover your health and strength. — Mean time. See under 4th Mean. — Quick time (Mil.), time of marching, in which one hundred and twenty steps, each thirty inches in length, are taken in one minute. — Sidereal time. See under Sidereal. — Standard time, the civil time that has been established by law or by general usage over a region or country. In England the standard time is Greenwich mean solar time. In the United States and Canada four kinds of standard time have been adopted by the railroads and accepted by the people, viz., Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific time, corresponding severally to the mean local times of the 75th, 90th, 105th, and 120th meridians west from Greenwich, and being therefore five, six, seven, and eight hours slower than Greenwich time. — Time ball, a ball arranged to drop from the summit of a pole, to indicate true midday time, as at Greenwich Observatory, England. Nichol.Time bargain (Com.), a contract made for the sale or purchase of merchandise, or of stock in the public funds, at a certain time in the future. — Time bill. Same as Time-table. [Eng.] — Time book, a book in which is kept a record of the time persons have worked. — Time detector, a timepiece provided with a device for registering and indicating the exact time when a watchman visits certain stations in his beat. — Time enough, in season; early enough. "Stanly at Bosworth field, . . . came time enough to save his life." Bacon.Time fuse, a fuse, as for an explosive projectile, which can be so arranged as to ignite the charge at a certain definite interval after being itself ignited. — Time immemorial, or Time out of mind. (Eng. Law) See under Immemorial. — Time lock, a lock having clockwork attached, which, when wound up, prevents the bolt from being withdrawn when locked, until a certain interval of time has elapsed. — Time of day, salutation appropriate to the times of the day, as "good morning," "good evening," and the like; greeting. — To kill time. See under Kill, v. t.To make time. (a) To gain time. (b) To occupy or use (a certain) time in doing something; as, the trotting horse made fast time. — To move, run, or go, against time, to move, run, or go a given distance without a competitor, in the quickest possible time; or, to accomplish the greatest distance which can be passed over in a given time; as, the horse is to run against time. — True time. (a) Mean time as kept by a clock going uniformly. (b) (Astron.) Apparent time as reckoned from the transit of the sun's center over the meridian.

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Time (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Timed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Timing.] 1. To appoint the time for; to bring, begin, or perform at the proper season or time; as, he timed his appearance rightly.

There is no greater wisdom than well to time the beginnings and onsets of things.


2. To regulate as to time; to accompany, or agree with, in time of movement.

Who overlooked the oars, and timed the stroke.


He was a thing of blood, whose every motion
Was timed with dying cries.


3. To ascertain or record the time, duration, or rate of; as, to time the speed of horses, or hours for workmen.

4. To measure