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The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary: Letter R
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 Begin file 8 of 11:  R.  (Version 0.50) of
          An electronic field-marked version of:

         Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
                 Version published 1913
               by the  C. & G. Merriam Co.
                   Springfield, Mass.
                 Under the direction of
                Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.

   This electronic version was prepared by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ.
   Last edit February 11, 1999.

   MICRA, Inc. makes no proprietary claims on this version of the
1913 Webster dictionary.  If the original printed edition of the
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considered as public domain.

    This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic errors, including errors in the field-marks.  Assistance in bringing this dictionary to a more accurate and useful state will be greatly appreciated.
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R (är). R, the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 178, 179, and 250-254. "R is the dog's letter and hurreth in the sound." B. Jonson.

In words derived from the Greek language the letter h is generally written after r to represent the aspirated sound of the Greek "r, but does not affect the pronunciation of the English word, as rhapsody, rhetoric.

The English letter derives its form from the Greek through the Latin, the Greek letter being derived from the Phœnician, which, it is believed, is ultimately of Egyptian origin. Etymologically, R is most closely related to l, s, and n; as in bandore, mandole; purple, L. purpura; E. chapter, F. chapitre, L. capitulum; E. was, were; hare, G. hase; E. order, F. ordre, L. ordo, ordinis; E. coffer, coffin.

The three Rs, a jocose expression for reading, (w)riting, and (a)rithmetic, -- the fundamentals of an education.

Ra (rä), n. A roe; a deer. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ra-. A prefix, from the Latin re and ad combined, coming to us through the French and Italian. See Re-, and Ad-.

Raash (räsh), n. [Cf. Ar. ra'ash trembling, tremor.] (Zoöl.) The electric catfish. [Written also raasch.]

Rab (rb), n. A rod or stick used by masons in mixing hair with mortar.

Rab"at (rb"t), n. [See Rabot.] A polishing material made of potter's clay that has failed in baking.

Ra*bate" (r*bt"), v. t. [F. rabattre to beat down; pref. re- + abattre. See Abate, and cf. Rebate, v.] (Falconry) To recover to the fist, as a hawk. [Obs.]

Rab"a*tine (rb"*tn), n. [See Rabato.] A collar or cape. [Obs.] Sir W. Scott.

Ra*ba"to (r*b"t), n. [F. rabat, fr. rabattre. See Rabate.] A kind of ruff for the neck; a turned-down collar; a rebato. [Obs.] Shak.

Rab*bate" (rb*bt"), v. t. [See Rabate.] To abate or diminish. [Obs.] -- n. Abatement. [Obs.]

Rab"bet (rb"bt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rabbeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rabbeting.] [F. raboter to plane, plane down,rabot a plane; pref. re- re- + OF. abouter, aboter. See Abut, and cf. Rebut.] 1. To cut a rabbet in; to furnish with a rabbet.

2. To unite the edges of, as boards, etc., in a rabbet joint.

Rab"bet, n. [See Rabbet, v., and cf. Rebate, n.]

1. (Carp.) A longitudinal channel, groove, or recess cut out of the edge or face of any body; especially, one intended to receive another member, so as to break or cover the joint, or more easily to hold the members in place; thus, the groove cut for a panel, for a pane of glass, or for a door, is a rabbet, or rebate.

2. Same as Rabbet joint, below.

Rabbet joint (Carp.), a joint formed by fitting together rabbeted boards or timbers; -- called also rabbet. -- Rabbet plane, a joiner's plane for cutting a rabbet. Moxon.

Rab"bi (rb"b or -b; 277), n.; pl. Rabbis (-bz or -bz) or Rabbies. [L., fr. Gr. "rabbi`, Heb. rab my master, from rab master, lord, teacher, akin to Ar. rabb.] Master; lord; teacher; -- a Jewish title of respect or honor for a teacher or doctor of the law. "The gravest rabbies." Milton.

Be not ye called Rabbi, for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.

Matt. xxiii. 8.

Rab"bin (rb"bn), n. [F.] Same as Rabbi.

{ Rab*bin"ic (rb*bn"k), Rab*bin"ic*al (-*kal), } a. [Cf. F. rabbinique.] Of or pertaining to the rabbins or rabbis, or pertaining to the opinions, learning, or language of the rabbins. "Comments staler than rabbinic." Lowell.

We will not buy your rabbinical fumes.


Rab*bin"ic (rb*bn"k), n. The language or dialect of the rabbins; the later Hebrew.

Rab*bin"ic*al*ly, adv. In a rabbinical manner; after the manner of the rabbins.

Rab"bin*ism (rb"bn*z'm), n. [Cf. F. rabbinisme.] 1. A rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the language of the rabbins.

2. The teachings and traditions of the rabbins.

Rab"bin*ist, n. [Cf. F. rabbiniste.] One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the Karaites, who rejected the traditions.

Rab"bin*ite (-t), n. Same as Rabbinist.

Rab"bit (rb"bt), n. [OE. rabet, akin to OD. robbe, robbeken.] (Zoöl.) Any of the smaller species of the genus Lepus, especially the common European species (Lepus cuniculus), which is often kept as a pet, and has been introduced into many countries. It is remarkably prolific, and has become a pest in some parts of Australia and New Zealand.

The common American rabbit (L. sylvatica) is similar but smaller. See Cottontail, and Jack rabbit, under 2d Jack. The larger species of Lepus are commonly called hares. See Hare.

Angora rabbit (Zoöl.), a variety of the domestic rabbit having long, soft fur. -- Rabbit burrow, a hole in the earth made by rabbits for shelter and habitation. -- Rabbit fish. (Zoöl.) (a) The northern chimæra (Chimæra monstrosa). (b) Any one of several species of plectognath fishes, as the bur fish, and puffer. The term is also locally applied to other fishes. -- Rabbits' ears. (Bot.) See Cyclamen. -- Rabbit warren, a piece of ground appropriated to the breeding and preservation of rabbits. Wright. -- Rock rabbit. (Zoöl.) See Daman, and Klipdas. -- Welsh rabbit, a dish of which the chief constituents are toasted bread and toasted cheese, prepared in various ways. The name is said to be a corruption of Welsh rare bit, but perhaps it is merely a humorous designation.

Rab"bit*ing, n. The hunting of rabbits. T. Hughes.

Rab"bit*ry (-r), n. A place where rabbits are kept; especially, a collection of hutches for tame rabbits.

Rab"ble (rb"b'l), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Iron Manuf.) An iron bar, with the end bent, used in stirring or skimming molten iron in the process of puddling.

Rab"ble, v. t. To stir or skim with a rabble, as molten iron.

Rab"ble, v. i. [Akin to D. rabbelen, Prov. G. rabbeln, to prattle, to chatter: cf. L. rabula a brawling advocate, a pettifogger, fr. rabere to rave. Cf. Rage.] To speak in a confused manner. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Rab"ble, n. [Probably named from the noise made by it (see Rabble, v. i.); cf. D. rapalje rabble, OF. & Prov. F. rapaille.] 1. A tumultuous crowd of vulgar, noisy people; a mob; a confused, disorderly throng.

I saw, I say, come out of London, even unto the presence of the prince, a great rabble of mean and light persons.


Jupiter, Mercury, Bacchus, Venus, Mars, and the whole rabble of licentious deities.

Bp. Warburton.

2. A confused, incoherent discourse; a medley of voices; a chatter.

The rabble, the lowest class of people, without reference to an assembly; the dregs of the people. "The rabble call him ‘lord.'" Shak.

Rab"ble, a. Of or pertaining to a rabble; like, or suited to, a rabble; disorderly; vulgar. [R.] Dryden.

Rab"ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rabbled (-b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rabbling (-blng).] 1. To insult, or assault, by a mob; to mob; as, to rabble a curate. Macaulay.

The bishops' carriages were stopped and the prelates themselves rabbled on their way to the house.

J. R. Green.

2. To utter glibly and incoherently; to mouth without intelligence. [Obs. or Scot.] Foxe.

3. To rumple; to crumple. [Scot.]

Rab"ble*ment (rb"b'l*ment), n. A tumultuous crowd of low people; a rabble. "Rude rablement." Spenser.

And still, as he refused it, the rabblement hooted.


Rab"bler (-blr), n. [See 2d Rabble.] (Mech.) A scraping tool for smoothing metal.

Rab"ble-rout` (-b'l-rout`), n. A tumultuous crowd; a rabble; a noisy throng.

Rab*doid"al (rb*doid"al), a. [Gr. "ra`bdos a rod + -oid + - al.] (Anat.) See Sagittal. [Written also rhabdoidal.]

Rab*dol"o*gy (-dl"*j), n. [Gr. "ra`bdos rod, stick + - logy: cf. F. rabdologie.] The method or art of performing arithmetical operations by means of Napier's bones. See Napier's bones. [Written also rhabdology.]

Rab"do*man`cy (rb"d*mn`s), n. [Gr. "ra`bdos rod + -mancy.] Divination by means of rods or wands. [Written also rhabdomancy.] Sir T. Browne.

Rab"id (rb"d), a. [L. rabidus, from rabere to rave. See Rage, n.] 1. Furious; raging; extremely violent.

The rabid flight
Of winds that ruin ships.


2. Extreme, unreasonable, or fanatical in opinion; excessively zealous; as, a rabid socialist.

3. Affected with the distemper called rabies; mad; as, a rabid dog or fox.

4. (Med.) Of or pertaining to rabies, or hydrophobia; as, rabid virus.

Ra*bid"i*ty (r*bd"*t), n. Rabidness; furiousness.

Rab"id*ly (rb"d*l), adv. In a rabid manner; with extreme violence.

Rab"id*ness, n. The quality or state of being rabid.

||Ra"bi*es (r"b*z), n. [L. See Rage, n.] Same as Hydrophobia (b); canine madness.

Rab"i*net (rb"*nt), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Mil.) A kind of small ordnance formerly in use. [Written also rabanet.] Ainsworth.

Ra"bi*ous (r"b*s), a. Fierce. [Obs.] Daniel.

Ra"bot (r"bt), n. [F.] A rubber of hard wood used in smoothing marble to be polished. Knight.

||Ra"ca (r"k), a. [Gr. "raka`, from Chaldee rk.] A term of reproach used by the Jews of our Savior's time, meaning "worthless."

Whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council.

Matt. v. 22.

||Ra`ca`hout" (r`k`"), n. [F. racahout, probably fr. Ar. rqaut.] A preparation from acorns used by the Arabs as a substitute for chocolate, and also as a beverage for invalids.

Rac*coon" (rk*kn"), n. [F. raton, prop., a little rat, fr. rat rat, perhaps of German origin. See Rat.] (Zoöl.) A North American nocturnal carnivore (Procyon lotor) allied to the bears, but much smaller, and having a long, full tail, banded with black and gray. Its body is gray, varied with black and white. Called also coon, and mapach.

Raccoon dog (Zoöl.), the tanate. -- Raccoon fox (Zoöl.), the cacomixle.

Race (rs), v. t. To raze. [Obs.] Spenser.

<! p. 1182 pr=vmg !>

Race (rs), n. [OF. raïz, L. radix, -icis. See Radix.] A root. "A race or two of ginger." Shak.

Race ginger, ginger in the root, or not pulverized.

Race, n. [F. race; cf. Pr. & Sp. raza, It. razza; all from OHG. reiza line, akin to E. write. See Write.]

1. The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed.

The whole race of mankind.


Whence the long race of Alban fathers come.


Naturalists and ethnographers divide mankind into several distinct varieties, or races. Cuvier refers them all to three, Pritchard enumerates seven, Agassiz eight, Pickering describes eleven. One of the common classifications is that of Blumenbach, who makes five races: the Caucasian, or white race, to which belong the greater part of the European nations and those of Western Asia; the Mongolian, or yellow race, occupying Tartary, China, Japan, etc.; the Ethiopian, or negro race, occupying most of Africa (except the north), Australia, Papua, and other Pacific Islands; the American, or red race, comprising the Indians of North and South America; and the Malayan, or brown race, which occupies the islands of the Indian Archipelago, etc. Many recent writers classify the Malay and American races as branches of the Mongolian. See Illustration in Appendix.

2. Company; herd; breed.

For do but note a wild and wanton herd,
Or race of youthful and unhandled colts,
Fetching mad bounds.


3. (Bot.) A variety of such fixed character that it may be propagated by seed.

4. Peculiar flavor, taste, or strength, as of wine; that quality, or assemblage of qualities, which indicates origin or kind, as in wine; hence, characteristic flavor; smack. "A race of heaven." Shak.

Is it [the wine] of the right race ?


5. Hence, characteristic quality or disposition. [Obs.]

And now I give my sensual race the rein.


Some . . . great race of fancy or judgment.

Sir W. Temple.

Syn. -- Lineage; line; family; house; breed; offspring; progeny; issue.

Race, n. [OE. ras, res, rees, AS. rs a rush, running; akin to Icel. rs course, race. √118.] 1. A progress; a course; a movement or progression.

2. Esp., swift progress; rapid course; a running.

The flight of many birds is swifter than the race of any beasts.


3. Hence: The act or process of running in competition; a contest of speed in any way, as in running, riding, driving, skating, rowing, sailing; in the plural, usually, a meeting for contests in the running of horses; as, he attended the races.

The race is not to the swift.

Eccl. ix. 11.

I wield the gauntlet, and I run the race.


4. Competitive action of any kind, especially when prolonged; hence, career; course of life.

My race of glory run, and race of shame.


5. A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; a powerful current or heavy sea, sometimes produced by the meeting of two tides; as, the Portland Race; the Race of Alderney.

6. The current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel in which it flows; a mill race.

The part of the channel above the wheel is sometimes called the headrace, the part below, the tailrace.

7. (Mach.) A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc.

Race cloth, a cloth worn by horses in racing, having pockets to hold the weights prescribed. -- Race course. (a) The path, generally circular or elliptical, over which a race is run. (b) Same as Race way, below. -- Race cup, a cup given as a prize to the victor in a race. -- Race glass, a kind of field glass. -- Race horse. (a) A horse that runs in competition; specifically, a horse bred or kept for running races. (b) A breed of horses remarkable for swiftness in running. (c) (Zoöl.) The steamer duck. (d) (Zoöl.) A mantis. -- Race knife, a cutting tool with a blade that is hooked at the point, for marking outlines, on boards or metals, as by a pattern, -- used in shipbuilding. -- Race saddle, a light saddle used in racing. -- Race track. Same as Race course (a), above. -- Race way, the canal for the current that drives a water wheel.

Race, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raced (rst); p. pr. & vb. n. Racing (r"sng).] 1. To run swiftly; to contend in a race; as, the animals raced over the ground; the ships raced from port to port.

2. (Steam Mach.) To run too fast at times, as a marine engine or screw, when the screw is lifted out of water by the action of a heavy sea.

Race, v. t. 1. To cause to contend in a race; to drive at high speed; as, to race horses.

2. To run a race with.

Ra*ce"mate (r*s"mt), n. (Chem.) A salt of racemic acid.

Rac`e*ma"tion (rs`*m"shn), n. [L. racematio a gleaning, fr. racemari to glean, racemus a cluster of grapes. See Raceme.] 1. A cluster or bunch, as of grapes. Sir T. Browne.

2. Cultivation or gathering of clusters of grapes. [R.] Bp. Burnet.

Ra*ceme" (r*sm"; 277), n. [L. racemus a bunch of berries, a cluster of grapes. See Raisin.] (Bot.) A flower cluster with an elongated axis and many one-flowered lateral pedicels, as in the currant and chokecherry.

Compound raceme, one having the lower pedicels developed into secondary racemes.

Ra*cemed" (r*smd"), a. (Bot.) Arranged in a raceme, or in racemes.

Ra*ce"mic (r*s"mk), a. [Cf. F. racémique. See Raceme.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in many kinds of grapes. It is also obtained from tartaric acid, with which it is isomeric, and from sugar, gum, etc., by oxidation. It is a sour white crystalline substance, consisting of a combination of dextrorotatory and levorotatory tartaric acids. Gregory.

Rac`e*mif"er*ous (rs`*mf"r*s), a. [L. racemifer bearing clusters; racemus cluster + ferre to bear: cf. F. racémifère.] (Bot.) Bearing racemes, as the currant.

Ra*cem"i*form (r*sm"*fôrm), a. Having the form of a raceme. Gray.

Rac"e*mose` (rs"*ms`), a. [L. racemosus full of clusters.] Resembling a raceme; growing in the form of a raceme; as, (Bot.) racemose berries or flowers; (Anat.) the racemose glands, in which the ducts are branched and clustered like a raceme. Gray.

Rac"e*mous (rs"*ms or r*s"-; 277), a. [Cf. F. racémeux.] See Racemose.

Rac"e*mule (rs"*ml), n. (Bot.) A little raceme.

Ra*cem"u*lose` (r*sm"*ls`), a. (Bot.) Growing in very small racemes.

Ra"cer (r"sr), n. 1. One who, or that which, races, or contends in a race; esp., a race horse.

And bade the nimblest racer seize the prize.


2. (Zoöl.) The common American black snake.

3. (Mil.) One of the circular iron or steel rails on which the chassis of a heavy gun is turned.

{ Rach, Rache (rch) }, n. [AS. ræcc; akin to Icel. rakki.] (Zoöl.) A dog that pursued his prey by scent, as distinguished from the greyhound. [Obs.]

||Ra`chi*al"gi*a (r`k*l"j*), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "ra`chis backbone + 'a`lgos pain.] (Med.) A painful affection of the spine; especially, Pott's disease; also, formerly, lead colic.

Ra*chid"i*an (r*kd"*an), a. [See Rachis.] (Anat. & Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the rachis; spinal; vertebral. Same as Rhachidian.

||Ra*chil"la (r*kl"l), n. [NL.] (Bot.) Same as Rhachilla.

Ra"chi*o*dont (r"k**dnt), a. (Zoöl.) Same as Rhachiodont.

||Ra"chis (r"ks), n.; pl. E. Rachises (-z), L. Rachides (rk"*dz). [NL., fr. Gr. "ra`chis, -ios.] [Written also rhachis.] 1. (Anat.) The spine; the vertebral column.

2. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Same as Rhachis.

Ra*chit"ic (r*kt"k), a. [Cf. F. rachitique. See Rachitis.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to rachitis; affected by rachitis; rickety.

||Ra*chi"tis (r*k"ts), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "rachi^tis (sc. nosos), fr. "ra`chis, -ios, the spine.] [Written also rhachitis.] 1. (Med.) Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See Rickets.

2. (Bot.) A disease which produces abortion in the fruit or seeds. Henslow.

Ra"chi*tome (r"k*tm), n. [F., fr. Gr. "ra`chis, - ios, the spine + te`mnein to cut.] A dissecting instrument for opening the spinal canal. [Written also rachiotome.]

Ra"cial (r"shal), a. Of or pertaining to a race or family of men; as, the racial complexion.

Ra"ci*ly (r"s*l), adv. In a racy manner.

Ra"ci*ness (r"s*ns), n. The quality of being racy; peculiar and piquant flavor.

The general characteristics of his [Cobbett's] style were perspicuity, unequaled and inimitable; . . . a purity always simple, and raciness often elegant.

London Times.

Ra"cing (r"sng), a. & n. from Race, v. t. & i.

Racing crab (Zoöl.), an ocypodian.

Rack (rk), n. Same as Arrack.

Rack, n. [AS. hracca neck, hinder part of the head; cf. AS. hraca throat, G. rachen throat, E. retch.] The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton.

Rack, n. [See Wreck.] A wreck; destruction. [Obs., except in a few phrases.]

Rack and ruin, destruction; utter ruin. [Colloq.] -- To go to rack, to perish; to be destroyed. [Colloq.] "All goes to rack." Pepys.

Rack, n. [Prob. fr. Icel. rek drift, motion, and akin to reka to drive, and E. wrack, wreck. √282.] Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky. Shak.

The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the rack, . . . pass without noise.


And the night rack came rolling up.

C. Kingsley.

Rack, v. i. To fly, as vapor or broken clouds.

Rack, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Racked (rkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Racking.] [See Rack that which stretches, or Rock, v.] To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace; -- said of a horse. Fuller.

Rack, n. A fast amble.

Rack, v. t. [Cf. OF. vin raqué wine squeezed from the dregs of the grapes.] To draw off from the lees or sediment, as wine.

It is in common practice to draw wine or beer from the lees (which we call racking), whereby it will clarify much the sooner.


Rack vintage, wine cleansed and drawn from the lees. Cowell.

Rack, n. [Probably fr. D. rek, rekbank, a rack, rekken to stretch; akin to G. reck, reckbank, a rack, recken to stretch, Dan. række, Sw. räcka, Icel. rekja to spread out, Goth. refrakjan to stretch out; cf. L. porrigere, Gr. 'ore`gein. √115. Cf. Right, a., Ratch.] 1. An instrument or frame used for stretching, extending, retaining, or displaying, something. Specifically: (a) An engine of torture, consisting of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated; -- formerly used judicially for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons.

During the troubles of the fifteenth century, a rack was introduced into the Tower, and was occasionally used under the plea of political necessity.


(b) An instrument for bending a bow. (c) A grate on which bacon is laid. (d) A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts. (e) A frame on which articles are deposited for keeping or arranged for display; as, a clothes rack; a bottle rack, etc. (f) (Naut.) A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes; -- called also rack block. Also, a frame to hold shot. (g) (Mining) A frame or table on which ores are separated or washed. (h) A frame fitted to a wagon for carrying hay, straw, or grain on the stalk, or other bulky loads. (i) A distaff.

2. (Mech.) A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it.

3. That which is extorted; exaction. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.

Mangle rack. (Mach.) See under Mangle, n. -- Rack block. (Naut.) See def. 1 (f), above. -- Rack lashing, a lashing or binding where the rope is tightened, and held tight by the use of a small stick of wood twisted around. -- Rack rail (Railroads), a toothed rack, laid as a rail, to afford a hold for teeth on the driving wheel of a locomotive for climbing steep gradients, as in ascending a mountain. -- Rack saw, a saw having wide teeth. -- Rack stick, the stick used in a rack lashing. -- To be on the rack, to suffer torture, physical or mental. -- To live at rack and manger, to live on the best at another's expense. [Colloq.] -- To put to the rack, to subject to torture; to torment.

A fit of the stone puts a king to the rack, and makes him as miserable as it does the meanest subject.

Sir W. Temple.

Rack (rk), v. t. 1. To extend by the application of force; to stretch or strain; specifically, to stretch on the rack or wheel; to torture by an engine which strains the limbs and pulls the joints.

He was racked and miserably tormented.


2. To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish.

Vaunting aloud but racked with deep despair.


3. To stretch or strain, in a figurative sense; hence, to harass, or oppress by extortion.

The landlords there shamefully rack their tenants.


They [landlords] rack their rents an ace too high.


Grant that I may never rack a Scripture simile beyond the true intent thereof.


Try what my credit can in Venice do;
That shall be racked even to the uttermost.


4. (Mining) To wash on a rack, as metals or ore.

5. (Naut.) To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.

To rack one's brains or wits, to exert them to the utmost for the purpose of accomplishing something.

Syn. -- To torture; torment; rend; tear.

Rack"a*bones` (rk"*bnz`), n. A very lean animal, esp. a horse. [Colloq. U. S.]

Rack"er (rk"r), n. 1. One who racks.

2. A horse that has a racking gait.

Rack"et (rk"t), n. [F. raquette; cf. Sp. raqueta, It. racchetta, which is perhaps for retichetta, and fr. L. rete a net (cf. Reticule); or perh. from the Arabic; cf. Ar. rha the palm of the hand (used at first to strike the ball), and OF. rachette, rasquette, carpus, tarsus.] [Written also racquet.] 1. A thin strip of wood, having the ends brought together, forming a somewhat elliptical hoop, across which a network of catgut or cord is stretched. It is furnished with a handle, and is used for catching or striking a ball in tennis and similar games.

Each one [of the Indians] has a bat curved like a crosier, and ending in a racket.


2. A variety of the game of tennis played with peculiar long-handled rackets; -- chiefly in the plural. Chaucer.

3. A snowshoe formed of cords stretched across a long and narrow frame of light wood. [Canada]

4. A broad wooden shoe or patten for a man or horse, to enable him to step on marshy or soft ground.

Racket court, a court for playing the game of rackets.

Rack"et, v. t. To strike with, or as with, a racket.

Poor man [is] racketed from one temptation to another.


Rack"et, n. [Gael. racaid a noise, disturbance.]

1. Confused, clattering noise; din; noisy talk or sport.

2. A carouse; any reckless dissipation. [Slang]

Rack"et, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Racketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Racketing.] 1. To make a confused noise or racket.

2. To engage in noisy sport; to frolic. Sterne.

3. To carouse or engage in dissipation. [Slang]

Rack"et*er (-r), n. One who makes, or engages in, a racket.

Rack"ett (-t), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Mus.) An old wind instrument of the double bassoon kind, having ventages but not keys.

Rack"et-tail` (-tl`), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of humming birds of the genus Steganura, having two of the tail feathers very long and racket-shaped.

Rack"et-tailed` (-tld`), a. (Zoöl.) Having long and spatulate, or racket-shaped, tail feathers.

Rack"et*y (-), a. Making a tumultuous noise.

Rack"ing, n. (Naut.) Spun yarn used in racking ropes.

Rack"-rent` (-rnt`), n. A rent of the full annual value of the tenement, or near it; an excessive or unreasonably high rent. Blackstone.

Rack"-rent`, v. t. To subject to rack-rent, as a farm or tenant.

Rack"-rent`er (-r), n. 1. One who is subjected to paying rack- rent.

2. One who exacts rack-rent.

<! p. 1183 pr=vmg !>

Rack"tail` (rk"tl`), n. (Horol.) An arm attached to a swinging notched arc or rack, to let off the striking mechanism of a repeating clock.

Rack"work` (-wûrk`), n. Any mechanism having a rack, as a rack and pinion.

Ra"cle (rä"k'l), a. See Rakel. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ra"cle*ness, n. See Rakelness. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Ra`con`teur" (r`kôN`tr"), n. [F.] A relater; a storyteller.

||Ra*coon"da (r*kn"d), n. [From a native name.] (Zoöl.) The coypu.

Ra*co"vi*an (r*k"v*an), n. [From Racow.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Socinians or Unitarians in Poland.

Rac"quet (rk"kt), n. See Racket.

Ra"cy (r"s), a. [Compar. Racier (-s*r); superl. Raciest.] [From Race a tribe, family.] 1. Having a strong flavor indicating origin; of distinct characteristic taste; tasting of the soil; hence, fresh; rich.

The racy wine,
Late from the mellowing cask restored to light.


2. Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively.

Our raciest, most idiomatic popular words.

M. Arnold.

Burns's English, though not so racy as his Scotch, is generally correct.

H. Coleridge.

The rich and racy humor of a natural converser fresh from the plow.

Prof. Wilson.

Syn. -- Spicy; spirited; lively; smart; piquant. -- Racy, Spicy. Racy refers primarily to that peculiar flavor which certain wines are supposed to derive from the soil in which the grapes were grown; and hence we call a style or production racy when it "smacks of the soil," or has an uncommon degree of natural freshness and distinctiveness of thought and language. Spicy, when applied to style, has reference to a spirit and pungency added by art, seasoning the matter like a condiment. It does not, like racy, suggest native peculiarity. A spicy article in a magazine; a spicy retort. Racy in conversation; a racy remark.

Rich, racy verses, in which we
The soil from which they come, taste, smell, and see.


Rad (rd), obs. imp. & p. p. of Read, Rede. Spenser.

Rad"de (rd"de), obs. imp. of Read, Rede. Chaucer.

Rad"dle (rd"d'l), n. [Cf. G. räder, rädel, sieve, or perhaps E. reed.] 1. A long, flexible stick, rod, or branch, which is interwoven with others, between upright posts or stakes, in making a kind of hedge or fence.

2. A hedge or fence made with raddles; -- called also raddle hedge. Todd.

3. An instrument consisting of a wooden bar, with a row of upright pegs set in it, used by domestic weavers to keep the warp of a proper width, and prevent tangling when it is wound upon the beam of the loom.

Rad"dle, v. t. To interweave or twist together.

Raddling or working it up like basket work.

De Foe.

Rad"dle, n. [Cf. Ruddle.] A red pigment used in marking sheep, and in some mechanical processes; ruddle. "A raddle of rouge." Thackeray.

Rad"dle, v. t. To mark or paint with, or as with, raddle. "Whitened and raddled old women." Thackeray.

Rad"dock (-dk), n. (Zoöl.) The ruddock. [Prov. Eng.]

Rade (rd), n. A raid. [Scot.]

||Ra`deau" (r`d"), n. [F.] A float; a raft.

Three vessels under sail, and one at anchor, above Split Rock, and behind it the radeau Thunderer.

W. Irving.

Ra"di*al (r"d*al), a. [Cf. F. radial. See Radius.] Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, (Bot.) radial projections; (Zoöl.) radial vessels or canals; (Anat.) the radial artery.

Radial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.

||Ra`di*a"le (r`d*"l), n.; pl. Radialia (- l*) [NL. See Radial.] 1. (Anat.) The bone or cartilage of the carpus which articulates with the radius and corresponds to the scaphoid bone in man.

2. pl. (Zoöl.) Radial plates in the calyx of a crinoid.

Ra"di*al*ly (r"d*al*l), adv. In a radial manner.

Ra"di*an (-an), n. [From Radius.] (Math.) An arc of a circle which is equal to the radius, or the angle measured by such an arc.

{ Ra"di*ance (-ans), Ra"di*an*cy (- an*s), } n. The quality of being radiant; brilliancy; effulgence; vivid brightness; as, the radiance of the sun.

Girt with omnipotence, with radiance crowned.


What radiancy of glory,
What light beyond compare !


Syn. -- Luster; brilliancy; splendor; glare; glitter.

Ra"di*ant (-ant), a. [L. radians, -antis, p. pr. of radiare to emit rays or beams, fr. radius ray: cf. F. radiant. See Radius, Ray a divergent line.] 1. Emitting or proceeding as from a center; resembling rays; radiating; radiate.

2. Especially, emitting or darting rays of light or heat; issuing in beams or rays; beaming with brightness; emitting a vivid light or splendor; as, the radiant sun.

Mark what radiant state she spreads.


3. Beaming with vivacity and happiness; as, a radiant face.

4. (Her.) Giving off rays; -- said of a bearing; as, the sun radiant; a crown radiant.

5. (Bot.) Having a raylike appearance, as the large marginal flowers of certain umbelliferous plants; -- said also of the cluster which has such marginal flowers.

Radiant energy (Physics), energy given out or transmitted by radiation, as in the case of light and radiant heat. -- Radiant heat, heat proceeding in right lines, or directly from the heated body, after the manner of light, in distinction from heat conducted or carried by intervening media. -- Radiant point. (Astron.) See Radiant, n., 3.

Ra"di*ant, n. 1. (Opt.) The luminous point or object from which light emanates; also, a body radiating light brightly.

2. (Geom.) A straight line proceeding from a given point, or fixed pole, about which it is conceived to revolve.

3. (Astron.) The point in the heavens at which the apparent paths of shooting stars meet, when traced backward, or whence they appear to radiate.

Ra"di*ant*ly (r"d*ant*l), adv. In a radiant manner; with glittering splendor.

Ra"di*a*ry (-*r), n. [Cf. F. radiaire.] (Zoöl.) A radiate. [Obs.]

||Ra`di*a"ta (-"t), n. pl. [NL., fr. radiatus, p. p. See Radiate.] (Zoöl.) An extensive artificial group of invertebrates, having all the parts arranged radially around the vertical axis of the body, and the various organs repeated symmetrically in each ray or spheromere.

It includes the cœlenterates and the echinoderms. Formerly, the group was supposed to be a natural one, and was considered one of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom.

Ra"di*ate (r"d*t), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Radiated (- `td); p. pr. & vb. n. Radiating.] [L. radiatus, p. p. of radiare to furnish with spokes or rays, to radiate, fr. radius ray. See Radius, Ray a divergent line.] 1. To emit rays; to be radiant; to shine.

Virtues shine more clear
In them [kings], and radiate like the sun at noon.


2. To proceed in direct lines from a point or surface; to issue in rays, as light or heat.

Light radiates from luminous bodies directly to our eyes.


Ra"di*ate, v. t. 1. To emit or send out in direct lines from a point or points; as, to radiate heat.

2. To enlighten; to illuminate; to shed light or brightness on; to irradiate. [R.]

Ra"di*ate (-t), a. [L. radiatus, p. p.] 1. Having rays or parts diverging from a center; radiated; as, a radiate crystal.

2. (Bot.) Having in a capitulum large ray florets which are unlike the disk florets, as in the aster, daisy, etc.

3. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Radiata.

Ra"di*ate, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Radiata.

Ra"di*a`ted (-`td), a. 1. Emitted, or sent forth, in rays or direct lines; as, radiated heat.

2. Formed of, or arranged like, rays or radii; having parts or markings diverging, like radii, from a common center or axis; as, a radiated structure; a radiated group of crystals.

3. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Radiata.

Ra"di*ate*ly (-t*l), adv. In a radiate manner; with radiation or divergence from a center.

Ra"di*ate-veined` (-vnd`), a. (Bot.) Having the principal veins radiating, or diverging, from the apex of the petiole; -- said of such leaves as those of the grapevine, most maples, and the castor-oil plant.

Ra`di*at"i*form (-t"*fôrm), a. (Bot.) Having the marginal florets enlarged and radiating but not ligulate, as in the capitula or heads of the cornflower. Gray.

Ra`di*a"tion (-"shn), n. [L. radiatio: cf. F. radiation.] 1. The act of radiating, or the state of being radiated; emission and diffusion of rays of light; beamy brightness.

2. The shooting forth of anything from a point or surface, like the diverging rays of light; as, the radiation of heat.

Ra"di*a*tive (r"d**tv), a. Capable of radiating; acting by radiation. Tyndall.

Ra"di*a`tor (-`tr), n. That which radiates or emits rays, whether of light or heat; especially, that part of a heating apparatus from which the heat is radiated or diffused; as, a steam radiator.

Rad"i*cal (rd"*kal), a. [F., fr. L. radicalis having roots, fr. radix, -icis, a root. See Radix.] 1. Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the root.

2. Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to the principles, or the like; original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils; radical reform; a radical party.

The most determined exertions of that authority, against them, only showed their radical independence.


3. (Bot.) (a) Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant; as, radical tubers or hairs. (b) Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not rise above the ground; as, the radical leaves of the dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.

4. (Philol.) Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.

5. (Math.) Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a radical quantity; a radical sign. See below.

Radical axis of two circles. (Geom.) See under Axis. -- Radical pitch, the pitch or tone with which the utterance of a syllable begins. Rush. -- Radical quantity (Alg.), a quantity to which the radical sign is prefixed; specifically, a quantity which is not a perfect power of the degree indicated by the radical sign; a surd. -- Radical sign (Math.), the sign √ (originally the letter r, the initial of radix, root), placed before any quantity, denoting that its root is to be extracted; thus, √a, or √(a + b). To indicate any other than the square root, a corresponding figure is placed over the sign; thus, a, indicates the third or cube root of a. -- Radical stress (Elocution), force of utterance falling on the initial part of a syllable or sound. -- Radical vessels (Anat.), minute vessels which originate in the substance of the tissues.

Syn. -- Primitive; original; natural; underived; fundamental; entire. -- Radical, Entire. These words are frequently employed as interchangeable in describing some marked alteration in the condition of things. There is, however, an obvious difference between them. A radical cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of the thing in question; and it is entire, in the sense that, by affecting the root, it affects in an appropriate degree the entire body nourished by the root; but it may not be entire in the sense of making a change complete in its nature, as well as in its extent. Hence, we speak of a radical change; a radical improvement; radical differences of opinion; while an entire change, an entire improvement, an entire difference of opinion, might indicate more than was actually intended. A certain change may be both radical and entire, in every sense.

Rad"i*cal (rd"*kal), n. 1. (Philol.) (a) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon. (b) A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.

The words we at present make use of, and understand only by common agreement, assume a new air and life in the understanding, when you trace them to their radicals, where you find every word strongly stamped with nature; full of energy, meaning, character, painting, and poetry.


2. (Politics) One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; -- opposed to conservative.

In politics they [the Independents] were, to use the phrase of their own time, "Root-and-Branch men," or, to use the kindred phrase of our own, Radicals.


3. (Chem.) (a) A characteristic, essential, and fundamental constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an atom.

As a general rule, the metallic atoms are basic radicals, while the nonmetallic atoms are acid radicals.

J. P. Cooke.

(b) Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not completely saturated, which are so linked that their union implies certain properties, and are conveniently regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a residue; -- called also a compound radical. Cf. Residue.

4. (Alg.) A radical quantity. See under Radical, a.

An indicated root of a perfect power of the degree indicated is not a radical but a rational quantity under a radical form.

Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.)

5. (Anat.) A radical vessel. See under Radical, a.

Rad"i*cal*ism (-z'm), n. [Cf. F. radicalisme.] The quality or state of being radical; specifically, the doctrines or principles of radicals in politics or social reform.

Radicalism means root work; the uprooting of all falsehoods and abuses.

F. W. Robertson.

Rad`i*cal"i*ty (-kl"*t), n. 1. Germinal principle; source; origination. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

2. Radicalness; relation to a root in essential nature or principle.

Rad"i*cal*ly (rd"*kal*l), adv. 1. In a radical manner; at, or from, the origin or root; fundamentally; as, a scheme or system radically wrong or defective.

2. Without derivation; primitively; essentially. [R.]

These great orbs thus radically bright.


Rad"i*cal*ness, n. Quality or state of being radical.

Rad"i*cant (-kant), a. [L. radicans, p. pr.: cf. F. radicant. See Radicate, a.] (Bot.) Taking root on, or above, the ground; rooting from the stem, as the trumpet creeper and the ivy.

Rad"i*cate (-kt), a. [L. radicatus, p. p. of radicari to take root, fr. radix. See Radix.] Radicated.

Rad"i*cate (-kt), v. i. To take root; to become rooted. Evelyn.

Rad"i*cate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Radicated (-k`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Radicating.] To cause to take root; to plant deeply and firmly; to root.

Time should . . . rather confirm and radicate in us the remembrance of God's goodness.


Rad"i*ca`ted (-k`td), a. Rooted; specifically: (a) (Bot.) Having roots, or possessing a well-developed root. (b) (Zoöl.) Having rootlike organs for attachment.

Rad`i*ca"tion (-k"shn), n. [Cf. F. radication.] 1. The process of taking root, or state of being rooted; as, the radication of habits.

2. (Bot.) The disposition of the roots of a plant.

Rad"i*cel (rd"*sl), n. [Dim. of radix.] (Bot.) A small branch of a root; a rootlet.

Ra*dic`i*flo"rous (r*ds`*fl"rs), a. [L. radix, -icis, root + flos, floris, a flower.] (Bot.) Rhizanthous.

Ra*dic"i*form (r*ds"*fôm), a. (Bot.) Having the nature or appearance of a radix or root.

Rad"i*cle (rd"*k'l), n. [L. radicula, dim. of radix, -icis, root: cf. F. radicule. See Radix.] (Bot.) (a) The rudimentary stem of a plant which supports the cotyledons in the seed, and from which the root is developed downward; the stem of the embryo; the caulicle. (b) A rootlet; a radicel.

Ra*dic"u*lar (r*dk"*lr), a. Of or pertaining to roots, or the root of a plant.

Rad"i*cule (rd"*kl), n. (Bot.) A radicle.

Ra*dic"u*lose` (r*dk"*ls`), a. (Bot.) Producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.

Ra"di*i (r"d*), n., pl. of Radius.

Ra"di*o- (r"d*-). A combining form indicating connection with, or relation to, a radius or ray; specifically (Anat.), with the radius of the forearm; as, radio-ulnar, radio- muscular, radio-carpal.

||Ra`di*o-flag`el*la"ta (- flj`l*l"t), n. pl. [NL. See Radiate, and Flagellata.] (Zoöl.) A group of Protozoa having both flagella and pseudopodia.

Ra"di*o*graph (r"d**grf), n. [Radio- + -graph.] (Phys.) A picture produced by the Röntgen rays upon a sensitive surface, photographic or fluorescent, especially a picture of opaque objects traversed by the rays.

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||Ra`di*o*la"ri*a (r`d**l"r*), n. pl. [NL. See Radioli.] (Zoöl.) Order of rhizopods, usually having a siliceous skeleton, or shell, and sometimes radiating spicules. The pseudopodia project from the body like rays. It includes the polycystines. See Polycystina.

Ra`di*o*la"ri*an (r`d**l"r*an), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Radiolaria. -- n. One of the Radiolaria.

||Ra*di"o*li (r*d"*l), n. pl.; sing. Radiolus (-ls). [NL., dim. of L. radius radius: cf. L. radiolus a feeble sunbeam.] (Zoöl.) The barbs of the radii of a feather; barbules.

Ra"di*o*lite (r"d**lt), n. [L. radius ray + -lite: cf. F. radiolithe.] (Paleon.) A hippurite.

Ra`di*om"e*ter (-m"*tr), n. [L. radius radius + -meter: cf. F. radiomètre.] 1. (Naut.) A forestaff.

2. (Physics) An instrument designed for measuring the mechanical effect of radiant energy.

It consists of a number of light disks, blackened on one side, placed at the ends of extended arms, supported on a pivot in an exhausted glass vessel. When exposed to rays of light or heat, the arms rotate.

Ra`di*o*mi*crom"e*ter (- *m*krm"*tr), n. [Radio- + micrometer.] (Physics) A very sensitive modification or application of the thermopile, used for indicating minute changes of radiant heat, or temperature.

Ra"di*o*phone (r"d**fn), n. [Radio- + Gr. fwnh` sound.] (Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of luminous or thermal rays. It is essentially the same as the photophone.

Ra`di*oph"o*ny (-f"*n), n. (Physics) The art or practice of using the radiophone.

Ra"di*ous (r"d*s), a. [L. radiosus.] 1. Consisting of rays, as light. [R.] Berkeley.

2. Radiating; radiant. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.

Rad"ish (rd"sh), n. [F. radis; cf. It. radice, Pr. raditz; all fr. L. radix, -icis, a root, an edible root, especially a radish, akin to E. wort. See Wort, and cf. Eradicate, Race a root, Radix.] (Bot.) The pungent fleshy root of a well-known cruciferous plant (Raphanus sativus); also, the whole plant.

Radish fly (Zoöl.), a small two- winged fly (Anthomyia raphani) whose larvæ burrow in radishes. It resembles the onion fly. -- Rat-tailed radish (Bot.), an herb (Raphanus caudatus) having a long, slender pod, which is sometimes eaten. -- Wild radish (Bot.), the jointed charlock.

Ra"di*us (r"d*s), n.; pl. L. Radii (- ); E. Radiuses (-s*z). [L., a staff, rod, spoke of a wheel, radius, ray. See Ray a divergent line.] 1. (Geom.) A right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery; the semidiameter of a circle or sphere.

2. (Anat.) The preaxial bone of the forearm, or brachium, corresponding to the tibia of the hind limb. See Illust. of Artiodactyla.

The radius is on the same side of the limb as the thumb, or pollex, and in man it is so articulated that its lower end is capable of partial rotation about the ulna.

3. (Bot.) A ray, or outer floret, of the capitulum of such plants as the sunflower and the daisy. See Ray, 2.

4. pl. (Zoöl.) (a) The barbs of a perfect feather. (b) Radiating organs, or color-markings, of the radiates.

5. The movable limb of a sextant or other angular instrument. Knight.

Radius bar (Mach.), a bar pivoted at one end, about which it swings, and having its other end attached to a piece which it causes to move in a circular arc. -- Radius of curvature. See under Curvature.

||Ra"di*us vec"tor (vk"tr). 1. (Math.) A straight line (or the length of such line) connecting any point, as of a curve, with a fixed point, or pole, round which the straight line turns, and to which it serves to refer the successive points of a curve, in a system of polar coördinates. See Coördinate, n.

2. (Astron.) An ideal straight line joining the center of an attracting body with that of a body describing an orbit around it, as a line joining the sun and a planet or comet, or a planet and its satellite.

Ra"dix (r"dks), n.; pl. L. Radices (rd"*sz), E. Radixes (r"dks*z). [L. radix, -icis, root. See Radish.] 1. (Philol.) A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.

2. (Math.) (a) A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the radix, or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration. (b) (Alg.) A finite expression, from which a series is derived. [R.] Hutton.

3. (Bot.) The root of a plant.

||Rad"u*la (rd"*l), n.; pl. Radulæ (- l). [L., a scraper, fr. radere to scrape.] (Zoöl.) The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; -- called also lingual ribbon, and tongue. See Odontophore.

Ra*du"li*form (r*d"l*fôrm), a. [L. radula a scraper + -form.] Rasplike; as, raduliform teeth.

Raff (rf), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raffed (rft); p. pr. & vb. n. Raffing.] [OF. raffer, of German origin; cf. G. raffen; akin to E. rap to snatch. See Rap, and cf. Riffraff, Rip to tear.] To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep. [Obs.]

Causes and effects which I thus raff up together.


Raff, n. 1. A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse. "A raff of errors." Barrow.

2. The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; -- chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, riffraff.

3. A low fellow; a churl.

Raff merchant, a dealer in lumber and odd refuse. [Prov. Eng.]

Raf`fa*el*esque" (rf`f*l*sk"), a. Raphaelesque.

Raf"fi*a (rf"f*), n. (Bot.) A fibrous material used for tying plants, said to come from the leaves of a palm tree of the genus Raphia. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).

Raf"fi*nose` (rf"f*ns`), n. [F. raffiner to refine.] (Chem.) A colorless crystalline slightly sweet substance obtained from the molasses of the sugar beet.

Raff"ish (rf"sh), a. Resembling, or having the character of, raff, or a raff; worthless; low.

A sad, raffish, disreputable character.


Raf"fle (rf"f'l), n. [F. rafle; faire rafle to sweep stakes, fr. rafler to carry or sweep away, rafler tout to sweep stakes; of German origin; cf. G. raffeln to snatch up, to rake. See Raff, v.] 1. A kind of lottery, in which several persons pay, in shares, the value of something put up as a stake, and then determine by chance (as by casting dice) which one of them shall become the sole possessor.

2. A game of dice in which he who threw three alike won all the stakes. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

Raf"fle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raffled (-f'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Raffling (-flng).] To engage in a raffle; as, to raffle for a watch.

Raf"fle, v. t. To dispose of by means of a raffle; -- often followed by off; as, to raffle off a horse.

Raf"fler (rf"flr), n. One who raffles.

||Raf*fle"si*a (rf*fl"zh*), n. [NL. Named from its discoverer, Sir S. Raffles.] (Bot.) A genus of stemless, leafless plants, living parasitically upon the roots and stems of grapevines in Malaysia. The flowers have a carrionlike odor, and are very large, in one species (Rafflesia Arnoldi) having a diameter of two or three feet.

Raft (rft), obs. imp. & p. p. of Reave. Spenser.

Raft, n. [Originally, a rafter, spar, and fr. Icel. raptr a rafter; akin to Dan. raft, Prov. G. raff a rafter, spar; cf. OHG. rfo, rvo, a beam, rafter, Icel. rf roof. Cf. Rafter, n.] 1. A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float.

2. A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation. [U.S.]

3. [Perhaps akin to raff a heap.] A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately. [Slang, U. S.] "A whole raft of folks." W. D. Howells.

Raft bridge. (a) A bridge whose points of support are rafts. (b) A bridge that consists of floating timbers fastened together. -- Raft duck. [The name alludes to its swimming in dense flocks.] (Zoöl.) (a) The bluebill, or greater scaup duck; -- called also flock duck. See Scaup. (b) The redhead. -- Raft port (Naut.), a large, square port in a vessel's side for loading or unloading timber or other bulky articles; a timber or lumber port.

Raft, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rafted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rafting.] To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to raft timber.

Raf"te (rf"te), obs. imp. of Reave. Chaucer.

Raft"er (rft"r), n. A raftsman.

Raft"er, n. [AS. ræfter; akin to E. raft, n. See Raft.] (Arch.) Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See Illust. of Queen-post.

[Courtesy] oft is sooner found in lowly sheds,
With smoky rafters, than in tapestry halls.


Raft"er, v. t. 1. To make into rafters, as timber.

2. To furnish with rafters, as a house.

3. (Agric.) To plow so as to turn the grass side of each furrow upon an unplowed ridge; to ridge. [Eng.]

Raft"ing, n. The business of making or managing rafts.

Rafts"man (rfts"man), n.; pl. Raftsmen (-men). A man engaged in rafting.

Raf"ty (rf"t), a. [Perhaps akin to G. reif hoarfrost.] Damp; musty. [Prov. Eng.]

Rag (rg), v. t. [Cf. Icel. rægja to calumniate, OHG. ruogen to accuse, G. rügen to censure, AS. wrgan, Goth. wrhjan to accuse.] To scold or rail at; to rate; to tease; to torment; to banter. [Prov. Eng.] Pegge.

Rag, n. [OE. ragge, probably of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. rögg a tuft, shagginess, Sw. ragg rough hair. Cf. Rug, n.] 1. A piece of cloth torn off; a tattered piece of cloth; a shred; a tatter; a fragment.

Cowls, hoods, and habits, with their wearers, tossed.
And fluttered into rags.


Not having otherwise any rag of legality to cover the shame of their cruelty.


2. pl. Hence, mean or tattered attire; worn-out dress.

And virtue, though in rags, will keep me warm.


3. A shabby, beggarly fellow; a ragamuffin.

The other zealous rag is the compositor.

B. Jonson.

Upon the proclamation, they all came in, both tag and rag.


4. (Geol.) A coarse kind of rock, somewhat cellular in texture.

5. (Metal Working) A ragged edge.

6. A sail, or any piece of canvas. [Nautical Slang]

Our ship was a clipper with every rag set.


Rag bolt, an iron pin with barbs on its shank to retain it in place. -- Rag carpet, a carpet of which the weft consists of narrow strips of cloth sewed together, end to end. -- Rag dust, fine particles of ground-up rags, used in making papier-maché and wall papers. -- Rag wheel. (a) A chain wheel; a sprocket wheel. (b) A polishing wheel made of disks of cloth clamped together on a mandrel. -- Rag wool, wool obtained by tearing woolen rags into fine bits; shoddy.

Rag (rg), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ragged (rgd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ragging (-gng).] To become tattered. [Obs.]

Rag, v. t. 1. To break (ore) into lumps for sorting.

2. To cut or dress roughly, as a grindstone.

{ Rag"a*bash` (-*bsh`), Rag"a*brash` (-brsh`), } n. An idle, ragged person. Nares. Grose.

Rag`a*muf"fin (-mf"fn), n. [Cf. Ragamofin, the name of a demon in some of the old mysteries.] 1. A paltry or disreputable fellow; a mean wretch. Dryden.

2. A person who wears ragged clothing. [Colloq.]

3. (Zoöl.) The long-tailed titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]

Rage (rj), n. [F., fr. L. rabies, fr. rabere to rave; cf. Skr. rabh to seize, rabhas violence. Cf. Rabid, Rabies, Rave.] 1. Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will. "In great rage of pain." Bacon.

He appeased the rage of hunger with some scraps of broken meat.


Convulsed with a rage of grief.


2. Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.

Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage.


3. A violent or raging wind. [Obs.] Chaucer.

4. The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage.

Syn. -- Anger; vehemence; excitement; passion; fury. See Anger.

Rage, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raged (rjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raging (r"jng).] [OF. ragier. See Rage, n.]

1. To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion. "Whereat he inly raged." Milton.

When one so great begins to rage, he is hunted
Even to falling.


2. To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds.

Why do the heathen rage?

Ps. ii. 1.

The madding wheels
Of brazen chariots raged; dire was the noise.


3. To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague raged in Cairo.

4. To toy or act wantonly; to sport. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Syn. -- To storm; fret; chafe; fume.

Rage, v. t. To enrage. [Obs.] Shak.

Rage"ful (-fl), a. Full of rage; expressing rage. [Obs.] "Rageful eyes." Sir P. Sidney.

Ra"ger*y (r"jr*), n. Wantonness. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rag"ged (rg"gd), a. [From Rag, n.] 1. Rent or worn into tatters, or till the texture is broken; as, a ragged coat; a ragged sail.

2. Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, ragged rocks.

3. Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the ear; dissonant. [R.] "A ragged noise of mirth." Herbert.

4. Wearing tattered clothes; as, a ragged fellow.

5. Rough; shaggy; rugged.

What shepherd owns those ragged sheep?


Ragged lady (Bot.), the fennel flower (Nigella Damascena). -- Ragged robin (Bot.), a plant of the genus Lychnis (L. Flos- cuculi), cultivated for its handsome flowers, which have the petals cut into narrow lobes. -- Ragged sailor (Bot.), prince's feather (Polygonum orientale). -- Ragged school, a free school for poor children, where they are taught and in part fed; -- a name given at first because they came in their common clothing. [Eng.]

-- Rag"ged*ly, adv. -- Rag"ged*ness, n.

{ Rag"gie (rg"g), or Rag"gy }, a. Ragged; rough. [Obs.] "A stony and raggie hill." Holland.

||Ragh`u*van"sa (rg`*vn"s), n. [Skr. Raguvaça.] A celebrated Sanskrit poem having for its subject the Raghu dynasty.

Ra"ging (r"jng), a. & n. from Rage, v. i. -- Ra"ging*ly, adv.

Ra"gious (r"js), a. Raging; furious; rageful. [Obs.] -- Ra"gious*ness, n. [Obs.]

Rag"lan (rg"lan), n. A loose overcoat with large sleeves; -- named from Lord Raglan, an English general.

Rag"man (-man), n.; pl. Ragmen (-men). A man who collects, or deals in, rags.

Rag"man, n. [See Ragman's roll.] A document having many names or numerous seals, as a papal bull. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Rag"man's roll` (-manz rl`). [For ragman roll a long list of names, the devil's roll or list; where ragman is of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. ragmenni a craven person, Sw. raggen the devil. Icel. ragmenni is fr. ragr cowardly (another form of argr, akin to AS. earg cowardly, vile, G. arg bad) + menni (in comp.) man, akin to E. man. See Roll, and cf. Rigmarole.] The rolls of deeds on parchment in which the Scottish nobility and gentry subscribed allegiance to Edward I. of England, A. D. 1296. [Also written ragman- roll.]

Ra*gout" (r*g"), n. [F. ragoût, fr. ragoûter to restore one's appetite, fr. L. pref. re- re- + ad to + gustare to taste, gustus taste. See Gust relish.] A dish made of pieces of meat, stewed, and highly seasoned; as, a ragout of mutton.

Rag"pick`er (rg"pk`r), n. One who gets a living by picking up rags and refuse things in the streets.

{ Ra*guled" (r*gld"), Rag*guled" (rg-), } a. [Cf. F. raguer to chafe, fret, rub, or E. rag.] (Her.) Notched in regular diagonal breaks; -- said of a line, or a bearing having such an edge.

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Rag"weed` (rg"wd`), n. (Bot.) A common American composite weed (Ambrosia artemisiæfolia) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.

Great ragweed, a coarse American herb (Ambrosia trifida), with rough three-lobed opposite leaves.

Rag"work` (-wûrk`), n. (Masonry) A kind of rubblework. In the United States, any rubblework of thin and small stones.

Rag"wort` (-wûrt`), n. (Bot.) A name given to several species of the composite genus Senecio.

Senecio aureus is the golden ragwort of the United States; S. elegans is the purple ragwort of South Africa.

||Ra"ia (r"y), n. [L., a ray. Cf. Ray the fish.] (Zoöl.) A genus of rays which includes the skates. See Skate.

||Ra"iæ (r"y), n. pl. [NL. See Raia.] (Zoöl.) The order of elasmobranch fishes which includes the sawfishes, skates, and rays; -- called also Rajæ, and Rajii.

Raid (rd), n. [Icel. reið a riding, raid; akin to E. road. See Road a way.] 1. A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray.

Marauding chief! his sole delight
The moonlight raid, the morning fight.

Sir W. Scott.

There are permanent conquests, temporary occupations, and occasional raids.

H. Spenser.

A Scottish word which came into common use in the United States during the Civil War, and was soon extended in its application.

2. An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a raid of the police upon a gambling house; a raid of contractors on the public treasury. [Colloq. U. S.]

Raid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raided; p. pr. & vb. n. Raiding.] To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments raided the border counties.

Raid"er (-r), n. One who engages in a raid. [U.S.]

Rail (rl), n. [OE. reil, reel, AS. hrægel, hrægl, a garment; akin to OHG. hregil, OFries. hreil.] An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women. Fairholt.

Rail, v. i. [Etymol. uncertain.] To flow forth; to roll out; to course. [Obs.]

Streams of tears from her fair eyes forth railing.


Rail, n. [Akin to LG. & Sw. regel bar, bolt, G. riegel a rail, bar, or bolt, OHG. rigil, rigel, bar, bolt, and possibly to E. row a line.] 1. A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc.

2. (Arch.) A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See Illust. of Style.

3. (Railroad) A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc.

4. (Naut.) (a) The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks. (b) The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed.

Rail fence. See under Fence. -- Rail guard. (a) A device attached to the front of a locomotive on each side for clearing the rail of obstructions. (b) A guard rail. See under Guard. -- Rail joint (Railroad), a splice connecting the adjacent ends of rails, in distinction from a chair, which is merely a seat. The two devices are sometimes united. Among several hundred varieties, the fish joint is standard. See Fish joint, under Fish. -- Rail train (Iron & Steel Manuf.), a train of rolls in a rolling mill, for making rails for railroads from blooms or billets.

Rail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Railed (rld); p. pr. & vb. n. Railing.] 1. To inclose with rails or a railing.

It ought to be fenced in and railed.


2. To range in a line. [Obs.]

They were brought to London all railed in ropes, like a team of horses in a cart.


Rail, n. [F. râle, fr. râler to have a rattling in the throat; of German origin, and akin to E. rattle. See Rattle, v.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family Rallidæ, especially those of the genus Rallus, and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds.

The common European water rail (Rallus aquaticus) is called also bilcock, skitty coot, and brook runner. The best known American species are the clapper rail, or salt-marsh hen (Rallus longirostris, var. crepitans); the king, or red-breasted, rail (R. elegans) (called also fresh-water marsh-hen); the lesser clapper, or Virginia, rail (R. Virginianus); and the Carolina, or sora, rail (Porzana Carolina). See Sora.

Land rail (Zoöl.), the corncrake.

Rail, v. i. [F. railler; cf. Sp. rallar to grate, scrape, molest; perhaps fr. (assumed) LL. radiculare, fr. L. radere to scrape, grate. Cf. Rally to banter, Rase.] To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; -- followed by at or against, formerly by on. Shak.

And rail at arts he did not understand.


Lesbia forever on me rails.


Rail (rl), v. t. 1. To rail at. [Obs.] Feltham.

2. To move or influence by railing. [R.]

Rail the seal from off my bond.


Rail"er (-r), n. One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious language.

Rail"ing, a. Expressing reproach; insulting.

Angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them.

2 Pet. ii. 11.

Rail"ing, n. 1. A barrier made of a rail or of rails.

2. Rails in general; also, material for making rails.

Rail"ing*ly, adv. With scoffing or insulting language.

Rail"ler*y (rl"lr* or rl"-; 277), n. [F. raillerie, fr. railler. See Rail to scoff.] Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting language; satirical merriment.

Let raillery be without malice or heat.

B. Jonson.

Studies employed on low objects; the very naming of them is sufficient to turn them into raillery.


||Rail`leur" (r`lyr" or r`yr"), n. [F.] A banterer; a jester; a mocker. [R.] Wycherley.

{ Rail"road` (rl"rd`), Rail"way` (- w`), } n. 1. A road or way consisting of one or more parallel series of iron or steel rails, patterned and adjusted to be tracks for the wheels of vehicles, and suitably supported on a bed or substructure.

The modern railroad is a development and adaptation of the older tramway.

2. The road, track, etc., with all the lands, buildings, rolling stock, franchises, etc., pertaining to them and constituting one property; as, a certain railroad has been put into the hands of a receiver.

Railway is the commoner word in England; railroad the commoner word in the United States.

In the following and similar phrases railroad and railway are used interchangeably: --

Atmospheric railway, Elevated railway, etc. See under Atmospheric, Elevated, etc. -- Cable railway. See Cable road, under Cable. -- Ferry railway, a submerged track on which an elevated platform runs, for carrying a train of cars across a water course. -- Gravity railway, a railway, in a hilly country, on which the cars run by gravity down gentle slopes for long distances after having been hauled up steep inclines to an elevated point by stationary engines. -- Railway brake, a brake used in stopping railway cars or locomotives. -- Railway car, a large, heavy vehicle with flanged wheels fitted for running on a railway. [U.S.] -- Railway carriage, a railway passenger car. [Eng.] -- Railway scale, a platform scale bearing a track which forms part of the line of a railway, for weighing loaded cars. -- Railway slide. See Transfer table, under Transfer. -- Railway spine (Med.), an abnormal condition due to severe concussion of the spinal cord, such as occurs in railroad accidents. It is characterized by ataxia and other disturbances of muscular function, sensory disorders, pain in the back, impairment of general health, and cerebral disturbance, -- the symptoms often not developing till some months after the injury. -- Underground railroad or railway. (a) A railroad or railway running through a tunnel, as beneath the streets of a city. (b) Formerly, a system of coöperation among certain active antislavery people in the United States, by which fugitive slaves were secretly helped to reach Canada. [In the latter sense railroad, and not railway, was used.] "Their house was a principal entrepôt of the underground railroad." W. D. Howells.

Rail"road`ing, n. The construction of a railroad; the business of managing or operating a railroad. [Colloq. U. S.]

Rai"ment (r"ment), n. [Abbrev. fr. arraiment. See Array.] 1. Clothing in general; vesture; garments; -- usually singular in form, with a collective sense.

Living, both food and raiment she supplies.


2. An article of dress. [R. or Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

Rain (rn), n. & v. Reign. [Obs.] Spenser.

Rain (rn), n. [OE. rein, AS. regen; akin to OFries. rein, D. & G. regen, OS. & OHG. regan, Icel., Dan., & Sw. regn, Goth. rign, and prob. to L. rigare to water, to wet; cf. Gr. bre`chein to wet, to rain.] Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops.

Rain is water by the heat of the sun divided into very small parts ascending in the air, till, encountering the cold, it be condensed into clouds, and descends in drops.


Fair days have oft contracted wind and rain.


Rain is distinguished from mist by the size of the drops, which are distinctly visible. When water falls in very small drops or particles, it is called mist; and fog is composed of particles so fine as to be not only individually indistinguishable, but to float or be suspended in the air. See Fog, and Mist.

Rain band (Meteorol.), a dark band in the yellow portion of the solar spectrum near the sodium line, caused by the presence of watery vapor in the atmosphere, and hence sometimes used in weather predictions. -- Rain bird (Zoöl.), the yaffle, or green woodpecker. [Prov. Eng.] The name is also applied to various other birds, as to Saurothera vetula of the West Indies. -- Rain fowl (Zoöl.), the channel-bill cuckoo (Scythrops Novæ-Hollandiæ) of Australia. -- Rain gauge, an instrument of various forms for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time; a pluviometer; an ombrometer. -- Rain goose (Zoöl.), the red-throated diver, or loon. [Prov. Eng.] -- Rain prints (Geol.), markings on the surfaces of stratified rocks, presenting an appearance similar to those made by rain on mud and sand, and believed to have been so produced. -- Rain quail. (Zoöl.) See Quail, n., 1. -- Rain water, water that has fallen from the clouds in rain.

Rain, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rained (rnd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raining.] [AS. regnian, akin to G. regnen, Goth. rignjan. See Rain, n.] 1. To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; -- used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains.

The rain it raineth every day.


2. To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears rained from their eyes.

Rain (rn), v. t. 1. To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds.

Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you.

Ex. xvi. 4.

2. To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to rain favors upon a person.

Rain"bow` (-b`), n. [AS. regenboga, akin to G. regenbogen. See Rain, and Bow anything bent.] A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun's rays in drops of falling rain.

Besides the ordinary bow, called also primary rainbow, which is formed by two refractions and one reflection, there is also another often seen exterior to it, called the secondary rainbow, concentric with the first, and separated from it by a small interval. It is formed by two refractions and two reflections, is much fainter than the primary bow, and has its colors arranged in the reverse order from those of the latter.

Lunar rainbow, a fainter arch or rainbow, formed by the moon. -- Marine rainbow, or Sea bow, a similar bow seen in the spray of waves at sea. -- Rainbow trout (Zoöl.), a bright-colored trout (Salmo irideus), native of the mountains of California, but now extensively introduced into the Eastern States, Japan, and other countries; -- called also brook trout, mountain trout, and golden trout. -- Rainbow wrasse. (Zoöl.) See under Wrasse. -- Supernumerary rainbow, a smaller bow, usually of red and green colors only, sometimes seen within the primary or without the secondary rainbow, and in contact with them.

Rain"bowed` (-bd`), a. Formed with or like a rainbow.

Rain"deer` (-dr`), n. (Zoöl.) See Reindeer. [Obs.]

Rain"drop` (-drp`), n. A drop of rain.

Rain"fall` (rn"fl`), n. A fall or descent of rain; the water, or amount of water, that falls in rain; as, the average annual rainfall of a region.

Supplied by the rainfall of the outer ranges of Sinchul and Singaleleh.


Rain"i*ness (-*ns), n. The state of being rainy.

Rain"less, a. Destitute of rain; as, a rainless region.

Rain"-tight` (-tt`), a. So tight as to exclude rain; as, a rain-tight roof.

Rain"y (-), a. [AS. regenig.] Abounding with rain; wet; showery; as, rainy weather; a rainy day or season.

Raip (rp), n. [Cf. Icel. reip rope. Cf. Rope.] A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod. [Scot.]

Rais (rs), n. Same as 2d Reis.

Rais"a*ble (rz"*b'l), a. Capable of being raised.

Raise (rz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raised (rzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raising.] [OE. reisen, Icel. reisa, causative of rsa to rise. See Rise, and cf. Rear to raise.]

1. To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone or weight. Hence, figuratively: --

(a) To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate; to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like.

This gentleman came to be raised to great titles.


The plate pieces of eight were raised three pence in the piece.

Sir W. Temple.

(b) To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a furnace.

(c) To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature of a room.

2. To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast or flagstaff. Hence: --

(a) To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse.

They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.

Job xiv. 12.

(b) To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite.

He commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind.

Ps. cvii. 25.

Æneas . . . employs his pains,
In parts remote, to raise the Tuscan swains.


(c) To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to.

Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ?

Acts xxvi. 8.

3. To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like. Hence, specifically: --

(a) To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones.

I will raise forts against thee.

Isa. xxix. 3.

(b) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like. "To raise up a rent." Chaucer.

(c) To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops, etc.; toraise cattle. "He raised sheep." "He raised wheat where none grew before." Johnson's Dict.

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In some parts of the United States, notably in the Southern States, raise is also commonly applied to the rearing or bringing up of children.

I was raised, as they say in Virginia, among the mountains of the North.


(d) To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; -- often with up.

I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee.

Deut. xviii. 18.

God vouchsafes to raise another world
From him [Noah], and all his anger to forget.


(e) To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush.

Thou shalt not raise a false report.

Ex. xxiii. 1.

(f) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.

Soon as the prince appears, they raise a cry.


(g) To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to raise a point of order; to raise an objection.

4. To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.

Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste.


5. (Naut.) (a) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook light. (b) To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets, i. e., Let go tacks and sheets.

6. (Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use, that is, to create it. Burrill.

To raise a blockade (Mil.), to remove or break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or dispersing them. -- To raise a check, note, bill of exchange, etc., to increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is specified. -- To raise a siege, to relinquish an attempt to take a place by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be relinquished. -- To raise steam, to produce steam of a required pressure. -- To raise the wind, to procure ready money by some temporary expedient. [Colloq.] -- To raise Cain, or To raise the devil, to cause a great disturbance; to make great trouble. [Slang]

Syn. -- To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause; produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite.

Raised (rzd), a. 1. Lifted up; showing above the surroundings; as, raised or embossed metal work.

2. Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; -- used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See Raise, v. t., 4.

Raised beach. See under Beach, n.

Rais"er (rz"r), n. One who, or that which, raises (in various senses of the verb).

Rai"sin (r"z'n), n. [F. raisin grape, raisin, L. racemus cluster of grapes or berries; cf. Gr. "ra`x, "rago`s, berry, grape. Cf. Raceme.] 1. A grape, or a bunch of grapes. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

2. A grape dried in the sun or by artificial heat.

Raisin tree (Bot.), the common red currant bush, whose fruit resembles the small raisins of Corinth called currants. [Eng.] Dr. Prior.

Rais"ing (rz"ng), n. 1. The act of lifting, setting up, elevating, exalting, producing, or restoring to life.

2. Specifically, the operation or work of setting up the frame of a building; as, to help at a raising. [U.S.]

3. The operation of embossing sheet metal, or of forming it into cup-shaped or hollow articles, by hammering, stamping, or spinning.

Raising bee, a bee for raising the frame of a building. See Bee, n., 2. [U.S.] W. Irving. -- Raising hammer, a hammer with a rounded face, used in raising sheet metal. -- Raising plate (Carp.), the plate, or longitudinal timber, on which a roof is raised and rests.

||Rai`son`né" (r`z`n"), a. [F. raisonné, p. p. of raisonner to reason.] Arranged systematically, or according to classes or subjects; as, a catalogue raisonné. See under Catalogue.

Rai"vel (r"vel), n. (Weaving) A separator. [Scot.]

||Raj (räj), n. [See Rajah.] Reign; rule. [India]

||Ra"ja (rä"jä or r"j), n. Same as Rajah.

Ra"jah (rä"jä or r"j), n. [Hind. rj, Skr. rjan, akin to L. rex, regis. See Regal, a.] A native prince or king; also, a landholder or person of importance in the agricultural districts. [India]

Ra"jah*ship, n. The office or dignity of a rajah.

{ ||Raj`poot", ||Raj`put" } (räj`pt"), n. [Hind. rj- pt, Skr. rja-putra king's son.] A Hindoo of the second, or royal and military, caste; a Kshatriya; especially, an inhabitant of the country of Rajpootana, in northern central India.

Rake (rk), n. [AS. race; akin to OD. rake, D. reek, OHG. rehho, G. rechen, Icel. reka a shovel, and to Goth. rikan to heap up, collect, and perhaps to Gr. 'ore`gein to stretch out, and E. rack to stretch. Cf. Reckon.] 1. An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, -- used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth.

2. A toothed machine drawn by a horse, -- used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake.

3. [Perhaps a different word.] (Mining) A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; -- called also rake-vein.

Gill rakes. (Anat.) See under 1st Gill.

Rake, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raked (rkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Raking.] [AS. racian. See 1st Rake.] 1. To collect with a rake; as, to rake hay; -- often with up; as, he raked up the fallen leaves.

2. Hence: To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to rake together wealth; to rake together slanderous tales; to rake together the rabble of a town.

3. To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to rake a lawn; to rake a flower bed.

4. To search through; to scour; to ransack.

The statesman rakes the town to find a plot.


5. To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does.

Like clouds that rake the mountain summits.


6. (Mil.) To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck.

To rake up. (a) To collect together, as the fire (live coals), and cover with ashes. (b) To bring up; to search out and bring to notice again; as, to rake up old scandals.

Rake (rk), v. i. 1. To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely.

One is for raking in Chaucer for antiquated words.


2. To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along.

Pas could not stay, but over him did rake.

Sir P. Sidney.

Rake, n. [Cf. dial. Sw. raka to reach, and E. reach.] The inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the rake of a roof, a staircase, etc.; especially (Naut.), the inclination of a mast or funnel, or, in general, of any part of a vessel not perpendicular to the keel.

Rake, v. i. To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast rakes aft.

Raking course (Bricklaying), a course of bricks laid diagonally between the face courses in a thick wall, to strengthen it.

Rake, n. [OE. rakel rash; cf. Icel. reikall wandering, unsettled, reika to wander.] A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a roué.

An illiterate and frivolous old rake.


Rake, v. i. 1. [Icel. reika. Cf. Rake a debauchee.] To walk about; to gad or ramble idly. [Prov. Eng.]

2. [See Rake a debauchee.] To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life. Shenstone.

To rake out (Falconry), to fly too far and wide from its master while hovering above waiting till the game is sprung; -- said of the hawk. Encyc. Brit.

Rake"hell` (rk"hl`), n. [See Rakel.] A lewd, dissolute fellow; a debauchee; a rake.

It seldom doth happen, in any way of life, that a sluggard and a rakehell do not go together.


{ Rake"hell`, Rake"hell`y (-), } a. Dissolute; wild; lewd; rakish. [Obs.] Spenser. B. Jonson.

Ra"kel (rä"kl), a. [OE. See Rake a debauchee.] Hasty; reckless; rash. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Ra"kel*ness, n. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rak"er (rk"r), n. [See 1st Rake.] 1. One who, or that which, rakes; as: (a) A person who uses a rake. (b) A machine for raking grain or hay by horse or other power. (c) A gun so placed as to rake an enemy's ship.

2. (Zoöl.) See Gill rakers, under 1st Gill.

Rak"er*y (-), n. Debauchery; lewdness.

The rakery and intrigues of the lewd town.

R. North.

Rake"shame` (rk"shm`), n. [Cf. Rakehell, Ragabash.] A vile, dissolute wretch. [Obs.] Milton.

Rake"stale` (-stl`), n. [Rake the instrument + stale a handle.] The handle of a rake.

That tale is not worth a rakestele.


Rake"-vein` (-vn`), n. See Rake, a mineral vein.

Rak"ing (rk"ng), n. 1. The act or process of using a rake; the going over a space with a rake.

2. A space gone over with a rake; also, the work done, or the quantity of hay, grain, etc., collected, by going once over a space with a rake.

Rak"ish, a. Dissolute; lewd; debauched.

The arduous task of converting a rakish lover.


Rak"ish, a. (Naut.) Having a saucy appearance indicative of speed and dash. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Rak"ish*ly, adv. In a rakish manner.

Rak"ish*ness, n. The quality or state of being rakish.

||Ra"ku ware` (rä"k wâr`). A kind of earthenware made in Japan, resembling Satsuma ware, but having a paler color.

||Râle (räl), n. [F. râle. Cf. Rail the bird.] (Med.) An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See Rhonchus.

Various kinds are distinguished by pathologists; differing in intensity, as loud and small; in quality, as moist, dry, clicking, whistling, and sonorous; and in origin, as tracheal, pulmonary, and pleural.

||Ral`len*tan"do (räl`ln*tän"d), a. [It.] (Mus.) Slackening; -- a direction to perform a passage with a gradual decrease in time and force; ritardando.

Ral"li*ance (rl"l*ans), n. [Cf. OF. raliance. See Rally to reunite.] The act of rallying.

Ral"li*er (-r), n. One who rallies.

Ral"line (-ln), a. (Zoöl.) Pertaining to the rails.

Ral"ly (rl"l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rallied (-ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rallying.] [OF. ralier, F. rallier, fr. L. pref. re- + ad + ligare to bind. See Ra-, and 1st Ally.] To collect, and reduce to order, as troops dispersed or thrown into confusion; to gather again; to reunite.

Ral"ly, v. i. 1. To come into orderly arrangement; to renew order, or united effort, as troops scattered or put to flight; to assemble; to unite.

The Grecians rally, and their powers unite.


Innumerable parts of matter chanced just then to rally together, and to form themselves into this new world.


2. To collect one's vital powers or forces; to regain health or consciousness; to recuperate.

3. To recover strength after a decline in prices; -- said of the market, stocks, etc.

Ral"ly, n.; pl. Rallies (-lz). 1. The act or process of rallying (in any of the senses of that word).

2. A political mass meeting. [Colloq. U. S.]

Ral"ly, v. t. [F. railler. See Rail to scoff.] To attack with raillery, either in good humor and pleasantry, or with slight contempt or satire.

Honeycomb . . . rallies me upon a country life.


Strephon had long confessed his amorous pain,
Which gay Corinna rallied with disdain.


Syn. -- To banter; ridicule; satirize; deride; mock.

Ral"ly (rl"l), v. i. To use pleasantry, or satirical merriment.

Ral"ly, n. Good-humored raillery.

Ralph (rlf), n. A name sometimes given to the raven.

Ral"ston*ite (rl"stn*t), n. [So named after J. G. Ralston of Norristown, Penn.] (Min.) A fluoride of alumina and soda occurring with the Greenland cryolite in octahedral crystals.

Ram (rm), n. [AS. ramm, ram; akin to OHG. & D. ram, Prov. G. ramm, and perh. to Icel. ramr strong.]

1. The male of the sheep and allied animals. In some parts of England a ram is called a tup.

2. (Astron.) (a) Aries, the sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of March. (b) The constellation Aries, which does not now, as formerly, occupy the sign of the same name.

3. An engine of war used for butting or battering. Specifically: (a) In ancient warfare, a long beam suspended by slings in a framework, and used for battering the walls of cities; a battering-ram. (b) A heavy steel or iron beak attached to the prow of a steam war vessel for piercing or cutting down the vessel of an enemy; also, a vessel carrying such a beak.

4. A hydraulic ram. See under Hydraulic.

5. The weight which strikes the blow, in a pile driver, steam hammer, stamp mill, or the like.

6. The plunger of a hydraulic press.

Ram's horn. (a) (Fort.) A low semicircular work situated in and commanding a ditch. [Written also ramshorn.] Farrow. (b) (Paleon.) An ammonite.

Ram, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rammed (rmd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramming.] 1. To butt or strike against; to drive a ram against or through; to thrust or drive with violence; to force in; to drive together; to cram; as, to ram an enemy's vessel; to ram piles, cartridges, etc.

[They] rammed me in with foul shirts, and smocks, socks, foul stockings, greasy napkins.


2. To fill or compact by pounding or driving.

A ditch . . . was filled with some sound materials, and rammed to make the foundation solid.


||Ram`a*dan" (rm`*dn"), n. [Ar. raman, or ramazn, properly, the hot month.] [Written also Ramadhan, Ramadzan, and Rhamadan.] 1. The ninth Mohammedan month.

2. The great annual fast of the Mohammedans, kept during daylight through the ninth month.

Ram"age (rm"j; 48), n. [F., fr. L. ramus a branch.]

1. Boughs or branches. [Obs.] Crabb.

2. Warbling of birds in trees. [Obs.] Drummond.

Ra*mage" (r*mj"), a. Wild; untamed. [Obs.]

Ra*ma"gi*ous (-m"j*s), a. Wild; not tame. [Obs.]

Now is he tame that was so ramagious.

Remedy of Love.

Ra"mal (r"mal), a. [L. ramus branch.] Of or pertaining to a ramus, or branch; rameal.

||Ra*ma"ya*na (rä*mä"y*n), n. [Skr. Rmyaa.] The more ancient of the two great epic poems in Sanskrit. The hero and heroine are Rama and his wife Sita.

Ram"berge (rm"brj), n. [F., fr. rame oar + barge barge.] Formerly, a kind of large war galley.

Ram"ble (rm"b'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rambled (-b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rambling (-blng).] [For rammle, fr. Prov. E. rame to roam. Cf. Roam.] 1. To walk, ride, or sail, from place to place, without any determinate object in view; to roam carelessly or irregularly; to rove; to wander; as, to ramble about the city; to ramble over the world.

He that is at liberty to ramble in perfect darkness, what is his liberty better than if driven up and down as a bubble by the wind?


2. To talk or write in a discursive, aimless way.

3. To extend or grow at random. Thomson.

Syn. -- To rove; roam; wander; range; stroll.

Ram"ble, n. 1. A going or moving from place to place without any determinate business or object; an excursion or stroll merely for recreation.

Coming home, after a short Christmas ramble.


2. [Cf. Rammel.] (Coal Mining) A bed of shale over the seam. Raymond.

Ram"bler (-blr), n. One who rambles; a rover; a wanderer.

Ram"bling (-blng), a. Roving; wandering; discursive; as, a rambling fellow, talk, or building.

Ram"bling*ly, adv. In a rambling manner.

Ram"booze (-bz), n. A beverage made of wine, ale (or milk), sugar, etc. [Obs.] Blount.

Ram*bu"tan (rm*b"tn), n. [Malay rambtan, fr. rambut hair of the head.] (Bot.) A Malayan fruit produced by the tree Nephelium lappaceum, and closely related to the litchi nut. It is bright red, oval in shape, covered with coarse hairs (whence the name), and contains a pleasant acid pulp. Called also ramboostan.

Ra"me*al (r"m*al), a. Same as Ramal. Gray.

Ra"me*an (-an), n. A Ramist. Shipley.

Ramed (rmd), a. Having the frames, stem, and sternpost adjusted; -- said of a ship on the stocks.

Ram"ee (rm"), n. (Bot.) See Ramie.

Ram"e*kin (rm"*kn), n. See Ramequin. [Obs.]

Ram"ent (rm"ent), n. [L. ramenta, pl.] 1. A scraping; a shaving. [Obs.]

2. pl. (Bot.) Ramenta.

||Ra*men"ta (r*mn"t), n. pl. [L., scrapings.] (Bot.) Thin brownish chaffy scales upon the leaves or young shoots of some plants, especially upon the petioles and leaves of ferns. Gray.

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Ram`en*ta"ceous (rm`n*t"shs), a. (Bot.) Covered with ramenta.

Ra"me*ous (r"m*s), a. [L. rameus, from ramus branch, bough.] (Bot.) Ramal.

Ram"e*quin (rm"*kn), n. [F.] (Cookery) A mixture of cheese, eggs, etc., formed in a mold, or served on bread. [Written also ramekin.]

Ram"ie (rm"), n. [From Malay.] (Bot.) The grass-cloth plant (Bœhmeria nivea); also, its fiber, which is very fine and exceedingly strong; -- called also China grass, and rhea. See Grass-cloth plant, under Grass.

Ram`i*fi*ca"tion (rm`*f*k"shn), n. [Cf. F. ramification. See Ramify.] 1. The process of branching, or the development of branches or offshoots from a stem; also, the mode of their arrangement.

2. A small branch or offshoot proceeding from a main stock or channel; as, the ramifications of an artery, vein, or nerve.

3. A division into principal and subordinate classes, heads, or departments; also, one of the subordinate parts; as, the ramifications of a subject or scheme.

4. The production of branchlike figures. Crabb.

Ram`i*flo"rous (-fl"rs), a. [L. ramus branch + flos, floris, flower.] (Bot.) Flowering on the branches.

Ram"i*form (rm"*fôrm), a. [L. ramus branch + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form of a branch.

Ram"i*fy (rm"*f), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ramified (rm"*fd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramifying (rm"*f`ng).] [F. ramifier, LL. ramificare, fr. L. ramus a branch + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See -fy.] To divide into branches or subdivisions; as, to ramify an art, subject, scheme.

Ram"i*fy, v. i. 1. To shoot, or divide, into branches or subdivisions, as the stem of a plant.

When they [asparagus plants] . . . begin to ramify.


2. To be divided or subdivided, as a main subject.

Ra*mig"er*ous (r*mj"r*s), a. [L. ramus a branch + -gerous.] (Bot.) Bearing branches; branched.

Ra*mip"a*rous (r*mp"*rs), a. [L. ramus + parere to bear.] (Bot.) Producing branches; ramigerous.

Ra"mist (r"mst), n. A follower of Pierre Ramé, better known as Ramus, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians.

Ram"line (rm"ln), n. A line used to get a straight middle line, as on a spar, or from stem to stern in building a vessel.

Ram"mel (rm"ml), n. Refuse matter. [Obs.]

Filled with any rubbish, rammel and broken stones.


Ram"mer (-mr), n. One who, or that which, rams or drives. Specifically: (a) An instrument for driving anything with force; as, a rammer for driving stones or piles, or for beating the earth to more solidity. (b) A rod for forcing down the charge of a gun; a ramrod. (c) (Founding) An implement for pounding the sand of a mold to render it compact.

Ram"mish (-msh), a. Like a ram; hence, rank; lascivious. "Their savor is so rammish." Chaucer.

Ram"mish*ness, n. The quality of being rammish.

Ram"my (-m), a. Like a ram; rammish. Burton.

Ram`ol*les"cence (rm`l*ls"sens), n. [F. ramollir to make soft, to soften; pref. re- re- + amollir to soften; a (L. ad) + mollir to soften, L. mollire, fr. mollis soft.] A softening or mollifying. [R.]

Ra*moon" (r*mn"), n. (Bot.) A small West Indian tree (Trophis Americana) of the Mulberry family, whose leaves and twigs are used as fodder for cattle.

Ra*mose" (r*ms"), a. [L. ramosus, from ramus a branch.] Branched, as the stem or root of a plant; having lateral divisions; consisting of, or having, branches; full of branches; ramifying; branching; branchy.

Ra"mous (r"ms), a. Ramose.

Ramp (rmp), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ramped (rmt; 215); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramping.] [F. ramper to creep, OF., to climb; of German origin; cf. G. raffen to snatch, LG. & D. rapen. See Rap to snatch, and cf. Romp.]

1. To spring; to leap; to bound; to rear; to prance; to become rampant; hence, to frolic; to romp.

2. To move by leaps, or as by leaps; hence, to move swiftly or with violence.

Their bridles they would champ,
And trampling the fine element would fiercely ramp.


3. To climb, as a plant; to creep up.

With claspers and tendrils, they [plants] catch hold, . . . and so ramping upon trees, they mount up to a great height.


Ramp, n. 1. A leap; a spring; a hostile advance.

The bold Ascalonite
Fled from his lion ramp.


2. A highwayman; a robber. [Prov. Eng.]

3. A romping woman; a prostitute. [Obs.] Lyly.

4. [F. rampe.] (Arch.) (a) Any sloping member, other than a purely constructional one, such as a continuous parapet to a staircase. (b) A short bend, slope, or curve, where a hand rail or cap changes its direction.

5. [F. rampe.] (Fort.) An inclined plane serving as a communication between different interior levels.

Ram*pa"cious (rm*p"shs), a. High-spirited; rampageous. [Slang] Dickens.

Ramp"age (rmp"j; 48), n. [See Ramp, v.] Violent or riotous behavior; a state of excitement, passion, or debauchery; as, to be on the rampage. [Prov. or Low] Dickens.

Ramp"age, v. i. To leap or prance about, as an animal; to be violent; to rage. [Prov. or Low]

Ram*pa"geous (rm*p"js), a. Characterized by violence and passion; unruly; rampant. [Prov. or Low]

In the primitive ages of a rampageous antiquity.


Ram*pal"lian (-pl"yan), n. [Cf. ramp a prostitute, or rabble.] A mean wretch. [Obs.] Shak.

Ramp"an*cy (rmp"an*s), n. The quality or state of being rampant; excessive action or development; exuberance; extravagance. "They are come to this height and rampancy of vice." South.

Ramp"ant (rmp"ant), a. [F., p. pr. of ramper to creep. See Ramp, v.] 1. Ramping; leaping; springing; rearing upon the hind legs; hence, raging; furious.

The fierce lion in his kind
Which goeth rampant after his prey.


[The] lion . . . rampant shakes his brinded mane.


2. Ascending; climbing; rank in growth; exuberant.

The rampant stalk is of unusual altitude.

I. Taylor.

3. (Her.) Rising with fore paws in the air as if attacking; -- said of a beast of prey, especially a lion. The right fore leg and right hind leg should be raised higher than the left.

Rampant arch. (a) An arch which has one abutment higher than the other. (b) Same as Rampant vault, below. -- Rampant gardant (Her.), rampant, but with the face turned to the front. -- Rampant regardant, rampant, but looking backward. -- Rampant vault (Arch.), a continuous wagon vault, or cradle vault, whose two abutments are located on an inclined plane, such as the vault supporting a stairway, or forming the ceiling of a stairway.

Ramp"ant*ly, adv. In a rampant manner.

Ram"part (rm"pärt), n. [F. rempart, OF. rempar, fr. remparer to fortify, se remparer to fence or intrench one's self; pref. re- re- + pref. en- (L. in) + parer to defend, parry, prepare, L. parare to prepare. See Pare.]

1. That which fortifies and defends from assault; that which secures safety; a defense or bulwark.

2. (Fort.) A broad embankment of earth round a place, upon which the parapet is raised. It forms the substratum of every permanent fortification. Mahan.

Syn. -- Bulwark; fence; security; guard. -- Rampart, Bulwark. These words were formerly interchanged; but in modern usage a distinction has sprung up between them. The rampart of a fortified place is the enceinte or entire main embankment or wall which surrounds it. The term bulwark is now applied to peculiarly strong outworks which project for the defense of the rampart, or main work. A single bastion is a bulwark. In using these words figuratively, rampart is properly applied to that which protects by walling out; bulwark to that which stands in the forefront of danger, to meet and repel it. Hence, we speak of a distinguished individual as the bulwark, not the rampart, of the state. This distinction, however, is often disregarded.

Ram"part, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ramparted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ramparting.] To surround or protect with, or as with, a rampart or ramparts.

Those grassy hills, those glittering dells,
Proudly ramparted with rocks.


Rampart gun (Fort.), a cannon or large gun for use on a rampart and not as a fieldpiece.

Rampe (rmp), n. [In allusion to its supposed aphrodisiac qualities. See Ramp.] (Bot.) The cuckoopint.

Ram"pier (rm"pr), n. See Rampart. [Obs.]

Ram"pi*on (rm"p*n), n. [Cf. F. raiponce, Sp. ruiponce, reponche, L. raperonzo, NL. rapuntium, fr. L. rapum, rapa, a turnip, rape. Cf. Rape a plant.] (Bot.) A plant (Campanula Rapunculus) of the Bellflower family, with a tuberous esculent root; -- also called ramps.

The name is sometimes given to plants of the genus Phyteuma, herbs of the Bellflower family, and to the American evening primrose (Œnothera biennis), which has run wild in some parts of Europe.

Ram"pire (-pr), n. A rampart. [Archaic]

The Trojans round the place a rampire cast.


Ram"pire, v. t. To fortify with a rampire; to form into a rampire. [Archaic] Chapman. "Rampired walls of gold." R. Browning.

Ram"pler (rm"plr), n. A rambler.

Ram"pler, a. Roving; rambling. [Scot.]

Ram"rod` (-rd`), n. The rod used in ramming home the charge in a muzzle-loading firearm.

Ram"shac*kle (-shk*k'l), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Loose; disjointed; falling to pieces; out of repair.

There came . . . my lord the cardinal, in his ramshackle coach.


Ram"shac*kle, v. t. To search or ransack; to rummage. [Prov. Eng.]

Ram"son (-z'n), n. [AS. hramsan, pl., akin to G. rams, Sw. rams, ramslök; cf. Gr. kro`myon onion.] (Bot.) A broad-leaved species of garlic (Allium ursinum), common in European gardens; -- called also buckram.

Ram"sted (-std), n. (Bot.) A yellow-flowered weed; -- so named from a Mr. Ramsted who introduced it into Pennsylvania. See Toad flax. Called also Ramsted weed.

Ram"u*lose` (-*ls`), a. [L. ramulosus, fr. ramulus, dim. of ramus a branch.] (Nat. Hist.) Having many small branches, or ramuli.

Ram"u*lous (-ls), a. (Nat. Hist.) Ramulose.

||Ram"u*lus (-ls), n.; pl. Ramuli (-l). (Zoöl.) A small branch, or branchlet, of corals, hydroids, and similar organisms.

||Ra"mus (r"ms), n.; pl. Rami (-m). (Nat. Hist.) A branch; a projecting part or prominent process; a ramification.

Ra*mus"cule (r*ms"kl), n. [L. ramusculus.] (Nat. Hist.) A small ramus, or branch.

Ran (rn), imp. of Run.

Ran, n. [AS. rn.] Open robbery. [Obs.] Lambarde.

Ran, n. (Naut.) Yarns coiled on a spun-yarn winch.

||Ra"na (r"n), n. [L., a frog.] (Zoöl.) A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.

Ra"nal (r"nal), a. (Bot.) Having a general affinity to ranunculaceous plants.

Ranal alliance (Bot.), a name proposed by Lindley for a group of natural orders, including Ranunculaceæ, Magnoliaceæ, Papaveraceæ, and others related to them.

Rance (rns), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] 1. A prop or shore. [Scot.]

2. A round between the legs of a chair.

Ran*ces"cent (rn*ss"sent), a. [L. rancescens, p. pr. of rancescere, v. incho. from rancere to be rancid.] Becoming rancid or sour.

Ranch (rnch), v. t. [Written also raunch.] [Cf. Wrench.] To wrench; to tear; to sprain; to injure by violent straining or contortion. [R.] Dryden. "Hasting to raunch the arrow out." Spenser.

Ranch, n. [See Rancho.] A tract of land used for grazing and the rearing of horses, cattle, or sheep. See Rancho, 2. [Western U. S.]

||Ran*che"ro (rn*ch"r), n.; pl. Rancheros (- rz). [Sp.] [Mexico & Western U. S.] 1. A herdsman; a peasant employed on a ranch or rancho.

2. The owner and occupant of a ranch or rancho.

Ranch"man (rnch"man), n.; pl. Ranchmen (-men). An owner or occupant of, or laborer on, a ranch; a herdsman. [Western U. S.]

||Ran"cho (rn"ch), n.; pl. Ranchos (-chz). [Sp., properly, a mess, mess room. Cf. 2d Ranch.] 1. A rude hut, as of posts, covered with branches or thatch, where herdsmen or farm laborers may live or lodge at night.

2. A large grazing farm where horses and cattle are raised; -- distinguished from hacienda, a cultivated farm or plantation. [Mexico & California] Bartlett.

Ran"cid (rn"sd), a. [L. rancidus, fr. rancere to be rancid or rank.] Having a rank smell or taste, from chemical change or decomposition; musty; as, rancid oil or butter.

Ran*cid"i*ty (rn*sd"*t), n. [Cf. F. rancidité.] The quality or state of being rancid; a rancid scent or flavor, as of old oil. Ure.

Ran"cid*ly (rn"sd*l), adv. In a rancid manner.

Ran"cid*ness, n. The quality of being rancid.

Ran"cor (r"kr), n. [Written also rancour.] [OE. rancour, OF. rancor, rancur, F. rancune, fr. L. rancor rancidity, rankness; tropically, an old grudge, rancor, fr. rancere to be rank or rancid.] The deepest malignity or spite; deep-seated enmity or malice; inveterate hatred. "To stint rancour and dissencioun." Chaucer.

It would not be easy to conceive the passion, rancor, and malice of their tongues and hearts.


Syn. -- Enmity; hatred; ill will; malice; spite; grudge; animosity; malignity. -- Rancor, Enmity. Enmity and rancor both describe hostile feelings; but enmity may be generous and open, while rancor implies personal malice of the worst and most enduring nature, and is the strongest word in our language to express hostile feelings.

Rancor will out; proud prelate, in thy face
I see thy fury.


Rancor is that degree of malice which preys upon the possessor.


Ran"cor*ous (-s), a. [OF. rancuros.] Full of rancor; evincing, or caused by, rancor; deeply malignant; implacably spiteful or malicious; intensely virulent.

So flamed his eyes with rage and rancorous ire.


Ran"cor*ous*ly, adv. In a rancorous manner.

Rand (rnd), n. [AS. rand, rond; akin to D., Dan., Sw., & G. rand, Icel. rönd, and probably to E. rind.]

1. A border; edge; margin. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

2. A long, fleshy piece, as of beef, cut from the flank or leg; a sort of steak. Beau. & Fl.

3. A thin inner sole for a shoe; also, a leveling slip of leather applied to the sole before attaching the heel.

Rand, v. i. [See Rant.] To rant; to storm. [Obs.]

I wept, . . . and raved, and randed, and railed.

J. Webster.

Ran"dall grass` (rn"dal grs`). (Bot.) The meadow fescue (Festuca elatior). See under Grass.

Ran"dan (-dn), n. The product of a second sifting of meal; the finest part of the bran. [Prov. Eng.]

Ran"dan, n. A boat propelled by three rowers with four oars, the middle rower pulling two.

Rand"ing (rnd"ng), n. 1. (Shoemaking) The act or process of making and applying rands for shoes.

2. (Mil.) A kind of basket work used in gabions.

Ran"dom (rn"dm), n. [OE. randon, OF. randon force, violence, rapidity, à randon, de randon, violently, suddenly, rapidly, prob. of German origin; cf. G. rand edge, border, OHG. rant shield, edge of a shield, akin to E. rand, n. See Rand, n.] 1. Force; violence. [Obs.]

For courageously the two kings newly fought with great random and force.

E. Hall.

2. A roving motion; course without definite direction; want of direction, rule, or method; hazard; chance; -- commonly used in the phrase at random, that is, without a settled point of direction; at hazard.

Counsels, when they fly
At random, sometimes hit most happily.


O, many a shaft, at random sent,
Finds mark the archer little meant!

Sir W. Scott.

3. Distance to which a missile is cast; range; reach; as, the random of a rifle ball. Sir K. Digby.

4. (Mining) The direction of a rake- vein. Raymond.

Ran"dom, a. Going at random or by chance; done or made at hazard, or without settled direction, aim, or purpose; hazarded without previous calculation; left to chance; haphazard; as, a random guess.

Some random truths he can impart.


So sharp a spur to the lazy, and so strong a bridle to the random.

H. Spencer.

Random courses (Masonry), courses of stone of unequal thickness. -- Random shot, a shot not directed or aimed toward any particular object, or a shot with the muzzle of the gun much elevated. -- Random work (Masonry), stonework consisting of stones of unequal sizes fitted together, but not in courses nor always with flat beds.

<! p. 1188 pr=vmg !>

Ran"dom*ly (rn"dm*l), adv. In a random manner.

Ran"don (-dn), n. Random. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ran"don, v. i. To go or stray at random. [Obs.]

Rane"deer` (rn"dr`), n. See Reindeer. [Obs.]

||Ra"nee (rä"n), n. Same as Rani.

Ran"force` (rn"frs`), n. [Cf. F. renforcer.] See Reënforce. [Obs.] Bailey.

Rang (rng), imp. of Ring, v. t. & i.

Range (rnj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ranged (rnjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ranging (rn"jng).] [OE. rengen, OF. rengier, F. ranger, OF. renc row, rank, F. rang; of German origin. See Rank, n.] 1. To set in a row, or in rows; to place in a regular line or lines, or in ranks; to dispose in the proper order; to rank; as, to range soldiers in line.

Maccabeus ranged his army by bands.

2 Macc. xii. 20.

2. To place (as a single individual) among others in a line, row, or order, as in the ranks of an army; -- usually, reflexively and figuratively, (in the sense) to espouse a cause, to join a party, etc.

It would be absurd in me to range myself on the side of the Duke of Bedford and the corresponding society.


3. To separate into parts; to sift. [Obs.] Holland.

4. To dispose in a classified or in systematic order; to arrange regularly; as, to range plants and animals in genera and species.

5. To rove over or through; as, to range the fields.

Teach him to range the ditch, and force the brake.


6. To sail or pass in a direction parallel to or near; as, to range the coast.

Compare the last two senses (5 and 6) with the French ranger une côte.

7. (Biol.) To be native to, or to live in; to frequent.

Range, v. i. 1. To rove at large; to wander without restraint or direction; to roam.

Like a ranging spaniel that barks at every bird he sees.


2. To have range; to change or differ within limits; to be capable of projecting, or to admit of being projected, especially as to horizontal distance; as, the temperature ranged through seventy degrees Fahrenheit; the gun ranges three miles; the shot ranged four miles.

3. To be placed in order; to be ranked; to admit of arrangement or classification; to rank.

And range with humble livers in content.


4. To have a certain direction; to correspond in direction; to be or keep in a corresponding line; to trend or run; -- often followed by with; as, the front of a house ranges with the street; to range along the coast.

Which way the forests range.


5. (Biol.) To be native to, or live in, a certain district or region; as, the peba ranges from Texas to Paraguay.

Syn. -- To rove; roam; ramble; wander; stroll.

Range, n. [From Range, v.: cf. F. rangée.] 1. A series of things in a line; a row; a rank; as, a range of buildings; a range of mountains.

2. An aggregate of individuals in one rank or degree; an order; a class.

The next range of beings above him are the immaterial intelligences.

Sir M. Hale.

3. The step of a ladder; a rung. Clarendon.

4. A kitchen grate. [Obs.]

He was bid at his first coming to take off the range, and let down the cinders.


5. An extended cooking apparatus of cast iron, set in brickwork, and affording conveniences for various ways of cooking; also, a kind of cooking stove.

6. A bolting sieve to sift meal. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

7. A wandering or roving; a going to and fro; an excursion; a ramble; an expedition.

He may take a range all the world over.


8. That which may be ranged over; place or room for excursion; especially, a region of country in which cattle or sheep may wander and pasture.

9. Extent or space taken in by anything excursive; compass or extent of excursion; reach; scope; discursive power; as, the range of one's voice, or authority.

Far as creation's ample range extends.


The range and compass of Hammond's knowledge filled the whole circle of the arts.

Bp. Fell.

A man has not enough range of thought.


10. (Biol.) The region within which a plant or animal naturally lives.

11. (Gun.) (a) The horizontal distance to which a shot or other projectile is carried. (b) Sometimes, less properly, the trajectory of a shot or projectile. (c) A place where shooting, as with cannons or rifles, is practiced.

12. In the public land system of the United States, a row or line of townships lying between two successive meridian lines six miles apart.

The meridians included in each great survey are numbered in order east and west from the "principal meridian" of that survey, and the townships in the range are numbered north and south from the "base line," which runs east and west; as, township No. 6, N., range 7, W., from the fifth principal meridian.

13. (Naut.) See Range of cable, below.

Range of accommodation (Optics), the distance between the near point and the far point of distinct vision, -- usually measured and designated by the strength of the lens which if added to the refracting media of the eye would cause the rays from the near point to appear as if they came from the far point. -- Range finder (Gunnery), an instrument, or apparatus, variously constructed, for ascertaining the distance of an inaccessible object, -- used to determine what elevation must be given to a gun in order to hit the object; a position finder. -- Range of cable (Naut.), a certain length of slack cable ranged along the deck preparatory to letting go the anchor. -- Range work (Masonry), masonry of squared stones laid in courses each of which is of even height throughout the length of the wall; -- distinguished from broken range work, which consists of squared stones laid in courses not continuously of even height. -- To get the range of (an object) (Gun.), to find the angle at which the piece must be raised to reach (the object) without carrying beyond.

Range"ment (rnj"ment), n. [Cf. F. rangement.] Arrangement. [Obs.] Waterland.

Ran"ger (rn"jr), n. 1. One who ranges; a rover; sometimes, one who ranges for plunder; a roving robber.

2. That which separates or arranges; specifically, a sieve. [Obs.] "The tamis ranger." Holland.

3. A dog that beats the ground in search of game.

4. One of a body of mounted troops, formerly armed with short muskets, who range over the country, and often fight on foot.

5. The keeper of a public park or forest; formerly, a sworn officer of a forest, appointed by the king's letters patent, whose business was to walk through the forest, recover beasts that had strayed beyond its limits, watch the deer, present trespasses to the next court held for the forest, etc. [Eng.]

Ran"ger*ship, n. The office of the keeper of a forest or park. [Eng.]

Ran"gle (rn"g'l), v. i. To range about in an irregular manner. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

||Ra"ni (rä"n), n. [Hind. rn, Skr. rjn. See Rajah.] A queen or princess; the wife of a rajah. [Written also ranee.] [India]

Ra"nine (r"nn), a. [L. rana a frog.] 1. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the frogs and toads.

2. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or designating, a swelling under the tongue; also, pertaining to the region where the swelling occurs; -- applied especially to branches of the lingual artery and lingual vein.

Rank (rk), a. [Compar. Ranker (-r); superl. Rankest.] [AS. ranc strong, proud; cf. D. rank slender, Dan. rank upright, erect, Prov. G. rank slender, Icel. rakkr slender, bold. The meaning seems to have been influenced by L. rancidus, E. rancid.] 1. Luxuriant in growth; of vigorous growth; exuberant; grown to immoderate height; as, rank grass; rank weeds.

And, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good.

Gen. xli. 5.

2. Raised to a high degree; violent; extreme; gross; utter; as, rank heresy. "Rank nonsense." Hare. "I do forgive thy rankest fault." Shak.

3. Causing vigorous growth; producing luxuriantly; very rich and fertile; as, rank land. Mortimer.

4. Strong-scented; rancid; musty; as, oil of a rank smell; rank-smelling rue. Spenser.

5. Strong to the taste. "Divers sea fowls taste rank of the fish on which they feed." Boyle.

6. Inflamed with venereal appetite. [Obs.] Shak.

Rank modus (Law), an excessive and unreasonable modus. See Modus, 3. -- To set (the iron of a plane, etc.) rank, to set so as to take off a thick shaving. Moxon.

Rank, adv. Rankly; stoutly; violently. [Obs.]

That rides so rank and bends his lance so fell.


Rank, n. [OE. renk, reng, OF. renc, F. rang, fr. OHG. hring a circle, a circular row, G. ring. See Ring, and cf. Range, n. & v.] 1. A row or line; a range; an order; a tier; as, a rank of osiers.

Many a mountain nigh
Rising in lofty ranks, and loftier still.


2. (Mil.) A line of soldiers ranged side by side; -- opposed to file. See 1st File, 1 (a).

Fierce, fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war.


3. Grade of official standing, as in the army, navy, or nobility; as, the rank of general; the rank of admiral.

4. An aggregate of individuals classed together; a permanent social class; an order; a division; as, ranks and orders of men; the highest and the lowest ranks of men, or of other intelligent beings.

5. Degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence; position in civil or social life; station; degree; grade; as, a writer of the first rank; a lawyer of high rank.

These all are virtues of a meaner rank.


6. Elevated grade or standing; high degree; high social position; distinction; eminence; as, a man of rank.

Rank and file. (a) (Mil.) The whole body of common soldiers, including also corporals. In a more extended sense, it includes sergeants also, excepting the noncommissioned staff. (b) See under 1st File. -- The ranks, the order or grade of common soldiers; as, to reduce a noncommissioned officer to the ranks. -- To fill the ranks, to supply the whole number, or a competent number. -- To take rank of, to have precedence over, or to have the right of taking a higher place than.

Rank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ranked (rkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Ranking.] 1. To place abreast, or in a line.

2. To range in a particular class, order, or division; to class; also, to dispose methodically; to place in suitable classes or order; to classify.

Ranking all things under general and special heads.

I. Watts.

Poets were ranked in the class of philosophers.


Heresy is ranked with idolatry and witchcraft.

Dr. H. More.

3. To take rank of; to outrank. [U.S.]

Rank, v. i. 1. To be ranged; to be set or disposed, as in a particular degree, class, order, or division.

Let that one article rank with the rest.


2. To have a certain grade or degree of elevation in the orders of civil or military life; to have a certain degree of esteem or consideration; as, he ranks with the first class of poets; he ranks high in public estimation.

Rank"er (-r), n. One who ranks, or disposes in ranks; one who arranges.

Ran"kle (r"k'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rankled (-k'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rankling (-klng).] [From Rank, a.] 1. To become, or be, rank; to grow rank or strong; to be inflamed; to fester; -- used literally and figuratively.

A malady that burns and rankles inward.


This would have left a rankling wound in the hearts of the people.


2. To produce a festering or inflamed effect; to cause a sore; -- used literally and figuratively; as, a splinter rankles in the flesh; the words rankled in his bosom.

Ran"kle (r"k'l), v. t. To cause to fester; to make sore; to inflame. [R.] Beau. & Fl.

Rank"ly (rk"l), adv. With rank or vigorous growth; luxuriantly; hence, coarsely; grossly; as, weeds grow rankly.

Rank"ness, n. [AS. rancness pride.] The condition or quality of being rank.

Ran"nel (rn"nl), n. A prostitute. [Obs.]

Ran"ny (-n), n. [L. araneus mus, a kind of small mouse.] (Zoöl.) The erd shrew. [Scot.]

Ran"sack (-sk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ransacked (-skt); p. pr. & vb. n. Ransacking.] [OE. ransaken, Icel. rannsaka to explore, examine; rann a house (akin to Goth. razn house, AS. ræsn plank, beam) + the root of sækja to seek, akin to E. seek. See Seek, and cf. Rest repose.] 1. To search thoroughly; to search every place or part of; as, to ransack a house.

To ransack every corner of their . . . hearts.


2. To plunder; to pillage completely.

Their vow is made
To ransack Troy.


3. To violate; to ravish; to defiour. [Obs.]

Rich spoil of ransacked chastity.


Ran"sack, v. i. To make a thorough search.

To ransack in the tas [heap] of bodies dead.


Ran"sack, n. The act of ransacking, or state of being ransacked; pillage. [R.]

Even your father's house
Shall not be free from ransack.

J. Webster.

Ran"som (rn"sm), n. [OE. raunson, raunsoun, OF. rançon, raençon, raançon, F. rançon, fr. L. redemptio, fr. redimere to redeem. See Redeem, and cf. Redemption.] 1. The release of a captive, or of captured property, by payment of a consideration; redemption; as, prisoners hopeless of ransom. Dryden.

2. The money or price paid for the redemption of a prisoner, or for goods captured by an enemy; payment for freedom from restraint, penalty, or forfeit.

Thy ransom paid, which man from death redeems.


His captivity in Austria, and the heavy ransom he paid for his liberty.

Sir J. Davies.

3. (O. Eng. Law) A sum paid for the pardon of some great offense and the discharge of the offender; also, a fine paid in lieu of corporal punishment. Blackstone.

Ransom bill (Law), a war contract, valid by the law of nations, for the ransom of property captured at sea and its safe conduct into port. Kent.

Ran"som, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ransomed (-smd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ransoming.] [Cf. F. rançonner. See Ransom, n.] 1. To redeem from captivity, servitude, punishment, or forfeit, by paying a price; to buy out of servitude or penalty; to rescue; to deliver; as, to ransom prisoners from an enemy.

2. To exact a ransom for, or a payment on. [R.]

Such lands as he had rule of he ransomed them so grievously, and would tax the men two or three times in a year.


Ran"som*a*ble (-*b'l), a. Such as can be ransomed.

Ran"som*er (-r), n. One who ransoms or redeems.

Ran"som*less, a. Incapable of being ransomed; without ransom. Shak.

Rant (rnt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ranted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ranting.] [OD. ranten, randen, to dote, to be enraged.] To rave in violent, high-sounding, or extravagant language, without dignity of thought; to be noisy, boisterous, and bombastic in talk or declamation; as, a ranting preacher.

Look where my ranting host of the Garter comes!


Rant, n. High-sounding language, without importance or dignity of thought; boisterous, empty declamation; bombast; as, the rant of fanatics.

This is a stoical rant, without any foundation in the nature of man or reason of things.


Rant"er (-r), n. 1. A noisy talker; a raving declaimer.

2. (Eccl. Hist.) (a) One of a religious sect which sprung up in 1645; -- called also Seekers. See Seeker. (b) One of the Primitive Methodists, who seceded from the Wesleyan Methodists on the ground of their deficiency in fervor and zeal; -- so called in contempt.

Rant"er*ism (-z'm), n. (Eccl. Hist.) The practice or tenets of the Ranters.

Rant"ing*ly, adv. In a ranting manner.

Rant"i*pole (-*pl), n. [Ranty + pole, poll, head.] A wild, romping young person. [Low] Marryat.

Rant"i*pole, a. Wild; roving; rakish. [Low]

Rant"i*pole, v. i. To act like a rantipole. [Low]

She used to rantipole about the house.


Rant"ism (-z'm), n. (Eccl. Hist.) Ranterism.

Rant"y (-), a. Wild; noisy; boisterous.

||Ran"u*la (rn"*l), n. [L., a little frog, a little swelling on the tongue of cattle, dim. of rana a frog.] (Med.) A cyst formed under the tongue by obstruction of the duct of the submaxillary gland.

Ra*nun`cu*la"ceous (r*n`k*l"shs), a. [See Ranunculus.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Ranunculaceæ), of which the buttercup is the type, and which includes also the virgin's bower, the monkshood, larkspur, anemone, meadow rue, and peony.

Ra*nun"cu*lus (r*n"k*ls), n.; pl. E. Ranunculuses (- z), L. Ranunculi (-l). [L., a little frog, a medicinal plant, perhaps crowfoot, dim. of rana a frog; cf. raccare to roar.] (Bot.) A genus of herbs, mostly with yellow flowers, including crowfoot, buttercups, and the cultivated ranunculi (R. Asiaticus, R. aconitifolius, etc.) in which the flowers are double and of various colors.

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||Ranz" des` vaches" (räNs" d` vsh"). [F., the ranks or rows of cows, the name being given from the fact that the cattle, when answering the musical call of their keeper, move towards him in a row, preceded by those wearing bells.] The name for numerous simple, but very irregular, melodies of the Swiss mountaineers, blown on a long tube called the Alpine horn, and sometimes sung.

Rap (rp), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A lay or skein containing 120 yards of yarn. Knight.

Rap, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rapped (rpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Rapping.] [Akin to Sw. rappa to strike, rapp stroke, Dan. rap, perhaps of imitative origin.] To strike with a quick, sharp blow; to knock; as, to rap on the door.

Rap, v. t. 1. To strike with a quick blow; to knock on.

With one great peal they rap the door.


2. (Founding) To free (a pattern) in a mold by light blows on the pattern, so as to facilitate its removal.

Rap, n. A quick, smart blow; a knock.

Rap, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rapped (rpt), usually written Rapt; p. pr. & vb. n. Rapping.] [OE. rapen; akin to LG. & D. rapen to snatch, G. raffen, Sw. rappa; cf. Dan. rappe sig to make haste, and Icel. hrapa to fall, to rush, hurry. The word has been confused with L. rapere to seize. Cf. Rape robbery, Rapture, Raff, v., Ramp, v.] 1. To snatch away; to seize and hurry off.

And through the Greeks and Ilians they rapt
The whirring chariot.


From Oxford I was rapt by my nephew, Sir Edmund Bacon, to Redgrove.

Sir H. Wotton.

2. To hasten. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

3. To seize and bear away, as the mind or thoughts; to transport out of one's self; to affect with ecstasy or rapture; as, rapt into admiration.

I 'm rapt with joy to see my Marcia's tears.


Rapt into future times, the bard begun.


4. To exchange; to truck. [Obs. & Low]

To rap and ren, To rap and rend. [Perhaps fr. Icel. hrapa to hurry and ræna plunder, fr. rn plunder, E. ran.] To seize and plunder; to snatch by violence. Dryden. "[Ye] waste all that ye may rape and renne." Chaucer.

All they could rap and rend and pilfer.


-- To rap out, to utter with sudden violence, as an oath.

A judge who rapped out a great oath.


Rap, n. [Perhaps contr. fr. raparee.] A popular name for any of the tokens that passed current for a half-penny in Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century; any coin of trifling value.

Many counterfeits passed about under the name of raps.


Tie it [her money] up so tight that you can't touch a rap, save with her consent.

Mrs. Alexander.

Not to care a rap, to care nothing. -- Not worth a rap, worth nothing.

||Ra*pa"ces (r*p"sz), n. pl. [NL. See Rapacious.] (Zoöl.) Same as Accipitres.

Ra*pa"cious (-shs), a. [L. rapax, -acis, from rapere to seize and carry off, to snatch away. See Rapid.]

1. Given to plunder; disposed or accustomed to seize by violence; seizing by force. " The downfall of the rapacious and licentious Knights Templar." Motley.

2. Accustomed to seize food; subsisting on prey, or animals seized by violence; as, a tiger is a rapacious animal; a rapacious bird.

3. Avaricious; grasping; extortionate; also, greedy; ravenous; voracious; as, rapacious usurers; a rapacious appetite.

[Thy Lord] redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim


Syn. -- Greedy; grasping; ravenous; voracious.

-- Ra*pa"cious*ly, adv. -- Ra*pa"cious*ness, n.

Ra*pac"i*ty (r*ps"*t), n. [L. rapacitas: cf. F. rapacité. See Rapacious.] 1. The quality of being rapacious; rapaciousness; ravenousness; as, the rapacity of pirates; the rapacity of wolves.

2. The act or practice of extorting or exacting by oppressive injustice; exorbitant greediness of gain. "The rapacity of some ages." Sprat.

Rap`a*ree" (rp`*r"), n. See Rapparee.

Rape (rp), n. [F. râpe a grape stalk.] 1. Fruit, as grapes, plucked from the cluster. Ray.

2. The refuse stems and skins of grapes or raisins from which the must has been expressed in wine making.

3. A filter containing the above refuse, used in clarifying and perfecting malt, vinegar, etc.

Rape wine, a poor, thin wine made from the last dregs of pressed grapes.

Rape, n. [Akin to rap to snatch, but confused with L. rapere. See Rap to snatch.] 1. The act of seizing and carrying away by force; violent seizure; robbery.

And ruined orphans of thy rapes complain.


2. (Law) Sexual connection with a woman without her consent. See Age of consent, under Consent, n.

3. That which is snatched away. [Obs.]

Where now are all my hopes? O, never more
Shall they revive! nor death her rapes restore.


4. Movement, as in snatching; haste; hurry. [Obs.]

Rape, v. t. To commit rape upon; to ravish.

To rape and ren. See under Rap, v. t., to snatch.

Rape, v. i. To rob; to pillage. [Obs.] Heywood.

Rape, n. [Icel. hreppr village, district; cf. Icel. hreppa to catch, obtain, AS. hrepian, hreppan, to touch.] One of six divisions of the county of Sussex, England, intermediate between a hundred and a shire.

Rape, n. [L. rapa, rapum, akin to Gr. "ra`pys, "ra`fys, G. rübe.] (Bot.) A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.

These plants, with the edible turnip, have been variously named, but are all now believed to be derived from the Brassica campestris of Europe, which by some is not considered distinct from the wild stock (B. oleracea) of the cabbage. See Cole.

Broom rape. (Bot.) See Broom rape, in the Vocabulary. -- Rape cake, the refuse remaining after the oil has been expressed from the rape seed. -- Rape root. Same as Rape. -- Summer rape. (Bot.) See Colza.

Rape"ful (rp"fl), a. 1. Violent. [Obs.]

2. Given to the commission of rape. Byron.

Rap"ful*ly (rp"fl*l), adv. Violently. [Obs.]

Raph`a*el*esque" (rf`*l*sk"), a. Like Raphael's works; in Raphael's manner of painting.

Raph"a*el*ism (rf"*l*z'm), n. The principles of painting introduced by Raphael, the Italian painter.

Raph"a*el*ite (-t), n. One who advocates or adopts the principles of Raphaelism.

Raph"a*ny (rf"*n), n. [Cf. F. raphanie.] (Med.) A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.

Ra"phe (r"f), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "rafh` a seam or suture, fr. "ra`ptein to sew or stitch together.] 1. (Anat.) A line, ridge, furrow, or band of fibers, especially in the median line; as, the raphe of the tongue.

2. (Bot.) Same as Rhaphe.

||Raph"i*des (rf"*dz), n. pl. [F. raphide.] (Bot.) See Rhaphides.

Rap"id (rp"d), a. [L. rapidus, fr. rapere to seize and carry off, to snatch or hurry away; perhaps akin to Gr. 'arpa`zein: cf. F. rapide. Cf. Harpy, Ravish.]

1. Very swift or quick; moving with celerity; fast; as, a rapid stream; a rapid flight; a rapid motion.

Ascend my chariot; guide the rapid wheels.


2. Advancing with haste or speed; speedy in progression; in quick sequence; as, rapid growth; rapid improvement; rapid recurrence; rapid succession.

3. Quick in execution; as, a rapid penman.

Rap"id, n. [Cf. F. rapide. See Rapid, a.] The part of a river where the current moves with great swiftness, but without actual waterfall or cascade; -- usually in the plural; as, the Lachine rapids in the St. Lawrence.

Row, brothers, row, the stream runs fast,
The rapids are near, and the daylight's past.


Ra*pid"i*ty (r*pd"*t), n. [L. rapiditas: cf. F. rapidité.] The quality or state of being rapid; swiftness; celerity; velocity; as, the rapidity of a current; rapidity of speech; rapidity of growth or improvement.

Syn. -- Rapidness; haste; speed; celerity; velocity; swiftness; fleetness; quickness; agility.

Rap"id*ly (rp"d*l), adv. In a rapid manner.

Rap"id*ness, n. Quality of being rapid; rapidity.

Ra"pi*er (r"p*r), n. [F. rapière, perhaps for raspière, and ultimately of German origin, akin to E. rasp, v.] A straight sword, with a narrow and finely pointed blade, used only for thrusting.

Rapier fish (Zoöl.), the swordfish. [Obs.] Grew.

Ra"pi*ered (-rd), a. Wearing a rapier. "Scarletcoated, rapiered figures." Lowell.

||Ra*pil"li (r*pl"l), n. pl. [It.] (Min.) Lapilli.

Rap"ine (rp"n), n. [F. rapine; cf. Pr. & It. rapina; all fr. L. rapina, fr. rapere to seize and carry off by force. See Rapid, and cf. Raven rapine.] 1. The act of plundering; the seizing and carrying away of things by force; spoliation; pillage; plunder.

Men who were impelled to war quite as much by the desire of rapine as by the desire of glory.


2. Ravishment; rape. [Obs.] Shak.

Rap"ine, v. t. To plunder. Sir G. Buck.

Rap"i*nous (rp"*ns), a. Given to rapine. [Obs.]

Rap"page (-pj; 48), n. (Founding) The enlargement of a mold caused by rapping the pattern.

Rap`pa*ree" (-p*r"), n. A wild Irish plunderer, esp. one of the 17th century; -- so called from his carrying a half-pike, called a rapary. [Written also raparee.]

Rapped (rpt), imp. & p. p. of Rap, to strike.

Rapped, imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.

Rap*pee" (rp*p"), n. [F. râpé, fr. râper to grate, to rasp. See Rasp, v.] A pungent kind of snuff made from the darker and ranker kinds of tobacco leaves.

Rap"pel (rp"pl or rp*pl"), n. [F. Cf. Repeal.] (Mil.) The beat of the drum to call soldiers to arms.

Rap"per (rp"pr), n. [From Rap.] 1. One who, or that which, raps or knocks; specifically, the knocker of a door. Sterne.

2. A forcible oath or lie. [Slang] Bp. Parker.

Rap*port" (rp*prt"; F. r`pôr"), n. [F., fr. rapporter to bring again or back, to refer; pref. re- re- + apporter to bring, L. apportare. Cf. Report.] Relation; proportion; conformity; correspondence; accord.

'T is obvious what rapport there is between the conceptions and languages in every country.

Sir W. Temple.

||En` rap`port" (äN` r`pôr") [F.], in accord, harmony, or sympathy; having a mutual, especially a private, understanding; in mesmerism, in that relation of sympathy which permits influence or communication.

Rap*scal"lion (rp*skl"yn), n. [See Rascallion.] A rascal; a good- for-nothing fellow. [Colloq.] Howitt.

Rapt (rpt), imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.

Rapt, a. 1. Snatched away; hurried away or along.

Waters rapt with whirling away.


2. Transported with love, admiration, delight, etc.; enraptured. "The rapt musician." Longfellow.

3. Wholly absorbed or engrossed, as in work or meditation. "Rapt in secret studies." Shak.

Rapt, n. [From F. rapt abduction, rape, L. raptus, fr. rapere to seize and carry off, to transport; or fr. E. rapt, a. See Rapt, a., and Rapid.] 1. An ecstasy; a trance. [Obs.] Bp. Morton.

2. Rapidity. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Rapt, v. t. 1. To transport or ravish. [Obs.] Drayton.

2. To carry away by force. [Obs.] Daniel.

Rap"ter (rp"tr), n. A raptor. [Obs.] Drayton.

Rap"tor (rp"tr), n. [L. raptor, from rapere to ravish. See Rapid.] A ravisher; a plunderer. [Obs.]

||Rap*to"res (rp*t"rz), n. pl. [NL. See Raptor.] (Zoöl.) Same as Accipitres. Called also Raptatores.

Rap*to"ri*al (-r*al), a. (Zoöl.) (a) Rapacious; living upon prey; -- said especially of certain birds. (b) Adapted for seizing prey; -- said of the legs, claws, etc., of insects, birds, and other animals. (c) Of or pertaining to the Raptores. See Illust. (f) of Aves.

Rap*to"ri*ous (-s), a. [L. raptorius.] (Zoöl.) Raptorial.

Rap"ture (rp"tr; 135), n. [L. rapere, raptum, to carry off by force. See Rapid.] 1. A seizing by violence; a hurrying along; rapidity with violence. [Obs.]

That 'gainst a rock, or flat, her keel did dash
With headlong rapture.


2. The state or condition of being rapt, or carried away from one's self by agreeable excitement; violence of a pleasing passion; extreme joy or pleasure; ecstasy.

Music, when thus applied, raises in the mind of the hearer great conceptions; it strengthens devotion, and advances praise into rapture.


You grow correct that once with rapture writ.


3. A spasm; a fit; a syncope; delirium. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. -- Bliss; ecstasy; transport; delight; exultation.

Rap"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raptured (-trd; 135); p. pr. & vb. n. Rapturing.] To transport with excitement; to enrapture. [Poetic] Thomson.

Rap"tur*ist, n. An enthusiast. [Obs.] J. Spencer.

Rap"tur*ize (-z), v. t. & i. To put, or be put, in a state of rapture. [R.]

Rap"tur*ous (-s), a. Ecstatic; transporting; ravishing; feeling, expressing, or manifesting rapture; as, rapturous joy, pleasure, or delight; rapturous applause.

Rap"tur*ous*ly, adv. In a rapturous manner.

Rare (râr), a. [Cf. Rather, Rath.] Early. [Obs.]

Rude mechanicals that rare and late
Work in the market place.


Rare, a. [Compar. Rarer (râr"r); superl. Rarest.] [Cf. AS. hrr, or E. rare early. √18.] Nearly raw; partially cooked; not thoroughly cooked; underdone; as, rare beef or mutton.

New-laid eggs, which Baucis' busy care
Turned by a gentle fire, and roasted rare.


This word is in common use in the United States, but in England its synonym underdone is preferred.

Rare, a. [Compar. Rarer (râr"r); superl. Rarest.] [F., fr. L. rarus thin, rare.] 1. Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a rare event.

2. Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found.

Rare work, all filled with terror and delight.


Above the rest I judge one beauty rare.


3. Thinly scattered; dispersed.

Those rare and solitary, these in flocks.


4. Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a rare atmosphere at high elevations.

Water is nineteen times lighter, and by consequence nineteen times rarer, than gold.

Sir I. Newton.

Syn. -- Scarce; infrequent; unusual; uncommon; singular; extraordinary; incomparable. -- Rare, Scarce. We call a thing rare when but few examples, specimens, or instances of it are ever to be met with; as, a rare plant. We speak of a thing as scarce, which, though usually abundant, is for the time being to be had only in diminished quantities; as, a bad harvest makes corn scarce.

A perfect union of wit and judgment is one of the rarest things in the world.


When any particular piece of money grew very scarce, it was often recoined by a succeeding emperor.


Rare"bit (râr"bt), n. A dainty morsel; a Welsh rabbit. See Welsh rabbit, under Rabbit.

Rar"ee-show` (râr"-sh`), n. [Contr. fr. rarity-show.] A show carried about in a box; a peep show. Pope.

Rar`e*fac"tion (rr`*fk"shn), n. [Cf. F. raréfaction. See Rarefy.] The act or process of rarefying; the state of being rarefied; -- opposed to condensation; as, the rarefaction of air.

Rar"e*fi`a*ble (rr"*f`*b'l), a. [Cf. F. raréfiable.] Capable of being rarefied. Boyle.

Rar"e*fy (rr"*f; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rarefied (- fd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rarefying (- f`ng).] [F. raréfier; L. rarus rare + -ficare (in comp.) to make; cf. L. rarefacere. See -fy.] To make rare, thin, porous, or less dense; to expand or enlarge without adding any new portion of matter to; -- opposed to condense.

Rar"e*fy, v. i. To become less dense; to become thin and porous. "Earth rarefies to dew." Dryden.

Rare"ly (râr"l), adv. 1. In a rare manner or degree; seldom; not often; as, things rarely seen.

2. Finely; excellently; with rare skill. See 3d Rare, 2.

The person who played so rarely on the flageolet.

Sir W. Scott.

The rest of the apartments are rarely gilded.


Rare"ness, n. The state or quality of being rare.

And let the rareness the small gift commend.


Rare"ripe` (-rp`), a. [Rare early + ripe. Cf. Rathripe.] Early ripe; ripe before others, or before the usual season.

Rare"ripe`, n. An early ripening fruit, especially a kind of freestone peach.

Rar`i*fi*ca"tion (rr`*f*k"shn), n. See Rarefaction. [R.] Am. Chem. Journal.

Rar"i*ty (rr"*t; 277), n.; pl. Rarities (- tz). [L. raritas: cf. F. rareté. See Rare.] 1. The quality or state of being rare; rareness; thinness; as, the rarity (contrasted with the density) of gases.

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2. That which is rare; an uncommon thing; a thing valued for its scarcity.

I saw three rarities of different kinds, which pleased me more than any other shows in the place.


Ras (räs), n. See 2d Reis.

||Ra`sante" (r`zäNt"), a. [F., p. pr. of raser to graze.] (Fort.) Sweeping; grazing; -- applied to a style of fortification in which the command of the works over each other, and over the country, is kept very low, in order that the shot may more effectually sweep or graze the ground before them. H. L. Scott.

Ras"cal (rs"kal), n. [OE. rascaille rabble, probably from an OF. racaille, F. racaille the rabble, rubbish, probably akin to F. racler to scrape, (assumed) LL. rasiculare, rasicare, fr. L. radere, rasum. See Rase, v.]

1. One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer. [Obs.]

He smote of the people seventy men, and fifty thousand of the rascal.

Wyclif (1 Kings [1 Samuel] vi. 19).

Poor men alone? No, no; the noblest deer hath them [horns] as huge as the rascal.


2. A mean, trickish fellow; a base, dishonest person; a rogue; a scoundrel; a trickster.

For I have sense to serve my turn in store,
And he's a rascal who pretends to more.


Ras"cal, a. Of or pertaining to the common herd or common people; low; mean; base. "The rascal many." Spenser. "The rascal people." Shak.

While she called me rascal fiddler.


Ras"cal*dom (-dm), n. State of being a rascal; rascality; domain of rascals; rascals, collectively. Emerson.

Ras"cal*ess, n. A female rascal. [Humorous]

Ras*cal"i*ty (rs*kl"*t), n.; pl. Rascalities (- tz).

1. The quality or state of being rascally, or a rascal; mean trickishness or dishonesty; base fraud.

2. The poorer and lower classes of people. [Obs.]

The chief heads of their clans with their several rascalities.

T. Jackson.

Ras*cal"lion (rs*kl"yn), n. [From Rascal.] A low, mean wretch. [Written also rascalion.]

Ras"cal*ly (rs"kal*l), a. Like a rascal; trickish or dishonest; base; worthless; -- often in humorous disparagement, without implication of dishonesty.

Our rascally porter is fallen fast asleep.


Rase (rz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rased (rzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rasing.] [F. raser, LL. rasare to scrape often, v. freq. fr. L. radere, rasum, to scrape, shave; cf. Skr. rad to scratch, gnaw, L. rodere to gnaw. Cf. Raze, Razee, Razor, Rodent.] 1. To rub along the surface of; to graze. [Obsoles.]

Was he not in the . . . neighborhood to death? and might not the bullet which rased his cheek have gone into his head?


Sometimes his feet rased the surface of the water, and at others the skylight almost flattened his nose.


2. To rub or scratch out; to erase. [Obsoles.]

Except we rase the faculty of memory, root and branch, out of our mind.


3. To level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to raze. [In this sense raze is generally used.]

Till Troy were by their brave hands rased,
They would not turn home.


This word, rase, may be considered as nearly obsolete; graze, erase, and raze, having superseded it.

Rasing iron, a tool for removing old oakum and pitch from the seams of a vessel.

Syn. -- To erase; efface; obliterate; expunge; cancel; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; demolish; ruin.

Rase, v. i. To be leveled with the ground; to fall; to suffer overthrow. [Obs.]

Rase, n. 1. A scratching out, or erasure. [Obs.]

2. A slight wound; a scratch. [Obs.] Hooker.

3. (O. Eng. Law) A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it. Burrill.

Rash (rsh), v. t. [For arace.] 1. To pull off or pluck violently. [Obs.]

2. To slash; to hack; to cut; to slice. [Obs.]

Rashing off helms and riving plates asunder.


Rash, n. [OF. rasche an eruption, scurf, F. rache; fr. (assumed) LL. rasicare to scratch, fr. L. radere, rasum, to scrape, scratch, shave. See Rase, and cf. Rascal.] (Med.) A fine eruption or efflorescence on the body, with little or no elevation.

Canker rash. See in the Vocabulary. -- Nettle rash. See Urticaria. -- Rose rash. See Roseola. -- Tooth rash. See Red-gum.

Rash, n. [Cf. F. ras short-nap cloth, It. & Sp. raso satin (cf. Rase); or cf. It. rascia serge, G. rasch, probably fr. Arras in France (cf. Arras).] An inferior kind of silk, or mixture of silk and worsted. [Obs.] Donne.

Rash, a. [Compar. Rasher (-r); superl. Rashest.] [Probably of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. & Sw. rask quick, brisk, rash, Icel. röskr vigorous, brave, akin to D. & G. rasch quick, of uncertain origin.] 1. Sudden in action; quick; hasty. [Obs.] "Strong as aconitum or rash gunpowder." Shak.

2. Requiring sudden action; pressing; urgent. [Obs.]

I scarce have leisure to salute you,
My matter is so rash.


3. Esp., overhasty in counsel or action; precipitate; resolving or entering on a project or measure without due deliberation and caution; opposed to prudent; said of persons; as, a rash statesman or commander.

4. Uttered or undertaken with too much haste or too little reflection; as, rash words; rash measures.

5. So dry as to fall out of the ear with handling, as corn. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.

Syn. -- Precipitate; headlong; headstrong; foolhardy; hasty; indiscreet; heedless; thoughtless; incautious; careless; inconsiderate; unwary. -- Rash, Adventurous, Foolhardy. A man is adventurous who incurs risk or hazard from a love of the arduous and the bold. A man is rash who does it from the mere impulse of his feelings, without counting the cost. A man is foolhardy who throws himself into danger in disregard or defiance of the consequences.

Was never known a more adventurous knight.


Her rash hand in evil hour
Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat.


If any yet be so foolhardy
To expose themselves to vain jeopardy;
If they come wounded off, and lame,
No honor 's got by such a maim.


Rash (rsh), v. t. To prepare with haste. [Obs.] Foxe.

Rash"er (-r), n. [In sense 1, probably fr. rash, a., as being hastily cooked.] 1. A thin slice of bacon.

2. (Zoöl.) A California rockfish (Sebastichthys miniatus).

Rash"ful (-fl), a. Rash; hasty; precipitate. [Obs.]

Rash"ling (-lng), n. A rash person. [Obs.]

Rash"ly, adv. In a rash manner; with precipitation.

He that doth anything rashly, must do it willingly; for he was free to deliberate or not.


Rash"ness, n. The quality or state of being rash.

We offend . . . by rashness, which is an affirming or denying, before we have sufficiently informed ourselves.


Syn. -- Temerity; foolhardiness; precipitancy; precipitation; hastiness; indiscretion; heedlessness; inconsideration; carelessness. See Temerity.

||Ras*kol"nik (rs*kl"nk), n. [Russ. raskolenik' schismatic, heretic.] (Eccl.) One of the separatists or dissenters from the established or Greek church in Russia. [Written also rascolnik.]

||Ra*so"res (r*z"rz), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. radere, rasum, to scratch. See Rase, v. t.] (Zoöl.) An order of birds; the Gallinæ.

Formerly, the word Rasores was used in a wider sense, so as to include other birds now widely separated in classification.

Ra*so"ri*al (-r*al; 277), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Rasores, or gallinaceous birds, as the peacock, domestic fowl, partridge, quail, and the like.

Ra"sour (rä"sr), n. Razor. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rasp (rsp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rasped (rspt); p. pr. & vb. n. Rasping.] [OF. rasper, F. râper, to scrape, grate, rasp, fr. OHG. raspn to scrape together, to collect, probably akin to E. rap. Cf. Rap to snatch.]

1. To rub or file with a rasp; to rub or grate with a rough file; as, to rasp wood to make it smooth; to rasp bones to powder.

2. Hence, figuratively: To grate harshly upon; to offend by coarse or rough treatment or language; as, some sounds rasp the ear; his insults rasped my temper.

Rasp, n. [OE. raspe, OF. raspe, F. râpe. See Rasp, v.]

1. A coarse file, on which the cutting prominences are distinct points raised by the oblique stroke of a sharp punch, instead of lines raised by a chisel, as on the true file.

2. The raspberry. [Obs.] "Set sorrel amongst rasps, and the rasps will be the smaller." Bacon.

Rasp palm (Bot.), a Brazilian palm tree (Iriartea exorhiza) which has strong aërial roots like a screw pine. The roots have a hard, rough surface, and are used by the natives for graters and rasps, whence the common name.

||Ras`pa*to"ri*um (rs`p*t"r*m), n. [LL.] See Raspatory.

Rasp"a*to*ry (rsp"*t*r), n. [LL. raspatorium: cf. F. raspatoir. See Rasp, v.] A surgeon's rasp. Wiseman.

Rasp"ber*ry (rz"br*r; 277), n. [From E. rasp, in allusion to the apparent roughness of the fruit.] (Bot.) (a) The thimble-shaped fruit of the Rubus Idæus and other similar brambles; as, the black, the red, and the white raspberry. (b) The shrub bearing this fruit.

Technically, raspberries are those brambles in which the fruit separates readily from the core or receptacle, in this differing from the blackberries, in which the fruit is firmly attached to the receptacle.

Rasp"er (rsp"r), n. One who, or that which, rasps; a scraper.

Ras"pis (rs"ps), n. The raspberry. [Obs.] Langham.

Rasp"y (rsp"), a. Like a rasp, or the sound made by a rasp; grating. R. D. Blackmore.

Rasse (rs), n. [Cf. Malay rsa taste, sensation.] (Zoöl.) A carnivore (Viverricula Mallaccensis) allied to the civet but smaller, native of China and the East Indies. It furnishes a perfume resembling that of the civet, which is highly prized by the Javanese. Called also Malacca weasel, and lesser civet.

Ra"sure (r"zhr; 135), n. [L. rasura, fr. radere, rasum, to scrape, to shave. See Rase, v.] 1. The act of rasing, scraping, or erasing; erasure; obliteration.

2. A mark by which a letter, word, or any part of a writing or print, is erased, effaced, or obliterated; an erasure. Ayliffe.

Rat (rt), n. [AS. ræt; akin to D. rat, OHG. rato, ratta, G. ratte, ratze, OLG. ratta, LG. & Dan. rotte, Sw. råtta, F. rat, Ir. & Gael. radan, Armor. raz, of unknown origin. Cf. Raccoon.] 1. (Zoöl.) One of several species of small rodents of the genus Mus and allied genera, larger than mice, that infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway, or brown, rat (M. decumanus), the black rat (M. rattus), and the roof rat (M. Alexandrinus). These were introduced into America from the Old World.

2. A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair. [Local, U.S.]

3. One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union. [Cant]

"It so chanced that, not long after the accession of the house of Hanover, some of the brown, that is, the German or Norway, rats, were first brought over to this country (in some timber as is said); and being much stronger than the black, or, till then, the common, rats, they in many places quite extirpated the latter. The word (both the noun and the verb to rat) was first, as we have seen, leveled at the converts to the government of George the First, but has by degrees obtained a wider meaning, and come to be applied to any sudden and mercenary change in politics." Lord Mahon.

Bamboo rat (Zoöl.), any Indian rodent of the genus Rhizomys. -- Beaver rat, Coast rat. (Zoöl.) See under Beaver, and Coast. -- Blind rat (Zoöl.), the mole rat. -- Cotton rat (Zoöl.), a long-haired rat (Sigmodon hispidus), native of the Southern United States and Mexico. It makes its nest of cotton and is often injurious to the crop. -- Ground rat. See Ground Pig, under Ground. -- Hedgehog rat. See under Hedgehog. -- Kangaroo rat (Zoöl.), the potoroo. -- Norway rat (Zoöl.), the common brown rat. See Rat. -- Pouched rat. (Zoöl.) (a) See Pocket Gopher, under Pocket. (b) Any African rodent of the genus Cricetomys. -- Rat Indians (Ethnol.), a tribe of Indians dwelling near Fort Ukon, Alaska. They belong to the Athabascan stock. -- Rat mole. (Zoöl.) See Mole rat, under Mole. -- Rat pit, an inclosed space into which rats are put to be killed by a dog for sport. -- Rat snake (Zoöl.), a large colubrine snake (Ptyas mucosus) very common in India and Ceylon. It enters dwellings, and destroys rats, chickens, etc. -- Spiny rat (Zoöl.), any South American rodent of the genus Echinomys. -- To smell a rat. See under Smell. -- Wood rat (Zoöl.), any American rat of the genus Neotoma, especially N. Floridana, common in the Southern United States. Its feet and belly are white.

Rat, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ratted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ratting.] 1. In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union.

Coleridge . . . incurred the reproach of having ratted, solely by his inability to follow the friends of his early days.

De Quincey.

2. To catch or kill rats.

Ra"ta (rä"t), n. [Maori.] (Bot.) A New Zealand forest tree (Metrosideros robusta), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs.

Rat`a*bil"i*ty (rt`*bl"*t), n. The quality or state of being ratable.

Rat"a*ble (rt"*b'l), a. 1. Capable of being rated, or set at a certain value.

Twenty oræ were ratable to [at] two marks of silver.


2. Liable to, or subjected by law to, taxation; as, ratable estate.

3. Made at a proportionate rate; as, ratable payments. -- Rat"a*ble*ness, n. -- Rat"a*bly, adv.

Rat`a*fi"a (rt`*f"), n. [F., fr. Malay arak arrack + tfa a spirit distilled from molasses.] A spirituous liquor flavored with the kernels of cherries, apricots, peaches, or other fruit, spiced, and sweetened with sugar; -- a term applied to the liqueurs called noyau, curaçao, etc. [Written also ratifia and ratafee.]

Ra*tan" (r*tn"), n. See Rattan.

Rat"a*ny (rt"*n), n. (Bot.) Same as Rhatany.

||Ra`ta`plan" (r`t`pläN"), n. [F.] The iterative sound of beating a drum, or of a galloping horse.

Ratch (rch), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Rotche.

Ratch (rch), n. [See Rack the instrument, Ratchet.] A ratchet wheel, or notched bar, with which a pawl or click works.

Ratch"el (-l), n. Gravelly stone. [Prov. Eng.]

Ratch"et (-t), n. [Properly a diminutive from the same word as rack: cf. F. rochet. See 2d Ratch, Rack the instrument.] 1. A pawl, click, or detent, for holding or propelling a ratchet wheel, or ratch, etc.

2. A mechanism composed of a ratchet wheel, or ratch, and pawl. See Ratchet wheel, below, and 2d Ratch.

Ratchet brace (Mech.), a boring brace, having a ratchet wheel and pawl for rotating the tool by back and forth movements of the brace handle. -- Ratchet drill, a portable machine for working a drill by hand, consisting of a hand lever carrying at one end a drill holder which is revolved by means of a ratchet wheel and pawl, by swinging the lever back and forth. -- Ratchet wheel (Mach.), a circular wheel having teeth, usually angular, with which a reciprocating pawl engages to turn the wheel forward, or a stationary pawl to hold it from turning backward.

In the cut, the moving pawl c slides over the teeth in one direction, but in returning, draws the wheel with it, while the pawl d prevents it from turning in the contrary direction.

<! p. 1191 pr=vmg !>

Rate (rt), v. t. & i. [Perh. fr. E. rate, v. t., to value at a certain rate, to estimate, but more prob. fr. Sw. rata to find fault, to blame, to despise, to hold cheap; cf. Icel. hrat refuse, hrati rubbish.] To chide with vehemence; to scold; to censure violently. Spenser.

Go, rate thy minions, proud, insulting boy!


Conscience is a check to beginners in sin, reclaiming them from it, and rating them for it.


Rate, n. [OF., fr. L. rata (sc. pars), fr. ratus reckoned, fixed by calculation, p. p. of reri to reckon, to calculate. Cf. Reason.] 1. Established portion or measure; fixed allowance.

The one right feeble through the evil rate
Of food which in her duress she had found.


2. That which is established as a measure or criterion; degree; standard; rank; proportion; ratio; as, a slow rate of movement; rate of interest is the ratio of the interest to the principal, per annum.

Heretofore the rate and standard of wit was different from what it is nowadays.


In this did his holiness and godliness appear above the rate and pitch of other men's, in that he was so . . . merciful.


Many of the horse could not march at that rate, nor come up soon enough.


3. Valuation; price fixed with relation to a standard; cost; charge; as, high or low rates of transportation.

They come at dear rates from Japan.


4. A tax or sum assessed by authority on property for public use, according to its income or value; esp., in England, a local tax; as, parish rates; town rates.

5. Order; arrangement. [Obs.]

Thus sat they all around in seemly rate.


6. Ratification; approval. [R.] Chapman.

7. (Horol.) The gain or loss of a timepiece in a unit of time; as, daily rate; hourly rate; etc.

8. (Naut.) (a) The order or class to which a war vessel belongs, determined according to its size, armament, etc.; as, first rate, second rate, etc. (b) The class of a merchant vessel for marine insurance, determined by its relative safety as a risk, as A1, A2, etc.

Rate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rated; p. pr. & vb. n. Rating.] 1. To set a certain estimate on; to value at a certain price or degree.

To rate a man by the nature of his companions is a rule frequent indeed, but not infallible.


You seem not high enough your joys to rate.


2. To assess for the payment of a rate or tax.

3. To settle the relative scale, rank, position, amount, value, or quality of; as, to rate a ship; to rate a seaman; to rate a pension.

4. To ratify. [Obs.] "To rate the truce." Chapman.

To rate a chronometer, to ascertain the exact rate of its gain or loss as compared with true time, so as to make an allowance or computation dependent thereon.

Syn. -- To value; appraise; estimate; reckon.

Rate, v. i. 1. To be set or considered in a class; to have rank; as, the ship rates as a ship of the line.

2. To make an estimate.

Rate"a*ble (-*b'l), a. See Ratable.

Ra"tel (r"tl), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) Any carnivore of the genus Mellivora, allied to the weasels and the skunks; -- called also honey badger.

Several species are known in Africa and India. The Cape ratel (M. Capensis) and the Indian ratel (M. Indica) are the best known. The back is gray; the lower parts, face, and tail are black. They are fond of honey, and rob the nests of wild bees.

Rate"pay`er (-p`r), n. One who pays rates or taxes.

Rat"er (rt"r), n. One who rates or estimates.

Rat"er, n. One who rates or scolds.

Rat"fish` (rt"fsh`), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Rat-tail.

Rath (rth), n. [Ir. rath.] 1. A hill or mound. [Ireland] Spenser.

2. A kind of ancient fortification found in Ireland.

{ Rath, Rathe } (rth), a. [AS. hræð, hræd, quick, akin to OHG. hrad, Icel. hraðr.] Coming before others, or before the usual time; early. [Obs. or Poetic]

Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies.


{ Rath, Rathe, } adv. Early; soon; betimes. [Obs. or Poetic]

Why rise ye up so rathe?


Too rathe cut off by practice criminal.


Rath"er (r"r), a. [Compar. of Rath, a.] Prior; earlier; former. [Obs.]

Now no man dwelleth at the rather town.

Sir J. Mandeville.

Rath"er (r"r; 277), adv. [AS. hraðor, compar. of hraðe, hræðe, quickly, immediately. See Rath, a.]

1. Earlier; sooner; before. [Obs.]

Thou shalt, quod he, be rather false than I.


A good mean to come the rather to grace.


2. More readily or willingly; preferably.

My soul chooseth . . . death rather than my life.

Job vii. 15.

3. On the other hand; to the contrary of what was said or suggested; instead.

Was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse.

Mark v. 26.

4. Of two alternatives conceived of, this by preference to, or as more likely than, the other; somewhat.

He sought throughout the world, but sought in vain,
And nowhere finding, rather feared her slain.


5. More properly; more correctly speaking.

This is an art
Which does mend nature, change it rather, but
The art itself is nature.


6. In some degree; somewhat; as, the day is rather warm; the house is rather damp.

The rather, the more so; especially; for better reason; for particular cause.

You are come to me in happy time,
The rather for I have some sport in hand.


-- Had rather, or Would rather, prefer to; prefers to; as, he had, or would, rather go than stay. "I had rather speak five words with my understanding than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue." 1 Cor. xiv. 19. See Had rather, under Had.

Rath"ripe` (rth"rp`), a. Rareripe, or early ripe. -- n. A rareripe. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Such who delight in rathripe fruits.


Rat`i*fi*ca"tion (rt`*f*k"shn), n. [Cf. F. ratification.] The act of ratifying; the state of being ratified; confirmation; sanction; as, the ratification of a treaty.

Rat"i*fi`er (rt"*f`r), n. One who, or that which, ratifies; a confirmer. Shak.

Rat"i*fy (-f), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ratified (-fd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ratifying (- f`ng).] [F. ratifier, fr. L. ratus fixed by calculation, firm, valid + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Rate, n., and -fy.] To approve and sanction; to make valid; to confirm; to establish; to settle; especially, to give sanction to, as something done by an agent or servant; as, to ratify an agreement, treaty, or contract; to ratify a nomination.

It is impossible for the divine power to set a seal to a lie by ratifying an imposture with such a miracle.


Rat`i*ha*bi"tion (-h*bsh"n), n. [L. ratihabitio; ratus fixed, valid + habere to hold.] Confirmation or approbation, as of an act or contract. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Ra"ti*o (r"sh* or r"sh), n. [L., fr. reri, ratus, to reckon, believe, think, judge. See Reason.] 1. (Math.) The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by or ½; of a to b by a/b; or (less commonly) the second term is made the dividend; as, a:b = b/a.

Some writers consider ratio as the quotient itself, making ratio equivalent to a number.

The term ratio is also sometimes applied to the difference of two quantities as well as to their quotient, in which case the former is called arithmetical ratio, the latter, geometrical ratio. The name ratio is sometimes given to the rule of three in arithmetic. See under Rule.

2. Hence, fixed relation of number, quantity, or degree; rate; proportion; as, the ratio of representation in Congress.

Compound ratio, Duplicate ratio, Inverse ratio, etc. See under Compound, Duplicate, etc. -- Ratio of a geometrical progression, the constant quantity by which each term is multiplied to produce the succeeding one.

Ra`ti*oc"i*nate (rsh`*s"*nt), v. i. [L. ratiocinatus, p. p. of ratiocinari, fr. ratio reason. See Ratio.] To reason, esp. deductively; to offer reason or argument.

Ra`ti*oc`i*na"tion (-n"shn), n. [L. ratiocinatio: cf. F. ratiocination.] The process of reasoning, or deducing conclusions from premises; deductive reasoning.

Ra`ti*oc"i*na*tive (- s"*n*tv), a. [L. ratiocinativus.] Characterized by, or addicted to, ratiocination; consisting in the comparison of propositions or facts, and the deduction of inferences from the comparison; argumentative; as, a ratiocinative process.

The ratiocinative meditativeness of his character.


Ra`ti*oc"i*na*to*ry (-n*t*r), a. Ratiocinative. [R.]

Ra"tion (r"shn or rsh"n), n. [F., fr. L. ratio a reckoning, calculation, relation, reference, LL. ratio ration. See Ratio.] 1. A fixed daily allowance of provisions assigned to a soldier in the army, or a sailor in the navy, for his subsistence.

Officers have several rations, the number varying according to their rank or the number of their attendants.

2. Hence, a certain portion or fixed amount dealt out; an allowance; an allotment.

Ra"tion, v. t. To supply with rations, as a regiment.

Ra"tion*al (rsh"n*al), a. [L. rationalis: cf. F. rationnel. See Ratio, Reason, and cf. Rationale.] 1. Relating to the reason; not physical; mental.

Moral philosophy was his chiefest end; for the rational, the natural, and mathematics . . . were but simple pastimes in comparison of the other.

Sir T. North.

2. Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning; endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning.

It is our glory and happiness to have a rational nature.


3. Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, rational conduct; a rational man.

4. (Chem.) Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; -- said of formulæ. See under Formula.

Rational horizon. (Astron.) See Horizon, 2 (b). -- Rational quantity (Alg.), one that can be expressed without the use of a radical sign, or in exact parts of unity; -- opposed to irrational or radical quantity. -- Rational symptom (Med.), one elicited by the statements of the patient himself and not as the result of a physical examination.

Syn. -- Sane; sound; intelligent; reasonable; sensible; wise; discreet; judicious. -- Rational, Reasonable. Rational has reference to reason as a faculty of the mind, and is opposed to irrational; as, a rational being, a rational state of mind, rational views, etc. In these cases the speculative reason is more particularly referred to. Reasonable has reference to the exercise of this faculty for practical purposes, and means, governed or directed by reason; as, reasonable desires or plans; a reasonable charge; a reasonable prospect of success.

What higher in her society thou find'st
Attractive, human, rational, love still.


A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers.


Ra"tion*al, n. A rational being. Young.

Ra`tion*a"le (rsh`n*"l), n. [L. rationalis, neut. rationale. See Rational, a.] An explanation or exposition of the principles of some opinion, action, hypothesis, phenomenon, or the like; also, the principles themselves.

Ra"tion*al*ism (rsh"n*al*z'm), n. [Cf. F. rationalisme.] 1. (Theol.) The doctrine or system of those who deduce their religious opinions from reason or the understanding, as distinct from, or opposed to, revelation.

2. (Philos.) The system that makes rational power the ultimate test of truth; -- opposed to sensualism, or sensationalism, and empiricism. Fleming.

Ra"tion*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. rationaliste.] One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under Reasonist.

{ Ra`tion*al*is"tic (-s"tk), Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al (-t*kal), } a. Belonging to, or in accordance with, the principles of rationalism. -- Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al*ly, adv.

Ra`tion*al"i*ty (-l"*t; 277), n.; pl. -ties (- tz). [F. rationalité, or L. rationalitas.] The quality or state of being rational; agreement with reason; possession of reason; due exercise of reason; reasonableness.

When God has made rationality the common portion of mankind, how came it to be thy inclosure?

Gov. of Tongue.

Well-directed intentions, whose rationalities will never bear a rigid examination.

Sir T. Browne.

Ra`tion*al*i*za"tion (rsh`n*al**z"shn), n. The act or process of rationalizing.

Ra"tion*al*ize (rsh"n*al*z), v. t. 1. To make rational; also, to convert to rationalism.

2. To interpret in the manner of a rationalist.

3. To form a rational conception of.

4. (Alg.) To render rational; to free from radical signs or quantities.

Ra"tion*al*ize, v. i. To use, and rely on, reason in forming a theory, belief, etc., especially in matters of religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism.

Theodore . . . is justly considered the chief rationalizing doctor of antiquity.

J. H. Newman.

Ra"tion*al*ly, adv. In a rational manner.

Ra"tion*al*ness, n. The quality or state of being rational; rationality.

||Ra*ti"tæ (r*t"t), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. ratis a raft; cf. L. ratitus marked with the figure of a raft.] (Zoöl.) An order of birds in which the wings are small, rudimentary, or absent, and the breastbone is destitute of a keel. The ostrich, emu, moa, and apteryx are examples.

Rat"i*tate (rt"*tt), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitæ.

Rat"ite (rt"t), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitæ. - - n. One of the Ratitæ.

{ Rat"lines, Rat"lins } (rt"lnz), n. pl. [Of uncertain origin.] (Naut.) The small transverse ropes attached to the shrouds and forming the steps of a rope ladder. [Written also ratlings, and rattlings.] Totten.

Rat"on (rt"n), n. [Cf. Raccoon.] A small rat. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Ra*toon" (r*tn"), n. 1. Same as Rattoon, n.

2. A rattan cane. [Obs.] Pepys.

Ra*toon", v. i. Same as Rattoon, v. i.

Rats"bane` (rts"bn`), n. [Rat + bane.] Rat poison; white arsenic.

Rats"baned` (-bnd`), a. Poisoned by ratsbane.

Rat"-tail` (rt"tl`), a. Like a rat's tail in form; as, a rat-tail file, which is round, slender, and tapering. See Illust. of File.

Rat"-tail`, n. 1. (Far.) pl. An excrescence growing from the pastern to the middle of the shank of a horse.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) The California chimæra. See Chimæra. (b) Any fish of the genus Macrurus. See Grenadier, 2.

Rat"-tailed` (-tld`), a. (Zoöl.) Having a long, tapering tail like that of a rat.

Rat-tailed larva (Zoöl.), the larva of a fly of the genus Eristalis. See Eristalis. -- Rat-tailed serpent (Zoöl.), the fer- de-lance. -- Rat-tailed shrew (Zoöl.), the musk shrew.

Rat*tan" (rt*tn"), n. [Malay rtan.] [Written also ratan.] (Bot.) One of the long slender flexible stems of several species of palms of the genus Calamus, mostly East Indian, though some are African and Australian. They are exceedingly tough, and are used for walking sticks, wickerwork, chairs and seats of chairs, cords and cordage, and many other purposes.

Rat*teen" (-tn"), n. [F. ratine.] A thick woolen stuff quilled or twilled.

Rat"ten (rt"t'n), v. t. [Prov. E. ratten a rat, hence the verb literally means, to do mischief like a rat.] To deprive feloniously of the tools used in one's employment (as by breaking or stealing them), for the purpose of annoying; as, to ratten a mechanic who works during a strike. [Trades-union Cant] J. McCarthy.

Rat"ter (-tr), n. 1. One who, or that which, rats, as one who deserts his party.

2. Anything which catches rats; esp., a dog trained to catch rats; a rat terrier. See Terrier.

Rat`ti*net" (-t*nt"), n. A woolen stuff thinner than ratteen.

Rat"ting (rt"tng), n. 1. The conduct or practices of one who rats. See Rat, v. i., 1. Sydney Smith.

2. The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.

Rat"tle (-t'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rattled (-t'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rattling (-tlng).] [Akin to D. ratelen, G. rasseln, AS. hrætele a rattle, in hrætelwyrt rattlewort; cf. Gr. kradai`nein to swing, wave. Cf. Rail a bird.] 1. To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.

And the rude hail in rattling tempest forms.


'T was but the wind,
Or the car rattling o'er the stony street.


<! p. 1192 pr=vmg !>

2. To drive or ride briskly, so as to make a clattering; as, we rattled along for a couple of miles. [Colloq.]

3. To make a clatter with the voice; to talk rapidly and idly; to clatter; -- with on or away; as, she rattled on for an hour. [Colloq.]

Rat"tle (rt"t'l), v. t. 1. To cause to make a rattling or clattering sound; as, to rattle a chain.

2. To assail, annoy, or stun with a rattling noise.

Sound but another [drum], and another shall
As loud as thine rattle the welkin's ear.


3. Hence, to disconcert; to confuse; as, to rattle one's judgment; to rattle a player in a game. [Colloq.]

4. To scold; to rail at. L'Estrange.

To rattle off. (a) To tell glibly or noisily; as, to rattle off a story. (b) To rail at; to scold. "She would sometimes rattle off her servants sharply." Arbuthnot.

Rat"tle, n. 1. A rapid succession of sharp, clattering sounds; as, the rattle of a drum. Prior.

2. Noisy, rapid talk.

All this ado about the golden age is but an empty rattle and frivolous conceit.


3. An instrument with which a rattling sound is made; especially, a child's toy that rattles when shaken.

The rattles of Isis and the cymbals of Brasilea nearly enough resemble each other.

Sir W. Raleigh.

Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw.


4. A noisy, senseless talker; a jabberer.

It may seem strange that a man who wrote with so much perspicuity, vivacity, and grace, should have been, whenever he took a part in conversation, an empty, noisy, blundering rattle.


5. A scolding; a sharp rebuke. [Obs.] Heylin.

6. (Zoöl.) Any organ of an animal having a structure adapted to produce a rattling sound.

The rattle of a rattlesnake is composed of the hardened terminal scales, loosened in succession, but not cast off, and so modified in form as to make a series of loose, hollow joints.

7. The noise in the throat produced by the air in passing through mucus which the lungs are unable to expel; -- chiefly observable at the approach of death, when it is called the death rattle. See Râle.

To spring a rattle, to cause it to sound. -- Yellow rattle (Bot.), a yellow-flowered herb (Rhinanthus Crista-galli), the ripe seeds of which rattle in the inflated calyx.

Rat"tle*box` (-bks`), n. 1. A toy that makes a rattling sound; a rattle.

2. (Bot.) (a) An American herb (Crotalaria sagittalis), the seeds of which, when ripe, rattle in the inflated pod. (b) Any species of Crotalaria, a genus of yellow-flowered herbs, with inflated, many-seeded pods.

Rat"tle-brained` (-brnd`), a. Giddy; rattle-headed.

Rat"tle*head` (-hd`), n. An empty, noisy talker.

Rat"tle-head`ed, a. Noisy; giddy; unsteady.

Rat"tle*mouse` (-mous`), n. A bat. [Obs.] Puttenham.

Rat"tle*pate` (-pt`), n. A rattlehead. C. Kingsley.

Rat"tle-pat`ed, a. Rattle- headed. "A noisy, rattle-pated fellow." W. Irving.

Rat"tler (-tlr), n. One who, or that which, rattles.

Rat"tle*snake` (rt"t'l*snk`), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona, or Sistrurus. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (Crotalus horridus), and the diamond rattlesnake of the South (C. adamanteus), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang.

Ground rattlesnake (Zoöl.), a small rattlesnake (Caudisona, or Sistrurus, miliaria) of the Southern United States, having a small rattle. It has nine large scales on its head. -- Rattlesnake fern (Bot.), a common American fern (Botrychium Virginianum) having a triangular decompound frond and a long- stalked panicle of spore cases rising from the middle of the frond. -- Rattlesnake grass (Bot.), a handsome American grass (Glyceria Canadensis) with an ample panicle of rather large ovate spikelets, each one composed of imbricated parts and slightly resembling the rattle of the rattlesnake. Sometimes called quaking grass. -- Rattlesnake plantain. (Bot.) See under Plantain. -- Rattlesnake root (Bot.), a name given to certain American species of the composite genus Prenanthes (P. alba and P. serpentaria), formerly asserted to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. Called also lion's foot, gall of the earth, and white lettuce. -- Rattlesnake's master. (Bot.) (a) A species of Agave (Agave Virginica) growing in the Southern United States. (b) An umbelliferous plant (Eryngium yuccæfolium) with large bristly-fringed linear leaves. (c) A composite plant, the blazing star (Liatris squarrosa). -- Rattlesnake weed (Bot.), a plant of the composite genus Hieracium (H. venosum); -- probably so named from its spotted leaves. See also Snakeroot.

Rat"tle*trap` (-trp`), n. Any machine or vehicle that does not run smoothly. [Colloq.] A. Trollope.

Rat"tle*weed` (-wd`), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Astragalus. See Milk vetch.

Rat"tle*wings` (-wngz`), n. (Zoöl.) The golden-eye.

Rat"tle*wort` (-wûrt`), n. [AS. hrætelwyrt.] (Bot.) Same as Rattlebox.

Rat"tlings (rt"tlngz), n. pl. (Naut.) Ratlines.

Rat*toon" (rt*tn"), n. [Sp. retoño.] One of the stems or shoots of sugar cane of the second year's growth from the root, or later. See Plant-cane.

Rat*toon", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rattooned (-tnd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rattooning.] [Cf. Sp. retoñar.] To sprout or spring up from the root, as sugar cane from the root of the previous year's planting.

Rau"cid (r"sd), a. [L. raucus hoarse; cf. LL. raucidus.] Hoarse; raucous. [R.] Lamb.

Rau"ci*ty (r"s*t), n. [L. raucitas, from raucus hoarse: cf. F. raucité.] Harshness of sound; rough utterance; hoarseness; as, the raucity of a trumpet, or of the human voice.

Rau"cous (r"ks), a. [L. raucus.] Hoarse; harsh; rough; as, a raucous, thick tone. "His voice slightly raucous." Aytoun. -- Rau"cous*ly, adv.

Raught (rt), obs. imp. & p. p. of Reach. Shak.

Raught, obs. imp. & p. p. of Reck. Chaucer.

Raunch (rnch), v. t. See Ranch. Spenser.

Raun*soun" (rn*sn"), n. Ransom. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rav"age (rv"j; 48), n. [F., fr. (assumed) L. rapagium, rapaticum, fr. rapere to carry off by force, to ravish. See Rapacious, Ravish.] Desolation by violence; violent ruin or destruction; devastation; havoc; waste; as, the ravage of a lion; the ravages of fire or tempest; the ravages of an army, or of time.

Would one think 't were possible for love
To make such ravage in a noble soul?


Syn. -- Despoilment; devastation; desolation; pillage; plunder; spoil; waste; ruin.

Rav"age, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravaged (-jd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravaging (-*jng).] [F. ravager. See Ravage, n.] To lay waste by force; to desolate by violence; to commit havoc or devastation upon; to spoil; to plunder; to consume.

Already Cæsar
Has ravaged more than half the globe.


His lands were daily ravaged, his cattle driven away.


Syn. -- To despoil; pillage; plunder; sack; spoil; devastate; desolate; destroy; waste; ruin.

Rav"a*ger (-*jr), n. One who, or that which, ravages or lays waste; spoiler.

Rave (rv), obs. imp. of Rive.

Rave, n. [Prov. E. raves, or rathes, a frame laid on a wagon, for carrying hay, etc.] One of the upper side pieces of the frame of a wagon body or a sleigh.

Rave (rv), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raved (rvd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raving.] [F. rêver to rave, to be delirious, to dream; perhaps fr. L. rabere to rave, rage, be mad or furious. Cf. Rage, Reverie.] 1. To wander in mind or intellect; to be delirious; to talk or act irrationally; to be wild, furious, or raging, as a madman.

In our madness evermore we rave.


Have I not cause to rave and beat my breast?


The mingled torrent of redcoats and tartans went raving down the valley to the gorge of Killiecrankie.


2. To rush wildly or furiously. Spenser.

3. To talk with unreasonable enthusiasm or excessive passion or excitement; -- followed by about, of, or on; as, he raved about her beauty.

The hallowed scene
Which others rave of, though they know it not.


Rave, v. t. To utter in madness or frenzy; to say wildly; as, to rave nonsense. Young.

Rave"hook (rv"hk), n. (Shipbuilding) A tool, hooked at the end, for enlarging or clearing seams for the reception of oakum.

Rav"el (rv"'l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raveled (-'ld) or Ravelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Raveling or Ravelling.] [OD. ravelen, D. rafelen, akin to LG. rebeln, rebbeln, reffeln.] 1. To separate or undo the texture of; to take apart; to untwist; to unweave or unknit; -- often followed by out; as, to ravel a twist; to ravel out a stocking.

Sleep, that knits up the raveled sleave of care.


2. To undo the intricacies of; to disentangle.

3. To pull apart, as the threads of a texture, and let them fall into a tangled mass; hence, to entangle; to make intricate; to involve.

What glory 's due to him that could divide
Such raveled interests? has the knot untied?


The faith of very many men seems a duty so weak and indifferent, is so often untwisted by violence, or raveled and entangled in weak discourses!

Jer. Taylor.

Rav"el, v. i. 1. To become untwisted or unwoven; to be disentangled; to be relieved of intricacy.

2. To fall into perplexity and confusion. [Obs.]

Till, by their own perplexities involved,
They ravel more, still less resolved.


3. To make investigation or search, as by picking out the threads of a woven pattern. [Obs.]

The humor of raveling into all these mystical or entangled matters.

Sir W. Temple.

Rav"el*er (-r), n. [Also raveller.] One who ravels.

Rave"lin (rv"ln; 277), n. [F.; cf. Sp. rebellin, It. revellino, rivellino; perhaps fr. L. re- again + vallum wall.] (Fort.) A detached work with two embankments which make a salient angle. It is raised before the curtain on the counterscarp of the place. Formerly called demilune, and half-moon.

Rav"el*ing (rv"'l*ng), n. [Also ravelling.] 1. The act of untwisting or of disentangling.

2. That which is raveled out; esp., a thread detached from a texture.

Ra"ven (r"v'n), n. [AS. hræfn; akin to D. raaf, G. rabe, OHG. hraban, Icel. hrafn, Dan. ravn, and perhaps to L. corvus, Gr. ko`rax. √19.] (Zoöl.) A large black passerine bird (Corvus corax), similar to the crow, but larger. It is native of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is noted for its sagacity.

Sea raven (Zoöl.), the cormorant.

Ra"ven, a. Of the color of the raven; jet black; as, raven curls; raven darkness.

Rav"en (rv"'n), n. [OF. raviné impetuosity, violence, F. ravine ravine. See Ravine, Rapine.] [Written also ravin, and ravine.] 1. Rapine; rapacity. Ray.

2. Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence.

Rav"en, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravened (-'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravening.] [Written also ravin, and ravine.]

1. To obtain or seize by violence. Hakewill.

2. To devour with great eagerness.

Like rats that ravin down their proper bane.


Rav"en, v. i. To prey with rapacity; to be greedy; to show rapacity. [Written also ravin, and ravine.]

Benjamin shall raven as a wolf.

Gen. xlix. 27.

||Rav`e*na"la (rv`*nä"l), n. [Malagasy.] (Bot.) A genus of plants related to the banana.

Ravenala Madagascariensis, the principal species, is an unbranched tree with immense oarlike leaves growing alternately from two sides of the stem. The sheathing bases of the leafstalks collect and retain rain water, which flows freely when they are pierced with a knife, whence the plant is called traveler's tree.

Rav"en*er (rv"'n*r), n. 1. One who, or that which, ravens or plunders. Gower.

2. A bird of prey, as the owl or vulture. [Obs.] Holland.

Rav"en*ing, n. Eagerness for plunder; rapacity; extortion. Luke xi. 39.

Rav"en*ing, a. Greedily devouring; rapacious; as, ravening wolves. -- Rav"en*ing*ly, adv.

Rav"en*ous (rv"'n*s), a. [From 2d Raven.] 1. Devouring with rapacious eagerness; furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; as, a ravenous wolf or vulture.

2. Eager for prey or gratification; as, a ravenous appetite or desire.

-- Rav"en*ous*ly, adv. -- Rav"en*ous*ness, n.

Ra"ven's-duck` (r"v'nz-dk`), n. [Cf. G. ravenstuch.] A fine quality of sailcloth. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Rav"er (rv"r), n. One who raves.

Rav"in (rv"'n), a. Ravenous. [Obs.] Shak.

{ Rav"in, Rav"ine } (rv"'n), n. [See 2d Raven.] Food obtained by violence; plunder; prey; raven. "Fowls of ravyne." Chaucer.

Though Nature, red in tooth and claw
With ravine, shrieked against his creed.


{ Rav"in, Rav"ine, } v. t. & i. See Raven, v. t. & i.

Ra*vine" (r*vn"), n. [F., a place excavated by a torrent, a ravine, fr. ravir to snatch or tear away, L. rapere; cf. L. rapina rapine. See Ravish, and cf. Rapine, Raven prey.] 1. A torrent of water. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

2. A deep and narrow hollow, usually worn by a stream or torrent of water; a gorge; a mountain cleft.

Rav"ing (rv"ng), a. Talking irrationally and wildly; as, a raving lunatic. -- Rav"ing*ly, adv.

Rav"ish (rv"sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravished (-sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravishing.] [OE. ravissen, F. ravir, fr. L. rapere to snatch or tear away, to ravish. See Rapacious, Rapid, and - ish.] 1. To seize and carry away by violence; to snatch by force.

These hairs which thou dost ravish from my chin
Will quicken, and accuse thee.


This hand shall ravish thy pretended right.


2. To transport with joy or delight; to delight to ecstasy. "Ravished . . . for the joy." Chaucer.

Thou hast ravished my heart.

Cant. iv. 9.

3. To have carnal knowledge of (a woman) by force, and against her consent; to rape. Shak.

Syn. -- To transport; entrance; enrapture; delight; violate; deflour; force.

Rav"ish*er (-r), n. One who ravishes (in any sense).

Rav"ish*ing, a. Rapturous; transporting.

Rav"ish*ing*ly, adv. In a ravishing manner.

Rav"ish*ment (-ment), n. [F. ravissement. See Ravish.] 1. The act of carrying away by force or against consent; abduction; as, the ravishment of children from their parents, of a ward from his guardian, or of a wife from her husband. Blackstone.

2. The state of being ravished; rapture; transport of delight; ecstasy. Spenser.

In whose sight all things joy, with ravishment
Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze.


3. The act of ravishing a woman; rape.

Rav"is*sant (rv"s*snt), a. [F.] (Her.) In a half-raised position, as if about to spring on prey.

<! p. 1193 pr=vmg !>

Raw (r), a. [Compar. Rawer (-r); superl. Rawest.] [AS. hreáw; akin to D. raauw, LG. rau, G. roh, OHG. r, Icel. hrr, Dan. raa, Sw. , L. crudus, Gr. kre`as flesh, Skr. kravis raw flesh. √18. Cf. Crude, Cruel.] 1. Not altered from its natural state; not prepared by the action of heat; as, raw sienna; specifically, not cooked; not changed by heat to a state suitable for eating; not done; as, raw meat.

2. Hence: Unprepared for use or enjoyment; immature; unripe; unseasoned; inexperienced; unpracticed; untried; as, raw soldiers; a raw recruit.

Approved himself to the raw judgment of the multitude.

De Quincey.

3. Not worked in due form; in the natural state; untouched by art; unwrought. Specifically: (a) Not distilled; as, raw water. [Obs.] Bacon. (b) Not spun or twisted; as, raw silk or cotton. (c) Not mixed or diluted; as, raw spirits. (d) Not tried; not melted and strained; as, raw tallow. (e) Not tanned; as, raw hides. (f) Not trimmed, covered, or folded under; as, the raw edge of a piece of metal or of cloth.

4. Not covered; bare. Specifically: (a) Bald. [Obs.] "With skull all raw." Spenser (b) Deprived of skin; galled; as, a raw sore. (c) Sore, as if by being galled.

And all his sinews waxen weak and raw
Through long imprisonment.


5. Disagreeably damp or cold; chilly; bleak; as, a raw wind. "A raw and gusty day." Shak.

Raw material, material that has not been subjected to a (specified) process of manufacture; as, ore is the raw material used in smelting; leather is the raw material of the shoe industry. -- Raw pig, cast iron as it comes from the smelting furnace.

Raw, n. A raw, sore, or galled place; a sensitive spot; as, to touch one on the raw.

Like savage hackney coachmen, they know where there is a raw.

De Quincey.

Raw"bone` (r"bn`), a. Rawboned. [Obs.] Spenser.

Raw"boned` (-bnd`), a. Having little flesh on the bones; gaunt. Shak.

Raw"head` (r"hd`), n. A specter mentioned to frighten children; as, rawhead and bloodybones.

Raw"hide` (r"hd`), n. A cowhide, or coarse riding whip, made of untanned (or raw) hide twisted.

Raw"ish, a. Somewhat raw. [R.] Marston.

Raw"ly, adv. 1. In a raw manner; unskillfully; without experience.

2. Without proper preparation or provision. Shak.

Raw"ness, n. The quality or state of being raw.

Ray (r), v. t. [An aphetic form of array; cf. Beray.] 1. To array. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

2. To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile. [Obs.] "The filth that did it ray." Spenser.

Ray, n. Array; order; arrangement; dress. [Obs.]

And spoiling all her gears and goodly ray.


Ray, n. [OF. rai, F. rais, fr. L. radius a beam or ray, staff, rod, spoke of a wheel. Cf. Radius.] 1. One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays.

2. (Bot.) A radiating part of a flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See Radius.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes. (b) One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran.

4. (Physics) (a) A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar ray; a polarized ray. (b) One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red ray; the violet ray. See Illust. under Light.

5. Sight; perception; vision; -- from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen.

All eyes direct their rays
On him, and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze.


6. (Geom.) One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See Half-ray.

Bundle of rays. (Geom.) See Pencil of rays, below. -- Extraordinary ray (Opt.), that one of two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which does not follow the ordinary law of refraction. -- Ordinary ray (Opt.), that one of the two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which follows the usual or ordinary law of refraction. -- Pencil of rays (Geom.), a definite system of rays. -- Ray flower, or Ray floret (Bot.), one of the marginal flowers of the capitulum in such composite plants as the aster, goldenrod, daisy, and sunflower. They have an elongated, strap-shaped corolla, while the corollas of the disk flowers are tubular and five-lobed. -- Ray point (Geom.), the common point of a pencil of rays. -- Röntgen ray (rnt"gn) (Phys.), a kind of ray generated in a very highly exhausted vacuum tube by the electrical discharge. It is capable of passing through many bodies opaque to light, and producing photographic and fluorescent effects by which means pictures showing the internal structure of opaque objects are made, called radiographs, or sciagraphs.. So called from the discoverer, W. C. Röntgen. -- X ray, the Röntgen ray; -- so called by its discoverer because of its enigmatical character, x being an algebraic symbol for an unknown quantity.

Ray, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rayed (rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raying.] [Cf. OF. raier, raiier, rayer, L. radiare to irradiate. See Ray, n., and cf. Radiate.] 1. To mark with long lines; to streak. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. [From Ray, n.] To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to ray smiles. [R.] Thomson.

Ray, v. i. To shine, as with rays. Mrs. Browning.

Ray, n. [F. raie, L. raia. Cf. Roach.] (Zoöl.) (a) Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Raiæ, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc. (b) In a restricted sense, any of the broad, flat, narrow-tailed species, as the skates and sting rays. See Skate.

Bishop ray, a yellow-spotted, long-tailed eagle ray (Stoasodon nàrinari) of the Southern United States and the West Indies. -- Butterfly ray, a short-tailed American sting ray (Pteroplatea Maclura), having very broad pectoral fins. -- Devil ray. See Sea devil. -- Eagle ray, any large ray of the family Myliobatidæ, or Ætobatidæ. The common European species (Myliobatis aquila) is called also whip ray, and miller. -- Electric ray, or Cramp ray, a torpedo. -- Starry ray, a common European skate (Raia radiata). -- Sting ray, any one of numerous species of rays of the family Trygonidæ having one or more large, sharp, barbed dorsal spines on the whiplike tail. Called also stingaree.

||Ra"yah (r"y or rä"y), n. [Ar. ra'iyah a herd, a subject, fr. ra'a to pasture, guard.] A person not a Mohammedan, who pays the capitation tax. [Turkey]

Ray" grass` (r" grs`). [Etymol. of ray is uncertain.] (Bot.) A perennial European grass (Lolium perenne); -- called also rye grass, and red darnel. See Darnel, and Grass.

Italian ray, or rye, grass. See Darnel, and Grass.

Ray"less (r"ls), a. Destitute of rays; hence, dark; not illuminated; blind; as, a rayless sky; rayless eyes.

Ray"on (r"n), n. [F.] Ray; beam. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ray"on*nant (r"n*nnt), a. [F.] (Her.) Darting forth rays, as the sun when it shines out.

Raze (rz), n. [See Race.] A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as race, a root.

Raze, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Razed (rzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Razing.] [F. raser. See Rase, v. t.] [Written also rase.] 1. To erase; to efface; to obliterate.

Razing the characters of your renown.


2. To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish.

The royal hand that razed unhappy Troy.


Syn. -- To demolish; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; ruin. See Demolish.

Razed (rzd), a. Slashed or striped in patterns. [Obs.] "Two Provincial roses on my razed shoes." Shak.

Ra*zee" (r*z"), n. [F. vaisseau rasé, fr. raser to raze, to cut down ships. See Raze, v. t., Rase, v. t.] (Naut.) An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate. Totten.

Ra*zee", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Razeed (r*zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Razeeing.] To cut down to a less number of decks, and thus to an inferior rate or class, as a ship; hence, to prune or abridge by cutting off or retrenching parts; as, to razee a book, or an article.

Ra"zor (r"zr), n. [OE. rasour, OF. rasur, LL. rasor: cf. F. rasoir, LL. rasorium. See Raze, v. t., Rase, v. t.] 1. A keen-edged knife of peculiar shape, used in shaving the hair from the face or the head. "Take thee a barber's razor." Ezek. v. 1.


2. (Zoöl.) A tusk of a wild boar.

Razor fish. (Zoöl.) (a) A small Mediterranean fish (Coryphæna novacula), prized for the table. (b) The razor shell. -- Razor grass (Bot.), a West Indian plant (Scleria scindens), the triangular stem and the leaves of which are edged with minute sharp teeth. -- Razor grinder (Zoöl.), the European goat-sucker. -- Razor shell (Zoöl.), any marine bivalve shell belonging to Solen and allied genera, especially Solen, or Ensatella, ensis, ∧ Americana, which have a long, narrow, somewhat curved shell, resembling a razor handle in shape. Called also razor clam, razor fish, knife handle. -- Razor stone. Same as Novaculite. -- Razor strap, or Razor strop, a strap or strop used in sharpening razors.

Ra"zor*a*ble (-*b'l), a. Ready for the razor; fit to be shaved. [R.] Shak.

Ra"zor*back` (-bk`), n. (Zoöl.) The rorqual.

Ra"zor-backed` (-bkt`), a. (Zoöl.) Having a sharp, lean, or thin back; as, a razor-backed hog, perch, etc.

Ra"zor*bill` (-bl`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) A species of auk (Alca torda) common in the Arctic seas. See Auk, and Illust. in Appendix. (b) See Cutwater, 3.

Ra"zure (r"zhr; 135), n. [See Rasure.] 1. The act of erasing or effacing, or the state of being effaced; obliteration. See Rasure. Shak.

2. An erasure; a change made by erasing.

||Raz"zi*a (rä"z*ä), n. [F., fr. Ar. ghza (pron. razia in Algeria).] A plundering and destructive incursion; a foray; a raid.

Re- (r-). [L. re-, older form (retained before vowels) red-: cf. F. re-, ré-.] A prefix signifying back, against, again, anew; as, recline, to lean back; recall, to call back; recede; remove; reclaim, to call out against; repugn, to fight against; recognition, a knowing again; rejoin, to join again; reiterate; reassure. Combinations containing the prefix re- are readily formed, and are for the most part of obvious signification.

Re (r). [It.] (Mus.) A syllable applied in solmization to the second tone of the diatonic scale of C; in the American system, to the second tone of any diatonic scale.

Re`ab*sorb" (r`b*sôrb"), v. t. To absorb again; to draw in, or imbibe, again what has been effused, extravasated, or thrown off; to swallow up again; as, to reabsorb chyle, lymph, etc.; -- used esp. of fluids.

Re`ab*sorp"tion (-sôrp"shn), n. The act or process of reabsorbing.

Re`ac*cess" (r`k*ss" or r*k"ss), n. A second access or approach; a return. Hakewill.

Re`ac*cuse" (r`k*kz"), v. t. To accuse again.

Reach (rch), v. i. To retch. Cheyne.

Reach, n. An effort to vomit. [R.]

Reach, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reached (rcht) (Raught, the old preterit, is obsolete); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaching.] [OE. rechen, AS. rcan, rcean, to extend, stretch out; akin to D. reiken, G. reichen, and possibly to AS. rce powerful, rich, E. rich. √115.] 1. To extend; to stretch; to thrust out; to put forth, as a limb, a member, something held, or the like.

Her tresses yellow, and long straughten,
Unto her heeles down they raughten.

Rom. of R.

Reach hither thy hand and thrust it into my side.

John xx. 27.

Fruit trees, over woody, reached too far
Their pampered boughs.


2. Hence, to deliver by stretching out a member, especially the hand; to give with the hand; to pass to another; to hand over; as, to reach one a book.

He reached me a full cup.

2 Esd. xiv. 39.

3. To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear.

O patron power, . . . thy present aid afford,
Than I may reach the beast.


4. To strike, hit, or touch with a missile; as, to reach an object with an arrow, a bullet, or a shell.

5. Hence, to extend an action, effort, or influence to; to penetrate to; to pierce, or cut, as far as.

If these examples of grown men reach not the case of children, let them examine.


6. To extend to; to stretch out as far as; to touch by virtue of extent; as, his land reaches the river.

Thy desire . . . leads to no excess
That reaches blame.


7. To arrive at; to come to; to get as far as.

Before this letter reaches your hands.


8. To arrive at by effort of any kind; to attain to; to gain; to be advanced to.

The best account of the appearances of nature which human penetration can reach, comes short of its reality.


9. To understand; to comprehend. [Obs.]

Do what, sir? I reach you not.

Beau. & Fl.

10. To overreach; to deceive. [Obs.] South.

Reach, v. i. 1. To stretch out the hand.

Goddess humane, reach, then, and freely taste!


2. To strain after something; to make efforts.

Reaching above our nature does no good.


3. To extend in dimension, time, amount, action, influence, etc., so as to touch, attain to, or be equal to, something.

And behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven.

Gen. xxviii. 12.

The new world reaches quite across the torrid zone.


4. (Naut.) To sail on the wind, as from one point of tacking to another, or with the wind nearly abeam.

To reach after or at, to make efforts to attain to or obtain.

He would be in the posture of the mind reaching after a positive idea of infinity.


Reach, n. 1. The act of stretching or extending; extension; power of reaching or touching with the person, or a limb, or something held or thrown; as, the fruit is beyond my reach; to be within reach of cannon shot.

2. The power of stretching out or extending action, influence, or the like; power of attainment or management; extent of force or capacity.

Drawn by others who had deeper reaches than themselves to matters which they least intended.


Be sure yourself and your own reach to know.


3. Extent; stretch; expanse; hence, application; influence; result; scope.

And on the left hand, hell,
With long reach, interposed.


I am to pray you not to strain my speech
To grosser issues, nor to larger reach
Than to suspicion.


4. An extended portion of land or water; a stretch; a straight portion of a stream or river, as from one turn to another; a level stretch, as between locks in a canal; an arm of the sea extending up into the land. "The river's wooded reach." Tennyson.

The coast . . . is very full of creeks and reaches.


5. An artifice to obtain an advantage.

The Duke of Parma had particular reaches and ends of his own underhand to cross the design.


6. The pole or rod which connects the hind axle with the forward bolster of a wagon.

Reach"a*ble (-*b'l), a. Being within reach.

Reach"er (-r), n. 1. One who reaches.

2. An exaggeration. [Obs.] Fuller.

Reach"less, a. Being beyond reach; lofty.

Unto a reachless pitch of praises hight.

Bp. Hall.

Re*act" (r*kt"), v. t. To act or perform a second time; to do over again; as, to react a play; the same scenes were reacted at Rome.

Re*act" (r*kt"), v. i. 1. To return an impulse or impression; to resist the action of another body by an opposite force; as, every body reacts on the body that impels it from its natural state.

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2. To act upon each other; to exercise a reciprocal or a reverse effect, as two or more chemical agents; to act in opposition.

Re*ac"tion (r*k"shn), n. [Cf. F. réaction.] 1. Any action in resisting other action or force; counter tendency; movement in a contrary direction; reverse action.

2. (Chem.) The mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other, or the action upon such chemical agents of some form of energy, as heat, light, or electricity, resulting in a chemical change in one or more of these agents, with the production of new compounds or the manifestation of distinctive characters. See Blowpipe reaction, Flame reaction, under Blowpipe, and Flame.

3. (Med.) An action induced by vital resistance to some other action; depression or exhaustion of vital force consequent on overexertion or overstimulation; heightened activity and overaction succeeding depression or shock.

4. (Mech.) The force which a body subjected to the action of a force from another body exerts upon the latter body in the opposite direction.

Reaction is always equal and opposite to action, that is to say, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and in opposite directions.

Sir I. Newton (3d Law of Motion).

5. (Politics) Backward tendency or movement after revolution, reform, or great progress in any direction.

The new king had, at the very moment at which his fame and fortune reached the highest point, predicted the coming reaction.


Reaction time (Physiol.), in nerve physiology, the interval between the application of a stimulus to an end organ of sense and the reaction or resulting movement; -- called also physiological time. -- Reaction wheel (Mech.), a water wheel driven by the reaction of water, usually one in which the water, entering it centrally, escapes at its periphery in a direction opposed to that of its motion by orifices at right angles, or inclined, to its radii.

Re*ac"tion*a*ry (-*r), a. Being, causing, or favoring reaction; as, reactionary movements.

Re*ac"tion*a*ry, n.; pl. Reactionaries (-rz). One who favors reaction, or seeks to undo political progress or revolution.

Re*ac"tion*ist, n. A reactionary. C. Kingsley.

Re*act"ive (r*kt"v), a. [Cf. F. réactif.] Having power to react; tending to reaction; of the nature of reaction. -- Re*act"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*act"ive*ness, n.

Read (rd), n. Rennet. See 3d Reed. [Prov. Eng.]

Read (rd), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Read (rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reading.] [OE. reden, ræden, AS. rdan to read, advise, counsel, fr. rd advice, counsel, rdan (imperf. reord) to advise, counsel, guess; akin to D. raden to advise, G. raten, rathen, Icel. rða, Goth. rdan (in comp.), and perh. also to Skr. rdh to succeed. √116. Cf. Riddle.] 1. To advise; to counsel. [Obs.] See Rede.

Therefore, I read thee, get thee to God's word, and thereby try all doctrine.


2. To interpret; to explain; as, to read a riddle.

3. To tell; to declare; to recite. [Obs.]

But read how art thou named, and of what kin.


4. To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book.

Redeth [read ye] the great poet of Itaille.


Well could he rede a lesson or a story.


5. Hence, to know fully; to comprehend.

Who is't can read a woman?


6. To discover or understand by characters, marks, features, etc.; to learn by observation.

An armed corse did lie,
In whose dead face he read great magnanimity.


Those about her
From her shall read the perfect ways of honor.


7. To make a special study of, as by perusing textbooks; as, to read theology or law.

To read one's self in, to read aloud the Thirty-nine Articles and the Declaration of Assent, -- required of a clergyman of the Church of England when he first officiates in a new benefice.

Read, v. i. 1. To give advice or counsel. [Obs.]

2. To tell; to declare. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. To perform the act of reading; to peruse, or to go over and utter aloud, the words of a book or other like document.

So they read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense.

Neh. viii. 8.

4. To study by reading; as, he read for the bar.

5. To learn by reading.

I have read of an Eastern king who put a judge to death for an iniquitous sentence.


6. To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage reads thus in the early manuscripts.

7. To produce a certain effect when read; as, that sentence reads queerly.

To read between the lines, to infer something different from what is plainly indicated; to detect the real meaning as distinguished from the apparent meaning.

Read, n. [AS. rd counsel, fr. rdan to counsel. See Read, v. t.] 1. Saying; sentence; maxim; hence, word; advice; counsel. See Rede. [Obs.]

2. [Read, v.] Reading. [Colloq.] Hume.

One newswoman here lets magazines for a penny a read.


Read (rd), imp. & p. p. of Read, v. t. & i.

Read (rd), a. Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned.

A poet . . . well read in Longinus.


Read`a*bil"i*ty (rd`*bl"*t), n. The state of being readable; readableness.

Read"a*ble (rd"*b'l), a. Such as can be read; legible; fit or suitable to be read; worth reading; interesting. -- Read"a*ble*ness, n. -- Read"a*bly, adv.

Re`ad*dress" (r`d*drs"), v. t. To address a second time; -- often used reflexively.

He readdressed himself to her.


Re`a*dept" (-*dpt"), v. t. [Pref. re- + L. adeptus, p. p. of adipisci to obtain.] To regain; to recover. [Obs.]

Re`a*dep"tion (-dp"shn), n. A regaining; recovery of something lost. [Obs.] Bacon.

Read"er (rd"r), n. [AS. rdere.] 1. One who reads. Specifically: (a) One whose distinctive office is to read prayers in a church. (b) (University of Oxford, Eng.) One who reads lectures on scientific subjects. Lyell. (c) A proof reader. (d) One who reads manuscripts offered for publication and advises regarding their merit.

2. One who reads much; one who is studious.

3. A book containing a selection of extracts for exercises in reading; an elementary book for practice in a language; a reading book.

Read"er*ship, n. The office of reader. Lyell.

Read"i*ly (rd"*l), adv. 1. In a ready manner; quickly; promptly. Chaucer.

2. Without delay or objection; without reluctance; willingly; cheerfully.

How readily we wish time spent revoked!


Read"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being ready; preparation; promptness; aptitude; willingness.

They received the word with all readiness of mind.

Acts xvii. 11.

Syn. -- Facility; quickness; expedition; promptitude; promptness; aptitude; aptness; knack; skill; expertness; dexterity; ease; cheerfulness. See Facility.

Read"ing (rd"ng), n. 1. The act of one who reads; perusal; also, printed or written matter to be read.

2. Study of books; literary scholarship; as, a man of extensive reading.

3. A lecture or prelection; public recital.

The Jews had their weekly readings of the law.


4. The way in which anything reads; force of a word or passage presented by a documentary authority; lection; version.

5. Manner of reciting, or acting a part, on the stage; way of rendering. [Cant]

6. An observation read from the scale of a graduated instrument; as, the reading of a barometer.

Reading of a bill (Legislation), its formal recital, by the proper officer, before the House which is to consider it.

Read"ing, a. 1. Of or pertaining to the act of reading; used in reading.

2. Addicted to reading; as, a reading community.

Reading book, a book for teaching reading; a reader. -- Reading desk, a desk to support a book while reading; esp., a desk used while reading the service in a church. -- Reading glass, a large lens with more or less magnifying power, attached to a handle, and used in reading, etc. -- Reading man, one who reads much; hence, in the English universities, a close, industrious student. -- Reading room, a room appropriated to reading; a room provided with papers, periodicals, and the like, to which persons resort.

Re`ad*journ" (r`d*jûrn"), v. t. To adjourn a second time; to adjourn again.

Re`ad*journ"ment (-ment), n. The act of readjourning; a second or repeated adjournment.

Re`ad*just" (-jst"), v. t. To adjust or settle again; to put in a different order or relation; to rearrange.

Re`ad*just"er (-r), n. One who, or that which, readjusts; in some of the States of the United States, one who advocates a refunding, and sometimes a partial repudiation, of the State debt without the consent of the State's creditors.

Re`ad*just"ment (-ment), n. A second adjustment; a new or different adjustment.

Re`ad*mis"sion (-msh"n), n. The act of admitting again, or the state of being readmitted; as, the readmission of fresh air into an exhausted receiver; the readmission of a student into a seminary.

Re`ad*mit" (-mt"), v. t. To admit again; to give entrance or access to again.

Whose ear is ever open, and his eye
Gracious to readmit the suppliant.


Re`ad*mit"tance (-tans), n. Allowance to enter again; a second admission.

Re`a*dopt" (r`*dpt"), v. t. To adopt again. Young.

Re`a*dorn" (-dôrn"), v. t. To adorn again or anew.

Re`ad*vance" (r`d*vns"), v. i. To advance again.

Re`ad*vert"en*cy (-vrt"en*s), n. The act of adverting to again, or of reviewing. [R.] Norris.

Read"y (rd"), a. [Compar. Readier (-*r); superl. Readiest.] [AS. rde; akin to D. gereed, bereid, G. bereit, Goth. garáids fixed, arranged, and possibly to E. ride, as meaning originally, prepared for riding. Cf. Array, 1st Curry.] 1. Prepared for what one is about to do or experience; equipped or supplied with what is needed for some act or event; prepared for immediate movement or action; as, the troops are ready to march; ready for the journey. "When she redy was." Chaucer.

2. Fitted or arranged for immediate use; causing no delay for lack of being prepared or furnished. "Dinner was ready." Fielding.

My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage.

Matt. xxii. 4.

3. Prepared in mind or disposition; not reluctant; willing; free; inclined; disposed.

I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem, for the name of the Lord Jesus.

Acts xxi. 13.

If need be, I am ready to forego
And quit.


4. Not slow or hesitating; quick in action or perception of any kind; dexterous; prompt; easy; expert; as, a ready apprehension; ready wit; a ready writer or workman. "Ready in devising expedients." Macaulay.

Gurth, whose temper was ready, though surly.

Sir W. Scott.

5. Offering itself at once; at hand; opportune; convenient; near; easy. "The readiest way." Milton.

A sapling pine he wrenched from out the ground,
The readiest weapon that his fury found.


6. On the point; about; on the brink; near; -- with a following infinitive.

My heart is ready to crack.


7. (Mil.) A word of command, or a position, in the manual of arms, at which the piece is cocked and held in position to execute promptly the next command, which is, aim.

All ready, ready in every particular; wholly equipped or prepared. "[I] am all redy at your hest." Chaucer. -- Ready money, means of immediate payment; cash. "'T is all the ready money fate can give." Cowley. -- Ready reckoner, a book of tables for facilitating computations, as of interest, prices, etc. -- To make ready, to make preparation; to get in readiness.

Syn. -- Prompt; expeditious; speedy; unhesitating; dexterous; apt; skillful; handy; expert; facile; easy; opportune; fitted; prepared; disposed; willing; free; cheerful. See Prompt.

Read"y (rd"), adv. In a state of preparation for immediate action; so as to need no delay.

We ourselves will go ready armed.

Num. xxxii. 17.

Read"y, n. Ready money; cash; -- commonly with the; as, he was well supplied with the ready. [Slang]

Lord Strut was not flush in ready, either to go to law, or to clear old debts.


Read"y, v. t. To dispose in order. [Obs.] Heywood.

Read"y-made` (-md`), a. Made already, or beforehand, in anticipation of need; not made to order; as, ready-made clothing; ready-made jokes.

Read"y-wit`ted (-wt`td), a. Having ready wit.

Re`af*firm" (r`f*frm"), v. t. To affirm again.

{ Re`af*firm"ance (r`f*frm"ans), Re*af`fir*ma"tion (r*f`fr*m"shn), } n. A second affirmation.

Re`af*for"est (r`f*fr"st), v. t. To convert again into a forest, as a region of country.

Re`af*for`es*ta"tion (-s*t"shn), n. The act or process of converting again into a forest.

Re*a"gent (r*"jent), n. (Chem.) A substance capable of producing with another a reaction, especially when employed to detect the presence of other bodies; a test.

Re*ag`gra*va"tion (- g`gr*v"shn), n. (R. C. Ch.) The last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication.

Re`a*gree" (r`*gr"), v. i. To agree again.

Reak (rk), n. [√115. Cf. Wrack seaweed.] A rush. [Obs.] "Feeds on reaks and reeds." Drant.

Reak, n. [Cf. Icel. hrekkr, or E. wreak vengeance.] A prank. [Obs.] "They play such reaks." Beau. & Fl.

Re"al (r"al), n. [Sp., fr. real royal, L. regalis. See Regal, and cf. Ree a coin.] A small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system.

A real of plate (coin) varied in value according to the time of its coinage, from 12½ down to 10 cents, or from 6½ to 5 pence sterling. The real vellon, or money of account, was nearly equal to five cents, or 2½ pence sterling. In 1871 the coinage of Spain was assimilated to that of the Latin Union, of which the franc is the unit.

Re*al" (r*äl"), a. Royal; regal; kingly. [Obs.] "The blood real of Thebes." Chaucer.

Re"al (r"al), a. [LL. realis, fr. L. res, rei, a thing: cf. F. réel. Cf. Rebus.] 1. Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as, a description of real life.

Whereat I waked, and found
Before mine eyes all real, as the dream
Had lively shadowed.


2. True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit, or factitious; often opposed to ostensible; as, the real reason; real Madeira wine; real ginger.

Whose perfection far excelled
Hers in all real dignity.


3. Relating to things, not to persons. [Obs.]

Many are perfect in men's humors that are not greatly capable of the real part of business.


4. (Alg.) Having an assignable arithmetical or numerical value or meaning; not imaginary.

5. (Law) Pertaining to things fixed, permanent, or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as, real property, in distinction from personal or movable property.

Chattels real (Law), such chattels as are annexed to, or savor of, the realty, as terms for years of land. See Chattel. -- Real action (Law), an action for the recovery of real property. -- Real assets (Law), lands or real estate in the hands of the heir, chargeable with the debts of the ancestor. -- Real composition (Eccl. Law), an agreement made between the owner of lands and the parson or vicar, with consent of the ordinary, that such lands shall be discharged from payment of tithes, in consequence of other land or recompense given to the parson in lieu and satisfaction thereof. Blackstone. -- Real estate or property, lands, tenements, and hereditaments; freehold interests in landed property; property in houses and land. Kent. Burrill. -- Real presence (R. C. Ch.), the actual presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, or the conversion of the substance of the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Christ; transubstantiation. In other churches there is a belief in a form of real presence, not however in the sense of transubstantiation. -- Real servitude, called also Predial servitude (Civil Law), a burden imposed upon one estate in favor of another estate of another proprietor. Erskine. Bouvier.

Syn. -- Actual; true; genuine; authentic. -- Real, Actual. Real represents a thing to be a substantive existence; as, a real, not imaginary, occurrence. Actual refers to it as acted or performed; and, hence, when we wish to prove a thing real, we often say, "It actually exists," "It has actually been done." Thus its reality is shown by its actuality. Actual, from this reference to being acted, has recently received a new signification, namely, present; as, the actual posture of affairs; since what is now in action, or going on, has, of course, a present existence. An actual fact; a real sentiment.

For he that but conceives a crime in thought,
Contracts the danger of an actual fault.


Our simple ideas are all real; all agree to the reality of things.


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Re"al (r"al), n. A realist. [Obs.] Burton.

Re*al"gar (r*l"gr), n. [F. réalgar, Sp. rejalgar, Ar. rahj al ghr powder of the mine.] (Min.) Arsenic sulphide, a mineral of a brilliant red color; red orpiment. It is also an artificial product.

Re"al*ism (r"al*z'm), n. [Cf. F. réalisme.] 1. (Philos.) (a) As opposed to nominalism, the doctrine that genera and species are real things or entities, existing independently of our conceptions. According to realism the Universal exists ante rem (Plato), or in re (Aristotle). (b) As opposed to idealism, the doctrine that in sense perception there is an immediate cognition of the external object, and our knowledge of it is not mediate and representative.

2. (Art & Lit.) Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.

Re"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. réaliste.] 1. (Philos.) One who believes in realism; esp., one who maintains that generals, or the terms used to denote the genera and species of things, represent real existences, and are not mere names, as maintained by the nominalists.

2. (Art. & Lit.) An artist or writer who aims at realism in his work. See Realism, 2.

Re`al*is"tic (-s"tk), a. Of or pertaining to the realists; in the manner of the realists; characterized by realism rather than by imagination.

Re`al*is"tic*al*ly, adv. In a realistic manner.

Re*al"i*ty (r*l"*t), n.; pl. Realities (- tz). [Cf. F. réalité, LL. realitas. See 3d Real, and cf. 2d Realty.] 1. The state or quality of being real; actual being or existence of anything, in distinction from mere appearance; fact.

A man fancies that he understands a critic, when in reality he does not comprehend his meaning.


2. That which is real; an actual existence; that which is not imagination, fiction, or pretense; that which has objective existence, and is not merely an idea.

And to realities yield all her shows.


My neck may be an idea to you, but it is a reality to me.


3. [See 1st Realty, 2.] Loyalty; devotion. [Obs.]

To express our reality to the emperor.


4. (Law) See 2d Realty, 2.

Re"al*i`za*ble (r"al*`z*b'l), a. Capable of being realized.

Re`al*i*za"tion (-*z"shn), n. [Cf. F. réalisation.] The act of realizing, or the state of being realized.

Re"al*ize (r"al*z), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Realized (- zd); p. pr. & vb. n. Realizing (- `zng).] [Cf. F. réaliser.] 1. To make real; to convert from the imaginary or fictitious into the actual; to bring into concrete existence; to effectuate; to accomplish; as, to realize a scheme or project.

We realize what Archimedes had only in hypothesis, weighing a single grain against the globe of earth.


2. To cause to seem real; to impress upon the mind as actual; to feel vividly or strongly; to make one's own in apprehension or experience.

Many coincidences . . . soon begin to appear in them [Greek inscriptions] which realize ancient history to us.


We can not realize it in thought, that the object . . . had really no being at any past moment.

Sir W. Hamilton.

3. To convert into real property; to make real estate of; as, to realize his fortune.

4. To acquire as an actual possession; to obtain as the result of plans and efforts; to gain; to get; as, to realize large profits from a speculation.

Knighthood was not beyond the reach of any man who could by diligent thrift realize a good estate.


5. To convert into actual money; as, to realize assets.

Re"al*ize, v. i. To convert any kind of property into money, especially property representing investments, as shares in stock companies, bonds, etc.

Wary men took the alarm, and began to realize, a word now first brought into use to express the conversion of ideal property into something real.

W. Irving.

Re"al*i`zer (-`zr), n. One who realizes. Coleridge.

Re"al*i`zing (-zng), a. Serving to make real, or to impress on the mind as a reality; as, a realizing view of the danger incurred. -- Re"al*i`zing*ly, adv.

Re`al*lege" (-l*lj"), v. t. To allege again. Cotgrave.

Re`al*li"ance (-l"ans), n. A renewed alliance.

Re"-al*ly" (-l"), v. t. [Pref. re- + ally, v. t.] To bring together again; to compose or form anew. Spenser.

Re"al*ly` (r"äl*l`), adv. Royally. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re"al*ly (r"al*l), adv. In a real manner; with or in reality; actually; in truth.

Whose anger is really but a short fit of madness.


Really is often used familiarly as a slight corroboration of an opinion or a declaration.

Why, really, sixty-five is somewhat old.


Realm (rlm), n. [OE. realme, ream, reaume, OF. reialme, roialme, F. royaume, fr. (assumed) LL. regalimen, from L. regalis royal. See Regal.] 1. A royal jurisdiction or domain; a region which is under the dominion of a king; a kingdom.

The absolute master of realms on which the sun perpetually shone.


2. Hence, in general, province; region; country; domain; department; division; as, the realm of fancy.

Realm"less, a. Destitute of a realm. Keats.

Re"al*ness (r"al*ns), n. The quality or condition of being real; reality.

Re"al*ty (-t), n. [OF. réalté, LL. regalitas, fr. L. regalis. See Regal.] 1. Royalty. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Loyalty; faithfulness. [R.] Milton.

Re"al*ty, n. [Contr. from 1st Reality.] 1. Reality. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

2. (Law) (a) Immobility, or the fixed, permanent nature of real property; as, chattels which savor of the realty; -- so written in legal language for reality. (b) Real estate; a piece of real property. Blackstone.

Ream (rm), n. [AS. reám, akin to G. rahm.] Cream; also, the cream or froth on ale. [Scot.]

Ream, v. i. To cream; to mantle. [Scot.]

A huge pewter measuring pot which, in the language of the hostess, reamed with excellent claret.

Sir W. Scott.

Ream, v. t. [Cf. Reim.] To stretch out; to draw out into thongs, threads, or filaments.

Ream, n. [OE. reme, OF. rayme, F. rame (cf. Sp. resma), fr. Ar. rizma a bundle, especially of paper.] A bundle, package, or quantity of paper, usually consisting of twenty quires or 480 sheets.

Printer's ream, twenty-one and a half quires. [Eng.] A common practice is now to count five hundred sheets to the ream. Knight.

Ream, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reamed (rmd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaming.] [Cf. G. räumen to remove, to clear away, fr. raum room. See Room.] To bevel out, as the mouth of a hole in wood or metal; in modern usage, to enlarge or dress out, as a hole, with a reamer.

Reame (rm), n. Realm. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ream"er (-r), n. One who, or that which, reams; specifically, an instrument with cutting or scraping edges, used, with a twisting motion, for enlarging a round hole, as the bore of a cannon, etc.

Re*am`pu*ta"tion (r*m`p*t"shn), n. (Surg.) The second of two amputations performed upon the same member.

Re*an"i*mate (r*n"*mt), v. t. To animate anew; to restore to animation or life; to infuse new life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to reanimate a drowned person; to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate languid spirits. Glanvill.

Re*an`i*ma"tion (-m"shn), n. The act or operation of reanimating, or the state of being reanimated; reinvigoration; revival.

Re`an*nex" (r`n*nks"), v. t. To annex again or anew; to reunite. "To reannex that duchy." Bacon.

Re*an`nex*a"tion (-"shn), n. Act of reannexing.

Re*an"swer (r*n"sr), v. t. & i. To answer in return; to repay; to compensate; to make amends for.

Which in weight to reanswer, his pettiness would bow under.


Reap (rp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reaped (rpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaping.] [OE. repen, AS. rpan to seize, reap; cf. D. rapen to glean, reap, G. raufen to pluck, Goth. raupjan, or E. ripe.] 1. To cut with a sickle, scythe, or reaping machine, as grain; to gather, as a harvest, by cutting.

When ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field.

Lev. xix. 9.

2. To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward or harvest, or as the fruit of labor or of works; -- in a good or a bad sense; as, to reap a benefit from exertions.

Why do I humble thus myself, and, suing
For peace, reap nothing but repulse and hate?


3. To clear of a crop by reaping; as, to reap a field.

4. To deprive of the beard; to shave. [R.] Shak.

Reaping hook, an implement having a hook- shaped blade, used in reaping; a sickle; -- in a specific sense, distinguished from a sickle by a blade keen instead of serrated.

Reap, v. i. To perform the act or operation of reaping; to gather a harvest.

They that sow in tears shall reap in joy.

Ps. cxxvi. 5.

Reap, n. [Cf. AS. rp harvest. See Reap, v.] A bundle of grain; a handful of grain laid down by the reaper as it is cut. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Reap"er (rp"r), n. 1. One who reaps.

The sun-burned reapers wiping their foreheads.


2. A reaping machine.

Re`ap*par"el (r`p*pr"l), v. t. To clothe again.

Re`ap*pear" (r`p*pr"), v. i. To appear again.

Re`ap*pear"ance (-ans), n. A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.

Re*ap`pli*ca"tion (r*p`pl*k"shn), n. The act of reapplying, or the state of being reapplied.

Re`ap*ply" (r`p*pl"), v. t. & i. To apply again.

Re`ap*point" (-point"), v. t. To appoint again.

Re`ap*point"ment (-ment), n. The act of reappointing, or the state of being reappointed.

Re`ap*por"tion (-pr"shn), v. t. To apportion again.

Re`ap*por"tion*ment (-ment), n. A second or a new apportionment.

Re`ap*proach" (r`p*prch"), v. i. & t. To approach again or anew.

Rear (rr), adv. Early; soon. [Prov. Eng.]

Then why does Cuddy leave his cot so rear?


Rear, n. [OF. riere behind, backward, fr. L. retro. Cf. Arrear.] 1. The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last in order; -- opposed to front.

Nipped with the lagging rear of winter's frost.


2. Specifically, the part of an army or fleet which comes last, or is stationed behind the rest.

When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear.


Rear, a. Being behind, or in the hindmost part; hindmost; as, the rear rank of a company.

Rear admiral, an officer in the navy, next in rank below a vice admiral and above a commodore. See Admiral. -- Rear front (Mil.), the rear rank of a body of troops when faced about and standing in that position. -- Rear guard (Mil.), the division of an army that marches in the rear of the main body to protect it; -- used also figuratively. -- Rear line (Mil.), the line in the rear of an army. -- Rear rank (Mil.), the rank or line of a body of troops which is in the rear, or last in order. -- Rear sight (Firearms), the sight nearest the breech. -- To bring up the rear, to come last or behind.

Rear (rr), v. t. To place in the rear; to secure the rear of. [R.]

Rear, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reared (rrd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rearing.] [AS. rran to raise, rear, elevate, for rsan, causative of rsan to rise. See Rise, and cf. Raise.] 1. To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to rear a monolith.

In adoration at his feet I fell
Submiss; he reared me.


It reareth our hearts from vain thoughts.


Mine [shall be] the first hand to rear her banner.

Ld. Lytton.

2. To erect by building; to set up; to construct; as, to rear defenses or houses; to rear one government on the ruins of another.

One reared a font of stone.


3. To lift and take up. [Obs. or R.]

And having her from Trompart lightly reared,
Upon his courser set the lovely load.


4. To bring up to maturity, as young; to educate; to instruct; to foster; as, to rear offspring.

He wants a father to protect his youth,
And rear him up to virtue.


5. To breed and raise; as, to rear cattle.

6. To rouse; to stir up. [Obs.]

And seeks the tusky boar to rear.


Syn. -- To lift; elevate; erect; raise; build; establish. See the Note under Raise, 3 (c).

Rear, v. i. To rise up on the hind legs, as a horse; to become erect.

Rearing bit, a bit designed to prevent a horse from lifting his head when rearing. Knight.

{ Rear"dorse (-dôrs), Rear"doss (- ds) }, n. A reredos.

Rear"er (rr"r), n. One who, or that which, rears.

Re*ar"gue (r*är"g), v. t. To argue anew or again.

Re*ar"gu*ment (-g*ment), n. An arguing over again, as of a motion made in court.

Rear"-horse` (rr"hôrs`), n. [So called because it rears up when disturbed.] (Zoöl.) A mantis.

Rear"ly, adv. Early. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Rear"most` (-mst`), a. Farthest in the rear; last.

{ Rear"mouse`, Rere"mouse` (-mous`) }, n. [AS. hrrems; probably fr. hrran to agitate, stir (akin to G. rühren, Icel. hræra) + ms mouse.] (Zoöl.) The leather-winged bat (Vespertilio murinus). [Written also reermouse.]

Re`ar*range" (r`r*rnj"), v. t. To arrange again; to arrange in a different way.

Re`ar*range"ment (-ment), n. The act of rearranging, or the state of being rearranged.

Rear"ward` (rr"wrd`), n. [Rear + ward.] The last troop; the rear of an army; a rear guard. Also used figuratively. Shak.

Rear"ward (-wrd), a. & adv. At or toward the rear.

Re`as*cend" (r`s*snd"), v. i. To rise, mount, or climb again.

Re`as*cend", v. t. To ascend or mount again; to reach by ascending again.

He mounts aloft, and reascends the skies.


Re`as*cen"sion (-sn"shn), n. The act of reascending; a remounting.

Re`as*cent" (-snt"), n. A returning ascent or ascension; acclivity. Cowper.

Rea"son (r"z'n), n. [OE. resoun, F. raison, fr. L. ratio (akin to Goth. raþj number, account, garaþjan to count, G. rede speech, reden to speak), fr. reri, ratus, to reckon, believe, think. Cf. Arraign, Rate, Ratio, Ration.] 1. A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument.

I 'll give him reasons for it.


The reason of the motion of the balance in a wheel watch is by the motion of the next wheel.

Sir M. Hale.

This reason did the ancient fathers render, why the church was called "catholic."

Bp. Pearson.

Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things; but there is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness.


2. The faculty or capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. Reason comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the discursive or ratiocinative faculty.

We have no other faculties of perceiving or knowing anything divine or human, but by our five senses and our reason.

P. Browne.

In common and popular discourse, reason denotes that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends.


Reason is used sometimes to express the whole of those powers which elevate man above the brutes, and constitute his rational nature, more especially, perhaps, his intellectual powers; sometimes to express the power of deduction or argumentation.


By the pure reason I mean the power by which we become possessed of principles.


The sense perceives; the understanding, in its own peculiar operation, conceives; the reason, or rationalized understanding, comprehends.


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3. Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.

I was promised, on a time,
To have reason for my rhyme.


But law in a free nation hath been ever public reason; the enacted reason of a parliament, which he denying to enact, denies to govern us by that which ought to be our law; interposing his own private reason, which to us is no law.


The most probable way of bringing France to reason would be by the making an attempt on the Spanish West Indies.


4. (Math.) Ratio; proportion. [Obs.] Barrow.

By reason of, by means of; on account of; because of. "Spain is thin sown of people, partly by reason of the sterility of the soil." Bacon. -- In reason, In all reason, in justice; with rational ground; in a right view.

When anything is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not, in reason, to doubt of its existence.


-- It is reason, it is reasonable; it is right. [Obs.]

Yet it were great reason, that those that have children should have greatest care of future times.


Syn. -- Motive; argument; ground; consideration; principle; sake; account; object; purpose; design. See Motive, Sense.

Rea"son (r"z'n), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reasoned (-z'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reasoning.] [Cf. F. raisonner. See Reason, n.] 1. To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.

2. Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.

Stand still, that I may reason with you, before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord.

1 Sam. xii. 7.

3. To converse; to compare opinions. Shak.

Rea"son, v. t. 1. To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I reasoned the matter with my friend.

When they are clearly discovered, well digested, and well reasoned in every part, there is beauty in such a theory.

T. Burnet.

2. To support with reasons, as a request. [R.] Shak.

3. To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan.

Men that will not be reasoned into their senses.


4. To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; -- with down; as, to reason down a passion.

5. To find by logical processes; to explain or justify by reason or argument; -- usually with out; as, to reason out the causes of the librations of the moon.

Rea"son*a*ble (-*b'l), a. [OE. resonable, F. raisonnable, fr. L. rationabilis. See Reason, n.] 1. Having the faculty of reason; endued with reason; rational; as, a reasonable being.

2. Governed by reason; being under the influence of reason; thinking, speaking, or acting rationally, or according to the dictates of reason; agreeable to reason; just; rational; as, the measure must satisfy all reasonable men.

By indubitable certainty, I mean that which doth not admit of any reasonable cause of doubting.

Bp. Wilkins.

Men have no right to what is not reasonable.


3. Not excessive or immoderate; within due limits; proper; as, a reasonable demand, amount, price.

Let . . . all things be thought upon
That may, with reasonable swiftness, add
More feathers to our wings.


Syn. -- Rational; just; honest; equitable; fair; suitable; moderate; tolerable. See Rational.

Rea"son*a*ble, adv. Reasonably; tolerably. [Obs.]

I have a reasonable good ear in music.


Rea"son*a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being reasonable.

Rea"son*a*bly, adv. 1. In a reasonable manner.

2. Moderately; tolerably. "Reasonably perfect in the language." Holder.

Rea"son*er (-r), n. One who reasons or argues; as, a fair reasoner; a close reasoner; a logical reasoner.

Rea"son*ing, n. 1. The act or process of adducing a reason or reasons; manner of presenting one's reasons.

2. That which is offered in argument; proofs or reasons when arranged and developed; course of argument.

His reasoning was sufficiently profound.


Syn. -- Argumentation; argument. -- Reasoning, Argumentation. Few words are more interchanged than these; and yet, technically, there is a difference between them. Reasoning is the broader term, including both deduction and induction. Argumentation denotes simply the former, and descends from the whole to some included part; while reasoning embraces also the latter, and ascends from the parts to a whole. See Induction. Reasoning is occupied with ideas and their relations; argumentation has to do with the forms of logic. A thesis is set down: you attack, I defend it; you insist, I reply; you deny, I prove; you distinguish, I destroy your distinctions; my replies balance or overturn your objections. Such is argumentation. It supposes that there are two sides, and that both agree to the same rules. Reasoning, on the other hand, is often a natural process, by which we form, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience.

Rea"son*ist, n. A rationalist. [Obs.]

Such persons are now commonly called "reasonists" and "rationalists," to distinguish them from true reasoners and rational inquirers.


Rea"son*less, a. 1. Destitute of reason; as, a reasonless man or mind. Shak.

2. Void of reason; not warranted or supported by reason; unreasonable.

This proffer is absurd and reasonless.


Re`as*sem"blage (r`s*sm"blj), n. Assemblage a second time or again.

Re`as*sem"ble (-b'l), v. t. & i. To assemble again.

Re`as*sert" (-srt"), v. t. To assert again or anew; to maintain after an omission to do so.

Let us hope . . . we may have a body of authors who will reassert our claim to respectability in literature.


Re`as*ser"tion (-sr"shn), n. A second or renewed assertion of the same thing.

Re`as*sess"ment (-ss"ment), n. A renewed or second assessment.

Re`as*sign" (-sn"), v. t. To assign back or again; to transfer back what has been assigned.

Re`as*sign"ment (-ment), n. The act of reassigning.

Re`as*sim"i*late (-sm"*lt), v. t. & i. To assimilate again. -- Re`as*sim`i*la"tion (-l"shn), n.

Re`as*so"ci*ate (-s"sh*t), v. t. & i. To associate again; to bring again into close relations.

Re`as*sume" (-sm"), v. t. To assume again or anew; to resume. -- Re`as*sump"tion (- smp"shn), n.

Re`as*sur"ance (r`*shr"ans), n. 1. Assurance or confirmation renewed or repeated. Prynne.

2. (Law) Same as Reinsurance.

Re`as*sure" (r`*shr"), v. t. 1. To assure anew; to restore confidence to; to free from fear or terror.

They rose with fear, . . .
Till dauntless Pallas reassured the rest.


2. To reinsure.

Re`as*sur"er (-r), n. One who reassures.

Reas"ty (rs"t), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Rusty and rancid; -- applied to salt meat. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Tusser. -- Reas"ti*ness (-t*ns), n. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

||Re*a"ta (r*ä"t), n. [Sp.] A lariat.

Re`at*tach" (r`t*tch"), v. t. To attach again.

Re`at*tach"ment (-ment), n. The act of reattaching; a second attachment.

Re`at*tain" (-tn"), v. t. To attain again.

Re`at*tain"ment (-ment), n. The act of reattaining.

Re`at*tempt" (-tmt"; 215), v. t. To attempt again.

Re"aume (r"m), n. Realm. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ré`au`mur" (r``mr"), a. Of or pertaining to René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur; conformed to the scale adopted by Réaumur in graduating the thermometer he invented. -- n. A Réaumur thermometer or scale.

The Réaumur thermometer is so graduated that 0° marks the freezing point and 80° the boiling point of water. Frequently indicated by R. Cf. Centigrade, and Fahrenheit. See Illust. of Thermometer.

Reave (rv), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reaved (rvd), Reft (rft), or Raft (rft) (obs.); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaving.] [AS. reáfian, from reáf spoil, plunder, clothing, reófan to break (cf. bireófan to deprive of); akin to G. rauben to rob, Icel. raufa to rob, rjfa to break, violate, Goth. biráubn to despoil, L. rumpere to break; cf. Skr. lup to break. √114. Cf. Bereave, Rob, v. t., Robe, Rove, v. i., Rupture.] To take away by violence or by stealth; to snatch away; to rob; to despoil; to bereave. [Archaic] "To reave his life." Spenser.

He golden apples raft of the dragon.


If the wooers reave
By privy stratagem my life at home.


To reave the orphan of his patrimony.


The heathen caught and reft him of his tongue.


Reav"er (rv"r), n. One who reaves. [Archaic]

Re`a*wake" (r`*wk"), v. i. To awake again.

Re*ban"ish (r*bn"sh), v. t. To banish again.

Re*bap"tism (r*bp"tz'm), n. A second baptism.

Re*bap`ti*za"tion (-t*z"shn), n. [Cf. F. rebaptisation.] A second baptism. [Obs.] Hooker.

Re`bap*tize" (r`bp*tz"), v. t. [Pref. re- + baptize: cf. F. rebaptiser, L. rebaptizare.] To baptize again or a second time.

Re`bap*tiz"er (-tz"r), n. One who rebaptizes.

Re*bar"ba*rize (r*bär"b*rz), v. t. To reduce again to barbarism. -- Re*bar`ba*ri*za"tion (-r*z"shn), n.

Germany . . . rebarbarized by polemical theology and religious wars.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Re*bate" (r*bt"), v. t. [F. rebattre to beat again; pref. re- re- + battre to beat, L. batuere to beat, strike. See Abate.] 1. To beat to obtuseness; to deprive of keenness; to blunt; to turn back the point of, as a lance used for exercise.

But doth rebate and blunt his natural edge.


2. To deduct from; to make a discount from, as interest due, or customs duties. Blount.

Rebated cross, a cross which has the extremities of the arms bent back at right angles, as in the fylfot.

Re*bate", v. i. To abate; to withdraw. [Obs.] Foxe.

Re*bate", n. 1. Diminution.

2. (Com.) Deduction; abatement; as, a rebate of interest for immediate payment; a rebate of importation duties. Bouvier.

Re*bate", n. [See Rabbet.] 1. (Arch.) A rectangular longitudinal recess or groove, cut in the corner or edge of any body; a rabbet. See Rabbet.

2. A piece of wood hafted into a long stick, and serving to beat out mortar. Elmes.

3. An iron tool sharpened something like a chisel, and used for dressing and polishing wood. Elmes.

4. [Perhaps a different word.] A kind of hard freestone used in making pavements. [R.] Elmes.

Re*bate", v. t. To cut a rebate in. See Rabbet, v.

Re*bate"ment (-ment), n. [Cf. OF. rabatement, fr. rabatre to diminish, F. rabattre.] Same as 3d Rebate.

Re*ba"to (r*b"t), n. Same as Rabato. Burton.

Re"bec (r"bk), n. [F., fr. It. ribeca, ribeba, fr. Ar. rabb a musical instrument of a round form.] 1. (Mus.) An instrument formerly used which somewhat resembled the violin, having three strings, and being played with a bow. [Written also rebeck.] Milton.

He turn'd his rebec to a mournful note.


2. A contemptuous term applied to an old woman. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Reb"el (rb"l), a. [F. rebelle, fr. L. rebellis. See Rebel, v. i.] Pertaining to rebels or rebellion; acting in revolt; rebellious; as, rebel troops.

Whoso be rebel to my judgment.


Convict by flight, and rebel to all law.


Reb"el, n. [F. rebelle.] One who rebels.

Syn. -- Revolter; insurgent. -- Rebel, Insurgent. Insurgent marks an early, and rebel a more advanced, stage of opposition to government. The former rises up against his rulers, the latter makes war upon them.

Re*bel" (r*bl"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rebelled (-bld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebelling.] [F. rebeller, fr. L. rebellare to make war again; pref. re- again + bellare to make war, fr. bellum war. See Bellicose, and cf. Revel to carouse.] 1. To renounce, and resist by force, the authority of the ruler or government to which one owes obedience. See Rebellion.

The murmur and the churls' rebelling.


Ye have builded you an altar, that ye might rebel this day against the Lord.

Josh. xxii. 16.

2. To be disobedient to authority; to assume a hostile or insubordinate attitude; to revolt.

How could my hand rebel against my heart?
How could your heart rebel against your reason?


Reb"el*dom (rb"l*dm), n. A region infested by rebels; rebels, considered collectively; also, conduct or quality characteristic of rebels. Thackeray.

Re*bel"ler (r*bl"lr), n. One who rebels; a rebel.

Re*bel"lion (r*bl"yn), n. [F. rébellion, L. rebellio. See Rebel, v. i. Among the Romans rebellion was originally a revolt or open resistance to their government by nations that had been subdued in war. It was a renewed war.] 1. The act of rebelling; open and avowed renunciation of the authority of the government to which one owes obedience, and resistance to its officers and laws, either by levying war, or by aiding others to do so; an organized uprising of subjects for the purpose of coercing or overthrowing their lawful ruler or government by force; revolt; insurrection.

No sooner is the standard of rebellion displayed than men of desperate principles resort to it.


2. Open resistance to, or defiance of, lawful authority.

Commission of rebellion (Eng. Law), a process of contempt issued on the nonappearance of a defendant, -- now abolished. Wharton. Burrill.

Syn. -- Insurrection; sedition; revolt; mutiny; resistance; contumacy. See Insurrection.

Re*bel"lious (r*bl"ys), a. Engaged in rebellion; disposed to rebel; of the nature of rebels or of rebellion; resisting government or lawful authority by force. "Thy rebellious crew." "Proud rebellious arms." Milton. -- Re*bel"lious*ly, adv. -- Re*bel"lious*ness, n.

Re*bel"low (r*bl"l), v. i. To bellow again; to repeat or echo a bellow.

The cave rebellowed, and the temple shook.


Re*bit"ing (r*bt"ng), n. (Etching) The act or process of deepening worn lines in an etched plate by submitting it again to the action of acid. Fairholt.

Re*bloom" (r*blm"), v. i. To bloom again. Crabbe.

Re*blos"som (r*bls"sm), v. i. To blossom again.

Re*bo"ant (r*b"ant), a. [L. reboans, p. pr. of reboare; pref. re- re- + boare to cry aloud.] Rebellowing; resounding loudly. [R.] Mrs. Browning.

Re`bo*a"tion (r`b*"shn), n. Repetition of a bellow. [R.] Bp. Patrick.

Re*boil" (r*boil"), v. t. & i. [Pref. re- + boil: cf. F. rebouillir.] 1. To boil, or to cause to boil, again.

2. Fig.: To make or to become hot. [Obs.]

Some of his companions thereat reboyleth.

Sir T. Elyot.

Re*born" (r*bôrn"), p. p. Born again.

Re*bound" (r*bound"), v. i. [Pref. re- + bound: cf. F. rebondir.] 1. To spring back; to start back; to be sent back or reverberated by elastic force on collision with another body; as, a rebounding echo.

Bodies which are absolutely hard, or so soft as to be void of elasticity, will not rebound from one another.

Sir I. Newton.

2. To give back an echo. [R.] T. Warton.

3. To bound again or repeatedly, as a horse. Pope.

Rebounding lock (Firearms), one in which the hammer rebounds to half cock after striking the cap or primer.

Re*bound", v. t. To send back; to reverberate.

Silenus sung; the vales his voice rebound.


Re*bound", n. The act of rebounding; resilience.

Flew . . . back, as from a rock, with swift rebound.


Re*brace" (r*brs"), v. t. To brace again. Gray.

Re*breathe" (r*brth"), v. t. To breathe again.

Re*bu"cous (r*b"ks), a. Rebuking. [Obs.]

She gave unto him many rebucous words.


Re*buff" (r*bf"), n. [It. ribuffo, akin to ribuffare to repulse; pref. ri- (L. re-) + buffo puff. Cf. Buff to strike, Buffet a blow.] 1. Repercussion, or beating back; a quick and sudden resistance.

The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud.


2. Sudden check; unexpected repulse; defeat; refusal; repellence; rejection of solicitation.

Re*buff", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebuffed (r*bft"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebuffing.] To beat back; to offer sudden resistance to; to check; to repel or repulse violently, harshly, or uncourteously.

Re*build" (r*bld"), v. t. To build again, as something which has been demolished; to construct anew; as, to rebuild a house, a wall, a wharf, or a city.

Re*build"er (-r), n. One who rebuilds. Bp. Bull.

Re*buk"a*ble (r*bk"*b'l), a. Worthy of rebuke or reprehension; reprehensible. Shak.

Re*buke" (r*bk"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebuked (-bkt"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebuking.] [OF. rebouquier to dull, blunt, F. reboucher; perhaps fr. pref. re- re- + bouche mouth, OF. also bouque, L. bucca cheek; if so, the original sense was, to stop the mouth of; hence, to stop, obstruct.] To check, silence, or put down, with reproof; to restrain by expression of disapprobation; to reprehend sharply and summarily; to chide; to reprove; to admonish.

The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered,
Nor to rebuke the rich offender feared.


Syn. -- To reprove; chide; check; chasten; restrain; silence. See Reprove.

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Re*buke" (r*bk"), n. 1. A direct and pointed reproof; a reprimand; also, chastisement; punishment.

For thy sake I have suffered rebuke.

Jer. xv. 15.

Why bear you these rebukes and answer not?


2. Check; rebuff. [Obs.] L'Estrange.

To be without rebuke, to live without giving cause of reproof or censure; to be blameless.

Re*buke"ful (-fl), a. Containing rebuke; of the nature of rebuke. [Obs.] -- Re*buke"ful*ly, adv. [Obs.]

Re*buk"er (-bk"r), n. One who rebukes.

Re*buk"ing*ly, adv. By way of rebuke.

Re`bul*li"tion (r`bl*lsh"n), n. The act of boiling up or effervescing. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.

Re*bur"y (r*br"r), v. t. To bury again. Ashmole.

Re"bus (r"bs), n.; pl. Rebuses (-z). [L. rebus by things, abl. pl. of res a thing: cf. F. rébus. Cf. 3d Real.] 1. A mode of expressing words and phrases by pictures of objects whose names resemble those words, or the syllables of which they are composed; enigmatical representation of words by figures; hence, a peculiar form of riddle made up of such representations.

A gallant, in love with a woman named Rose Hill, had, embroidered on his gown, a rose, a hill, an eye, a loaf, and a well, signifying, Rose Hill I love well.

2. (Her.) A pictorial suggestion on a coat of arms of the name of the person to whom it belongs. See Canting arms, under Canting.

Re"bus, v. t. To mark or indicate by a rebus.

He [John Morton] had a fair library rebused with More in text and Tun under it.


Re*but" (r*bt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebutted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rebutting.] [OF. rebouter to repulse, drive back; pref. re- + bouter to push, thrust. See 1st Butt, Boutade.] 1. To drive or beat back; to repulse.

Who him, rencount'ring fierce, as hawk in flight,
Perforce rebutted back.


2. (Law) To contradict, meet, or oppose by argument, plea, or countervailing proof. Abbott.

Re*but", v. i. 1. To retire; to recoil. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. (Law) To make, or put in, an answer, as to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.

The plaintiff may answer the rejoinder by a surrejoinder; on which the defendant may rebut.


Re*but"ta*ble (-t*b'l), a. Capable of being rebutted.

Re*but"tal (-bt"tal), n. (Law) The giving of evidence on the part of a plaintiff to destroy the effect of evidence introduced by the defendant in the same suit.

Re*but"ter (-tr), n. (Law) The answer of a defendant in matter of fact to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.

Re*ca"den*cy (r*k"den*s), n. A falling back or descending a second time; a relapse. W. Montagu.

Re*cal"ci*trant (r*kl"s*trant), a. [L. recalcitrans, p. pr. of recalcitrare to kick back; pref. re- re- + calcitrare to kick, fr. calx heel. Cf. Inculcate.] Kicking back; recalcitrating; hence, showing repugnance or opposition; refractory.

Re*cal"ci*trate (-trt), v. t. To kick against; to show repugnance to; to rebuff.

The more heartily did one disdain his disdain, and recalcitrate his tricks.

De Quincey.

Re*cal"ci*trate, v. i. To kick back; to kick against anything; hence, to express repugnance or opposition.

Re*cal`ci*tra"tion (-tr"shn), n. A kicking back again; opposition; repugnance; refractoriness.

Re*call" (r*kl"), v. t. 1. To call back; to summon to return; as, to recall troops; to recall an ambassador.

If Henry were recalled to life again.


2. To revoke; to annul by a subsequent act; to take back; to withdraw; as, to recall words, or a decree.

Passed sentence may not be recall'd.


3. To call back to mind; to revive in memory; to recollect; to remember; as, to recall bygone days.

Re*call", n. 1. A calling back; a revocation.

'T is done, and since 't is done, 't is past recall.


2. (Mil.) A call on the trumpet, bugle, or drum, by which soldiers are recalled from duty, labor, etc. Wilhelm.

Re*call"a*ble (-*b'l), a. Capable of being recalled.

Re*call"ment (-ment), n. Recall. [R.] R. Browning.

Re*cant" (r*knt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Recanting.] [L. recantare, recantatum, to recall, recant; pref. re- re- + cantare to sing, to sound. See 3d Cant, Chant.] To withdraw or repudiate formally and publicly (opinions formerly expressed); to contradict, as a former declaration; to take back openly; to retract; to recall.

How soon . . . ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void!


Syn. -- To retract; recall; revoke; abjure; disown; disavow. See Renounce.

Re*cant", v. i. To revoke a declaration or proposition; to unsay what has been said; to retract; as, convince me that I am wrong, and I will recant. Dryden.

Re`can*ta"tion (r`kn*t"shn), n. The act of recanting; a declaration that contradicts a former one; that which is thus asserted in contradiction; retraction.

The poor man was imprisoned for this discovery, and forced to make a public recantation.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

Re*cant"er (r*knt"r), n. One who recants.

Re`ca*pac"i*tate (r`k*ps"*tt), v. t. To qualify again; to confer capacity on again. Atterbury.

Re*ca*pit"u*late (-pt"*lt), v. t. [L. recapitulare, recapitulatum; pref. re- re- + capitulum a small head, chapter, section. See Capitulate.] To repeat, as the principal points in a discourse, argument, or essay; to give a summary of the principal facts, points, or arguments of; to relate in brief; to summarize.

Re`ca*pit"u*late (r`k*pt"*lt), v. i. To sum up, or enumerate by heads or topics, what has been previously said; to repeat briefly the substance.

Re`ca*pit`u*la"tion (-l"shn), n. [LL. recapitulatio: cf. F. recapitulation.] The act of recapitulating; a summary, or concise statement or enumeration, of the principal points, facts, or statements, in a preceding discourse, argument, or essay.

Re`ca*pit"u*la`tor (- pt"*l`tr), n. One who recapitulates.

Re`ca*pit"u*la*to*ry (-l*t*r), a. Of the nature of a recapitulation; containing recapitulation.

Re*cap"per (r*kp"pr), n. (Firearms) A tool used for applying a fresh percussion cap or primer to a cartridge shell in reloading it.

Re*cap"tion (r*kp"shn), n. (Law) The act of retaking, as of one who has escaped after arrest; reprisal; the retaking of one's own goods, chattels, wife, or children, without force or violence, from one who has taken them and who wrongfully detains them. Blackstone.

Writ of recaption (Law), a writ to recover damages for him whose goods, being distrained for rent or service, are distrained again for the same cause. Wharton.

Re*cap"tor (-tr), n. One who recaptures; one who takes a prize which had been previously taken.

Re*cap"ture (-tr; 135), n. 1. The act of retaking or recovering by capture; especially, the retaking of a prize or goods from a captor.

2. That which is captured back; a prize retaken.

Re*cap"ture, v. t. To capture again; to retake.

Re*car"bon*ize (r*kär"bn*z), v. t. (Metal.) To restore carbon to; as, to recarbonize iron in converting it into steel.

Re*car"ni*fy (-n*f), v. t. To convert again into flesh. [Obs.] Howell.

Re*car"riage (r*kr"rj), n. Act of carrying back.

Re*car"ry (-r), v. t. To carry back. Walton.

Re*cast" (r*kst"), v. t. 1. To throw again. Florio.

2. To mold anew; to cast anew; to throw into a new form or shape; to reconstruct; as, to recast cannon; to recast an argument or a play.

3. To compute, or cast up, a second time.

Rec"che (rk"ke), v. i. To reck. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rec"che*les (-ls), a. Reckless. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*cede" (r*sd"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Receded; p. pr. & vb. n. Receding.] [L. recedere, recessum; pref. re- re- + cedere to go, to go along: cf. F. recéder. See Cede.] 1. To move back; to retreat; to withdraw.

Like the hollow roar
Of tides receding from the insulted shore.


All bodies moved circularly endeavor to recede from the center.


2. To withdraw a claim or pretension; to desist; to relinquish what had been proposed or asserted; as, to recede from a demand or proposition.

Syn. -- To retire; retreat; return; retrograde; withdraw; desist.

Re*cede" (r*sd"), v. t. [Pref. re- + cede. Cf. Recede, v. i.] To cede back; to grant or yield again to a former possessor; as, to recede conquered territory.

Re*ceipt" (r*st"), n. [OE. receite, OF. recete, recepte, F. recette, fr. L. recipere, receptum, to receive. See Receive.] 1. The act of receiving; reception. "At the receipt of your letter." Shak.

2. Reception, as an act of hospitality. [Obs.]

Thy kind receipt of me.


3. Capability of receiving; capacity. [Obs.]

It has become a place of great receipt.


4. Place of receiving. [Obs.]

He saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom.

Matt. ix. 9.

5. Hence, a recess; a retired place. [Obs.] "In a retired receipt together lay." Chapman.

6. A formulary according to the directions of which things are to be taken or combined; a recipe; as, a receipt for making sponge cake.

She had a receipt to make white hair black.

Sir T. Browne.

7. A writing acknowledging the taking or receiving of goods delivered; an acknowledgment of money paid.

8. That which is received; that which comes in, in distinction from what is expended, paid out, sent away, and the like; -- usually in the plural; as, the receipts amounted to a thousand dollars.

Gross receipts. See under Gross, a.

Re*ceipt", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Receipted; p. pr. & vb. n. Receipting.] 1. To give a receipt for; as, to receipt goods delivered by a sheriff.

2. To put a receipt on, as by writing or stamping; as, to receipt a bill.

Re*ceipt", v. i. To give a receipt, as for money paid.

Re*ceipt"ment (-ment), n. (O. Eng. Law) The receiving or harboring a felon knowingly, after the commission of a felony. Burrill.

Re*ceipt"or (-r), n. One who receipts; specifically (Law), one who receipts for property which has been taken by the sheriff.

Re*ceit" (r*st"), n. Receipt. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*ceiv`a*bil"i*ty (r*sv`*bl"*t), n. The quality of being receivable; receivableness.

Re*ceiv"a*ble (r*sv"*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recevable.] Capable of being received. -- Re*ceiv"a*ble*ness, n.

Bills receivable. See under 6th Bill.

Re*ceive" (r*sv"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Received (-svd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Receiving.] [OF. receveir, recevoir, F. recevoir, fr. L. recipere; pref. re- re- + capere to take, seize. See Capable, Heave, and cf. Receipt, Reception, Recipe.] 1. To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.

Receyven all in gree that God us sent.


2. Hence: To gain the knowledge of; to take into the mind by assent to; to give admission to; to accept, as an opinion, notion, etc.; to embrace.

Our hearts receive your warnings.


The idea of solidity we receive by our touch.


3. To allow, as a custom, tradition, or the like; to give credence or acceptance to.

Many other things there be which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots.

Mark vii. 4.

4. To give admittance to; to permit to enter, as into one's house, presence, company, and the like; as, to receive a lodger, visitor, ambassador, messenger, etc.

They kindled a fire, and received us every one.

Acts xxviii. 2.

5. To admit; to take in; to hold; to contain; to have capacity for; to be able to take in.

The brazen altar that was before the Lord was too little to receive the burnt offerings.

1 Kings viii. 64.

6. To be affected by something; to suffer; to be subjected to; as, to receive pleasure or pain; to receive a wound or a blow; to receive damage.

Against his will he can receive no harm.


7. To take from a thief, as goods known to be stolen.

8. (Lawn Tennis) To bat back (the ball) when served.

Receiving ship, one on board of which newly recruited sailors are received, and kept till drafted for service.

Syn. -- To accept; take; allow; hold; retain; admit. -- Receive, Accept. To receive describes simply the act of taking. To accept denotes the taking with approval, or for the purposes for which a thing is offered. Thus, we receive a letter when it comes to hand; we receive news when it reaches us; we accept a present when it is offered; we accept an invitation to dine with a friend.

Who, if we knew
What we receive, would either not accept
Life offered, or soon beg to lay it down.


Re*ceive" (r*sv"), v. i. 1. To receive visitors; to be at home to receive calls; as, she receives on Tuesdays.

2. (Lawn Tennis) To return, or bat back, the ball when served; as, it is your turn to receive.

Re*ceiv"ed*ness, n. The state or quality of being received, accepted, or current; as, the receivedness of an opinion. Boyle.

Re*ceiv"er (-r), n. [Cf. F. receveur.] 1. One who takes or receives in any manner.

2. (Law) A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases. Bouvier.

3. One who takes or buys stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen. Blackstone.

4. (Chem.) (a) A vessel connected with an alembic, a retort, or the like, for receiving and condensing the product of distillation. (b) A vessel for receiving and containing gases.

5. (Pneumatics) The glass vessel in which the vacuum is produced, and the objects of experiment are put, in experiments with an air pump. Cf. Bell jar, and see Illust. of Air pump.

6. (Steam Engine) (a) A vessel for receiving the exhaust steam from the high-pressure cylinder before it enters the low-pressure cylinder, in a compound engine. (b) A capacious vessel for receiving steam from a distant boiler, and supplying it dry to an engine.

7. That portion of a telephonic apparatus, or similar system, at which the message is received and made audible; -- opposed to transmitter.

Exhausted receiver (Physics), a receiver, as that used with the air pump, from which the air has been withdrawn; a vessel the interior of which is a more or less complete vacuum.

Re*ceiv"er*ship, n. The state or office of a receiver.

Re*cel"e*brate (r*sl"*brt), v. t. To celebrate again, or anew. -- Re*cel`e*bra"tion (-br"shn), n.

Re"cen*cy (r"sen*s), n. [LL. recentia, fr. L. recens. See Recent.] The state or quality of being recent; newness; new state; late origin; lateness in time; freshness; as, the recency of a transaction, of a wound, etc.

Re*cense" (r*sns"), v. t. [L. recensere; pref. re- again + censere to value, estimate: cf. F. recenser.] To review; to revise. [R.] Bentley.

Re*cen"sion (r*sn"shn), n. [L. recensio: cf. F. recension.] 1. The act of reviewing or revising; review; examination; enumeration. Barrow.

2. Specifically, the review of a text (as of an ancient author) by an editor; critical revisal and establishment.

3. The result of such a work; a text established by critical revision; an edited version.

Re*cen"sion*ist, n. One who makes recensions; specifically, a critical editor.

Re"cent (r"sent), a. [L. recens, -entis: cf. F. récent.] 1. Of late origin, existence, or occurrence; lately come; not of remote date, antiquated style, or the like; not already known, familiar, worn out, trite, etc.; fresh; novel; new; modern; as, recent news.

The ancients were of opinion, that a considerable portion of that country [Egypt] was recent, and formed out of the mud discharged into the neighboring sea by the Nile.


2. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the present or existing epoch; as, recent shells.

Re*cen"ter (r*sn"tr), v. t. [Pref. re- + center.] To center again; to restore to the center. Coleridge.

Re"cent*ly (r"sent*l), adv. Newly; lately; freshly; not long since; as, advices recently received.

Re"cent*ness, n. Quality or state of being recent.

Re*cep"ta*cle (r*sp"t*k'l), n. [F. réceptacle, L. receptaculum, fr. receptare, v. intens. fr. recipere to receive. See Receive.] 1. That which serves, or is used, for receiving and containing something, as a basket, a vase, a bag, a reservoir; a repository.

O sacred receptacle of my joys!


2. (Bot.) (a) The apex of the flower stalk, from which the organs of the flower grow, or into which they are inserted. See Illust. of Flower, and Ovary. (b) The dilated apex of a pedicel which serves as a common support to a head of flowers. (c) An intercellular cavity containing oil or resin or other matters. (d) A special branch which bears the fructification in many cryptogamous plants.

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Rec`ep*tac"u*lar (rs`p*tk"*lr), a. [Cf. F. réceptaculaire.] (Bot.) Pertaining to the receptacle, or growing on it; as, the receptacular chaff or scales in the sunflower.

||Rec`ep*tac"u*lum (-lm), n.; pl. Receptacula (-l). [L.] (Anat.) A receptacle; as, the receptaculum of the chyle.

Rec"ep*ta*ry (rs"p*t*r), a. Generally or popularly admitted or received. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Rec"ep*ta*ry, n. That which is received. [Obs.] "Receptaries of philosophy." Sir T. Browne.

Re*cep`ti*bil"i*ty (r*sp`t*bl"*t), n. 1. The quality or state of being receptible; receivableness.

2. A receptible thing. [R.] Glanvill.

Re*cep"ti*ble (r*sp"t*b'l), a. [L. receptibilis.] Such as may be received; receivable.

Re*cep"tion (-shn), n. [F. réception, L. receptio, fr. recipere, receptum. See Receive.] 1. The act of receiving; receipt; admission; as, the reception of food into the stomach; the reception of a letter; the reception of sensation or ideas; reception of evidence.

2. The state of being received.

3. The act or manner of receiving, esp. of receiving visitors; entertainment; hence, an occasion or ceremony of receiving guests; as, a hearty reception; an elaborate reception.

What reception a poem may find.


4. Acceptance, as of an opinion or doctrine.

Philosophers who have quitted the popular doctrines of their countries have fallen into as extravagant opinions as even common reception countenanced.


5. A retaking; a recovery. [Obs.] Bacon.

Re*cep"tive (r*sp"tv), a. [Cf. F. réceptif. See Receive.] Having the quality of receiving; able or inclined to take in, absorb, hold, or contain; receiving or containing; as, a receptive mind.

Imaginary space is receptive of all bodies.


Re*cep"tive*ness, n. The quality of being receptive.

Rec`ep*tiv"i*ty (rs`p*tv"*t or r`sp- ), n. [Cf. F. réceptivité.] 1. The state or quality of being receptive.

2. (Kantian Philos.) The power or capacity of receiving impressions, as those of the external senses.

Re*cep"to*ry (r*sp"t*r; 277), n. [Cf. L. receptorium a place of shelter.] Receptacle. [Obs.] Holland.

Re*cess" (r*ss"), n. [L. recessus, fr. recedere, recessum. See Recede.] 1. A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; retreat; as, the recess of the tides.

Every degree of ignorance being so far a recess and degradation from rationality.


My recess hath given them confidence that I may be conquered.

Eikon Basilike.

2. The state of being withdrawn; seclusion; privacy.

In the recess of the jury they are to consider the evidence.

Sir M. Hale.

Good verse recess and solitude requires.


3. Remission or suspension of business or procedure; intermission, as of a legislative body, court, or school.

The recess of . . . Parliament lasted six weeks.


4. Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall, as an alcove, niche, etc.

A bed which stood in a deep recess.

W. Irving.

5. A place of retirement, retreat, secrecy, or seclusion.

Departure from this happy place, our sweet
Recess, and only consolation left.


6. Secret or abstruse part; as, the difficulties and recesses of science. I. Watts.

7. (Bot. & Zoöl.) A sinus.

Re*cess", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recessed; p. pr. & vb. n. Recessing.] To make a recess in; as, to recess a wall.

Re*cess", n. [G.] A decree of the imperial diet of the old German empire. Brande & C.

Re*cessed" (r*sst"), a. 1. Having a recess or recesses; as, a recessed arch or wall.

2. Withdrawn; secluded. [R.] "Comfortably recessed from curious impertinents." Miss Edgeworth.

Recessed arch (Arch.), one of a series of arches constructed one within another so as to correspond with splayed jambs of a doorway, or the like.

Re*ces"sion (r*ssh"n), n. [L. recessio, fr. recedere, recessum. See Recede.] The act of receding or withdrawing, as from a place, a claim, or a demand. South.

Mercy may rejoice upon the recessions of justice.

Jer. Taylor.

Re*ces"sion, n. [Pref. re- + cession.] The act of ceding back; restoration; repeated cession; as, the recession of conquered territory to its former sovereign.

Re*ces"sion*al (-al), a. Of or pertaining to recession or withdrawal.

Recessional hymn, a hymn sung in a procession returning from the choir to the robing room.

Re*ces"sive (r*ss"sv), a. Going back; receding.

Re"chab*ite (r"kb*t), n. (Jewish Hist.) One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.

Re*change" (r*chnj"), v. t. & i. To change again, or change back.

Re*charge" (r*chärj"), v. t. & i. [Pref. re- + charge: cf. F. recharger.] 1. To charge or accuse in return.

2. To attack again; to attack anew. Dryden.

Re*char"ter (r*chär"tr), n. A second charter; a renewal of a charter. D. Webster.

Re*char"ter, v. t. To charter again or anew; to grant a second or another charter to.

Re*chase" (r*chs"), v. t. [Pref. re- + chase: cf. F. rechasser.] To chase again; to chase or drive back.

Re*cheat" (r*cht"), n. [F. requêté, fr. requêter to hunt anew. See Request.] (Sporting) A strain given on the horn to call back the hounds when they have lost track of the game.

Re*cheat", v. i. To blow the recheat. Drayton.

||Re*cher`ché" (re*shâr`sh"), a. [F.] Sought out with care; choice. Hence: of rare quality, elegance, or attractiveness; peculiar and refined in kind.

Rech"less (rk"ls), a. Reckless. [Obs.] P. Plowman.

Re*choose" (r*chz"), v. t. To choose again.

Re*cid"i*vate (r*sd"*vt), v. i. [LL. recidivare. See Recidivous.] To backslide; to fall again. [Obs.]

Re*cid`i*va"tion (-v"shn), n. [LL. recidivatio.] A falling back; a backsliding. Hammond.

Re*cid"i*vous (r*sd"*vs), a. [L. recidivus, fr. recidere to fall back.] Tending or liable to backslide or relapse to a former condition or habit.

Rec"i*pe (rs"*p), n.; pl. Recipes (- pz). [L., imperative of recipere to take back, take in, receive. See Receive.] A formulary or prescription for making some combination, mixture, or preparation of materials; a receipt; especially, a prescription for medicine.

Re*cip"i*an`gle (r*sp"*`g'l), n. [L. recipere to take + angulus angle.] An instrument with two arms that are pivoted together at one end, and a graduated arc, -- used by military engineers for measuring and laying off angles of fortifications.

{ Re*cip"i*ence (r*sp"*ens), Re*cip"i*en*cy (-en*s), } n. The quality or state of being recipient; a receiving; reception; receptiveness.

Re*cip"i*ent (-ent), n. [L. recipiens, -entis, receiving, p. pr. of recipere to receive: cf. F. récipient. See Receive.] A receiver; the person or thing that receives; one to whom, or that to which, anything is given or communicated; specifically, the receiver of a still.

Re*cip"i*ent, a. Receiving; receptive.

Re*cip"ro*cal (-r*kal), a. [L. reciprocus; of unknown origin.] 1. Recurring in vicissitude; alternate.

2. Done by each to the other; interchanging or interchanged; given and received; due from each to each; mutual; as, reciprocal love; reciprocal duties.

Let our reciprocal vows be remembered.


3. Mutually interchangeable.

These two rules will render a definition reciprocal with the thing defined.

I. Watts.

4. (Gram.) Reflexive; -- applied to pronouns and verbs, but sometimes limited to such pronouns as express mutual action.

5. (Math.) Used to denote different kinds of mutual relation; often with reference to the substitution of reciprocals for given quantities. See the Phrases below.

Reciprocal equation (Math.), one which remains unchanged in form when the reciprocal of the unknown quantity is substituted for that quantity. -- Reciprocal figures (Geom.), two figures of the same kind (as triangles, parallelograms, prisms, etc.), so related that two sides of the one form the extremes of a proportion of which the means are the two corresponding sides of the other; in general, two figures so related that the first corresponds in some special way to the second, and the second corresponds in the same way to the first. -- Reciprocal proportion (Math.), a proportion such that, of four terms taken in order, the first has to the second the same ratio which the fourth has to the third, or the first has to the second the same ratio which the reciprocal of the third has to the reciprocal of the fourth. Thus, 2:5: :20:8 form a reciprocal proportion, because 2:5: :1/20:1/8. -- Reciprocal quantities (Math.), any two quantities which produce unity when multiplied together. -- Reciprocal ratio (Math.), the ratio between the reciprocals of two quantities; as, the reciprocal ratio of 4 to 9 is that of ¼ to . -- Reciprocal terms (Logic), those terms which have the same signification, and, consequently, are convertible, and may be used for each other.

Syn. -- Mutual; alternate. -- Reciprocal, Mutual. The distinctive idea of mutual is, that the parties unite by interchange in the same act; as, a mutual covenant; mutual affection, etc. The distinctive idea of reciprocal is, that one party acts by way of return or response to something previously done by the other party; as, a reciprocal kindness; reciprocal reproaches, etc. Love is reciprocal when the previous affection of one party has drawn forth the attachment of the other. To make it mutual in the strictest sense, the two parties should have fallen in love at the same time; but as the result is the same, the two words are here used interchangeably. The ebbing and flowing of the tide is a case where the action is reciprocal, but not mutual.

Re*cip"ro*cal, n. 1. That which is reciprocal to another thing.

Corruption is a reciprocal to generation.


2. (Arith. & Alg.) The quotient arising from dividing unity by any quantity; thus, ¼ is the reciprocal of 4; 1/(a +b) is the reciprocal of a + b. The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction inverted, or the denominator divided by the numerator.

Re*cip`ro*cal"i*ty (-kl"*t), n. The quality or condition of being reciprocal; reciprocalness. [R.]

Re*cip"ro*cal*ly (r*sp"r*kal*l), adv. 1. In a reciprocal manner; so that each affects the other, and is equally affected by it; interchangeably; mutually.

These two particles do reciprocally affect each other with the same force.


2. (Math.) In the manner of reciprocals.

Reciprocally proportional (Arith. & Alg.), proportional, as two variable quantities, so that the one shall have a constant ratio to the reciprocal of the other.

Re*cip"ro*cal*ness (r*sp"r*kal*ns), n. The quality or condition of being reciprocal; mutual return; alternateness.

Re*cip"ro*cate (-kt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reciprocated (- k`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Reciprocating.] [L. reciprocatus, p. p. of reciprocare. See Reciprocal.] To move forward and backward alternately; to recur in vicissitude; to act interchangeably; to alternate.

One brawny smith the puffing bellows plies,
And draws and blows reciprocating air.


Reciprocating engine, a steam, air, or gas engine, etc., in which the piston moves back and forth; -- in distinction from a rotary engine, in which the piston travels continuously in one direction in a circular path. -- Reciprocating motion (Mech.), motion alternately backward and forward, or up and down, as of a piston rod.

Re*cip"ro*cate, v. t. To give and return mutually; to make return for; to give in return; to interchange; to alternate; as, to reciprocate favors. Cowper.

Re*cip`ro*ca"tion (-k"shn), n. [L. reciprocatio: cf. F. réciprocation.] 1. The act of reciprocating; interchange of acts; a mutual giving and returning; as, the reciprocation of kindnesses.

2. Alternate recurrence or action; as, the reciprocation of the sea in the flow and ebb of tides. Sir T. Browne.

Rec`i*proc"i*ty (rs`*prs"*t), n. [Cf. F. réciprocité. See Reciprocal.] 1. Mutual action and reaction.

2. Reciprocal advantages, obligations, or rights; reciprocation.

Reciprocity treaty, or Treaty of reciprocity, a treaty concluded between two countries, conferring equal privileges as regards customs or charges on imports, or in other respects.

Syn. -- Reciprocation; interchange; mutuality.

Re*cip`ro*cor"nous (r*sp`r*kôr"ns), a. [L. reciprocus returning, reciprocal + cornu horn.] (Zoöl.) Having horns turning backward and then forward, like those of a ram. [R.] Ash.

Re*cip"ro*cous (r*sp"r*ks), a. Reciprocal. [Obs.]

Rec"i*prok (rs"*prk), a. [F. réciproque, L. reciprocus.] Reciprocal. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Rec"i*proque (rs"*prk), a. & n. [F. réciproque.] Reciprocal. Bacon.

Re*ci"sion (r*szh"n), n. [L. recisio, fr. recidere, recisum, to cut off; pref. re- re- + caedere to cut.] The act of cutting off. Sherwood.

Re*cit"al (r*st"al), n. [From Recite.] 1. The act of reciting; the repetition of the words of another, or of a document; rehearsal; as, the recital of testimony.

2. A telling in detail and due order of the particulars of anything, as of a law, an adventure, or a series of events; narration. Addison.

3. That which is recited; a story; a narration.

4. (Mus.) A vocal or instrumental performance by one person; -- distinguished from concert; as, a song recital; an organ, piano, or violin recital.

5. (Law) The formal statement, or setting forth, of some matter of fact in any deed or writing in order to explain the reasons on which the transaction is founded; the statement of matter in pleading introductory to some positive allegation. Burn.

Syn. -- Account; rehearsal; recitation; narration; description; explanation; enumeration; detail; narrative. See Account.

Rec`i*ta"tion (rs`*t"shn), n. [L. recitatio: cf. F. récitation. See Recite.] 1. The act of reciting; rehearsal; repetition of words or sentences. Hammond.

2. The delivery before an audience of something committed to memory, especially as an elocutionary exhibition; also, that which is so delivered.

3. (Colleges and Schools) The rehearsal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor.

Rec`i*ta*tive" (rs`*t*tv"), n. [It. recitativo, or F. récitatif. See Recite.] (Mus.) A species of musical recitation in which the words are delivered in a manner resembling that of ordinary declamation; also, a piece of music intended for such recitation; -- opposed to melisma.

Rec`i*ta*tive", a. Of or pertaining to recitation; intended for musical recitation or declamation; in the style or manner of recitative. -- Rec`i*ta*tive"ly, adv.

||Rec`i*ta*ti"vo (-t"v), n. [It.] (Mus.) Recitative.

Re*cite" (r*st"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recited; p. pr. & vb. n. Reciting.] [F. réciter, fr. L. recitare, recitatum; pref. re- re- + citare to call or name, to cite. See Cite.] 1. To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to recite the words of an author, or of a deed or covenant.

2. To tell over; to go over in particulars; to relate; to narrate; as, to recite past events; to recite the particulars of a voyage.

3. To rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor.

4. (Law) To state in or as a recital. See Recital, 5.

Syn. -- To rehearse; narrate; relate; recount; describe; recapitulate; detail; number; count.

Re*cite", v. i. To repeat, pronounce, or rehearse, as before an audience, something prepared or committed to memory; to rehearse a lesson learned.

Re*cite", n. A recital. [Obs.] Sir W. Temple.

Re*cit"er (-st"r), n. One who recites; also, a book of extracts for recitation.

Reck (rk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recked (rkt) (obs. imp. Roughte); p. pr. & vb. n. Recking.] [AS. reccan, rcan, to care for; akin to OS. rkian, OHG. ruochan, G. geruhen, Icel. rækja, also to E. reckon, rake an implement. See Rake, and cf. Reckon.] 1. To make account of; to care for; to heed; to regard. [Archaic]

This son of mine not recking danger.

Sir P. Sidney.

And may you better reck the rede
Than ever did the adviser.


2. To concern; -- used impersonally. [Poetic]

What recks it them?


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Reck (rk), v. i. To make account; to take heed; to care; to mind; -- often followed by of. [Archaic]

Then reck I not, when I have lost my life.


I reck not though I end my life to- day.


Of me she recks not, nor my vain desire.

M. Arnold.

Reck"less, a. [AS. recceleás, rceleás.] 1. Inattentive to duty; careless; neglectful; indifferent. Chaucer.

2. Rashly negligent; utterly careless or heedless.

It made the king as reckless as them diligent.

Sir P. Sidney.

Syn. -- Heedless; careless; mindless; thoughtless; negligent; indifferent; regardless; unconcerned; inattentive; remiss; rash.

-- Reck"less*ly, adv. -- Reck"less*ness, n.

Reck"ling (-lng), a. Needing care; weak; feeble; as, a reckling child. H. Taylor. -- n. A weak child or animal. Tennyson.

Reck"on (rk"'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reckoned (-'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reckoning.] [OE. rekenen, AS. gerecenian to explain; akin to D. rekenen to reckon, G. rechnen, OHG. rehhann (cf. Goth. rahnjan), and to E. reck, rake an implement; the original sense probably being, to bring together, count together. See Reck, v. t.]

1. To count; to enumerate; to number; also, to compute; to calculate.

The priest shall reckon to him the money according to the years that remain.

Lev. xxvii. 18.

I reckoned above two hundred and fifty on the outside of the church.


2. To count as in a number, rank, or series; to estimate by rank or quality; to place by estimation; to account; to esteem; to repute.

He was reckoned among the transgressors.

Luke xxii. 37.

For him I reckon not in high estate.


3. To charge, attribute, or adjudge to one, as having a certain quality or value.

Faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.

Rom. iv. 9.

Without her eccentricities being reckoned to her for a crime.


4. To conclude, as by an enumeration and balancing of chances; hence, to think; to suppose; -- followed by an objective clause; as, I reckon he won't try that again. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U. S.]

Syn. -- To number; enumerate; compute; calculate; estimate; value; esteem; account; repute. See Calculate, Guess.

Reck"on, v. i. 1. To make an enumeration or computation; to engage in numbering or computing. Shak.

2. To come to an accounting; to make up accounts; to settle; to examine and strike the balance of debt and credit; to adjust relations of desert or penalty.

"Parfay," sayst thou, "sometime he reckon shall."


To reckon for, to answer for; to pay the account for. "If they fail in their bounden duty, they shall reckon for it one day." Bp. Sanderson. -- To reckon on or upon, to count or depend on. -- To reckon with, to settle accounts or claims with; -- used literally or figuratively.

After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them.

Matt. xxv. 19.

-- To reckon without one's host, to ignore in a calculation or arrangement the person whose assent is essential; hence, to reckon erroneously.

Reck"on*er (-r), n. One who reckons or computes; also, a book of calculations, tables, etc., to assist in reckoning.

Reckoners without their host must reckon twice.


Reck"on*ing, n. 1. The act of one who reckons, counts, or computes; the result of reckoning or counting; calculation. Specifically: (a) An account of time. Sandys. (b) Adjustment of claims and accounts; settlement of obligations, liabilities, etc.

Even reckoning makes lasting friends, and the way to make reckonings even is to make them often.


He quitted London, never to return till the day of a terrible and memorable reckoning had arrived.


2. The charge or account made by a host at an inn.

A coin would have a nobler use than to pay a reckoning.


3. Esteem; account; estimation.

You make no further reckoning of it [beauty] than of an outward fading benefit nature bestowed.

Sir P. Sidney.

4. (Navigation) (a) The calculation of a ship's position, either from astronomical observations, or from the record of the courses steered and distances sailed as shown by compass and log, -- in the latter case called dead reckoning (see under Dead); -- also used for dead reckoning in contradistinction to observation. (b) The position of a ship as determined by calculation.

To be out of her reckoning, to be at a distance from the place indicated by the reckoning; -- said of a ship.

Re*claim" (r*klm"), v. t. To claim back; to demand the return of as a right; to attempt to recover possession of.

A tract of land [Holland] snatched from an element perpetually reclaiming its prior occupancy.

W. Coxe.

Re*claim" (r*klm"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reclaimed (-klmd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reclaiming.] [F. réclamer, L. reclamare, reclamatum, to cry out against; pref. re- re- + clamare to call or cry aloud. See Claim.] 1. To call back, as a hawk to the wrist in falconry, by a certain customary call. Chaucer.

2. To call back from flight or disorderly action; to call to, for the purpose of subduing or quieting.

The headstrong horses hurried Octavius . . . along, and were deaf to his reclaiming them.


3. To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipline; -- said especially of birds trained for the chase, but also of other animals. "An eagle well reclaimed." Dryden.

4. Hence: To reduce to a desired state by discipline, labor, cultivation, or the like; to rescue from being wild, desert, waste, submerged, or the like; as, to reclaim wild land, overflowed land, etc.

5. To call back to rectitude from moral wandering or transgression; to draw back to correct deportment or course of life; to reform.

It is the intention of Providence, in all the various expressions of his goodness, to reclaim mankind.


6. To correct; to reform; -- said of things. [Obs.]

Your error, in time reclaimed, will be venial.

Sir E. Hoby.

7. To exclaim against; to gainsay. [Obs.] Fuller.

Syn. -- To reform; recover; restore; amend; correct.

Re*claim" (r*klm"), v. i. 1. To cry out in opposition or contradiction; to exclaim against anything; to contradict; to take exceptions.

Scripture reclaims, and the whole Catholic church reclaims, and Christian ears would not hear it.


At a later period Grote reclaimed strongly against Mill's setting Whately above Hamilton.


2. To bring anyone back from evil courses; to reform.

They, hardened more by what might most reclaim,
Grieving to see his glory, . . . took envy.


3. To draw back; to give way. [R. & Obs.] Spenser.

Re*claim", n. The act of reclaiming, or the state of being reclaimed; reclamation; recovery. [Obs.]

Re*claim"a*ble (-*b'l), a. That may be reclaimed.

Re*claim"ant (-ant), n. [Cf. F. réclamant, p. pr.] One who reclaims; one who cries out against or contradicts. Waterland.

Re*claim"er (-r), n. One who reclaims.

Re*claim"less, a. That can not be reclaimed.

Rec`la*ma"tion (rk`l*m"shn), n. [F. réclamation, L. reclamatio. See Reclaim.] 1. The act or process of reclaiming.

2. Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.

I would now, on the reclamation both of generosity and of justice, try clemency.


Re*clasp" (r*klsp"), v. i. To clasp or unite again.

Re*clin"ant (r*kln"ant), a. [L. reclinans, p. pr. See Recline.] Bending or leaning backward.

Rec"li*nate (rk"l*nt), a. [L. reclinatus, p. p.] (Bot.) Reclined, as a leaf; bent downward, so that the point, as of a stem or leaf, is lower than the base.

Rec`li*na"tion (rk`l*n"shn), n. [Cf. F. réclinaison.] 1. The act of leaning or reclining, or the state of being reclined.

2. (Dialing) The angle which the plane of the dial makes with a vertical plane which it intersects in a horizontal line. Brande & C.

3. (Surg.) The act or process of removing a cataract, by applying the needle to its anterior surface, and depressing it into the vitreous humor in such a way that the front surface of the cataract becomes the upper one and its back surface the lower one. Dunglison.

Re*cline" (r*kln"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reclined (-klnd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reclining.] [L. reclinare; pref. re- re- + clinare to lean, incline. See Incline, Lean to incline.] To cause or permit to lean, incline, rest, etc.; to place in a recumbent position; as, to recline the head on the hand.

The mother
Reclined her dying head upon his breast.


Re*cline", v. i. 1. To lean or incline; as, to recline against a wall.

2. To assume, or to be in, a recumbent position; as, to recline on a couch.

Re*cline", a. [L. reclinis. See Recline, v. t.] Having a reclining posture; leaning; reclining. [R.]

They sat, recline
On the soft downy bank, damasked with flowers.


Re*clined" (r*klnd"), a. (Bot.) Falling or turned downward; reclinate.

Re*clin"er (r*kln"r), n. One who, or that which, reclines.

Re*clin"ing, a. (Bot.) (a) Bending or curving gradually back from the perpendicular. (b) Recumbent.

Reclining dial, a dial whose plane is inclined to the vertical line through its center. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.).

Re*close" (r*klz"), v. t. To close again. Pope.

Re*clothe" (r*klth"), v. t. To clothe again.

Re*clude" (r*kld"), v. t. [L. recludere to unclose, open; pref. re- again, back, un- + claudere to shut.] To open; to unclose. [R.] Harvey.

Re*cluse" (r*kls"), a. [F. reclus, L. reclusus, from recludere, reclusum, to unclose, open, in LL., to shut up. See Close.] Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life.

In meditation deep, recluse
From human converse.

J. Philips.

Re*cluse", n. [F. reclus, LL. reclusus. See Recluse, a.] 1. A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries.

2. The place where a recluse dwells. [Obs.] Foxe.

Re*cluse", v. t. To shut up; to seclude. [Obs.]

Re*cluse"ly, adv. In a recluse or solitary manner.

Re*cluse"ness, n. Quality or state of being recluse.

Re*clu"sion (-kl"zhn), n. [LL. reclusio: cf. F. reclusion.] A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.

Re*clu"sive (-sv), a. Affording retirement from society. "Some reclusive and religious life." Shak.

Re*clu"so*ry (-s*r), n. [LL. reclusorium.] The habitation of a recluse; a hermitage.

Re*coct" (r*kkt"), v. t. [L. recoctus, p. p. of recoquere to cook or boil over again. See Re-, and 4th Cook.] To boil or cook again; hence, to make over; to vamp up; to reconstruct. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Re*coc"tion (r*kk"shn), n. A second coction or preparation; a vamping up.

Rec`og*ni"tion (rk`g*nsh"n), n. [L. recognitio: cf. F. recognition. See Recognizance.] The act of recognizing, or the state of being recognized; acknowledgment; formal avowal; knowledge confessed or avowed; notice.

The lives of such saints had, at the time of their yearly memorials, solemn recognition in the church of God.


Re*cog"ni*tor (r*kg"n*tr), n. [LL.] (Law) One of a jury impaneled on an assize. Blackstone.

Re*cog"ni*to*ry (-t*r), a. Pertaining to, or connected with, recognition. Lamb.

Rec`og*ni`za*bil"i*ty (rk`g*n`z*bl"*t), n. The quality or condition of being recognizable.

Rec"og*ni`za*ble (rk"g*n`z*b'l or r*kg"n-; 277), a. Capable of being recognized. [Written also recognisable.] -- Rec"og*ni`za*bly, adv.

Re*cog"ni*zance (r*kg"n*zans or r*kn"-), n. [F. reconnaissance, OF. recognoissance, fr. recognoissant, p. pr. of recognoistre to recognize, F. reconnaître, fr. L. recognoscere; pref. re- re- + cognoscere to know. See Cognizance, Know, and cf. Recognize, Reconnoissance.] [Written also recognisance.] 1. (Law) (a) An obligation of record entered into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the same or some other court, to keep the peace, or pay a debt. A recognizance differs from a bond, being witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal. (b) The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize. Cowell.

Among lawyers the g in this and the related words (except recognize) is usually silent.

2. A token; a symbol; a pledge; a badge.

That recognizance and pledge of love
Which I first gave her.


3. Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; recognition.

Re*cog`ni*za"tion (-z"shn), n. Recognition. [R.]

Rec"og*nize (rk"g*nz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recognized (- nzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Recognizing (- n`zng).] [From Recognizance; see Cognition, and cf. Reconnoiter.] [Written also recognise.] 1. To know again; to perceive the identity of, with a person or thing previously known; to recover or recall knowledge of.

Speak, vassal; recognize thy sovereign queen.


2. To avow knowledge of; to allow that one knows; to consent to admit, hold, or the like; to admit with a formal acknowledgment; as, to recognize an obligation; to recognize a consul.

3. To acknowledge acquaintance with, as by salutation, bowing, or the like.

4. To show appreciation of; as, to recognize services by a testimonial.

5. To review; to reëxamine. [Obs.] South.

6. To reconnoiter. [Obs.] R. Monro.

Syn. -- To acknowledge; avow; confess; own; allow; concede. See Acknowledge.

Rec"og*nize, v. i. (Law) To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal; as, A B recognized in the sum of twenty dollars. [Written also recognise.]

In legal usage in the United States the second syllable is often accented.

Re*cog`ni*zee" (r*kg`n*z" or r*kn`*z"), n. (Law) The person in whose favor a recognizance is made. [Written also recognisee.] Blackstone.

Rec"og*ni`zer (rk"g*n`zr), n. One who recognizes; a recognizor. [Written also recogniser.]

Re*cog`ni*zor" (r*kg`n*zôr" or r*kn`*zôr"), n. (Law) One who enters into a recognizance. [Written also recognisor.] Blackstone.

Rec"og*nosce (rk"g*ns), v. t. [L. recognoscere. See Recognizance.] To recognize. [R. & Obs.] Boyle.

Re*coil" (r*koil"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Recoiled (-koild"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recoiling.] [OE. recoilen, F. reculer, fr. L. pref. re- re- + culus the fundament. The English word was perhaps influenced in form by accoil.]

1. To start, roll, bound, spring, or fall back; to take a reverse motion; to be driven or forced backward; to return.

Evil on itself shall back recoil.


The solemnity of her demeanor made it impossible . . . that we should recoil into our ordinary spirits.

De Quincey.

2. To draw back, as from anything repugnant, distressing, alarming, or the like; to shrink. Shak.

3. To turn or go back; to withdraw one's self; to retire. [Obs.] "To your bowers recoil." Spenser.

Re*coil", v. t. To draw or go back. [Obs.] Spenser.

Re*coil", n. 1. A starting or falling back; a rebound; a shrinking; as, the recoil of nature, or of the blood.

2. The state or condition of having recoiled.

The recoil from formalism is skepticism.

F. W. Robertson.

3. Specifically, the reaction or rebounding of a firearm when discharged.

Recoil dynamometer (Gunnery), an instrument for measuring the force of the recoil of a firearm. -- Recoil escapement. See the Note under Escapement.

Re*coil"er (-r), n. One who, or that which, recoils.

Re*coil"ing*ly, adv. In the manner of a recoil.

Re*coil"ment, n. [Cf. F. reculement.] Recoil. [R.]

Re*coin" (r*koin"), v. t. To coin anew or again.

Re*coin"age (-j), n. 1. The act of coining anew.

2. That which is coined anew.

Re`-col*lect" (r`kl*lkt"), v. t. [Pref. re- + collect.] To collect again; to gather what has been scattered; as, to re- collect routed troops.

God will one day raise the dead, re-collecting our scattered dust.


Rec`ol*lect" (rk`l*lkt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recollected; p. pr. & vb. n. Recollecting.] [Pref. re- + collect: cf. L. recolligere, recollectum, to collect. Cf. Recollet.] 1. To recover or recall the knowledge of; to bring back to the mind or memory; to remember.

2. Reflexively, to compose one's self; to recover self-command; as, to recollect one's self after a burst of anger; -- sometimes, formerly, in the perfect participle.

The Tyrian queen . . .
Admired his fortunes, more admired the man;
Then recollected stood.


Rec"ol*lect (rk"l*lkt), n. [See Recollet.] (Eccl.) A friar of the Strict Observance, -- an order of Franciscans. [Written also Recollet.] Addis & Arnold.

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Rec`ol*lec"tion (r?k`?l*l?k"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. récollection.] 1. The act of recollecting, or recalling to the memory; the operation by which objects are recalled to the memory, or ideas revived in the mind; reminiscence; remembrance.

2. The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance; memory; as, an event within my recollection.

3. That which is recollected; something called to mind; reminiscence. "One of his earliest recollections." Macaulay.

4. The act or practice of collecting or concentrating the mind; concentration; self-control. [Archaic]

From such an education Charles contracted habits of gravity and recollection.


Syn. -- Reminiscence; remembrance. See Memory.

Rec`ol*lect"ive (-l?k"t?v), a. Having the power of recollecting. J. Foster.

Rec"ol*let (r?k"?l*l?t; F. r?`k?`l?"), n. [F. récollet, fr. L. recollectus, p. p. of recolligere to gather again, to gather up; NL., to collect one's self, esp. for religious contemplation.] (Eccl.) Same as Recollect, n.

Re*col`o*ni*za"tion (r?*k?l`?*n?*z?"sh?n), n. A second or renewed colonization.

Re*col"o*nize (r?*k?l"?*n?z), v. t. To colonize again.

Re*com`bi*na"tion (r?*k?m`b?*n?"sh?n), n. Combination a second or additional time.

Re`com*bine" (r?`k?m*b?n"), v. t. To combine again.

Re*com"fort (r?*k?m"f?rt), v. t. [Pref. re- + comfort: cf. F. réconforter.] To comfort again; to console anew; to give new strength to. Bacon.

Gan her recomfort from so sad affright.


Re*com"fort*less, a. Without comfort. [Obs.]

Re*com"for*ture (-f?r*t?r;135), n. The act of recomforting; restoration of comfort. [Obs.] Shak.

Re`com*mence" (r?`k?m*m?ns"), v. i. 1. To commence or begin again. Howell.

2. To begin anew to be; to act again as. [Archaic.]

He seems desirous enough of recommencing courtier.


Re`com*mence", v. t. [Pref. re- + commence: cf. F. recommencer.] To commence again or anew.

Re`com*mence"ment (-ment), n. A commencement made anew.

Rec`om*mend" (r?k`?m*m?nd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recommended; p. pr. & vb. n. Recommending.] [Pref. re- + commend: cf. F. recommander.] 1. To commend to the favorable notice of another; to commit to another's care, confidence, or acceptance, with favoring representations; to put in a favorable light before any one; to bestow commendation on; as, he recommended resting the mind and exercising the body.

Mæcenas recommended Virgil and Horace to Augustus, whose praises . . . have made him precious to posterity.


2. To make acceptable; to attract favor to.

A decent boldness ever meets with friends,
Succeeds, and e'en a stranger recommends.


3. To commit; to give in charge; to commend.

Paul chose Silas and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God.

Acts xv. 40.

Rec`om*mend"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recommandable.] Suitable to be recommended; worthy of praise; commendable. Glanvill. -- Rec`om*mend"a*ble*ness, n. -- Rec`om*mend"a*bly, adv.

Rec`om*men*da"tion (r?k`?m*m?n*d?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. recommandation.] 1. The act of recommending.

2. That which recommends, or commends to favor; anything procuring, or tending to procure, a favorable reception, or to secure acceptance and adoption; as, he brought excellent recommendations.

3. The state of being recommended; esteem. [R.]

The burying of the dead . . . hath always been had in an extraordinary recommendation amongst the ancient.

Sir T. North.

Rec`om*mend"a*tive (-m?nd"?*t?v), n. That which recommends; a recommendation. [Obs.]

Rec`om*mend"a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. Serving to recommend; recommending; commendatory. Swift.

Rec`om*mend"er (-?r), n. One who recommends.

Re`com*mis"sion (r?`k?m*m?sh?n), v. t. To commission again; to give a new commission to.

Officers whose time of service had expired were to be recommissioned.


Re`com*mit" (-m?t"), v. t. To commit again; to give back into keeping; specifically, to refer again to a committee; as, to recommit a bill to the same committee.

{ Re`com*mit"ment (-ment), Re`com*mit"tal (-?l), } n. A second or renewed commitment; a renewed reference to a committee.

Re`com*pact" (-p?kt"), v. t. To compact or join anew. "Recompact my scattered body." Donne.

Re*com`pen*sa"tion (r?*k?m`p?n*s?"sh?n), n. [Cf. LL. recompensatio.] 1. Recompense. [Obs.]

2. (Scots Law) Used to denote a case where a set-off pleaded by the defendant is met by a set-off pleaded by the plaintiff.

Rec"om*pense (rk"m*pns), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recompensed (-p?nst); p. pr. & vb. n. Recompensing (-p?n`s?ng).] [F. récompenser, LL. recompensare, fr.L. pref. re- re- + compensare to compensate. See Compensate.] 1. To render an equivalent to, for service, loss, etc.; to requite; to remunerate; to compensate.

He can not recompense me better.


2. To return an equivalent for; to give compensation for; to atone for; to pay for.

God recompenseth the gift.

Robynson (More's Utopia).

To recompense
My rash, but more unfortunate, misdeed.


3. To give in return; to pay back; to pay, as something earned or deserved. [R.]

Recompense to no man evil for evil.

Rom. xii. 17.

Syn. -- To repay; requite; compensate; reward; remunerate.

Rec"om*pense (r?k"?m*p?ns), v. i. To give recompense; to make amends or requital. [Obs.]

Rec"om*pense, n. [Cf. F. récompense.] An equivalent returned for anything done, suffered, or given; compensation; requital; suitable return.

To me belongeth vengeance, and recompense.

Deut. xxii. 35.

And every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward.

Heb. ii. 2.

Syn. -- Repayment; compensation; remuneration; amends; satisfaction; reward; requital.

Rec"om*pense`ment (-p?ns`m?nt), n. Recompense; requital. [Obs.] Fabyan.

Rec"om*pen`ser (-p?n`s?r), n. One who recompenses.

A thankful recompenser of the benefits received.


Rec"om*pen`sive (-s?v), a. Of the nature of recompense; serving to recompense. Sir T. Browne.

Re*com`pi*la"tion (r?*k?m`p?*l?"tion), n. A new compilation.

Re`com*pile" (r`km*pl"), v. t. To compile anew.

Re`com*pile"ment (-ment), n. The act of recompiling; new compilation or digest; as, a recompilement of the laws. Bacon.

Re`com*pose" (-p?z"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recomposed (-p?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recomposing.] [Pref. re- + compose: cf. F. recomposer.] 1. To compose again; to form anew; to put together again or repeatedly.

The far greater number of the objects presented to our observation can only be decomposed, but not actually recomposed.

Sir W. Hamilton.

2. To restore to composure; to quiet anew; to tranquilize; as, to recompose the mind. Jer. Taylor.

Re`com*pos"er (-p?z"?r), n. One who recomposes.

Re*com`po*si"tion (r?*k?m`p?z?sh?n), n. [Cf. F. recomposition.] The act of recomposing.

Rec"on*ci`la*ble (r?k"?n*s?`l?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. réconciliable.] Capable of being reconciled; as, reconcilable adversaries; an act reconciable with previous acts.

The different accounts of the numbers of ships are reconcilable.


-- Rec"on*ci`la*ble*ness, n. -- Rec"on*ci`la*bly, adv.

Rec"on*cile` (-s?l`), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reconciled (-s?ld`); p. pr. & vb. n. Reconciling.] [F. réconcilier, L. reconciliare; pref. re- re- + conciliare to bring together, to unite. See Conciliate.] 1. To cause to be friendly again; to conciliate anew; to restore to friendship; to bring back to harmony; to cause to be no longer at variance; as, to reconcile persons who have quarreled.

Propitious now and reconciled by prayer.


The church [if defiled] is interdicted till it be reconciled [i.e., restored to sanctity] by the bishop.


We pray you . . . be ye reconciled to God.

2 Cor. v. 20.

2. To bring to acquiescence, content, or quiet submission; as, to reconcile one's self to affictions.

3. To make consistent or congruous; to bring to agreement or suitableness; -- followed by with or to.

The great men among the ancients understood how to reconcile manual labor with affairs of state.


Some figures monstrous and misshaped appear,
Considered singly, or beheld too near;
Which, but proportioned to their light or place,
Due distance reconciles to form and grace.


4. To adjust; to settle; as, to reconcile differences.

Syn. -- To reunite; conciliate; placate; propitiate; pacify; appease.

Rec"on*cile`, v. i. To become reconciled. [Obs.]

Rec"on*cile`ment (-ment), n. Reconciliation. Milton.

Rec"on*ci`ler (-s?`l?r), n. One who reconciles.

Rec`on*cil`i*a"tion (-s?l`?*?"sh?n), n. [F. réconciliation, L. reconciliatio.] 1. The act of reconciling, or the state of being reconciled; reconcilenment; restoration to harmony; renewal of friendship.

Reconciliation and friendship with God really form the basis of all rational and true enjoyment.

S. Miller.

2. Reduction to congruence or consistency; removal of inconsistency; harmony.

A clear and easy reconciliation of those seeming inconsistencies of Scripture.

D. Rogers.

Syn. -- Reconcilement; reunion; pacification; appeasement; propitiation; atonement; expiation.

Rec`on*cil"i*a*to*ry (-s?l"?*?*t?*r?), a. Serving or tending to reconcile. Bp. Hall.

Re*con`den*sa"tion (r?*k?n`d?n*s?"sh?n), n. The act or process of recondensing.

Re`con*dense" (r`kn*dns"), v. t. To condense again.

Rec"on*dite (r?k"?n*d?t or r?*k?n"d?t; 277), a. [L. reconditus, p. p. of recondere to put up again, to lay up, to conceal; pref. re- re- + condere to bring or lay together. See Abscond.] 1. Hidden from the mental or intellectual view; secret; abstruse; as, recondite causes of things.

2. Dealing in things abstruse; profound; searching; as, recondite studies. "Recondite learning." Bp. Horsley.

Re*con"di*to*ry (r?k?n"d?*t?*r?), n. [LL. reconditorium.] A repository; a storehouse. [Obs.] Ash.

Re`con*duct" (r`kn*dkt"), v. t. To conduct back or again. "A guide to reconduct thy steps." Dryden.

Re`con*firm" (-f?rm"), v. t. [Pref. re- + confirm: cf. F. reconfirmer.] To confirm anew. Clarendon.

Re`con*fort" (-f?rt"), v. t. [F. réconforter.] To recomfort; to comfort. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re`con*join" (r?`k?n*join"), v. t. To join or conjoin anew. Boyle.

{ Re*con"nois*sance, Re*con"nais*sance } (r?- k?n"n?s-s?ns), n. [F. See Recognizance.] The act of reconnoitering; preliminary examination or survey. Specifically: (a) (Geol.) An examination or survey of a region in reference to its general geological character. (b) (Engin.) An examination of a region as to its general natural features, preparatory to a more particular survey for the purposes of triangulation, or of determining the location of a public work. (c) (Mil.) An examination of a territory, or of an enemy's position, for the purpose of obtaining information necessary for directing military operations; a preparatory expedition.

Reconnoissance in force (Mil.), a demonstration or attack by a large force of troops for the purpose of discovering the position and strength of an enemy.

{ Rec`on*noi"ter, Rec`on*noi"tre } (r?k`?n*noi"t?r), v. t. [F. reconnoitre, a former spelling of reconnaître. See Recognize.] 1. To examine with the eye to make a preliminary examination or survey of; esp., to survey with a view to military or engineering operations.

2. To recognize. [Obs.] Sir H. Walpole.

Re*con"quer (r?*k?n"k?r), v. t. [Pref. re- + conquer: cf. F. reconquérir.] To conquer again; to recover by conquest; as, to reconquer a revolted province.

Re*con"quest (-kw?st), n. A second conquest.

Re*con"se*crate (-k?n"s?*kr?t), v. t. To consecrate anew or again.

Re*con`se*cra"tion, n. Renewed consecration.

Re`con*sid"er (r?`k?n*s?d"?r), v. t. 1. To consider again; as, to reconsider a subject.

2. (Parliamentary Practice) To take up for renewed consideration, as a motion or a vote which has been previously acted upon.

Re`con*sid`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. The act of reconsidering, or the state of being reconsidered; as, the reconsideration of a vote in a legislative body.

Re*con"so*late (r?*k?n"s?*l?t), v. t. To console or comfort again. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

Re`con*sol"i*date (r?`k?n*s?l"?*d?t), v. t. To consolidate anew or again.

Re`con*sol`i*da"tion (-d?"sh?n), n. The act or process of reconsolidating; the state of being reconsolidated.

Re`con*struct" (-str?kt"), v. t. To construct again; to rebuild; to remodel; to form again or anew.

Regiments had been dissolved and reconstructed.


Re`con*struc"tion (-str?k"sh?n), n. 1. The act of constructing again; the state of being reconstructed.

2. (U.S. Politics) The act or process of reorganizing the governments of the States which had passed ordinances of secession, and of reëstablishing their constitutional relations to the national government, after the close of the Civil War.

Re`con*struct"ive (-str?k"t?v), a. Reconstructing; tending to reconstruct; as, a reconstructive policy.

Re`con*tin"u*ance (-t?n"?*?ns), n. The act or state of recontinuing.

Re`con*tin"ue (-?), v. t. & i. To continue anew.

Re`con*vene" (r?`k?n*v?n"), v. t. & i. To convene or assemble again; to call or come together again.

Re`con*ven"tion (-v?n"sh?n), n. (Civil Law) A cross demand; an action brought by the defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge. Burrill. Bouvier.

Re`con*ver"sion (-v?r"sh?n), n. A second conversion.

Re`con*vert" (-v?rt"), v. t. To convert again. Milton.

Re*con"vert (r?*k?n"v?rt), n. A person who has been reconverted. Gladstone.

Re`con*vert"i*ble (r?`k?n*v?rt"?*b'l), a. (Chem.) Capable of being reconverted; convertible again to the original form or condition.

Re`con*vey" (-v?"), v. t. 1. To convey back or to the former place; as, to reconvey goods.

2. To transfer back to a former owner; as, to reconvey an estate.

Re`con*vey"ance (-v?"?ns), n. Act of reconveying.

Re*cop"y (r?*k?p"?), v. t. To copy again.

Re*cord" (r?*k?rd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recorded; p. pr. & vb. n. Recording.] [OE. recorden to repeat, remind, F. recorder, fr. L. recordari to remember; pref. re- re- + cor, cordis, the heart or mind. See Cordial, Heart.] 1. To recall to mind; to recollect; to remember; to meditate. [Obs.] "I it you record." Chaucer.

2. To repeat; to recite; to sing or play. [Obs.]

They longed to see the day, to hear the lark
Record her hymns, and chant her carols blest.


3. To preserve the memory of, by committing to writing, to printing, to inscription, or the like; to make note of; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic evidence of; to register; to enroll; as, to record the proceedings of a court; to record historical events.

Those things that are recorded of him . . . are written in the chronicles of the kings.

1 Esd. i. 42.

To record a deed, mortgage, lease, etc., to have a copy of the same entered in the records of the office designated by law, for the information of the public.

Re*cord", v. i. 1. To reflect; to ponder. [Obs.]

Praying all the way, and recording upon the words which he before had read.


2. To sing or repeat a tune. [Obs.] Shak.

Whether the birds or she recorded best.

W. Browne.

Rec"ord (rk"rd), n. [OF. recort, record, remembrance, attestation, record. See Record, v. t.] 1. A writing by which some act or event, or a number of acts or events, is recorded; a register; as, a record of the acts of the Hebrew kings; a record of the variations of temperature during a certain time; a family record.

2. Especially: (a) An official contemporaneous writing by which the acts of some public body, or public officer, are recorded; as, a record of city ordinances; the records of the receiver of taxes. (b) An authentic official copy of a document which has been entered in a book, or deposited in the keeping of some officer designated by law. (c) An official contemporaneous memorandum stating the proceedings of a court of justice; a judicial record. (d) The various legal papers used in a case, together with memoranda of the proceedings of the court; as, it is not permissible to allege facts not in the record.

3. Testimony; witness; attestation.

John bare record, saying.

John i. 32.

4. That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.

5. That which has been, or might be, recorded; the known facts in the course, progress, or duration of anything, as in the life of a public man; as, a politician with a good or a bad record.

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6. That which has been publicly achieved in any kind of competitive sport as recorded in some authoritative manner, as the time made by a winning horse in a race.

Court of record (pron. r&?;*k&?;rd" in Eng.), a court whose acts and judicial proceedings are written on parchment or in books for a perpetual memorial. -- Debt of record, a debt which appears to be due by the evidence of a court of record, as upon a judgment or a cognizance. -- Trial by record, a trial which is had when a matter of record is pleaded, and the opposite party pleads that there is no such record. In this case the trial is by inspection of the record itself, no other evidence being admissible. Blackstone. -- To beat, or break, the record (Sporting), to surpass any performance of like kind as authoritatively recorded; as, to break the record in a walking match.

Re*cord"ance (r?*k?rd"?ns), n. Remembrance. [Obs.]

Rec`or*da"tion (r?k`?r*d?"sh?n), n. [L. recordatio: cf. F. recordation. See Record, v. t.] Remembrance; recollection; also, a record. [Obs.] Shak.

Re*cord"er (r?*k?rd"?r), n. 1. One who records; specifically, a person whose official duty it is to make a record of writings or transactions.

2. The title of the chief judical officer of some cities and boroughs; also, of the chief justice of an East Indian settlement. The Recorder of London is judge of the Lord Mayor's Court, and one of the commissioners of the Central Criminal Court.

3. (Mus.) A kind of wind instrument resembling the flageolet. [Obs.] "Flutes and soft recorders." Milton.

Re*cord"er*ship, n. The office of a recorder.

Re*cord"ing, a. Keeping a record or a register; as, a recording secretary; -- applied to numerous instruments with an automatic appliance which makes a record of their action; as, a recording gauge or telegraph.

Re`cor*por`i*fi*ca"tion (r?`k?r*p?r`?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. The act of investing again with a body; the state of being furnished anew with a body. [R.] Boyle.

Re*couch" (r?*kouch"), v. i. [Pref. re- + couch: cf. F. recoucher.] To retire again to a couch; to lie down again. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

Re*count" (r*kount"), v. t. [Pref. re- + count.] To count or reckon again.

Re*count", n. A counting again, as of votes.

Re*count" (r*kount"), v. t. [F. raconter to relate, to recount; pref. re- again + &?; (L. ad.) + conter to relate. See Count, v.] To tell over; to relate in detail; to recite; to tell or narrate the particulars of; to rehearse; to enumerate; as, to recount one's blessings. Dryden.

To all his angels, who, with true applause,
Recount his praises.


Re*count`ment (-ment), n. Recital. [Obs.] Shak.

{ Re*coup", Re*coupe" } (-k??p"), v. t. [F. recouper; pref. re- re- + couper to cut.] 1. (Law) To keep back rightfully (a part), as if by cutting off, so as to diminish a sum due; to take off (a part) from damages; to deduct; as, where a landlord recouped the rent of premises from damages awarded to the plaintiff for eviction.

2. To get an equivalent or compensation for; as, to recoup money lost at the gaming table; to recoup one's losses in the share market.

3. To reimburse; to indemnify; -- often used reflexively and in the passive.

Elizabeth had lost her venture; but if she was bold, she might recoup herself at Philip's cost.


Industry is sometimes recouped for a small price by extensive custom.

Duke of Argyll.

Re*coup"er (r?*k??p"?r), n. One who recoups. Story.

Re*coup"ment (-ment), n. The act of recouping.

Recoupment applies to equities growing out of the very affair from which thw principal demand arises, set-off to cross-demands which may be independent in origin. Abbott.

Re*course" (r?*k?rs"), n. [F. recours, L. recursus a running back, return, fr. recurrere, recursum, to run back. See Recur.] 1. A coursing back, or coursing again, along the line of a previous coursing; renewed course; return; retreat; recurence. [Obs.] "Swift recourse of flushing blood." Spenser.

Unto my first I will have my recourse.


Preventive physic . . . preventeth sickness in the healthy, or the recourse thereof in the valetudinary.

Sir T. Browne.

2. Recurrence in difficulty, perplexity, need, or the like; access or application for aid; resort.

Thus died this great peer, in a time of great recourse unto him and dependence upon him.

Sir H. Wotton.

Our last recourse is therefore to our art.


3. Access; admittance. [Obs.]

Give me recourse to him.


Without recourse (Commerce), words sometimes added to the indorsement of a negotiable instrument to protect the indorser from liability to the indorsee and subsequent holders. It is a restricted indorsement.

Re*course", v. i. 1. To return; to recur. [Obs.]

The flame departing and recoursing.


2. To have recourse; to resort. [Obs.] Bp. Hacket.

Re*course"ful (-f?l), a. Having recurring flow and ebb; moving alternately. [Obs.] Drayton.

Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. t. [Pref. re- + cover: cf. F. recouvrir.] To cover again. Sir W. Scott.

Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recovered (-?rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Recovering. ] [OE. recoveren, OF. recovrer, F. recouvrer, from L. recuperare; pref. re- re + a word of unknown origin. Cf.Recuperate.]

1. To get or obtain again; to get renewed possession of; to win back; to regain.

David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away.

1. Sam. xxx. 18.

2. To make good by reparation; to make up for; to retrieve; to repair the loss or injury of; as, to recover lost time. "Loss of catel may recovered be." Chaucer.

Even good men have many failings and lapses to lament and recover.


3. To restore from sickness, faintness, or the like; to bring back to life or health; to cure; to heal.

The wine in my bottle will recover him.


4. To overcome; to get the better of, -- as a state of mind or body.

I do hope to recover my late hurt.


When I had recovered a little my first surprise.

De Foe.

5. To rescue; to deliver.

That they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him.

2. Tim. ii. 26.

6. To gain by motion or effort; to obtain; to reach; to come to. [Archaic]

The forest is not three leagues off;
If we recover that, we're sure enough.


Except he could recover one of the Cities of Refuge he was to die.


7. (Law) To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to recover damages in trespass; to recover debt and costs in a suit at law; to obtain title to by judgement in a court of law; as, to recover lands in ejectment or common recovery; to gain by legal process; as, to recover judgement against a defendant.

Recover arms (Mil. Drill), a command whereby the piece is brought from the position of "aim" to that of "ready."

Syn. -- To regain; repossess; resume; retrieve; recruit; heal; cure.

Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. i. 1. To regain health after sickness; to grow well; to be restored or cured; hence, to regain a former state or condition after misfortune, alarm, etc.; -- often followed by of or from; as, to recover from a state of poverty; to recover from fright.

Go, inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover of this disease.

2 Kings i. 2.

2. To make one's way; to come; to arrive. [Obs.]

With much ado the Christians recovered to Antioch.


3. (Law) To obtain a judgement; to succeed in a lawsuit; as, the plaintiff has recovered in his suit.

Re*cov"er, n. Recovery. Sir T. Malory.

Re*cov"er*a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recouvrable.] Capable of being recovered or regained; capable of being brought back to a former condition, as from sickness, misfortune, etc.; obtainable from a debtor or possessor; as, the debt is recoverable; goods lost or sunk in the ocean are not recoverable.

A prodigal course
Is like the sun's; but not, like his, recoverable.


If I am recoverable, why am I thus?


-- Re*cov"er*a*ble*ness, n.

Re cov"er*ance (-ans), n. Recovery. [Obs.]

Re*cov`er*ee" (-"), n. (Law) The person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.

Re*cov"er*er (r?*k?v"?r*?r), n. One who recovers.

Re*cov`er*or" (-?r), n. (Law) The demandant in a common recovery after judgment. Wharton.

Re*cov"er*y (r?*k?v"?r*?), n. 1. The act of recovering, regaining, or retaking possession.

2. Restoration from sickness, weakness, faintness, or the like; restoration from a condition of mistortune, of fright, etc.

3. (Law) The obtaining in a suit at law of a right to something by a verdict and judgment of court.

4. The getting, or gaining, of something not previously had. [Obs.] "Help be past recovery." Tusser.

5. In rowing, the act of regaining the proper position for making a new stroke.

Common recovery (Law), a species of common assurance or mode of conveying lands by matter of record, through the forms of an action at law, formerly in frequent use, but now abolished or obsolete, both in England and America. Burrill. Warren.

Rec"re*ance (r?k"r?*?ns), n. Recreancy.

Rec"re*an*cy (-an*s?), n. The quality or state of being recreant.

Rec"re*ant (-ant), a. [OF., cowardly, fr. recroire, recreire, to forsake, leave, tire, discourage, regard as conquered, LL. recredere se to declare one's self conquered in combat; hence, those are called recrediti or recreanti who are considered infamous; L. pref. re- again, back + credere to believe, to be of opinion; hence, originally, to disavow one's opinion. See Creed.] 1. Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven. "This recreant knight." Spenser.

2. Apostate; false; unfaithful.

Who, for so many benefits received,
Turned recreant to God, ingrate and false.


Rec"re*ant, n. One who yields in combat, and begs for mercy; a mean-spirited, cowardly wretch. Blackstone.

You are all recreants and dastards!


Re`-cre*ate" (r?`kr?*?t"), v. t. [Pref. re- + create.] To create or form anew.

On opening the campaign of 1776, instead of reënforcing, it was necessary to re-create, the army.


Rec"re*ate (rk"r*t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recreated (-`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Recreating.] [L. recreatus, p. p. of recreate to create anew, to refresh; pref. re- re- + creare to create. See Create.] To give fresh life to; to reanimate; to revive; especially, to refresh after wearying toil or anxiety; to relieve; to cheer; to divert; to amuse; to gratify.

Painters, when they work on white grounds, place before them colors mixed with blue and green, to recreate their eyes, white wearying . . . the sight more than any.


St. John, who recreated himself with sporting with a tame partridge.

Jer. Taylor.

These ripe fruits recreate the nostrils with their aromatic scent.

Dr. H. More.

Rec"re*ate, v. i. To take recreation. L. Addison.

Rec"re*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [F. récréation, L. recreatio.] The act of recreating, or the state of being recreated; refreshment of the strength and spirits after toil; amusement; diversion; sport; pastime.

Re`-cre*a"tion (r?`kr?*?sh?n), n. [See Re-create.] A forming anew; a new creation or formation.

Re`-cre*a"tive (-?`t?v), a. Creating anew; as, re-creative power.

Rec"re*a`tive (r?k"r?*?`t?v), a. [Cf. F. récréatif. See Recreate.] Tending to recreate or refresh; recreating; giving new vigor or animation; reinvigorating; giving relief after labor or pain; amusing; diverting.

Let the music of them be recreative.


--- Rec"re*a`tive*ly, adv. -- Rec"re*a`tive*ness, n.

Rec"re*ment (r?k"r?*ment), n. [L. recrementum; pref. re- re- + cernere, cretum, to separate, sift: cf. F. récrément.] 1. Superfluous matter separated from that which is useful; dross; scoria; as, the recrement of ore.

2. (Med.) (a) Excrement. [Obs.] (a) A substance secreted from the blood and again absorbed by it.

Rec`re*men"tal (-m?n"tal), a. Recrementitious.

Rec`re*men*ti"tial (-m?n*t?sh"al), a. [Cf. F. récrémentitiel.] (Med.) Of the nature of a recrement. See Recrement, 2 (b). "Recrementitial fluids." Dunglison.

Rec`re*men*ti"tious (-t?sh"?s), a. Of or pertaining to recrement; consisting of recrement or dross. Boyle.

Re*crim"i*nate (r?*kr?m"?*n?t), v. i. [Pref. re- + criminate: cf. F. récriminer, LL. recriminare.] To return one charge or accusation with another; to charge back fault or crime upon an accuser.

It is not my business to recriminate, hoping sufficiently to clear myself in this matter.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

Re*crim"i*nate, v. t. To accuse in return. South.

Re*crim`i*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. [F. récrimination, LL. recriminatio.] The act of recriminating; an accusation brought by the accused against the accuser; a counter accusation.

Accusations and recriminations passed backward and forward between the contending parties.


Re*crim"i*na*tive (-n?*t?v), a. Recriminatory.

Re*crim"i*na`tor (-n?`t?r), n. One who recriminates.

Re*crim"i*na*to*ry (-n?*t?*r?), a. [Cf. F. récriminatoire.] Having the quality of recrimination; retorting accusation; recriminating.

Re*cross" (r?*kr?s";115), v. t. To cross a second time.

Re*cru"den*cy (r*kr"den*s), n. Recrudescence.

{ Re`cru*des"cence (r?`kr?*d?s"sens), Re`cru*des`cen*cy (-d?s"sen*s?), } n. [Cf. F. recrudescence.]

1. The state or condition of being recrudescent.

A recrudescence of barbarism may condemn it [land] to chronic poverty and waste.

Duke of Argyll.

2. (Med.) Increased severity of a disease after temporary remission. Dunglison.

Re`cru*des"cent (-sent), a. [L. recrudescens, -entis, p. pr. of recrudescere to become raw again; pref. re- re- + crudescere to become hard or raw: cf. F. recrudescent.] 1. Growing raw, sore, or painful again.

2. Breaking out again after temporary abatement or supression; as, a recrudescent epidemic.

Re*cruit" (r?*kr?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recruited; p. pr. & vb. n. Recruiting.] [F. recruter, corrupted (under influence of recrue recruiting, recruit, from recroî/tre, p. p. recrû, to grow again) from an older recluter, properly, to patch, to mend (a garment); pref. re- + OF. clut piece, piece of cloth; cf. Icel. kltr kerchief, E. clout.] 1. To repair by fresh supplies, as anything wasted; to remedy lack or deficiency in; as, food recruits the flesh; fresh air and exercise recruit the spirits.

Her cheeks glow the brighter, recruiting their color.


2. Hence, to restore the wasted vigor of; to renew in strength or health; to reinvigorate.

3. To supply with new men, as an army; to fill up or make up by enlistment; as, he recruited two regiments; the army was recruited for a campaign; also, to muster; to enlist; as, he recruited fifty men. M. Arnold.

Re*cruit", v. i. 1. To gain new supplies of anything wasted; to gain health, flesh, spirits, or the like; to recuperate; as, lean cattle recruit in fresh pastures.

2. To gain new supplies of men for military or other service; to raise or enlist new soldiers; to enlist troops.

Re*cruit", n. 1. A supply of anything wasted or exhausted; a reënforcement.

The state is to have recruits to its strength, and remedies to its distempers.


2. Specifically, a man enlisted for service in the army; a newly enlisted soldier.

Re*cruit"er, n. One who, or that which, recruits.

Re*cruit"ment (-ment), n. The act or process of recruiting; especially, the enlistment of men for an army.

Re*crys`tal*li*za"tion (r*krs`tal*l*z"shn), n. (Chem. & Min.) The process or recrystallizing.

Re*crys"tal*lize (r*krs"tal*lz), v. i. & t. (Chem. & Min.) To crystallize again. Henry.

Rec"tal (r?k"tal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the rectum; in the region of the rectum.

Rec"tan`gle (r?k"t??`g'l), n. [F., fr. L. rectus right + angulus angle. See Right, and Angle.] (Geom.) A four-sided figure having only right angles; a right-angled parallelogram.

As the area of a rectangle is expressed by the product of its two dimensions, the term rectangle is sometimes used for product; as, the rectangle of a and b, that is, ab.

Rec"tan`gle, a. Rectangular. [R.]

Rec"tan`gled (-g'ld), a. Rectangular. Hutton.

Rec*tan"gu*lar (r?k*t?n"g?*l?r), a. [CF. F. rectangulaire.] Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety degrees. -- Rec*tan"gu*lar*ly (r&?;k*t&?;n"g&?;*l&?;r*l&?;), adv. -- Rec*tan"gu*lar*ness, n.

Rec*tan`gu*lar"i*ty (-l?r"?*t?), n. The quality or condition of being rectangular, or right- angled.

Rec"ti- (r?k"t?*). [L. rectus straight.] A combining form signifying straight; as, rectilineal, having straight lines; rectinerved.

Rec"ti*fi`a*ble (r?k"t?*f?`?*b'l), a. 1. Capable of being rectified; as, a rectifiable mistake.

<! p. 1202 !>

2. (Math.) Admitting, as a curve, of the construction of a straight l&?;&?;e equal in length to any definite portion of the curve.

Rec`ti*fi*ca"tion (r?k`t?*f?*k?1sh?n), n. [Cf. F. rectification.] 1. The act or operation of rectifying; as, the rectification of an error; the rectification of spirits.

After the rectification of his views, he was incapable of compromise with profounder shapes of error.

De Quincey.

2. (Geom.) The determination of a straight line whose length is equal a portion of a curve.

Rectification of a globe (Astron.), its adjustment preparatory to the solution of a proposed problem.

Rec"ti*fi*ca`tor (r?k"t?*f?*k?`t?r), n. (Chem.) That which rectifies or refines; esp., a part of a distilling apparatus in which the more volatile portions are separated from the less volatile by the process of evaporation and condensation; a rectifier.

Rec"ti*fi`er (r?k"t?*f?`?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, rectifies.

2. Specifically: (a) (Naut.) An instrument used for determining and rectifying the variations of the compass on board ship. (b) (Chem.) A rectificator.

Rec"ti*fy (-f?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rectified (-f?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Rectifying (-f?`?ng).] [F. rectifier, LL. rectificare; L. rectus right + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Right, and -fy.] 1. To make or set right; to correct from a wrong, erroneous, or false state; to amend; as, to rectify errors, mistakes, or abuses; to rectify the will, the judgment, opinions; to rectify disorders.

I meant to rectify my conscience.


This was an error of opinion which a conflicting opinion would have rectified.


2. (Chem.) To refine or purify by repeated distillation or sublimation, by which the fine parts of a substance are separated from the grosser; as, to rectify spirit of wine.

3. (Com.) To produce ( as factitious gin or brandy) by redistilling low wines or ardent spirits (whisky, rum, etc.), flavoring substances, etc., being added.

To rectify a globe, to adjust it in order to prepare for the solution of a proposed problem.

Syn. -- To amend; emend; correct; better; mend; reform; redress; adjust; regulate; improve. See Amend.

{ Rec`ti*lin"e*al (-l?n"?*al), Rec`ti*lin"e*ar (-l?n"?*?r), } a. [Recti- + lineal, linear.] Straight; consisting of a straight line or lines; bounded by straight lines; as, a rectineal angle; a rectilinear figure or course. -- Rec`ti*lin"e*al*ly, adv. -- Rec`ti*lin"e*ar*ly, adv.

Rec`ti*lin`e*ar"i*ty (-?r"?*t?), n. The quality or state of being rectilinear. Coleridge.

Rec`ti*lin"e*ous (-?s), a. Rectilinear. [Obs.] Ray.

Rec"ti*nerved` (r?k"t?*n?rrvd`), a. [Recti- + nerve.] (Bot.) Having the veins or nerves straight; -- said of leaves.

Rec"tion (r?k"sh?n), n. [L. rectio, fr. regere to rule or govern.] (Gram.) See Government, n., 7. Gibbs.

Rec`ti*ros"tral (r?k`t?*r?s"tral), a. [Recti- + rostral.] (Zoöl.) Having a straight beak.

Rec`ti*se"ri*al (-s?"r?*al), a. [Recti- + serial.] (Bot.) Arranged in exactly vertical ranks, as the leaves on stems of many kinds; -- opposed to curviserial.

||Rec*ti"tis (r?k*t?"t?s), n. [NL. See Rectum, and -itis.] (Med.) Proctitis. Dunglison.

Rec"ti*tude (r?k"t?*t?d), n. [L. rectitudo, fr. rectus right, straight: cf. F. rectitude. See Right.] 1. Straightness. [R.] Johnson.

2. Rightness of principle or practice; exact conformity to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct, either by divine or human laws; uprightness of mind; uprightness; integrity; honesty; justice.

3. Right judgment. [R.] Sir G. C. Lewis.

Syn. -- See Justice.

Rec"to- (r?k"t?*). A combining form indicating connection with, or relation to, the rectum; as, recto-vesical.

Rec"to, n. [Abbrev. fr. LL. breve de recto. See Right.] (Law) A writ of right.

Rec"to, n. [Cf. F. recto.] (Print.) The right-hand page; -- opposed to verso.

Rec"tor (r?k"t?r), n. [L., fr. regere, rectum, to lead straight, to rule: cf. F. recteur. See Regiment, Right.]

1. A ruler or governor. [R.]

God is the supreme rector of the world.

Sir M. Hale.

2. (a) (Ch. of Eng.) A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; the clergyman of a parish where the tithes are not impropriate. See the Note under Vicar. Blackstone. (b) (Prot. Epis. Ch.) A clergyman in charge of a parish.

3. The head master of a public school. [Scot.]

4. The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland; sometimes, the head of a college; as, the Rector of Exeter College, or of Lincoln College, at Oxford.

5. (R.C.CH.) The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.

Rec"tor*al (-al), a. [CF. F. rectoral.] Pertaining to a rector or governor.

Rec"tor*ate (-?t), n. [LL. rectoratus: cf. F. rectorat.] The office, rank, or station of a rector; rectorship.

Rec"tor*ess, n. 1. A governess; a rectrix. Drayton.

2. The wife of a rector. Thackeray.

Rec*to"ri*al (r?k*t?"r?*al), a. Pertaining to a rector or a rectory; rectoral. Shipley.

Rec"tor*ship (r?k"t?r*sh?p), n. 1. Government; guidance. [Obs.] "The rectorship of judgment." Shak.

2. The office or rank of a rector; rectorate.

Rec"to*ry (-t?*r?), n.; pl. Rectories (-r&?;z). [Cf. OF. rectorie or rectorerie, LL. rectoria.] 1. The province of a rector; a parish church, parsonage, or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes, and glebes.

2. A rector's mansion; a parsonage house.

Rec`to-u"ter*ine (-?"t?r*?n or *?n), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the uterus.

Rec`to*vag"i*nal (r?k`t?*v?j"?*nal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the vagina.

Rec`to-ves"i*cal (-v?s"?*kal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the bladder.

Rec"tress (r?k"tr?s), n. A rectoress. B. Jonson.

||Rec"trix (-tr?ks), n.; pl. Rectrices (-tr&?;"s&?;z). [L., fem. of rector.] 1. A governess; a rectoress.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the quill feathers of the tail of a bird.

Rec"tum (-t?m), n. [NL. (sc. intestinum), fr. L. rectus straight. See Right.] (Anat.) The terminal part of the large intestine; -- so named because supposed by the old anatomists to be straight. See Illust. under Digestive.

||Rec"tus (-t?s), n.; pl. Recti (-t&?;). [NL., fr. L. regere to keep straight.] (Anat.) A straight muscle; as, the recti of the eye.

Rec`u*ba"tion (r?k`?*b?"sh?n), n. [L. recubare to lie upon the back.] Recumbence. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Re*cule" (r?*k?l"), v. i. To recoil. [Obs.] Spenser.

{ Re*cule" (r?*k?l"), Re*cule"ment (- ment), } n. [F. reculement.] Recoil. [Obs.]

Re*cumb" (-k?m"), v. i. [L. recumbere; pref. re- back + cumbere (in comp.), akin to cubare to lie down.] To lean; to recline; to repose. [Obs.] J. Allen (1761).

Re*cum"bence (r?*k?m"bens), n. The act of leaning, resting, or reclining; the state of being recumbent.

Re*cum"ben*cy (-ben*s?), n. Recumbence.

Re*cum"bent (-bet), a. [L. recumbens, -entis, p. pr. of recumbere. See Recumb, Incumbent.] Leaning; reclining; lying; as, the recumbent posture of the Romans at their meals. Hence, figuratively; Resting; inactive; idle. -- Re*cum"bent*ly, adv.

Re*cu"per*a*ble (r?*k?"p?r*?*b'l), a. [Cf.F. récup&?;rable. See Recover.] Recoverable. Sir T. Elyot.

Re*cu"per*ate (-?t), v. i. [imp. &. p. p. Recuperated (-?`t?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Recuperating.] [L. recuperatus, p. p. of recuperare. See Recover to get again.] To recover health; to regain strength; to convalesce.

Re*cu"per*ate, v. t. To recover; to regain; as, to recuperate the health or strength.

Re*cu`per*a"tion (-?`sh?n), n.. [L. recuperatio: cf. F. récup&?;ration.] Recovery, as of anything lost, especially of the health or strength.

{ Re*cu"per*a*tive (-?*t?v), Re*cu"per*a*to*ry (- ?*t?*r?), } a. [L. recuperativus, recuperatorius.] Of or pertaining to recuperation; tending to recovery.

Re*cu"per*a`tor (r?*k?"pp?r*?`t?r), n. [Cf. L. recuperator a recoverer.] (Steel Manuf.) Same as Regenerator.

Re*cur" (r?*k?r"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Recurred (-k?rd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recurring.] [L. recurrere; pref. re- re- + currere to run. See Current.] 1. To come back; to return again or repeatedly; to come again to mind.

When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will recur in the mind when the word is heard.

I. Watts.

2. To occur at a stated interval, or according to some regular rule; as, the fever will recur to- night.

3. To resort; to have recourse; to go for help.

If, to avoid succession in eternal existence, they recur to the "punctum stans" of the schools, they will thereby very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration.


Recurring decimal (Math.), a circulating decimal. See under Decimal. -- Recurring series (Math.), an algebraic series in which the coefficients of the several terms can be expressed by means of certain preceding coefficients and constants in one uniform manner.

Re*cure" (r?*k?r"), v. t. [Cf. Recover.] 1. To arrive at; to reach; to attain. [Obs.] Lydgate.

2. To recover; to regain; to repossess. [Obs.]

When their powers, impaired through labor long,
With due repast, they had recured well.


3. To restore, as from weariness, sickness; or the like; to repair.

In western waves his weary wagon did recure.


4. To be a cure for; to remedy. [Obs.]

No medicine
Might avail his sickness to recure.


Re*cure", n. Cure; remedy; recovery. [Obs.]

But whom he hite, without recure he dies.


Re*cure"less, a. Incapable of cure. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

{ Re*cur"rence (r?*k?r"rens), Re*cur"ren*cy (-ren*s?), } n. [Cf. F. récurrence.] The act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return; resort; recourse.

I shall insensibly go on from a rare to a frequent recurrence to the dangerous preparations.

I. Taylor.

Re*cur"rent (-rent), a. [L. recurrens, -entis, p. pr. of recurrere: cf.F. récurrent. See Recur.] 1. Returning from time to time; recurring; as, recurrent pains.

2. (Anat.) Running back toward its origin; as, a recurrent nerve or artery.

Recurrent fever. (Med.) See Relapsing fever, under Relapsing. -- Recurrent pulse (Physiol.), the pulse beat which appears (when the radial artery is compressed at the wrist) on the distal side of the point of pressure through the arteries of the palm of the hand. -- Recurrent sensibility (Physiol.), the sensibility manifested by the anterior, or motor, roots of the spinal cord (their stimulation causing pain) owing to the presence of sensory fibers from the corresponding sensory or posterior roots.

Re*cur"sant (r?*k?r"sant), a. [L. recursans, -antis, p. pr. of recursare to run back, v. freq. of recurrere. See Recure.] (Her.) Displayed with the back toward the spectator; -- said especially of an eagle.

Re*cur"sion (-sh?n), n. [L. recursio. See Recur.] The act of recurring; return. [Obs.] Boyle.

Re*cur"vate (r?*k?r"v?t), a. [L. recurvatus, p. p. of recurvare. See Re-, and Curvate.] (Bot.) Recurved.

Re*cur"vate (-v?t), v. t. To bend or curve back; to recurve. Pennant.

Re`cur*va"tion (r?`k?r*v?"sh?n), n. The act of recurving, or the state of being recurved; a bending or flexure backward.

Re*curve" (r?*k?rv"), v. t. To curve in an opposite or unusual direction; to bend back or down.

Re*curved" (r?*k?rvd"), a. Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a recurved bill; flowers with recurved petals.

Re*cur`vi*ros"ter (r?*k?r`v?*r?s"t?r), n. [L. recurvus bent back + rostrum beack; cf. F. récurvirostre.] (Zool.) A bird whose beak bends upward, as the avocet.

Re*cur`vi*ros"tral (-tral), a. [See Recurviroster.] (Zoöl.) Having the beak bent upwards.

Re*cur"vi*ty (r?*k?r"v?*t?), n. Recurvation.

Re*cur"vous (-v?s), a. [L. recurvus; pref. re- re + curvus curved.] Recurved. Derham.

Re*cu"san*cy (r?*k?"zan*s? or r?k"?-), n. The state of being recusant; nonconformity. Coke.

Re*cu"sant (-zat; 277), a.[L. recusans, -antis, p. pr. of recure to refuse, to oject to; pref. re- re + causa a cause, pretext: cf. F. récusant. See Cause, and cf. Ruse.] Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a recusant lord.

It stated him to have placed his son in the household of the Countess of Derby, a recusant papist.

Sir W. Scott.

Re*cu"sant, n. 1. One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.

The last rebellious recusants among the European family of nations.

De Quincey.

2. (Eng. Hist.) A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as, a Roman Catholic recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope. Brande & C.

3. One who refuses communion with the Church of England; a nonconformist.

All that are recusants of holy rites.


Rec`u*sa"tion (r?k`?*z?"sh?n), n. [L. recusatio: cf. F. récusation.] 1. Refusal. [Obs.]

2. (Old Law) The act of refusing a judge or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality. Blackstone.

Re*cu"sa*tive (r?*k?"z?*t?v), a. Refusing; denying; negative. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Re*cuse" (r?*k?z"), v. t. [F. récuser, or L. recusare. See Recusant.] (Law) To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

Re*cus"sion (r?*k?sh"?n), n. [L. recutire, recussum, to beat back; pref. re- re- + quatere to shake.] The act of beating or striking back.

Red (rd), obs. . imp. & p. p. of Read. Spenser.

Red, v. t. To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; -- generally with up; as, to red up a house. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Red, a. [Compar. Redder (-d?r); superl. Reddest.] [OE. red, reed, AS. reád, reód; akin to OS. rd, OFries. rd, D. rood, G. roht, rot, OHG. rt, Dan. & Sw. röd, Icel. rauðr, rjðr, Goth. ráuds, W. rhudd, Armor. ruz, Ir. & Gael. ruadh, L. ruber, rufus, Gr. 'eryqro`s, Skr. rudhira, rohita; cf. L. rutilus. √113. Cf. Erysipelas, Rouge, Rubric, Ruby, Ruddy, Russet, Rust.] Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part. "Fresh flowers, white and reede." Chaucer.

Your color, I warrant you, is as red as any rose.


Red is a general term, including many different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, and the like.

Red is often used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, red-breasted, red-cheeked, red- faced, red-haired, red-headed, red-skinned, red-tailed, red-topped, red-whiskered, red-coasted.

Red admiral (Zoöl.), a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atalanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zoöl.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanguinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass. (Zoöl.) See Redfish (d). - - Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zoöl.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light- colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zoöl.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (P. apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. <! p. 1203 !> -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zoöl.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zoöl.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zoöl.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zoöl.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zoöl.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zoöl.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, or Red gum-tree (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaumé, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked. -- Red horse. (Zoöl.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zoöl.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zoöl.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zoöl.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zoöl.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zoöl.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zoöl.), a large fish (Lutlanus aya or Blackfordii) abundant in the Gulf of Mexico and about the Florida reefs. -- Red snow, snow colored by a mocroscopic unicellular alga (Protococcus nivalis) which produces large patches of scarlet on the snows of arctic or mountainous regions. -- Red softening (Med.) a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zoöl.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zoöl.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay. -- Red underwing (Zoöl.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.

Red (r?d), n. 1. The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these. "Celestial rosy red, love's proper hue." Milton.

2. A red pigment.

3. (European Politics) An abbreviation for Red Republican. See under Red, a. [Cant]

4. pl. (Med.) The menses. Dunglison.

English red, a pigment prepared by the Dutch, similar to Indian red. -- Hypericum red, a red resinous dyestuff extracted from Hypericum. -- Indian red. See under Indian, and Almagra.

Re*dact" (r?*d?kt"), v. t. [L. redactus, p. p. of redigere; pref. red-, re- , again, back + agere to put in motion, to drive.] To reduce to form, as literary matter; to digest and put in shape (matter for publication); to edit.

||Ré`dac`teur" (r`dk`tr"), n. [F.] See Redactor.

Re*dac"tion (r?*d?k"sh?n), n. [F. rédaction.] The act of redacting; work produced by redacting; a digest.

Re*dac"tor (-t?r), n. One who redacts; one who prepares matter for publication; an editor. Carlyle.

Re*dan" (r?*d?n"), n. [F., for OF. redent a double notching or jagging, as in the teeth of a saw, fr. L. pref. re- re- + dens, dentis, a tooth. Cf. Redented.] [Written sometimes redent and redens.] 1. (Fort.) A work having two parapets whose faces unite so as to form a salient angle toward the enemy.

2. A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.

Red*ar"gue (r?d*?r"g?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Redargued (-g?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Redarguing.] [L. redarguere; pref. red-, re- re- + arguere to accuse, charge with: cf. F. rédarguer.] To disprove; to refute; toconfute; to reprove; to convict. [Archaic]

How shall I . . . suffer that God should redargue me at doomsday, and the angels reproach my lukewarmness?

Jer. Taylor.

Now this objection to the immediate cognition of external objects has, as far as I know, been redargued in three different ways.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Red`ar*gu"tion (r?d`?r*g?"sh?n), n. [L. redargutio.] The act of redarguing; refutation. [Obs. or R.] Bacon.

Red`ar*gu"to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Pertaining to, or containing, redargution; refutatory. [R.]

Red"back` (r?d"b?k`), n. (Zoöl.) The dunlin. [U. S.]

Red"bel`ly (-b?l`l?), n. (Zoöl.) The char.

Red"bird` (-b?rd`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The cardinal bird. (b) The summer redbird (Piranga rubra). (c) The scarlet tanager. See Tanager.

Red"breast` (-br?st`), n. 1. (Zoöl.) (a) The European robin. (b) The American robin. See Robin. (c) The knot, or red-breasted snipe; -- called also robin breast, and robin snipe. See Knot.

2. (Zoöl.) The long-eared pondfish. See Pondfish.

Red"bud` (-b?d`), n. (Bot.) A small ornamental leguminous tree of the American species of the genus Cercis. See Judas tree, under Judas.

Red"cap`, n. 1. (Zoöl) The European goldfinch.

2. A specter having long teeth, popularly supposed to haunt old castles in Scotland. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Red"coat` (-kt`), n. One who wears a red coat; specifically, a red-coated British soldier.

Red"de (-de), obs. imp. of Read, or Rede. Chaucer.

Red"den (r?d"d'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reddened (-d'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reddening.] [From Red, a.] To make red or somewhat red; to give a red color to.

Red"den, v. i. To grow or become red; to blush.

Appius reddens at each word you speak.


He no sooner saw that her eye glistened and her cheek reddened than his obstinacy was at once subbued.

Sir W. SCott.

||Red*den"dum (r?d*d?n"d?m), n. [Neut. of L. reddendus that must be given back or yielded, gerundive of reddere. See Reddition.] (Law) A clause in a deed by which some new thing is reserved out of what had been granted before; the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease. Cruise.

Red"dish (r?d"d?sh), a. Somewhat red; moderately red. -- Red"dish*ness, n.

Red*di"tion (r?d*d?sh"?n), n.[L. redditio, fr. reddere to give back, to return: cf. F. reddition. See Render.]

1. Restoration: restitution: surrender. Howell.

2. Explanation; representation. [R.]

The reddition or application of the comparison.


Red"di**tive (r?d"d?*t?v), a. [L. redditivus.] (Gram.) Answering to an interrogative or inquiry; conveying a reply; as, redditive words.

Red"dle (r?d"d'l), n. [From Red; cf. G. r&?;thel. Cf. Ruddle.] (Min.) Red chalk. See under Chalk.

Red"dour (r?d"d?r), n. [F. raideur, fr. raide stiff.] Rigor; violence. [Obs.] Gower.

Rede (r?d), v. t. [See Read, v. t.] 1. To advise or counsel. [Obs. or Scot.]

I rede that our host here shall begin.


2. To interpret; to explain. [Obs.]

My sweven [dream] rede aright.


Rede, n. [See Read, n.] 1. Advice; counsel; suggestion. [Obs. or Scot.] Burns.

There was none other remedy ne reed.


2. A word or phrase; a motto; a proverb; a wise saw. [Obs.] "This rede is rife." Spenser.

Re*deem" (r?*d?m"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Redeemed. (-d&?;md"); p. pr. & vb. n. Redeeming.] [F. rédimer, L. redimere; pref. red-, re- re- + emere, emptum, to buy, originally, to take, cf. OIr. em (in comp.), Lith. imti. Cf. Assume, Consume, Exempt, Premium, Prompt, Ransom.] 1. To purchase back; to regain possession of by payment of a stipulated price; to repurchase.

If a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold.

Lev. xxv. 29.

2. Hence, specifically: (a) (Law) To recall, as an estate, or to regain, as mortgaged property, by paying what may be due by force of the mortgage. (b) (Com.) To regain by performing the obligation or condition stated; to discharge the obligation mentioned in, as a promissory note, bond, or other evidence of debt; as, to redeem bank notes with coin.

3. To ransom, liberate, or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying a price or ransom; to ransom; to rescue; to recover; as, to redeem a captive, a pledge, and the like.

Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles.

Ps. xxv. 22.

The Almighty from the grave
Hath me redeemed.


4. (Theol.) Hence, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.

Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us.

Gal. iii. 13.

5. To make good by performing fully; to fulfill; as, to redeem one's promises.

I will redeem all this on Percy's head.


6. To pay the penalty of; to make amends for; to serve as an equivalent or offset for; to atone for; to compensate; as, to redeem an error.

Which of ye will be mortal, to redeem
Man's mortal crime?


It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows.


To redeem the time, to make the best use of it.

Re*deem`a*bil"i*ty (-?*b?l"?*t?), n. Redeemableness.

Re*deem"a*ble (-?*b;l), a. 1. Capable of being redeemed; subject to repurchase; held under conditions permitting redemption; as, a pledge securing the payment of money is redeemable.

2. Subject to an obligation of redemtion; conditioned upon a promise of redemtion; payable; due; as, bonds, promissory notes, etc. , redeemabble in gold, or in current money, or four months after date.

Re*deem"a*ble*ness (r?*d?m"?*b'l*n?s), n. The quality or state of being redeemable; redeemability.

Re*deem"er (r?*d?m"?r), n. 1. One who redeems.

2. Specifically, the Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.

Rede"less (r?d"l?s), a. Without rede or counsel. [Obs.]

Re`de*lib"er*ate (r?`d?*l?b"?r*?t), v. t. & i. To deliberate again; to reconsider.

Re`de*liv"er (r?`d?*l?v"?r), v. t. 1. To deliver or give back; to return. Ay&?;iffe.

2. To deliver or liberate a second time or again.

3. To report; to deliver the answer of. [R.] "Shall I redeliver you e'en so?" Shak.

Re`de*liv"er*ance (-ans), n. A second deliverance.

Re`de*liv"er*y (-?), n. 1. Act of delivering back.

2. A second or new delivery or liberation.

Re`de*mand" (r?`d-m?nd"), v. t. [Pref. re- back, again + demand: cf. F. redemander.] To demand back; to demand again.

Re`de*mand", n. A demanding back; a second or renewed demand.

Re`de*mise" (-m?z"), v. t. To demise back; to convey or transfer back, as an estate.

Re`de*mise", n. (Law) The transfer of an estate back to the person who demised it; reconveyance; as, the demise and redemise of an estate. See under Demise.

Re*dem"on*strate (r?*d?m"?n*str?t or r?`d?*m?n"-str?t), v. t. To demonstrate again, or anew.

Every truth of morals must be redemonstrated in the experience of the individual man before he is capable of utilizing it as a constituent of character or a guide in action.


Re*demp"ti*ble (r?*d?mp"t?*b'l), a. Redeemable.

Re-demp"tion (-sh?n), n. [F. rédemption, L. redemptio. See Redeem, and cf. Ransom.] The act of redeeming, or the state of being redeemed; repurchase; ransom; release; rescue; deliverance; as, the redemption of prisoners taken in war; the redemption of a ship and cargo. Specifically: (a) (Law) The liberation of an estate from a mortgage, or the taking back of property mortgaged, upon performance of the terms or conditions on which it was conveyed; also, the right of redeeming and reëntering upon an estate mortgaged. See Equity of redemption, under Equity. (b) (Com.) Performance of the obligation stated in a note, bill, bond, or other evidence of debt, by making payment to the holder. (c) (Theol.) The procuring of God's favor by the sufferings and death of Christ; the ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.

In whom we have redemption through his blood.

Eph. i. 7.

Re*demp"tion*a*ry (-?*r?), n. One who is, or may be, redeemed. [R.] Hakluyt.

Re*demp"tion*er (-?r), n. 1. One who redeems himself, as from debt or servitude.

2. Formerly, one who, wishing to emigrate from Europe to America, sold his services for a stipulated time to pay the expenses of his passage.

Re*demp"tion*ist, n. (R.C.Ch.) A monk of an order founded in 1197; -- so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also Trinitarian.

Re*demp"tive (-t?v), a. Serving or tending to redeem; redeeming; as, the redemptive work of Christ.

Re*demp"tor*ist (-t?r*?st), n. [F. rédemptoriste, fr. L. redemptor redeemer, from redinere. See Redeem.] (R.C.Ch.) One of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, founded in Naples in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Maria de Liquori. It was introduced onto the United States in 1832 at Detroit. The Fathers of the Congregation devote themselves to preaching to the neglected, esp. in missions and retreats, and are forbidden by their rule to engage in the instruction of youth.

Re*demp"to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Paid for ransom; serving to redeem. "Hector's redemptory price." Chapman.

Re*demp"ture (-t?r; 135), n. Redemption. [Obs.]

Re*dent"ed (r?*d?nt"?d), a. [From OF. redent. See Redan.] Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.

Re`de*pos"it (r?`d?*p?z"?t), v. t. To deposit again.

Re`de*scend" (-s?nd"), v. i. [Pref. re- + descend: cf. F. redescendre.] To descend again. Howell.

Red"eye` (r?d"?`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The rudd. (b) Same as Redfish (d). (c) The goggle-eye, or fresh-water rock bass. [Local, U.S.]

Red"fin` (-f?n`), n. (Zoöl.) A small North American dace (Minnilus cornutus, or Notropis megalops). The male, in the breeding season, has bright red fins. Called also red dace, and shiner. Applied also to Notropis ardens, of the Mississippi valley.

Red"finch` (-fnch`), n. (Zoöl.) The European linnet.

Red"fish` (rd"fsh`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The blueback salmon of the North Pacific; -- called also nerka. See Blueback (b). (b) The rosefish. (c) A large California labroid food fish (Trochocopus pulcher); -- called also fathead. (d) The red bass, red drum, or drumfish. See the Note under Drumfish.

Red"-gum` (-g?m`), n. [OE. reed gounde; AS. reád red + gund matter, pus.] 1. (Med.) An eruption of red pimples upon the face, neck, and arms, in early infancy; tooth rash; strophulus. Good.

2. A name of rust on grain. See Rust.

<! p. 1204 !>

{ Red"-hand` (r?d"h?nd`), Red"-hand`ed (- h?nd`?d), } a. or adv. Having hands red with blood; in the very act, as if with red or bloody hands; -- said of a person taken in the act of homicide; hence, fresh from the commission of crime; as, he was taken red-hand or red-handed.

Red"head` (-h?d`), n. 1. A person having red hair.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) An American duck (Aythya Americana) highly esteemed as a game bird. It is closely allied to the canvasback, but is smaller and its head brighter red. Called also red-headed duck. American poachard, grayback, and fall duck. See Illust. under Poachard. (b) The red-headed woodpecker. See Woodpecker.

3. (Bot.) A kind of milkweed (Asclepias Curassavica) with red flowers. It is used in medicine.

Red`hi*bi"tion (r?d`h?*b?sh"?n), n. [L. redhibitio a taking back.] (Civil Law) The annulling of a sale, and the return by the buyer of the article sold, on account of some defect.

Red*hib"i*to*ry (r?d*h?b"?*t?*r?), a. [L. redhibitorius.] (Civil Law) Of or pertaining to redhibition; as, a redhibitory action or fault.

Red"hoop` (r?d"h??p`), n. (Zoöl.) The male of the European bullfinch. [Prov. Eng.]

Red"horn` (-h?rn`), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of a tribe of butterflies (Fugacia) including the common yellow species and the cabbage butterflies. The antennæ are usually red.

Red"-hot` (-h?t`), a. Red with heat; heated to redness; as, red-hot iron; red-hot balls. Hence, figuratively, excited; violent; as, a red-hot radical. Shak.

||Re"di*a (r?"d?*?), n.; pl. L. Rediæ (-), E. Redias (-&?;z). [NL.; of uncertain origin.] (Zoöl.) A kind of larva, or nurse, which is prroduced within the sporocyst of certain trematodes by asexual generation. It in turn produces, in the same way, either another generation of rediæ, or else cercariæ within its own body. Called also proscolex, and nurse. See Illustration in Appendix.

Re"di*ent (r?"d?-ent), a. [L. rediens, p. pr. of redire to return; pref. red- + ire to go.] Returning. [R.]

Re`di*gest" (r?`d?*j?st"), v. t. To digest, or reduce to form, a second time. Kent.

Re`di*min"ish (-m?n"?sh), v. t. To diminish again.

Red"in*gote (rd"n*gt), n. [F., corrupted from E. riding coat.] A long plain double-breasted outside coat for women.

Re*din"te*grate (r?*d?n"t?*gr?t), a. [L. redintegratus, p. p. of redintegrare to restore; pref. red-, re-, re- + integrare to make whole, to renew, fr. integer whole. See Integer.] Restored to wholeness or a perfect state; renewed. Bacon.

Re*din"te*grate (-gr?t), v. t. To make whole again; a renew; to restore to integrity or soundness.

The English nation seems obliterated. What could redintegrate us again?


Re*din`te*gra"tion (-gr?"sh?n), n. [L. redintegratio.] 1. Restoration to a whole or sound state; renewal; renovation. Dr. H. More.

2. (Chem.) Restoration of a mixed body or matter to its former nature and state. [Achaic.] Coxe.

3. (Psychology) The law that objects which have been previously combined as part of a single mental state tend to recall or suggest one another; -- adopted by many philosophers to explain the phenomena of the association of ideas.

Re`di*rect" (r?`d?*r?kt"), a. (Law) Applied to the examination of a witness, by the party calling him, after the cross-examination.

Re`dis*burse" (r?`d?s*b?rs"), v. t. To disburse anew; to give, or pay, back. Spenser.

Re`dis*cov"er (-k?v"?r), v. t. To discover again.

Re`dis*pose" (-p?z"), v. t. To dispose anew or again; to readjust; to rearrange. A. Baxter.

Re`dis*seize" (-s?z"), v. t. (Law) To disseize anew, or a second time. [Written also redisseise.]

Re`dis*sei"zin (-s?"z?n), n. (Law) A disseizin by one who once before was adjudged to have dassezed the same person of the same lands, etc.; also, a writ which lay in such a case. Blackstone.

Re`dis*sei"zor (-z?r), n. (Law) One who redisseizes.

Re`dis*solve" (r?`d?z*z?lv"), v. t. To dissolve again.

Re`dis*till" (r?`d?s*t?l"), v. t. To distill again.

Re`dis*train"er (-tr?n"?r), n. One who distrains again.

Re`dis*trib"ute (-tr?b"?t), v. t. To distribute again.

-- Re*dis`tri*bu"tion (-tr&?;*b&?;"sh&?;n), n.

Re*dis"trict (-tr?kt), v. t. To divide into new districts.

Re*di"tion (r?*d?sh"?n), n. [L. reditio, fr. redire. See Redient.] Act of returning; return. [Obs.] Chapman.

Re`di*vide" (r?`d?*v?d"), v. t. To divide anew.

{ Red"leg` (r?d"l?g`), Red`legs` (-l?gz`), } n. (Zoöl.) (a) The redshank. (b) The turnstone.

Red"-let`ter (-l?t`t?r), a. Of or pertaining to a red letter; marked by red letters.

Red-letter day, a day that is fortunate or auspicious; -- so called in allusion to the custom of marking holy days, or saints' days, in the old calendars with red letters.

Red"ly, adv. In a red manner; with redness.

Red"mouth` (-mouth`), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus Diabasis, or Hæmulon, of the Southern United States, having the inside of the mouth bright red. Called also flannelmouth, and grunt.

Red"ness, n. [AS. reádness. See Red.] The quality or state of being red; red color.

{ Red"o*lence (r?d"?*lens), Red"o*len*cy (-len*s?), } n. The quality of being redolent; sweetness of scent; pleasant odor; fragrance.

Red"o*lent (-lent), a. [L. redolens, -entis, p. pr. of redolere to emit a scent, diffuse an odor; pref. red-, re-, re- + olere to emit a smell. See Odor.] Diffusing odor or fragrance; spreading sweet scent; scented; odorous; smelling; -- usually followed by of. "Honey redolent of spring." Dryden. -- Red"o*lent*ly, adv.

Gales . . . redolent of joy and youth.


Re*dou"ble (r?*d?b"'l), v. t. [Pref. re- + double: cf. F. redoubler. Cf. Reduplicate.] To double again or repeatedly; to increase by continued or repeated additions; to augment greatly; to multiply.

So they
Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe.


Re*dou"ble, v. i. To become greatly or repeatedly increased; to be multiplied; to be greatly augmented; as, the noise redoubles.

Re*doubt" (r?*dout"), n. [F. redoute, fem., It. ridotto, LL. reductus, literally, a retreat, from L. reductus drawn back, retired, p. p. of reducere to lead or draw back; cf. F. réduit, also fr. LL. reductus. See Reduce, and cf. Reduct, Réduit, Ridotto.] (Fort.) (a) A small, and usually a roughly constructed, fort or outwork of varying shape, commonly erected for a temporary purpose, and without flanking defenses, -- used esp. in fortifying tops of hills and passes, and positions in hostile territory. (b) In permanent works, an outwork placed within another outwork. See F and i in Illust. of Ravelin. [Written also redout.]

Re*doubt", v. t. [F. redouter, formerly also spelt redoubter; fr. L. pref. re- re- + dubitare to doubt, in LL., to fear. See Doubt.] To stand in dread of; to regard with fear; to dread. [R.]

Re*doubt"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [F. redoutable, formerly also spelt redoubtable.] Formidable; dread; terrible to foes; as, a redoubtable hero; hence, valiant; -- often in contempt or burlesque. [Written also redoutable.]

Re*doubt"ed, a. Formidable; dread. "Some redoubted knight." Spenser.

Lord regent, and redoubted Burgandy.


Re*doubt"ing, n. Reverence; honor. [Obs.]

In redoutyng of Mars and of his glory.


Re*dound" (r?*dound"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Redounded; p. pr. & vb. n. Redounding.] [F. redonder, L. redundare; pref. red-, re-, re- + undare to rise in waves or surges, fr. unda a wave. See Undulate, and cf. Redundant.] 1. To roll back, as a wave or flood; to be sent or driven back; to flow back, as a consequence or effect; to conduce; to contribute; to result.

The evil, soon
Driven back, redounded as a flood on those
From whom it sprung.


The honor done to our religion ultimately redounds to God, the author of it.


both . . . will devour great quantities of paper, there will no small use redound from them to that manufacture.


2. To be in excess; to remain over and above; to be redundant; to overflow.

For every dram of honey therein found,
A pound of gall doth over it redound.


Re*dound", n. 1. The coming back, as of consequence or effect; result; return; requital.

We give you welcome; not without redound
Of use and glory to yourselves ye come.


2. Rebound; reverberation. [R.] Codrington.

Red"ow*a (r?d"?*?), n. [F., fr. Bohemian.] A Bohemian dance of two kinds, one in triple time, like a waltz, the other in two-four time, like a polka. The former is most in use.

Red"pole` (r?d"p?l`), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Redpoll.

Red"poll` (-p?l`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) Any one of several species of small northern finches of the genus Acanthis (formerly Ægiothus), native of Europe and America. The adults have the crown red or rosy. The male of the most common species (A. linarius) has also the breast and rump rosy. Called also redpoll linnet. See Illust. under Linnet. (b) The common European linnet. (c) The American redpoll warbler (Dendroica palmarum).

Re*draft" (r*drft"), v. t. To draft or draw anew.

Re*draft", n. 1. A second draft or copy.

2. (Com.) A new bill of exchange which the holder of a protected bill draws on the drawer or indorsers, in order to recover the amount of the protested bill with costs and charges.

Re*draw" (r?*dr?"), v. t. [imp. Redrew (-dr?");p. p. Redrawn (-drn"); p. pr. & vb. n. Redrawing.] To draw again; to make a second draft or copy of; to redraft.

Re*draw", v. i. (Com.) To draw a new bill of exchange, as the holder of a protested bill, on the drawer or indorsers.

Re*dress" (r?*dr?s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + dress.] To dress again.

Re*dress" (r?*dr?s"), v. t. [F. redresser to straighten; pref. re- re- + dresser to raise, arrange. See Dress.]

1. To put in order again; to set right; to emend; to revise. [R.]

The common profit could she redress.


In yonder spring of roses intermixed
With myrtle, find what to redress till noon.


Your wish that I should redress a certain paper which you had prepared.

A. Hamilton.

2. To set right, as a wrong; to repair, as an injury; to make amends for; to remedy; to relieve from.

Those wrongs, those bitter injuries, . . .
I doubt not but with honor to redress.


3. To make amends or compensation to; to relieve of anything unjust or oppressive; to bestow relief upon. "'T is thine, O king! the afflicted to redress." Dryden.

Will Gaul or Muscovite redress ye?


Re*dress", n. 1. The act of redressing; a making right; reformation; correction; amendment. [R.]

Reformation of evil laws is commendable, but for us the more necessary is a speedy redress of ourselves.


2. A setting right, as of wrong, injury, or opression; as, the redress of grievances; hence, relief; remedy; reparation; indemnification. Shak.

A few may complain without reason; but there is occasion for redress when the cry is universal.


3. One who, or that which, gives relief; a redresser.

Fair majesty, the refuge and redress
Of those whom fate pursues and wants oppress.


Re*dress"al (r?*dr?s"al), n. Redress.

Re*dress"er (-?r), n. One who redresses.

Re*dress"i*ble (-?*b'l), a. Such as may be redressed.

Re*dress"ive (-?v), a. Tending to redress. Thomson.

Re*dress"less, a. Not having redress; such as can not be redressed; irremediable. Sherwood.

Re*dress"ment (-ment), n. [Cf. F. redressement.] The act of redressing; redress. Jefferson.

Red"-rib`and (r?d"r?b`and), n. (Zoöl.) The European red band fish, or fireflame. See Rend fish.

Red"root` (r?d"r?t`), n. (Bot.) A name of several plants having red roots, as the New Jersey tea (see under Tea), the gromwell, the bloodroot, and the Lachnanthes tinctoria, an endogenous plant found in sandy swamps from Rhode Island to Florida.

Red`sear" (r?d`s?r"), v. i. To be brittle when red-hot; to be red-short. Moxon.

Red"shank` (r?d"sh?nk`), n. 1. (Zoöl.) (a) A common Old World limicoline bird (Totanus calidris), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank (T. fuscus) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also redshanks, redleg, and clee. (b) The fieldfare.

2. A bare-legged person; -- a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs. Spenser.

Red"-short` (-sh?rt`), a. (Metal.) Hot-short; brittle when red-hot; -- said of certain kinds of iron. -- Red"-short`ness, n.

Red"skin` (-sk?n`), n. A common appellation for a North American Indian; -- so called from the color of the skin. Cooper.

Red"start` (-st?rt`), n. [Red + start tail.] (Zoöl.) (a) A small, handsome European singing bird (Ruticilla phœnicurus), allied to the nightingale; -- called also redtail, brantail, fireflirt, firetail. The black redstart is P.tithys. The name is also applied to several other species of Ruticilla amnd allied genera, native of India. (b) An American fly-catching warbler (Setophaga ruticilla). The male is black, with large patches of orange-red on the sides, wings, and tail. The female is olive, with yellow patches.

Red"streak` (-str?k`), n. 1. A kind of apple having the skin streaked with red and yellow, -- a favorite English cider apple. Mortimer.

2. Cider pressed from redstreak apples.

Red"tail` (-t?l`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The red-tailed hawk. (b) The European redstart.

Red"-tailed` (-t?ld`), a. Having a red tail.

Red-tailed hawk (Zoöl.), a large North American hawk (Buteo borealis). When adult its tail is chestnut red. Called also hen hawck, and red-tailed buzzard.

Red"-tape` (-t?p`), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, official formality. See Red tape, under Red, a.

Red`-tap"ism (r?d`t?p"?z'm), n. Strict adherence to official formalities. J. C. Shairp.

Red`-tap"ist, n. One who is tenacious of a strict adherence to official formalities. Ld. Lytton.

Red"throat` (r?d"thr?t`), n. (Zoöl.) A small Australian singing bird (Phyrrholæmus brunneus). The upper parts are brown, the center of the throat red.

Red"top` (-t?p`), n. (Bot.) A kind of grass (Agrostis vulgaris) highly valued in the United States for pasturage and hay for cattle; -- called also English grass, and in some localities herd's grass. See Illustration in Appendix. The tall redtop is Triodia seslerioides.

Re*dub" (r?*d?b"), v. t. [F. radouber to refit or repair.] To refit; to repair, or make reparation for; hence, to repay or requite. [Obs.]

It shall be good that you redub that negligence.


God shall give power to redub it with some like requital to the French.


Re*duce" (r*ds"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reduced (-dst"),; p. pr. & vb. n. Reducing (- d"sng).] [L. reducere, reductum; pref. red-. re-, re- + ducere to lead. See Duke, and cf. Redoubt, n.] 1. To bring or lead back to any former place or condition. [Obs.]

And to his brother's house reduced his wife.


The sheep must of necessity be scattered, unless the great Shephered of souls oppose, or some of his delegates reduce and direct us.


2. To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to reduce a sergeant to the ranks; to reduce a drawing; to reduce expenses; to reduce the intensity of heat. "An ancient but reduced family." Sir W. Scott.

Nothing so excellent but a man may fasten upon something belonging to it, to reduce it.


Having reduced
Their foe to misery beneath their fears.


Hester Prynne was shocked at the condition to which she found the clergyman reduced.


3. To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to reduce a province or a fort.

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4. To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding, pounding, kneading, rubbing, etc.; as, to reduce a substance to powder, or to a pasty mass; to reduce fruit, wood, or paper rags, to pulp.

It were but right
And equal to reduce me to my dust.


5. To bring into a certain order, arrangement, classification, etc.; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to reduce animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to reduce a series of observations in astronomy; to reduce language to rules.

6. (Arith.) (a) To change, as numbers, from one denomination into another without altering their value, or from one denomination into others of the same value; as, to reduce pounds, shillings, and pence to pence, or to reduce pence to pounds; to reduce days and hours to minutes, or minutes to days and hours. (b) To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to reduce fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.

7. (Chem.) To bring to the metallic state by separating from impurities; hence, in general, to remove oxygen from; to deoxidize; to combine with, or to subject to the action of, hydrogen; as, ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron; or metals are reduced from their ores; -- opposed to oxidize.

8. (Med.) To restore to its proper place or condition, as a displaced organ or part; as, to reduce a dislocation, a fracture, or a hernia.

Reduced iron (Chem.), metallic iron obtained through deoxidation of an oxide of iron by exposure to a current of hydrogen or other reducing agent. When hydrogen is used the product is called also iron by hydrogen. -- To reduce an equation (Alg.), to bring the unknown quantity by itself on one side, and all the known quantities on the other side, without destroying the equation. -- To reduce an expression (Alg.), to obtain an equivalent expression of simpler form. -- To reduce a square (Mil.), to reform the line or column from the square.

Syn. -- To diminish; lessen; decrease; abate; shorten; curtail; impair; lower; subject; subdue; subjugate; conquer.

Re*duce"ment (r?*d?s"ment), n. Reduction. Milton.

Re*du"cent (r?*d?"sent), a. [L. reducens, p. pr. of reducere.] Tending to reduce. -- n. A reducent agent.

Re*du"cer (-s?r), n. One who, or that which, reduces.

Re*du"ci*ble (-s?*b'll), a. Capable of being reduced.

Re*du"ci*ble*ness, n. Quality of being reducible.

Re*du"cing (r?*d?"s?ng), a & n. from Reduce.

Reducing furnace (Metal.), a furnace for reducing ores. -- Reducing pipe fitting, a pipe fitting, as a coupling, an elbow, a tee, etc., for connecting a large pipe with a smaller one. -- Reducing valve, a device for automatically maintaining a diminished pressure of steam, air, gas, etc., in a pipe, or other receiver, which is fed from a boiler or pipe in which the pressure is higher than is desired in the receiver.

Re*duct" (r?*d?kt"), v. t.. [L. reductus, p. p. of reducere. See Reduce.] To reduce. [Obs.] W. Warde.

Re*duc`ti*bil"i*ty (r?*d?k`t?*b?l"?*t?), n. The quality of being reducible; reducibleness.

Re*duc"tion (r?*d?k"sh?n), n. [F. réduction, L. reductio. See Reduce.] 1. The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.

2. (Arith. & Alq.) The act or process of reducing. See Reduce, v. t., 6. and To reduce an equation, To reduce an expression, under Reduce, v. t.

3. (Astron.) (a) The correction of observations for known errors of instruments, etc. (b) The preparation of the facts and measurements of observations in order to deduce a general result.

4. The process of making a copy of something, as a figure, design, or draught, on a smaller scale, preserving the proper proportions. Fairholt.

5. (Logic) The bringing of a syllogism in one of the so-called imperfect modes into a mode in the first figure.

6. (Chem. & Metal.) The act, process, or result of reducing; as, the reduction of iron from its ores; the reduction of aldehyde from alcohol.

7. (Med.) The operation of restoring a dislocated or fractured part to its former place.

Reduction ascending (Arith.), the operation of changing numbers of a lower into others of a higher denomination, as cents to dollars. -- Reduction descending (Arith.), the operation of changing numbers of a higher into others of a lower denomination, as dollars to cents.

Syn. -- Diminution; decrease; abatement; curtailment; subjugation; conquest; subjection.

Re*duc"tive (-t?v), a. [Cf. F. réductif.] Tending to reduce; having the power or effect of reducing. -- n. A reductive agent. Sir M. Hale.

Re*duc"tive*ly, adv. By reduction; by consequence.

||Ré`duit" (r?`dw?"), n. [F. See Redoubt, n. ] (Fort.) A central or retired work within any other work.

{ Re*dun"dance (r?*d?n"dans), Re*dun"dan*cy (-dan*s?), } n. [L. redundantia: cf. F. redondance.]

1. The quality or state of being redundant; superfluity; superabundance; excess.

2. That which is redundant or in excess; anything superfluous or superabundant.

Labor . . . throws off redundacies.


3. (Law) Surplusage inserted in a pleading which may be rejected by the court without impairing the validity of what remains.

Re*dun"dant (-dant), a. [L. redundans, -antis, p. pr. of redundare: cf. F. redondant. See Redound.] 1. Exceeding what is natural or necessary; superabundant; exuberant; as, a redundant quantity of bile or food.

Notwithstanding the redundant oil in fishes, they do not increase fat so much as flesh.


2. Using more worrds or images than are necessary or useful; pleonastic.

Where an suthor is redundant, mark those paragraphs to be retrenched.

I. Watts.

Syn. -- Superfluous; superabundant; excessive; exuberant; overflowing; plentiful; copious.

Re*dun"dant*ly (r?*d?n"dant*l?), adv. In a refundant manner.

Re*du"pli*cate (r?*d?"pl?*k?t), a. [Pref. re- + duplicate: cf. L. reduplicatus. Cf. Redouble.] 1. Double; doubled; reduplicative; repeated.

2. (Bot.) Valvate with the margins curved outwardly; -- said of the &?;stivation of certain flowers.

Re*du"pli*cate (-k?t), v. t. [Cf. LL. reduplicare.]

1. To redouble; to multiply; to repeat.

2. (Gram.) To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word). See Reduplication, 3.

Re*du`pli*ca"tion (-k?sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réduplication, L. reduplicatio repetition.] 1. The act of doubling, or the state of being doubled.

2. (Pros.) A figure in which the first word of a verse is the same as the last word of the preceding verse.

3. (Philol.) The doubling of a stem or syllable (more or less modified), with the effect of changing the time expressed, intensifying the meaning, or making the word more imitative; also, the syllable thus added; as, L. tetuli; poposci.

Re*du"pli*ca*tive (-k?*t?v), a. [Cf. F. réduplicatif.] Double; formed by reduplication; reduplicate. I. Watts.

Red"u*vid (r?d"?*v?d), n. [L. reduvia a hangnail.] (Zoöl.) Any hemipterous insect of the genus Redivius, or family Reduvidæ. They live by sucking the blood of other insects, and some species also attack man.

Red"weed` (rd"wd`), n. (Bot.) The red poppy (Papaver Rhœas). Dr. Prior.

Red"wing` (-w?ng`), n. (Zoöl.) A European thrush (Turdus iliacus). Its under wing coverts are orange red. Called also redwinged thrush. (b) A North American passerine bird (Agelarius phœniceus) of the family Icteridæ. The male is black, with a conspicuous patch of bright red, bordered with orange, on each wing. Called also redwinged blackbird, red-winged troupial, marsh blackbird, and swamp blackbird.

Red"withe` (r?d"w?th`), n. (Bot.) A west Indian climbing shrub (Combretum Jacquini) with slender reddish branchlets.

Red"wood` (-wd`), n. (Bot.) (a) A gigantic coniferous tree (Sequoia sempervirens) of California, and its light and durable reddish timber. See Sequoia. (b) An East Indian dyewood, obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus, Cæsalpinia Sappan, and several other trees.

The redwood of Andaman is Pterocarpus dalbergioides; that of some parts of tropical America, several species of Erythoxylum; that of Brazil, the species of Humirium.

Ree (r), n. [Pg. real, pl. reis. See Real the money.] See Rei.

Ree, v. t. [Cf. Prov. G. räden, raden, raiten. Cf. Riddle a sieve.] To riddle; to sift; to separate or throw off. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Mortimer.

Ree"bok` (r?"b?k`), n. [D., literally, roebuck.] (Zoöl.) The peele. [Written also rehboc and rheeboc.]

Re*ëch"o (r*k"), v. t. To echo back; to reverberate again; as, the hills reëcho the roar of cannon.

Re*ëch"o, v. i. To give echoes; to return back, or be reverberated, as an echo; to resound; to be resonant.

And a loud groan reëchoes from the main.


Re*ëch"o, n. The echo of an echo; a repeated or second echo.

Reech"y (rch"), a. [See Reeky.] Smoky; reeky; hence, begrimed with dirt. [Obs.]

Reed (rd), a. Red. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Reed, v. & n. Same as Rede. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Reed, n. The fourth stomach of a ruminant; rennet. [Prov. Eng. or Scot.]

Reed, n. [AS. hreód; akin to D. riet, G. riet, ried, OHG. kriot, riot.] 1. (Bot.) A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis).

2. A musical instrument made of the hollow joint of some plant; a rustic or pastoral pipe.

Arcadian pipe, the pastoral reed
Of Hermes.


3. An arrow, as made of a reed. Prior.

4. Straw prepared for thatching a roof. [Prov. Eng.]

5. (Mus.) (a) A small piece of cane or wood attached to the mouthpiece of certain instruments, and set in vibration by the breath. In the clarinet it is a single fiat reed; in the oboe and bassoon it is double, forming a compressed tube. (b) One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ.

6. (Weaving) A frame having parallel flat stripe of metal or reed, between which the warp threads pass, set in the swinging lathe or batten of a loom for beating up the weft; a sley. See Batten.

7. (Mining) A tube containing the train of powder for igniting the charge in blasting.

8. (Arch.) Same as Reeding.

Egyptian reed (Bot.), the papyrus. -- Free reed (Mus.), a reed whose edges do not overlap the wind passage, -- used in the harmonium, concertina, etc. It is distinguished from the beating or striking reed of the organ and clarinet. -- Meadow reed grass (Bot.), the Glyceria aquatica, a tall grass found in wet places. -- Reed babbler. See Reedbird. -- Reed bunting (Zoöl.) A European sparrow (Emberiza schœniclus) which frequents marshy places; -- called also reed sparrow, ring bunting. (b) Reedling. -- Reed canary grass (Bot.), a tall wild grass (Phalaris arundinacea). -- Reed grass. (Bot.) (a) The common reed. See Reed, 1. (b) A plant of the genus Sparganium; bur reed. See under Bur. -- Reed organ (Mus.), an organ in which the wind acts on a set of free reeds, as the harmonium, melodeon, concertina, etc. -- Reed pipe (Mus.), a pipe of an organ furnished with a reed. -- Reed sparrow. (Zoöl.) See Reed bunting, above. -- Reed stop (Mus.), a set of pipes in an organ furnished with reeds. -- Reed warbler. (Zoöl.) (a) A small European warbler (Acrocephalus streperus); -- called also reed wren. (b) Any one of several species of Indian and Australian warblers of the genera Acrocephalus, Calamoherpe, and Arundinax. They are excellent singers. -- Sea-sand reed (Bot.), a kind of coarse grass (Ammophila arundinacea). See Beach grass, under Beach. -- Wood reed grass (Bot.), a tall, elegant grass (Cinna arundinacea), common in moist woods.

Reed"bird` (r?d"b?rd`), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The bobolink. (b) One of several small Asiatic singing birds of the genera Schœnicola and Eurycercus; -- called also reed babbler. Reed"buck" (-b?k`), n. (Zoöl.) See Rietboc.

Reed"ed, a. 1. Civered with reeds; reedy. Tusser.

2. Formed with channels and ridges like reeds.

Reed"en (r?d"'n), a. Consisting of a reed or reeds.

Through reeden pipes convey the golden flood.


Re*ëd`i*fi*ca"tion (r?*?d`?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réédification. See Reëdify.] The act reëdifying; the state of being reëdified.

Re*ëd"i*fy (r?*?d"?*ff?), v. t. [Pref. re- + edify: cf. F. réédifier, L. reaedificare.] To edify anew; to build again after destruction. [R.] Milton.

Reed"ing (r?d"?ng), n. [From 4th Reed.] 1. (Arch.) A small convex molding; a reed (see Illust. (i) of Molding); one of several set close together to decorate a surface; also, decoration by means of reedings; -- the reverse of fluting.

Several reedings are often placed together, parallel to each other, either projecting from, or inserted into, the adjining surface. The decoration so produced is then called, in general, reeding.

2. The nurling on the edge of a coin; -- commonly called milling.

Reed"less, a. Destitute of reeds; as, reedless banks.

Reed"ling (-l?ng), n. (Zoöl.) The European bearded titmouse (Panurus biarmicus); -- called also reed bunting, bearded pinnock, and lesser butcher bird.

It is orange brown, marked with black, white, and yellow on the wings. The male has a tuft of black feathers on each side of the face.

Reed"-mace` (-m?s`), n. (Bot.) The cat-tail.

Reed"work` (-w?rk`), n. (Mus.) A collective name for the reed stops of an organ.

Reed"y (-?), a. 1. Abounding with reeds; covered with reeds. "A reedy pool." Thomson .

2. Having the quality of reed in tone, that is, &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; and thin^ as some voices.

Reef (r?f), n. [Akin to D. rif, G. riff, Icel. rif, Dan. rev; cf. Icel. rifa rift, rent, fissure, rifa to rive, bear. Cf. Rift, Rive.] 1. A chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water. See Coral reefs, under Coral.

2. (Mining.) A large vein of auriferous quartz; -- so called in Australia. Hence, any body of rock yielding valuable ore.

Reef builder (Zoöl.), any stony coral which contributes material to the formation of coral reefs. -- Reef heron (Zoöl.), any heron of the genus Demigretta; as, the blue reef heron (D. jugularis) of Australia.

Reef, n. [Akin to D. reef, G. reff, Sw. ref; cf. Icel. rif reef, rifa to basten together. Cf. Reeve, v. t., River.] (Naut.) That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind.

From the head to the first reef-band, in square sails, is termed the first reef; from this to the next is the second reef; and so on. In fore-and-aft sails, which reef on the foot, the first reef is the lowest part. Totten.

Close reef, the last reef that can be put in. -- Reef band. See Reef-band in the Vocabulary. -- Reef knot, the knot which is used in tying reef pointss. See Illust. under Knot. -- Reef line, a small rope formerly used to reef the courses by being passed spirally round the yard and through the holes of the reef. Totten. -- Reef points, pieces of small rope passing through the eyelet holes of a reef-band, and used reefing the sail. -- Reef tackle, a tackle by which the reef cringles, or rings, of a sail are hauled up to the yard for reefing. Totten. -- To take a reef in, to reduce the size of (a sail) by folding or rolling up a reef, and lashing it to the spar.

Reef, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reefed (rft); p. pr. & vb. n. Reefing.] (Naut.) To reduce the extent of (as a sail) by roiling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar. Totten.

To reef the paddles, to move the floats of a paddle wheel toward its center so that they will not dip so deeply.

<! p. 1206 !>

Reef"-band` (r?f"b?nd`), n. (Naut.) A piece of canvas sewed across a sail to strengthen it in the part where the eyelet holes for reefing are made. Totten.

Reef"er (-?r), n. 1. (Naut.) One who reefs; -- a name often given to midshipmen. Marryat.

2. A close-fitting lacket or short coat of thick cloth.

Reef"ing, n. (Naut.) The process of taking in a reef.

Reefing bowsprit, a bowsprit so rigged that it can easily be run in or shortened by sliding inboard, as in cutters.

Reef"y (-?), a. Full of reefs or rocks.

Reek (rk), n. A rick. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Reek, n. [AS. rc; akin to OFries. rk, LG. & D. rook, G. rauch, OHG. rouh, Dan. rög, Sw. rök, Icel. reykr, and to AS. reócan to reek, smoke, Icel. rjka, G. riechen to smell.] Vapor; steam; smoke; fume.

As hateful to me as the reek of a limekiln.


Reek, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reeked (rkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeking.] [As. rcan. See Reek vapor.] To emit vapor, usually that which is warm and moist; to be full of fumes; to steam; to smoke; to exhale.

Few chimneys reeking you shall espy.


I found me laid
In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun
Soon dried, and on the reeking moisture fed.


The coffee rooms reeked with tobacco.


Reek"y (-?), a. [From 2d Reek; cf. Reechy.] 1. Soiled with smoke or steam; smoky; foul. Shak.

2. Emitting reek. "Reeky fen." Sir W. Scott.

Reel (r?l), n. [Gael. righil.] A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the music to the dance; -- often called Scotch reel.

Virginia reel, the common name throughout the United States for the old English "country dance," or contradance (contredanse). Bartlett.

Reel, n. [AS. kre&?;l: cf. Icel. kr&?;ll a weaver's reed or sley.] 1. A frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on an axis, on which yarn, threads, lines, or the like, are wound; as, a log reel, used by seamen; an angler's reel; a garden reel.

2. A machine on which yarn is wound and measured into lays and hanks, -- for cotton or linen it is fifty-four inches in circuit; for worsted, thirty inches. McElrath.

3. (Agric.) A device consisting of radial arms with horizontal stats, connected with a harvesting machine, for holding the stalks of grain in position to be cut by the knives.

Reel oven, a baker's oven in which bread pans hang suspended from the arms of a kind of reel revolving on a horizontal axis. Knight.

Reel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reeled (r?ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeling. ] 1. To roll. [Obs.]

And Sisyphus an huge round stone did reel.


2. To wind upon a reel, as yarn or thread.

Reel, v. i. [Cf. Sw. ragla. See 2d Reel.] 1. To incline, in walking, from one side to the other; to stagger.

They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man.

Ps. cvii. 27.

He, with heavy fumes oppressed,
Reeled from the palace, and retired to rest.


The wagons reeling under the yellow sheaves.


2. To have a whirling sensation; to be giddy.

In these lengthened vigils his brain often reeled.


Reel, n. The act or motion of reeling or staggering; as, a drunken reel. Shak.

Re`ë*lect" (r?`?*l?kt"), v. t. To elect again; as, to reëlect the former governor.

Re`ë*lec"tion (-l?k"sh?n), n. Election a second time, or anew; as, the reëlection of a former chief.

Reel"er (r?l"?r), n. 1. One who reels.

2. (Zoöl.) The grasshopper warbler; -- so called from its note. [Prov. Eng.]

Re*ël"i*gi*ble (r*l"*j*b'l), a. Eligible again; capable of reëlection; as, reëligible to the same office. -- Re*ël`i*gi*bil"i*ty (r*l`*j*bl"*t), n.

Reem (r?m), n. [Heb.] (Zoöl.) The Hebrew name of a horned wild animal, probably the Urus.

In King James's Version it is called unicorn; in the Revised Version, wild ox. Job xxxix. 9.

Reem, v. t. [Cf. Ream to make a hole in.] (Naut.) To open (the seams of a vessel's planking) for the purpose of calking them.

Reeming iron (Naut.), an iron chisel for reeming the seams of planks in calking ships.

Re`ëm*bark" (r?`?m*b?rk"), v. t. & i. To put, or go, on board a vessel again; to embark again.

Re*ëm`bar*ka"tion (r?*?m`b?r*k?"sh?n), n. A putting, or going, on board a vessel again.

Re`ëm*bod"y (r?`?m*b?d"?), v. t. To embody again.

Re`ëm*brace" (-br?s"), v. i. To embrace again.

Re`ë*merge" (r?`?*m?rj"), v. i. To emerge again.

Re`ë*mer"gence (-m?r"jens), n. Act of reëmerging.

Re`ën*act" (r?`?n*?kt"), v. t. To enact again.

Re`ën*ac"tion (-?k"sh?n), n. The act of reënacting; the state of being reënacted.

Re`ën*act"ment (-?kt"ment), n. The enacting or passing of a law a second time; the renewal of a law.

Re`ën*cour"age (-k?r"?j;), v. t. To encourage again.

Re`ën*dow" (-dou"), v. t. To endow again.

Re`ën*force" (-f?rs"), v. t. [Pref. re- + enforce: cf. F. renforcer.] To strengthen with new force, assistance, material, or support; as, to reënforce an argument; to reënforce a garment; especially, to strengthen with additional troops, as an army or a fort, or with additional ships, as a fleet. [Written also reinforce.]

Re`ën*force", n. [See Reënforce, v., and cf. Ranforce, Reinforce.] Something which reënforces or strengthens. Specifically: (a) That part of a cannon near the breech which is thicker than the rest of the piece, so as better to resist the force of the exploding powder. See Illust. of Cannon. (b) An additional thickness of canvas, cloth, or the like, around an eyelet, buttonhole, etc.

Re`ën*force"ment (r?`?n*f?rs"ment), n. 1. The act of reënforcing, or the state of being reënforced.

2. That which reënforces; additional force; especially, additional troops or force to augment the strength of any army, or ships to strengthen a navy or fleet.

Re`ën*gage" (-g?j), v. t. & i. To engage a second time or again.

Re`ën*gage"ment (-ment), n. A renewed or repeated engagement.

Re`ën*grave" (-gr?v"), v. t. To engrave anew.

Re`ën*joy" (-joi"), v. i. To enjoy anew. Pope.

Re`ën*joy"ment (-ment), n. Renewed enjoyment.

Re`ën*kin"dle (-k?n"d'l), v. t. To enkindle again.

Re`ën*list" (-l?st"), v. t. & i. To enlist again.

Re`ën*list"ment (-ment), n. A renewed enlistment.

Re`ën*slave" (-sl?v"), v. t. To enslave again.

Re*ën"ter (r?*?n"t?r), v. t. 1. To enter again.

2. (Engraving) To cut deeper, as engraved lines on a plate of metal, when the engraving has not been deep enough, or the plate has become worn in printing.

Re*ën"ter, v. i. To enter anew or again.

Reëntering angle, an angle of a polygon pointing inward, as a, in the cut. -- Reëntering polygon, a polygon having one or more reëntering angles.

Re*ën"ter*ing, n. (Calico Printing.) The process of applying additional colors, by applications of printing blocks, to patterns already partly colored.

Re`ën*throne" (-thr?n"), v. t. To enthrone again; to replace on a throne.

Re`ën*throne"ment (-ment), n. A second enthroning.

Re*ën"trance (r?*?n"trans), n. The act entereing again; re&?;ntry. Hooker.

Re*ën"trant (-trant), a. Reëntering; pointing or directed inwardds; as, a re&?;ntrant angle.

Re*ën"try (-tr?), n. 1. A second or new entry; as, a reëntry into public life.

2. (Law) A resuming or retaking possession of what one has lately foregone; -- applied especially to land; the entry by a lessor upon the premises leased, on failure of the tenant to pay rent or perform the covenants in the lease. Burrill.

Card of reëtry, (Whist), a card that by winning a trick will bring one the lead at an advanced period of the hand.

Re`ë*rect" (r?`?*r?kt"), v. t. To erect again.

Reer"mouse` (r?r"mous`), n. (Zoöl.) See Rearmouse.

Re`ës*tab"lish (r?`?s*t?b"l?sh), v. t. To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to reëstablish a covenant; to reëstablish health.

Re`ës*tab"lish*er (-?r), n. One who establishes again.

Re`ës*tab"lish*ment (-mnt), n. The act reëstablishing; the state of being reëstablished. Addison.

Re`ës*tate" (-t?t), v. t. To reëstablish. [Obs.] Walis.

Reeve (r?v), n. (Zoöl.) The female of the ruff.

Reeve, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rove (r?v); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeving.] [Cf. D. reven. See Reef, n. & v. t.] (Naut.) To pass, as the end of a pope, through any hole in a block, thimble, cleat, ringbolt, cringle, or the like.

Reeve, n. [OE. reve, AS. ger&?;fa. Cf. Sheriff.] an officer, steward, bailiff, or governor; -- used chiefly in compounds; as, shirereeve, now written sheriff; portreeve, etc. Chaucer. Piers Plowman.

Re`ëx*am"i*na*ble (r?`?gz*?m"?*n?*b'l), a. Admitting of being reëxamined or reconsidered. Story.

Re`ëx*am`i*na"tion (-?*n?"sh?n), n. A repeated examination. See under Examination.

Re`ëx*am"ine (--?n), v. t. To examine anew. Hooker.

Re`ëx*change" (r?`?ks*ch?nj"), v. t. To exchange anew; to reverse (a previous exchange).

Re`ëx*change" n. 1. A renewed exchange; a reversal of an exchange.

2. (Com.) The expense chargeable on a bill of exchange or draft which has been dishonored in a foreign country, and returned to the country in which it was made or indorsed, and then taken up. Bouvier.

The rate of reëxchange is regulated with respect to the drawer, at the course of exchange between the place where the bill of exchange was payable, and the place where it was drawn. Reëxchange can not be cumulated.


Re`ëx*hib"it (r?`?gz*?b"?t or -?ks*h?b"?t), v. t. To exhibit again.

Re`ëx*pel" (r?`?ks*p?l"), v. t. To expel again.

Re`ëx*pe"ri*ence (-p?`r?-ens), n. A renewed or repeated experience.

Re`ëx*port" (-p?rt"), v. t. To export again, as what has been imported.

Re*ëx"port (r?*?ks"p?rt), n. Any commodity reëxported; -- chiefly in the plural.

Re*ëx`por*ta"tion (-p?r*t?"sh?n), n. The act of reëxporting, or of exporting an import. A. Smith.

Re`ëx*pul"sion (r?`?ks*p?l"sh?n), n. Renewed or repeated expulsion. Fuller.

Reezed (rzd), a. Grown rank; rancid; rusty. [Obs.] "Reezed bacon." Marston.

Re*fac"tion (r?*f?k"sh?n), n. [See Refection.] Recompense; atonement; retribution. [Obs.] Howell.

Re*far" (r?*f?r"), v. t. [Cf. F. refaire to do over again.] To go over again; to repeat. [Obs.]

To him therefore this wonder done refar.


Re*fash"ion (r?*f?sh"?n), v. t. To fashion anew; to form or mold into shape a second time. MacKnight.

Re*fash"ion*ment (-ment), n. The act of refashioning, or the state of being refashioned. [R.] Leigh Hunt.

Re*fas"ten (r?*f?s"'n), v. t. To fasten again.

Re*fect" (r?*f?kt), v. t. [L. refectus, p. p. of reficere; pref. re- re- + facere to make.] To restore after hunger or fatigue; to refresh. [Archaic] Sir T. Browne.

Re*fec"tion (r?*f?k"sh?n), n. [L. refectio: cf. F. réfection. See Refect, Fact.] Refreshment after hunger or fatigue; a repast; a lunch.

[His] feeble spirit inly felt refection.


Those Attic nights, and those refections of the gods.


Re*fec"tive (r?*f?k"t?v), a. Refreshing; restoring.

Re*fec"tive, n. That which refreshes.

Re*fec"to*ry (-t*r), n.; pl.; Refectories (-r&?;z). [LL. refectorium: cf. F. réfectoire. See Refection.] A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.

Sometimes pronounced rf"k*t*r, especially when signifying the eating room in monasteries.

Re*fel" (r?*f?l"), v. t. [L. refellere; pref. re- re- + fallere to deceive.] To refute; to disprove; as, to refel the tricks of a sophister. [Obs.]

How he refelled me, and how I replied.


Re*fer" (r*fr"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Referred (-frd); p. pr. & vb. n. Referring.] [F. référer, L. referre; pref. re- re- + ferre to bear. See Bear to carry.] 1. To carry or send back. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Hence: To send or direct away; to send or direct elsewhere, as for treatment, aid, information, decision, etc.; to make over, or pass over, to another; as, to refer a student to an author; to refer a beggar to an officer; to refer a bill to a committee; a court refers a matter of fact to a commissioner for investigation, or refers a question of law to a superior tribunal.

3. To place in or under by a mental or rational process; to assign to, as a class, a cause, source, a motive, reason, or ground of explanation; as, he referred the phenomena to electrical disturbances.

To refer one's self, to have recourse; to betake one's self; to make application; to appeal. [Obs.]

I'll refer me to all things sense.


Re*fer", v. i. 1. To have recourse; to apply; to appeal; to betake one's self; as, to refer to a dictionary.

In suits . . . it is to refer to some friend of trust.


2. To have relation or reference; to relate; to point; as, the figure refers to a footnote.

Of those places that refer to the shutting and opening the abyss, I take notice of that in Job.

Bp. Burnet.

3. To carry the mind or thought; to direct attention; as, the preacher referred to the late election.

4. To direct inquiry for information or a guarantee of any kind, as in respect to one's integrity, capacity, pecuniary ability, and the like; as, I referred to his employer for the truth of his story.

Syn. -- To allude; advert; suggest; appeal. Refer, Allude, Advert. We refer to a thing by specifically and distinctly introducing it into our discourse. We allude to it by introducing it indirectly or indefinitely, as by something collaterally allied to it. We advert to it by turning off somewhat abruptly to consider it more at large. Thus, Macaulay refers to the early condition of England at the opening of his history; he alludes to these statements from time to time; and adverts, in the progress of his work, to various circumstances of peculiar interest, on which for a time he dwells. "But to do good is . . . that that Solomon chiefly refers to in the text." Sharp. "This, I doubt not, was that artificial structure here alluded to." T. Burnet.

Now to the universal whole advert:
The earth regard as of that whole a part.


Ref"er*a*ble (r?f"?r*?*b'l), a. Capable of being referred, or considered in relation to something else; assignable; ascribable. [Written also referrible.]

It is a question among philosophers, whether all the attractions which obtain between bodies are referable to one general cause.

W. Nicholson.

Ref`er*ee" (-&?;), n. One to whom a thing is referred; a person to whom a matter in dispute has been referred, in order that he may settle it.

Syn. -- Judge; arbitrator; umpire. See Judge.

Ref"er*ence (r?f"?r-ens), n. [See Refer.] 1. The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for guidance.

2. That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text- book.

3. Relation; regard; respect.

Something that hath a reference to my state.


4. One who, or that which, is referred to. Specifically; (a) One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another. (b) A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.

5. (Law) (a) The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision. (b) (Equity) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.

6. Appeal. [R.] "Make your full reference." Shak.

Reference Bible, a Bible in which brief explanations, and references to parallel passages, are printed in the margin of the text.

Ref`er*en"da*ry (r?f`?r*?n"d?*r?), n. [LL. referendarius, fr. L. referendus to be referred, gerundive of referre: cf. F. référendaire. See Refer.] 1. One to whose decision a cause is referred; a referee. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. An officer who delivered the royal answer to petitions. "Referendaries, or masters of request." Harmar.

3. Formerly, an officer of state charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees.

||Ref`er*en"dum (r?f`?r*?n"d?m), n. [Gerundive fr. L. referre. See Refer.] 1. A diplomatic agent's note asking for instructions from his government concerning a particular matter or point.

2. The right to approve or reject by popular vote a meassure passed upon by a legislature.

Ref`er*en"tial (-shal), a. Containing a reference; pointing to something out of itself; as, notes for referential use. -- Ref`er*en"tial*ly, adv.

Re*fer"ment (r?*f?r"ment), n. The act of referring; reference. Laud.

<! p. 1207 !>

Re`-fer*ment" (r&?;`f&?;r*m&?;nt"), v. t. & i. To ferment, or cause to ferment, again. Blackmore.

Re*fer"rer (r?*f?r"r?r), n. One who refers.

Re*fer"ri*ble (-r?*b'l), a. Referable. Hallam.

Re*fig"ure (r?*f?g"?r), v. t. To figure again. Shak.

Re*fill" (r?*f?l"), v. t. & i. To fill, or become full, again.

Re*find" (r?*f?nd), v. t. To find again; to get or experience again. Sandys.

Re*fine" (r?*f?n"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refined (-find"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refining.] [Pref. re- + fine to make fine: cf. F. raffiner.] 1. To reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; to free from impurities; to free from dross or alloy; to separate from extraneous matter; to purify; to defecate; as, to refine gold or silver; to refine iron; to refine wine or sugar.

I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined.

Zech. xiii. 9.

2. To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to refine the manners, the language, the style, the taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings.

Love refines
The thoughts, and heart enlarges.


Syn. -- To purify; clarify; polish; ennoble.

Re*fine", v. i. 1. To become pure; to be cleared of feculent matter.

So the pure, limpid stream, when foul with stains,
Works itself clear, and, as it runs, refines.


2. To improve in accuracy, delicacy, or excellence.

Chaucer refined on Boccace, and mended his stories.


But let a lord once own the happy lines,
How the wit brightens! How the style refines!


3. To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or language. "He makes another paragraph about our refining in controversy." Atterbury.

Re*fined" (-f?nd"), a. Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; refined gold; refined language; refined sentiments.

Refined wits who honored poesy with their pens.


-- Re*fin"ed*ly (r&?;*f&?;n"&?;d*l&?;), adv. -- Re*fin"ed*ness, n.

Re*fine"ment (r?*f?n"ment), n. [Cf. F. raffinement.] 1. The act of refining, or the state of being refined; as, the refinement or metals; refinement of ideas.

The more bodies are of kin to spirit in subtilty and refinement, the more diffusive are they.


From the civil war to this time, I doubt whether the corruptions in our language have not equaled its refinements.


2. That which is refined, elaborated, or polished to excess; an affected subtilty; as, refinements of logic. "The refinements of irregular cunning." Rogers.

Syn. -- Purification; polish; politeness; gentility; elegance; cultivation; civilization.

Re*fin"er (-f?n"?r), n. One who, or that which, refines.

Re*fin"er*y (-?), n.; pl. Refineries (-&?;z). [Cf. F. raffinerie.] 1. The building and apparatus for refining or purifying, esp. metals and sugar.

2. A furnace in which cast iron is refined by the action of a blast on the molten metal.

Re*fit" (r?*f?t"), v. t. 1. To fit or prepare for use again; to repair; to restore after damage or decay; as, to refit a garment; to refit ships of war. Macaulay.

2. To fit out or supply a second time.

Re*fit", v. i. To obtain repairs or supplies; as, the fleet returned to refit.

Re*fit"ment (-ment), n. The act of refitting, or the state of being refitted.

Re*fix" (r?*f?ks"), v. t. To fix again or anew; to establish anew. Fuller.

Re*flame" (r?*fl?m"), v. i. To kindle again into flame.

Re*flect" (r?*fl?kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reflected; p. pr. & vb. n. Reflecting.] [L. reflectere, reflexum; pref. re- re- + flectere to bend or turn. See Flexible, and cf. Reflex, v.] 1. To bend back; to give a backwa&?;d turn to; to throw back; especially, to cause to return after striking upon any surface; as, a mirror reflects rays of light; polished metals reflect heat.

Let me mind the reader to reflect his eye on our quotations.


Bodies close together reflect their own color.


2. To give back an image or likeness of; to mirror.

Nature is the glass reflecting God,
As by the sea reflected is the sun.


Re*flect" v. i. 1. To throw back light, heat, or the like; to return rays or beams.

2. To be sent back; to rebound as from a surface; to revert; to return.

Whose virtues will, I hope,
Reflect on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth.


3. To throw or turn back the thoughts upon anything; to contemplate. Specifically: To attend earnestly to what passes within the mind; to attend to the facts or phenomena of consciousness; to use attention or earnest thought; to meditate; especially, to think in relation to moral truth or rules.

We can not be said to reflect upon any external object, except so far as that object has been previously perceived, and its image become part and parcel of our intellectual furniture.

Sir W. Hamilton.

All men are concious of the operations of their own minds, at all times, while they are awake, but there few who reflect upon them, or make them objects of thought.


As I much reflected, much I mourned.


4. To cast reproach; to cause censure or dishonor.

Errors of wives reflect on husbands still.


Neither do I reflect in the least upon the memory of his late majesty.


Syn. -- To consider; think; cogitate; mediate; contemplate; ponder; muse; ruminate.

Re*flect"ed, a. 1. Thrown back after striking a surface; as, reflected light, heat, sound, etc.

2. Hence: Not one's own; received from another; as, his glory was reflected glory.

3. Bent backward or outward; reflexed.

Re*flect"ent (r?*fl?kt"ent), a. [L. reflectens, p. pr. of reflectere. See Reflect.] 1. Bending or flying back; reflected. "The ray descendent, and the ray reflectent flying with so great a speed." Sir K. Digby.

2. Reflecting; as, a reflectent body. Sir K. Digby.

Re*flect"i*ble (-?*b'l), a. Capable of being reflected, or thrown back; reflexible.

Re*flect"ing, a. 1. Throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror or other surface.

2. Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a reflecting mind.

Reflecting circle, an astronomical instrument for measuring angless, like the sextant or Hadley's quadrant, by the reflection of light from two plane mirrors which it carries, and differing from the sextant chiefly in having an entire circle. -- Reflecting galvanometer, a galvanometer in which the deflections of the needle are read by means of a mirror attached to it, which reflects a ray of light or the image of a scale; -- called also mirror galvanometer. -- Reflecting goniometer. See under Goniometer. -- Reflecting telescope. See under Telescope.

Re*flect"ing*ly, adv. With reflection; also, with censure; reproachfully. Swift.

Re*flec"tion (r?*fl?k"sh?n), n. [L. reflexio: cf. F. réflexion. See Riflect.] [Written also reflexion.] 1. The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the state of being reflected. Specifically: (a) The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a surface. See Angle of reflection, below.

The eye sees not itself,
But by reflection, by some other things.


(b) The reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it; continued consideration; meditation; contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or states; the capacity for judging rationally, especially in view of a moral rule or standard.

By reflection, . . . I would be understood to mean, that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding.


This delight grows and improves under thought and reflection.


2. Shining; brightness, as of the sun. [Obs.] Shak.

3. That which is produced by reflection. Specifically: (a) An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.

As the sun water we can bear,
Yet not the sun, but his reflection, there.


(b) A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the reflection of a membrane. (c) Result of meditation; thought or opinion after attentive consideration or contemplation; especially, thoughts suggested by truth.

Job's reflections on his once flourishing estate did at the same time afflict and encourage him.


4. Censure; reproach cast.

He died; and oh! may no reflection shed
Its poisonous venom on the royal dead.


5. (Physiol.) The transference of an excitement from one nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in reflex action. See Reflex action, under Reflex.

Angle of reflection, the angle which anything, as a ray of light, on leaving a reflecting surface, makes with the perpendicular to the surface. -- Angle of total reflection. (Opt.) Same as Critical angle, under Critical.

Syn. -- Meditation; contemplation; rumination; cogitation; consideration; musing; thinking.

Re*flect"ive (r?*fl?kt"?v), a. [Cf. F. réflectif. Cf. Reflexive.] 1. Throwing back images; as, a reflective mirror.

In the reflective stream the sighing bride, viewing her charms.


2. Capable of exercising thought or judgment; as, reflective reason. Prior.

His perceptive and reflective faculties . . . thus acquired a precocious and extraordinary development.


3. Addicted to introspective or meditative habits; as, a reflective person.

4. (Gram.) Reflexive; reciprocal.

-- Re*flect"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*flect"ive*ness, n. "Reflectiveness of manner." J. C. Shairp.

Re*flect"or (-r), n. [Cf. F. réflecteur.] 1. One who, or that which, reflects. Boyle.

2. (Physics) (a) Something having a polished surface for reflecting light or heat, as a mirror, a speculum, etc. (b) A reflecting telescope. (c) A device for reflecting sound.

Re"flex (r?"fl?ks), a. [L. reflexus, p. p. of reflectere: cf. F. réflexe. See Reflect.] 1. Directed back; attended by reflection; retroactive; introspective.

The reflex act of the soul, or the turning of the intellectual eye inward upon its own actions.

Sir M. Hale.

2. Produced in reaction, in resistance, or in return.

3. (Physiol.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness.

Reflex action (Physiol.), any action performed involuntarily in consequence of an impulse or impression transmitted along afferent nerves to a nerve center, from which it is reflected to an efferent nerve, and so calls into action certain muscles, organs, or cells. -- Reflex nerve (Physiol.), an excito-motory nerve. See Exito- motory.

Re"flex (r?"fl?ks; formerly r?*fl?ks"), n. [L. reflexus a bending back. See Reflect.] 1. Reflection; the light reflected from an illuminated surface to one in shade.

Yon gray is not the morning's eye,
'Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow.


On the depths of death there swims
The reflex of a human face.


2. (Physiol.) An involuntary movement produced by reflex action.

Patellar reflex. See Knee jerk, under Knee.

Re*flex" (r?*fl?ks"), v. t. [L. reflexus, p. p. of reflectere. See Reflect.] 1. To reflect. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To bend back; to turn back. J. Gregory.

Re*flexed" (r?*fl?kst"), a. Bent backward or outward.

Re*flex`i*bil"i*ty (r?*fl?ks`?*b?l"?*t?), n. [Cf. F. réflexibilité.] The quality or capability of being reflexible; as, the reflexibility of the rays of light. Sir I. Newton.

Re*flex"i*ble (r?*fl?ks"?*b'l), a. [CF. F. réflexible.] Capable of being reflected, or thrown back.

The light of the sun consists of rays differently refrangible and reflexible.


Re*flex"ion (-fl?k"sh?n), n. See Reflection. Chaucer.

Re*flex"i*ty (r?*fl?ks"?*t?), n. The state or condition of being reflected. [R.]

Re*flex"ive (-?v), a. 1. [Cf. F. réflexif.] Bending or turned backward; reflective; having respect to something past.

Assurance reflexive can not be a divine faith.


2. Implying censure. [Obs.] "What man does not resent an ugly reflexive word?" South.

3. (Gram.) Having for its direct object a pronoun which refers to the agent or subject as its antecedent; -- said of certain verbs; as, the witness perjured himself; I bethought myself. Applied also to pronouns of this class; reciprocal; reflective.

-- Re*flex"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*flex"ive*ness, n.

Re*flex"ly, adv. In a reflex manner; reflectively.

Re"float (r?"fl?t), n. Reflux; ebb. [Obs.] Bacon.

Re`flo*res"cence (r?`fl?*r?s"sens), n. (Bot.) A blossoming anew of a plant after it has apparently ceased blossoming for the season.

Re*flour"ish (r?*fl?r"?sh), v. t. & i. To flourish again.

Re*flow" (r?*fl?"), v. i. To flow back; to ebb.

Re*flow"er (r*flou"r), v. i. & t. To flower, or cause to flower, again. Sylvester.

Re*fluc`tu*a"tion (r?*fl?k`t?*?"sh?n; 135), n. A flowing back; refluence.

{ Ref"lu*ence (r?f"l?-ens), Ref"lu*en*cy (-en*s?), } n. The quality of being refluent; a flowing back.

Ref"lu*ent (-ent), a. [L. refluens, p. pr. of refluere to flow back; pref. re- re- + fluere to flow. See Flurent.] Flowing back; returning; ebbing. Cowper.

And refluent through the pass of fear
The battle's tide was poured.

Sir W. Scott.

Ref"lu*eus (-?s), a. [L. refluus.] Refluent. [Obs.]

Re"flux` (r?"fl?ks`), a. Returning, or flowing back; reflex; as, reflux action.

Re"flux`, n. [F. reflux. See Refluent, Flux.] A flowing back, as the return of a fluid; ebb; reaction; as, the flux and reflux of the tides.

All from me
Shall with a fierce reflux on me redound.


Re*foc"il*late (r?*f?s"?l*l?t), v. t. [L. refocillatus, p. p. of refocillare; pref. re- re- + focillare to revive by warmth.] To refresh; to revive. [Obs.] Aubrey.

Re*foc`il*la"tion (-l?"sh?n), n. Restoration of strength by refreshment. [Obs.] Middleton.

Re*fold" (r?*f?ld"), v. t. To fold again.

Re`fo*ment" (r?`f?*m?nt"), v. t. To foment anew.

Re*for`est*i*za`tion (r?*f?r`?st*?*z?"sh?n), n. The act or process of reforestizing.

Re*for"est*ize (r?*f?r"?st*?z), v. t. To convert again into a forest; to plant again with trees.

Re*forge" (r?*f?rj"), v. t. [Pref. re- + forge: cf. F. reforger.] To forge again or anew; hence, to fashion or fabricate anew; to make over. Udall.

Re*for"ger (r?*f?r"j?r), n. One who reforges.

Re*form" (r?*f?rm"), v. t. [F. réformer, L. reformare; pref. re- re- + formare to form, from forma form. See Form.] To put into a new and improved form or condition; to restore to a former good state, or bring from bad to good; to change from worse to better; to amend; to correct; as, to reform a profligate man; to reform corrupt manners or morals.

The example alone of a vicious prince will corrupt an age; but that of a good one will not reform it.


Syn. -- To amend; correct; emend; rectify; mend; repair; better; improve; restore; reclaim.

Re*form", v. i. To return to a good state; to amend or correct one's own character or habits; as, a man of settled habits of vice will seldom reform.

Re*form", n. [F. réforme.] Amendment of what is defective, vicious, corrupt, or depraved; reformation; as, reform of elections; reform of government.

Civil service reform. See under Civil. -- Reform acts (Eng. Politics), acts of Parliament passed in 1832, 1867, 1884, 1885, extending and equalizing popular representation in Parliament. -- Reform school, a school established by a state or city government, for the confinement, instruction, and reformation of juvenile offenders, and of young persons of idle, vicious, and vagrant habits. [U. S.]

Syn. -- Reformation; amendment; rectification; correction. See Reformation.

Re-form" (r?*f?rm"), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Re-formed (-f?rmd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Re-forming.] To give a new form to; to form anew; to take form again, or to take a new form; as, to re- form the line after a charge.

Re*form"a*ble (r?*f?rm"?*b'l), a. Capable of being reformed. Foxe.

Ref`or*made" (r?f`?r*m?d"), n. A reformado. [Obs.]

Ref`or*ma"do (-m?"d?), n. [Sp., fr. reformar, L. reformare. SEe Reform, v. t.] 1. A monk of a reformed order. [Obs.] Weever.

2. An officer who, in disgrace, is deprived of his command, but retains his rank, and sometimes his pay. [Obs.]

Re*form"al*ize (r?*f?rm"al*?z), v. i. To affect reformation; to pretend to correctness. [R.]

Ref`or*ma"tion (r?f`?r*m?"sh?n), n. [F. réformation, L. reformatio.] 1. The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the reformation of manners; reformation of the age; reformation of abuses.

Satire lashes vice into reformation.


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2. Specifically (Eccl. Hist.), the important religious movement commenced by Luther early in the sixteenth century, which resulted in the formation of the various Protestant churches.

Syn. -- Reform; amendment; correction; rectification. -- Reformation, Reform. Reformation is a more thorough and comprehensive change than reform. It is applied to subjects that are more important, and results in changes which are more lasting. A reformation involves, and is followed by, many particular reforms. "The pagan converts mention this great reformation of those who had been the greatest sinners, with that sudden and surprising change which the Christian religion made in the lives of the most profligate." Addison. "A variety of schemes, founded in visionary and impracticable ideas of reform, were suddenly produced." Pitt.

Re`-for*ma"tion (r?`f?r*m?"sh?n), n. The act of forming anew; a second forming in order; as, the reformation of a column of troops into a hollow square.

Re*form"a*tive (r?*f?rm"?*t?v), a. Forming again; having the quality of renewing form; reformatory. Good.

Re*form"a*to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Tending to produce reformation; reformative.

Re*form"a*to*ry, n.; pl. -ries (-r&?;z). An institution for promoting the reformation of offenders.

Magistrates may send juvenile offenders to reformatories instead of to prisons.

Eng. Cyc.

Re*formed" (r?*f?rmd"), a. 1. Corrected; amended; restored to purity or excellence; said, specifically, of the whole body of Protestant churches originating in the Reformation. Also, in a more restricted sense, of those who separated from Luther on the doctrine of consubstantiation, etc., and carried the Reformation, as they claimed, to a higher point. The Protestant churches founded by them in Switzerland, France, Holland, and part of Germany, were called the Reformed churches.

The town was one of the strongholds of the Reformed faith.


2. Amended in character and life; as, a reformed gambler or drunkard.

3. (Mil.) Retained in service on half or full pay after the disbandment of the company or troop; -- said of an officer. [Eng.]

Re*form"er (r?*f?rm"?r), n. 1. One who effects a reformation or amendment; one who labors for, or urges, reform; as, a reformer of manners, or of abuses.

2. (Eccl.Hist.) One of those who commenced the reformation of religion in the sixteenth century, as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin.

Re*form"ist, n. [Cf. F. réformiste.] A reformer.

Re*form"ly, adv. In the manner of a reform; for the purpose of reform. [Obs.] Milton.

Re*for`ti*fi*ca"tion (r?*f?r`t?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. A fortifying anew, or a second time. Mitford.

Re*for"ti*fy (r?*f?r"t?*f?), v. t. To fortify anew.

Re*fos"sion (r?*f?sh"?n), n. [L. refodere, refossum, to dig up again. See Fosse.] The act of digging up again. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Re*found" (r?*found"), v. t. [Pref. re- + found to cast; cf. F. refondare. Cf. Refund.] 1. To found or cast anew. "Ancient bells refounded." T. Warton.

2. To found or establish again; to re&?;stablish.

Re*found", imp. & p. p. of Refind, v. t.

Re*found"er (-?r), n. One who refounds.

Re*fract" (r?*fr$kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refracted; p. pr. & vb. n. Refracting.] [L. refractus, p. p. of refringere; pref. re- re- + frangere to break: cf. F. réfracter. SEe FRacture, and cf. Refrain, n.] 1. To bend sharply and abruptly back; to break off.

2. To break the natural course of, as rays of light orr heat, when passing from one transparent medium to another of different density; to cause to deviate from a direct course by an action distinct from reflection; as, a dense medium refrcts the rays of light as they pass into it from a rare medium.

Re*fract"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. Capable of being refracted.

Re*fract"ed, a. 1. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Bent backward angularly, as if half- broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.

2. Turned from a direct course by refraction; as, refracted rays of light.

Re*fract"ing, a. Serving or tending to refract; as, a refracting medium.

Refracting angle of a prism (Opt.), the angle of a triangular prism included between the two sides through which the refracted beam passes in the decomposition of light. -- Refracting telescope. (Opt.) See under Telescope.

Re*frac"tion (r?*fr?k"sh?n), n. [F. réfraction.] 1. The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.

2. The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved.

Refraction out of the rarer medium into the denser, is made towards the perpendicular.

Sir I. Newton.

3. (Astron.) (a) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction. (b) The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.

Angle of refraction (Opt.), the angle which a refracted ray makes with the perpendicular to the surface separating the two media traversed by the ray. -- Conical refraction (Opt.), the refraction of a ray of light into an infinite number of rays, forming a hollow cone. This occurs when a ray of light is passed through crystals of some substances, under certain circumstances. Conical refraction is of two kinds; external conical refraction, in which the ray issues from the crystal in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is at the point of emergence; and internal conical refraction, in which the ray is changed into the form of a cone on entering the crystal, from which it issues in the form of a hollow cylinder. This singular phenomenon was first discovered by Sir W. R. Hamilton by mathematical reasoning alone, unaided by experiment. -- Differential refraction (Astron.), the change of the apparent place of one object relative to a second object near it, due to refraction; also, the correction required to be made to the observed relative places of the two bodies. -- Double refraction (Opt.), the refraction of light in two directions, which produces two distinct images. The power of double refraction is possessed by all crystals except those of the isometric system. A uniaxial crystal is said to be optically positive (like quartz), or optically negative (like calcite), or to have positive, or negative, double refraction, according as the optic axis is the axis of least or greatest elasticity for light; a biaxial crystal is similarly designated when the same relation holds for the acute bisectrix. -- Index of refraction. See under Index. -- Refraction circle (Opt.), an instrument provided with a graduated circle for the measurement of refraction. -- Refraction of latitude, longitude, declination, right ascension, etc., the change in the apparent latitude, longitude, etc., of a heavenly body, due to the effect of atmospheric refraction. -- Terrestrial refraction, the change in the apparent altitude of a distant point on or near the earth's surface, as the top of a mountain, arising from the passage of light from it to the eye through atmospheric strata of varying density.

Re*fract"ive (r?*fr?kt"?v), a. [Cf. F. réfractif. See Refract.] Serving or having power to refract, or turn from a direct course; pertaining to refraction; as, refractive surfaces; refractive powers.

Refractive index. (Opt.) See Index of refraction, under Index. -- Absolute refractive index (Opt.), the index of refraction of a substances when the ray passes into it from a vacuum. -- Relative refractive index (of two media) (Opt.), the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction for a ray passing out of one of the media into the other.

Re*fract"ive*ness, n. The quality or condition of being refractive.

Re`frac*tom"e*ter (r?`fr?k*t?m"?*t?r), n. [Refraction + -meter.] (Opt.) A contrivance for exhibiting and measuring the refraction of light.

Re*fract"or (r&?;-fr&?;kt"&?;r), n. Anything that refracts; specifically: (Opt.) A refracting telescope, in which the image to be viewed is formed by the refraction of light in passing through a convex lens.

Re*frac"to*ri*ly (r?*fr?k"t?*r?*l?), adv. In a refractory manner; perversely; obstinately.

Re*frac"to*ri*ness, n. The quality or condition of being refractory.

Re*frac"to*ry (-r?), a. [L. refractorius, fr. refringere: cf. F. refractaire. See Refract.] 1. Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a refractory child; a refractory beast.

Raging appetites that are
Most disobedient and refractory.


2. Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.

Syn. -- Perverse; contumacious; unruly; stubborn; obstinate; unyielding; ungovernable; unmanageable.

Re*frac"to*ry, n. 1. A refractory person. Bp. Hall.

2. Refractoriness. [Obs.] Jer. TAylor.

3. OPottery) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles. Knight.

Re*frac"ture (r?*fr?k"t?r;135), n. (Surg.) A second breaking (as of a badly set bone) by the surgeon.

Re*frac"ture, v. t. (Surg.) To break again, as a bone.

Ref"ra*ga*ble (r?f"r?*g?*b'l), a. [LL. refragabilis, fr. L. refragari to oppose.] Capable of being refuted; refutable. [R.] -- Ref"ra*ga*ble*ness, n. [R.] -- Ref`ra*ga*bil"i*ty (-b&?;l`&?;*t&?;), n. [R.]

Ref"ra*gate (-g?t), v. i. [L. refragatus, p. p. of refragor.] To oppose. [R.] Glanvill.

Re*frain" (r?*fr?n"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refrained (-fr?nd"); p. pr. & vb/ n. Refraining.] [OE. refreinen, OF. refrener, F. refr&?;ner, fr. L. refrenare; influenced by OF. refraindre to restrain, moderate, fr. LL. refrangere, for L. refringere to break up, break (see Refract). L. refrenare is fr. pref. re- back + frenum bridle; cf. Skr. dh&?; to hold.] 1. To hold back; to restrain; to keep within prescribed bounds; to curb; to govern.

His reson refraineth not his foul delight or talent.


Refrain thy foot from their path.

Prov. i. 15.

2. To abstain from [Obs.]

Who, requiring a remedy for his gout, received no other counsel than to refrain cold drink.

Sir T. Browne.

Re*frain", v. i. To keep one's self from action or interference; to hold aloof; to forbear; to abstain.

Refrain from these men, and let them alone.

Acts v. 38.

They refrained therefrom [eating flesh] some time after.

Sir T. Browne.

Syn. -- To hold back; forbear; abstain; withhold.

Re*frain", n. [F. refrain, fr. OF. refraindre; cf. Pr. refranhs a refrain, refranher to repeat. See Refract,Refrain, v.] The burden of a song; a phrase or verse which recurs at the end of each of the separate stanzas or divisions of a poetic composition.

We hear the wild refrain.


Re*frain"er (r?*fr?n"?r), n. One who refrains.

Re*frain"ment (-ment), n. Act of refraining. [R.]

Re*frame" (r?*fr?m), v. t. To frame again or anew.

Re*fran`gi*bil"i*ty (r?*fr?n`j?*b?l"?*t?), n. [Cf. F. réfrangibilité.] The quality of being refrangible.

Re*fran"gi*ble (-fr?n"j?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. réfrangible. See Refract.] Capable of being refracted, or turned out of a direct course, in passing from one medium to another, as rays of light. -- Re*fran"gi*ble*ness, n.

Ref`re*na"tion (r?f`r?*n?"sh?n), n. [L. refrenatio. See Refrain, v. t.] The act of refraining. [Obs.]

Re*fresh" (r?*fr?sh"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refreshed (-fr?sht"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refreshing.] [OE. refreshen, refreschen, OF. refreschir (cf. OF. rafraischir, rafreschir, F. rafra&?;chir); pref. re- re- + fres fresh. F. frais. See Fresh, a.] 1. To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep refreshes the body and the mind. Chaucer.

Foer they have refreshed my spirit and yours.

1 Cor. xvi. 18.

And labor shall refresh itself with hope.


2. To make as if new; to repair; to restore.

The rest refresh the scaly snakes that fol&?;
The shield of Pallas, and renew their gold.


To refresh the memory, to quicken or strengthen it, as by a reference, review, memorandum, or suggestion.

Syn. -- To cool; refrigerate; invigorate; revive; reanimate; renovate; renew; restore; recreate; enliven; cheer.

Re*fresh", n. The act of refreshing. [Obs.] Daniel.

Re*fresh"er (-?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, refreshes.

2. (Law) An extra fee paid to counsel in a case that has been adjourned from one term to another, or that is unusually protracted.

Ten guineas a day is the highest refresher which a counsel can charge.

London Truth.

Re*fresh"ful (-f?l), a. Full of power to refresh; refreshing. -- Re*fresh"ful*ly, adv.

Re*fresh"ing, a. Reviving; reanimating. -- Re*fresh"ing*ly, adv. -- Re*fresh"ing*ness, n.

Re*fresh"ment (-ment), n. [CF. OF. refreschissement, F. rafraîchissement.] 1. The act of refreshing, or the state of being refreshed; restoration of strength, spirit, vigor, or liveliness; relief after suffering; new life or animation after depression.

2. That which refreshes; means of restoration or reanimation; especially, an article of food or drink.

Re*fret" (r?*fr?t"), n. [OF. refret, L. refractus, p. p. See Refrain, n., Refract.] Refrain. [Obs.] Bailey.

Re*freyd" (r?*fr?d"), v. t. [OF. refreidier.] To chill; to cool. [Obs.]

Refreyded by sickness . . . or by cold drinks.


Ref`ri*ca"tion (r?f`r?*k?"sh?n), n. [L. refricare to rub again.] A rubbing up afresh; a brightening. [Obs.]

A continual refrication of the memory.

Bp. Hall.

Re*frig"er*ant (r?*fr?j"?r-ant), a. [L. refrigerans, p. pr. of refrigerare: cf. F. réfrigérant. See Refrigerate.] Cooling; allaying heat or fever. Bacon.

Re*frig"er*ant, n. That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; -- used also figuratively. Holland. "A refrigerant to passion." Blair.

Re*frig"er*ate (-t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refrigerated (- `td); p. pr. & vb. n. Refrigerating.] [L. refrigeratus, p. p. of refrigerare; pref. re- re- + frigerare to make cool, fr. frigus, frigoris, coolness. See Frigid.] To cause to become cool; to make or keep cold or cool.

Re*frig`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réfrigération, L. refrigeratio.] The act or process of refrigerating or cooling, or the state of being cooled.

Re*frig"er*a*tive (r?*fr?j"?r*?*t?v), a. [Cf. F. réfrigératif.] Cooling; allaying heat. -- n. A refrigerant.

Crazed brains should come under a refrigerative treatment.

I. Taylor.

Re*frig"er*a`tor (-?`t?r), n. That which refrigerates or makes cold; that which keeps cool. Specifically: (a) A box or room for keeping food or other articles cool, usually by means of ice. (b) An apparatus for rapidly cooling heated liquids or vapors, connected with a still, etc.

Refrigerator car (Railroad), a freight car constructed as a refrigerator, for the transportation of fresh meats, fish, etc., in a temperature kept cool by ice.

Re*frig"er*a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. [L. refrigeratorius.] Mitigating heat; cooling.

Re*frig"er*a*to*ry, n.; pl. -ries (-fr&?;z). [CF. F. réfrigératoire.] That which refrigerates or cools. Specifically: (a) In distillation, a vessel filled with cold water, surrounding the worm, the vapor in which is thereby condensed. (b) The chamber, or tank, in which ice is formed, in an ice machine.

||Ref`ri*ge"ri*um (r?f`r?*j?"r?*?m), n. [L.] Cooling refreshment; refrigeration. [Obs.] South.

Re*frin"gen*cy (r?*fr?n"jen*s?), n. The power possessed by a substance to refract a ray; as, different substances have different refringencies. Nichol.

Re*frin"gent (-jent), a. [L. refringens, p. pr. of refringere. See Refract.] Pertaining to, or possessing, refringency; refractive; refracting; as, a refringent prism of spar. Nichol.

Reft (r?ft), imp. & p. p. of Reave. Bereft.

Reft of thy sons, amid thy foes forlorn.


Reft, n. A chink; a rift. See Rift. Rom. of R.

Ref"uge (r?f"?j), n. [F. réfuge, L. refugium, fr. refugere to flee back; pref. re- + figere. SEe Fugitive.]

1. Shelter or protection from danger or distress.

Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these
Find place or refuge.


We might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us.

Heb. vi. 18.

2. That which shelters or protects from danger, or from distress or calamity; a stronghold which protects by its strength, or a sanctuary which secures safety by its sacredness; a place inaccessible to an enemy.

The high hills are a refuger the wild goats.

Ps. civ. 18.

The Lord also will be a refuge for the oppressed.

Ps. ix. 9.

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3. An expedient to secure protection or defense; a device or contrivance.

Their latest refuge
Was to send him.


Light must be supplied, among gracefulrefuges, by terracing &?;&?;&?; story in danger of darkness.

Sir H. Wotton.

Cities of refuge (Jewish Antiq.), certain cities appointed as places of safe refuge for persons who had committed homicide without design. Of these there were three on each side of Jordan. Josh. xx. -- House of refuge, a charitable institution for giving shelter and protection to the homeless, destitute, or tempted.

Syn. -- Shelter; asylum; retreat; covert.

Ref"uge (r?f"?j), v. t. To shelter; to protect. [Obs.]

Ref`u*gee" (r?f`?*j?"), n. [F. réfugié, fr. se réfugier to take refuge. See Refuge, n.] 1. One who flees to a shelter, or place of safety.

2. Especially, one who, in times of persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety; as, the French refugees who left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.

{ Re*ful"gence (r?*f?l"jens), Re*ful"gen*cy (-jen*s?), } n. [L. refulgentia. See Refulgent.] The quality of being refulgent; brilliancy; splender; radiance.

Re*ful"gent (r?*f?l"jent), a. [L. refulgens, p. pr. of refulgere to flash back, to shine bright; pref. re- re- + fulgere to shine. See Fulgent.] Casting a bright light; radiant; brilliant; resplendent; shining; splendid; as, refulgent beams. -- Re*ful"gent*ly, adv.

So conspicuous and refulgent a truth.


Re*fund" (r?*f?nd"), v. t. [Pref. re- + fund.] To fund again or anew; to replace (a fund or loan) by a new fund; as, to refund a railroad loan.

Re*fund" (r?*f?nd"), v. t. [L. refundere; pref. re- re- + fundere to pour: cf. F. refondre, refonder. See Fuse to melt, and cf. Refound to cast again, 1st Refuse.] 1. To pour back. [R. & Obs.]

Were the humors of the eye tinctured with any color, they would refund that color upon the object.


2. To give back; to repay; to restore.

A governor, that had pillaged the people, was . . . sentenced to refund what he had wrongfully taken.


3. To supply again with funds; to reimburse. [Obs.]

Re*fund"er (-?r), n. One who refunds.

Re*fund"ment (-ment), n. The act of refunding; also, that which is refunded. [R.] Lamb.

Re*fur"bish (r?*f?r"b?sh), v. t. To furbish anew.

Re*fur"nish (-n?sh), v. t. To furnish again.

Re*fur"nish*ment (-ment), n. The act of refurnishing, or state of being refurnished.

The refurnishment was in a style richer than before.

L. Wallace.

Re*fus"a*ble (r?*f?z"?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. refusable. See Refuse.] Capable of being refused; admitting of refusal.

Re*fus"al (-al), n. 1. The act of refusing; denial of anything demanded, solicited, or offered for acceptance.

Do they not seek occasion of new quarrels,
On my refusal, to distress me more?


2. The right of taking in preference to others; the choice of taking or refusing; option; as, to give one the refusal of a farm; to have the refusal of an employment.

Re*fuse" (r?*f?z"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refused (-f?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refusing.] [F. refuser, either from (assumed) LL. refusare to refuse, v. freq. of L. refundere to pour back, give back, restore (see Refund to repay), or. fr. L. recusare to decline, refuse cf. Accuse, Ruse), influenced by L. refutare to drive back, repel, refute. Cf. Refute.] 1. To deny, as a request, demand, invitation, or command; to decline to do or grant.

That never yet refused your hest.


2. (Mil.) To throw back, or cause to keep back (as the center, a wing, or a flank), out of the regular aligment when troops ar&?; about to engage the enemy; as, to refuse the right wing while the left wing attacks.

3. To decline to accept; to reject; to deny the request or petition of; as, to refuse a suitor.

The cunning workman never doth refuse
The meanest tool that he may chance to use.


4. To disown. [Obs.] "Refuse thy name." Shak.

Re*fuse", v. i. To deny compliance; not to comply.

Too proud to ask, too humble to refuse.


If ye refuse . . . ye shall be devoured with the sword.

Isa. i. 20.

Re*fuse", n. Refusal. [Obs.] Fairfax.

Ref`use (r?f"?s;277), n. [F. refus refusal, also, that which is refused. See Refuse to deny.] That which is refused or rejected as useless; waste or worthless matter.

Syn. -- Dregs; sediment; scum; recrement; dross.

Ref"use, a. Refused; rejected; hence; left as unworthy of acceptance; of no value; worthless.

Everything that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly.

1. Sam. xv. 9.

Re*fus"er (r?*f?z"?r), n. One who refuses or rejects.

Re*fu"sion (r?*f?"zh?n), n. [Pref. re-+ fusion.]

1. New or repeated melting, as of metals.

2. Restoration. "This doctrine of the refusion of the soul." Bp. Warbuton.

Ref"ut (rf"t), n. [OF. refuite.] Refuge. "Thou haven of refut." [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*fut`a*bil"i*ty (r?*f?t`?*b?l"?*t?), n. The quality of being refutable.

Re*fut"a*ble (r?*f?t"?*b'l;277), a. [Cf. F. réfutable.] Admitting of being refuted or disproved; capable of being proved false or erroneous.

Re*fut"al (r?*f?t"al), n. Act of refuting; refutation.

Ref`u*ta"tion (r?f`?*t?"sh?n), n. [L. refutatio: cf. F. réfutation.] The act or process of refuting or disproving, or the state of being refuted; proof of falsehood or error; the overthrowing of an argument, opinion, testimony, doctrine, or theory, by argument or countervailing proof.

Same of his blunders seem rather to deserve a flogging than a refutation.


Re*fut"a*to*ry (r?*f?t"?*t?*r?), a. [L. refutatorius: cf. F. réfutatoire.] Tending tu refute; refuting.

Re*fute" (r?*F3t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refuted; p. pr. & vb. n. Refuting.] [F. réfuter, L. refuteare to repel, refute. Cf. Confute, Refuse to deny.] To disprove and overthrow by argument, evidence, or countervailing proof; to prove to be false or erroneous; to confute; as, to refute arguments; to refute testimony; to refute opinions or theories; to refute a disputant.

There were so many witnesses in these two miracles that it is impossible to refute such multitudes.


Syn. -- To confute; disprove. See Confute.

Re*fut"er (-f?t"?r), n. One who, or that which, refutes.

Re*gain" (r?*g?n"), v. t. [Pref. re- + gain: cf. F. regagner.] To gain anew; to get again; to recover, as what has escaped or been lost; to reach again.

Syn. -- To recover; reobtain; repossess; retrieve.

Re"gal (r?"gal), a. [L. regalis, fr. rex, regis, a king. See Royal, and cf. Rajah, Realm, Regalia.] Of or pertaining to a king; kingly; royal; as, regal authority, pomp, or sway. "The regal title." Shak.

He made a scorn of his regal oath.


Syn. -- Kingly; royal. See Kingly.

Re"gal, n. [F. régale, It. regale. CF. Rigoll.] (Mus.) A small portable organ, played with one hand, the bellows being worked with the other, -- used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

||Re*ga"le (r?*g?"l?), n. [LL. regale, pl. regalia, fr. L. regalis: cf. F. régale. See Regal.] A prerogative of royalty. [R.] Johnson.

Re*gale" (r?*g?l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regaled (-g?ld"); p. pr. & vb. n. Regaling.] [F. régaler, Sp. regalar to regale, to caress, to melt, perhaps fr. L. regalare to thaw (cff. Gelatin), or cf. Sp. gala graceful, pleasing address, choicest part of a thing (cf. Gala), or most likely from OF. galer to rejoice, gale pleasure.] To enerta&?;n in a regal or sumptuous manner; to enrtertain with something that delights; to gratify; to refresh; as, to regale the taste, the eye, or the ear.

Re*gale", v. i. To feast; t&?; fare sumtuously.

Re*gale", n. [F. régal. See Regale, v. t.] A sumptuous repast; a banquet. Johnson. Cowper.

Two baked custards were produced as additions to the regale.

E. E. Hale.

Re*gale"ment (-ment), n. The act of regaling; anything which regales; refreshment; entertainment.

Re*gal"er (-g?l"?r), n. One who regales.

Re*ga"li*a (r?*g?"l?*?), n. pl. [LL., from L. regalisregal. See Regal.] 1. That which belongs to royalty. Specifically: (a) The rights and prerogatives of a king. (b) Royal estates and revenues. (c) Ensings, symbols, or paraphernalia of royalty.

2. Hence, decorations or insignia of an office or order, as of Freemasons, Odd Fellows,etc.

3. Sumptuous food; delicacies. [Obs.] Cotton.

Regalia of a church, the privileges granted to it by kings; sometimes, its patrimony. Brande & C.

Re*ga"li*a, n. A kind of cigar of large size and superior quality; also, the size in which such cigars are classed.

Re*ga"li*an (-an), a. Pertaining to regalia; pertaining to the royal insignia or prerogatives. Hallam.

Re"gal*ism (r?"gal*?z'm), n. The doctrine of royal prerogative or supremacy. [R.] Cardinal Manning.

Re*gal"i*ty (r?*g?l"?*t?), n. [LL. regalitas, from L. regalis regal, royal. See Regal, and cf. Royality.]

1. Royalty; sovereignty; sovereign jurisdiction.

[Passion] robs reason of her due regalitie.


He came partly in by the sword, and had high courage in all points of regality.


2. An ensign or badge of royalty. [Obs.]

Re"gal*ly (r?"gal*l?), adv. In a regal or royal manner.

Re*gard" (r?*g?rd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regarded; p. pr. & vb. n. Regarding.] [F. regarder; pref. re- re + garder to guard, heed, keep. See Guard, and cf. Reward.] 1. To keep in view; to behold; to look at; to view; to gaze upon.

Your niece regards me with an eye of favor.


2. Hence, to look or front toward; to face. [Obs.]

It is peninsula which regardeth the mainland.


That exceedingly beatiful seat, on the ass&?;ent of a hill, flanked with wood and regarding the river.


3. To look closely at; to observe attentively; to pay attention to; to notice or remark particularly.

If much you note him,
You offened him; . . . feed, and regard him not.


4. To look upon, as in a certain relation; to hold as an popinion; to consider; as, to regard abstinence from wine as a duty; to regard another as a friend or enemy.

5. To consider and treat; to have a certain feeling toward; as, to regard one with favor or dislike.

His associates seem to have regarded him with kindness.


6. To pay respect to; to treat as something of peculiar value, sanctity, or the like; to care for; to esteem.

He that regardeth thae day, regardeth it into the LOrd.

Rom. xiv. 6.

Here's Beaufort, that regards nor God nor king.


7. To take into consideration; to take account of, as a fact or condition. "Nether regarding that she is my child, nor fearing me as if II were her father." Shak.

8. To have relation to, as bearing upon; to respect; to relate to; to touch; as, an argument does not regard the question; -- often used impersonally; as, I agree with you as regards this or that.

Syn. -- To consider; observe; remark; heed; mind; respect; esteem; estimate; value. See Attend.

Re*gard" (r?*g?rd"), v. i. To look attentively; to consider; to notice. [Obs.] Shak.

Re*gard", n. [F. regard See Regard, v. t.] 1. A look; aspect directed to another; view; gaze.

But her, with stern regard, he thus repelled.


2. Attention of the mind with a feeling of interest; observation; heed; notice.

Full many a lady
I have eyed with best regard.


3. That view of the mind which springs from perception of value, estimable qualities, or anything that excites admiration; respect; esteem; reverence; affection; as, to have a high regard for a person; -- often in the plural.

He has rendered himself worthy of their most favorable regards.

A. Smith.

Save the long-sought regards of woman, nothing is sweeter than those marks of childish preference.


4. State of being regarded, whether favorably or otherwise; estimation; repute; note; account.

A man of meanest regard amongst them, neither having wealth or power.


5. Consideration; thought; reflection; heed.

Sad pause and deep regard become the sage.


6. Matter for consideration; account; condition. [Obs.] "Reason full of good regard." Shak.

7. Respect; relation; reference.

Persuade them to pursue and persevere in virtue, with regard to themselves; in justice and goodness with regard to their neighbors; and piefy toward God.

I. Watts.

The phrase in regard of was formerly used as equivalent in meaning to on account of, but in modern usage is often improperly substituted for in respect to, or in regard to. G. P. Marsh.

Change was thought necessary in regard of the injury the church did receive by a number of things then in use.


In regard of its security, it had a great advantage over the bandboxes.


8. Object of sight; scene; view; aspect. [R.]

Throw out our eyes for brave Othello,
Even till we make the main and the aërial blue
An indistinct regard.


9. (O.Eng.Law) Supervision; inspection.

At regard of, in consideration of; in comparison with. [Obs.] "Bodily penance is but short and little at regard of the pains of hell." Chaucer. -- Court of regard, a forest court formerly held in England every third year for the lawing, or expeditation, of dogs, to prevent them from running after deer; -- called also survey of dogs. Blackstone.

Syn. -- Respect; consideration; notice; observance; heed; care; concern; estimation; esteem; attachment; reverence.

Re*gard"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. Worthy of regard or notice; to be regarded; observable. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Re*gard"ant (-ant), a. [F. regardant, fr. regarder. See Regard, v. t.] [Written also regardant.] 1. Looking behind; looking backward watchfully.

[He] turns thither his regardant eye.


2. (Her.) Looking behind or backward; as, a lion regardant.

3. (O.Eng.Law) Annexed to the land or manor; as, a villain regardant.

Re*gard"er (r?*g?rd"?r), n. 1. One who regards.

2. (Eng. Forest law) An officer appointed to supervise the forest. Cowell.

Re*gard"ful (-f?l), a. Heedful; attentive; observant. -- Re*gard"ful*ly, adv.

Let a man be very tender and regardful of every pious motion made by the Spirit of God to his heart.


Syn. -- Mindful; heedful; attentive; observant.

Re*gard"ing, prep. Concerning; respecting.

Re*gard"less, a. 1. Having no regard; heedless; careless; as, regardless of life, consequences, dignity.

Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat.


2. Not regarded; slighted. [R.] Spectator.

Syn. -- Heedless; negligent; careless; indifferent; unconcerned; inattentive; unobservant; neglectful.

-- Re*gard"less*ly, adv. -- Re*gard"less*ness, n.

Re*gath"er (r?*g?th"?r), v. t. To gather again.

Re*gat"ta (r?*g?t"t?), n.; pl. Regattas (-t&?;z). [It. regatta, regata.] Originally, a gondola race in Venice; now, a rowing or sailing race, or a series of such races.

Re"gel (r?"g?l), n. (Astron.) See Rigel.

Re"ge*late (r?"j?*l?t or r?j"?-), v. i. (Physics) To freeze together again; to undergo regelation, as ice.

Re`ge*la"tion (-l?"sh?n), n. [Pref. re- + L. gelatio a freezing.] (Physics) The act or process of freezing anew, or together,as two pieces of ice.

Two pieces of ice at (or even) 32&?; Fahrenheit, with moist surfaces, placed in contact, freeze together to a rigid mass. This is called regelation. Faraday.

Re"gence (r?"jens), n. Rule. [Obs.] Hudibras.

Re"gen*cy (r?*jen*s?), n.; pl. Regencies (-s&?;z). [CF. F. régence, LL. regentia. See Regent, a.] 1. The office of ruler; rule; authority; government.

2. Especially, the office, jurisdiction, or dominion of a regent or vicarious ruler, or of a body of regents; deputed or vicarious government. Sir W. Temple.

3. A body of men intrusted with vicarious government; as, a regency constituted during a king's minority, absence from the kingdom, or other disability.

A council or regency consisting of twelve persons.


Re*gen"er*a*cy (r?*j?n"?r*?*s?), n. [See Regenerate.] The state of being regenerated. Hammond.

Re*gen"er*ate (-?t), a. [L. regeneratus, p. p. of regenerare to regenerate; pref. re- re- + generare to beget. See Generate.] 1. Reproduced.

The earthly author of my blood,
Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
Doth with a twofold vigor lift me up.


2. (Theol.) Born anew; become Christian; renovated in heart; changed from a natural to a spiritual state.

<! p. 1210 !>

Re*gen"er*ate (r?*j?n"?r*?t), v. t. 1. To generate or produce anew; to reproduce; to give new life, strength, or vigor to.

Through all the soil a genial fferment spreads.
Regenerates the plauts, and new adorns the meads.


2. (Theol.) To cause to be spiritually born anew; to cause to become a Christian; to convert from sin to holiness; to implant holy affections in the heart of.

3. Hence, to make a radical change for the better in the character or condition of; as, to regenerate society.

Re*gen"er*ate*ness (-?t*n?s), n. The quality or state of being rgenerate.

Re*gen`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [L. regeneratio: cf. F. régéneration.] 1. The act of regenerating, or the state of being regenerated.

2. (Theol.) The entering into a new spiritual life; the act of becoming, or of being made, Christian; that change by which holy affectations and purposes are substituted for the opposite motives in the heart.

He saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Chost.

Tit. iii. 5.

3. (Biol.) The reproduction of a part which has been removed or destroyed; re-formation; -- a process especially characteristic of a many of the lower animals; as, the regeneration of lost feelers, limbs, and claws by spiders and crabs.

4. (Physiol.) (a) The reproduction or renewal of tissues, cells, etc., which have been used up and destroyed by the ordinary processes of life; as, the continual regeneration of the epithelial cells of the body, or the regeneration of the contractile substance of muscle. (b) The union of parts which have been severed, so that they become anatomically perfect; as, the regeneration of a nerve.

Re*gen"er*a*tive (r?*j?n"?r*?*t?v), a. Of or pertaining to regeneration; tending to regenerate; as, regenerative influences. H. Bushnell.

Regenerative furnace (Metal.), a furnace having a regenerator in which gas used for fuel, and air for supporting combustion, are heated; a Siemens furnace.

Re*gen"er*a*tive*ly, adv. So as to regenerate.

Re*gen"er*a`tor (-?`t?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, regenerates.

2. (Mech.) A device used in connection with hot-air engines, gas-burning furnaces, etc., in which the incoming air or gas is heated by being brought into contact with masses of iron, brick, etc., which have been previously heated by the outgoing, or escaping, hot air or gas.

Re*gen"er*a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. Having power to renew; tending to reproduce; regenerating. G. S. Faber.

Re*gen"e*sis (-?*s?s), n. New birth; renewal.

A continued regenesis of dissenting sects.

H. Spenser.

Re"gent (r?"jent), a. [L. regens, -entis, p. pr. of regere to rule: cf. F. régent. See Regiment.] 1. Ruling; governing; regnant. "Some other active regent principle . . . which we call the soul." Sir M. Hale.

2. Exercising vicarious authority. Milton.

Queen regent. See under Queen, n.

Re"gent, n. [F. régent. See Regent, a.] 1. One who rules or reigns; a governor; a ruler. Milton.

2. Especially, one invested with vicarious authority; one who governs a kingdom in the minority, absence, or disability of the sovereign.

3. One of a governing board; a trustee or overseer; a superintendent; a curator; as, the regents of the Smithsonian Institution.

4. (Eng.Univ.) A resident master of arts of less than five years' standing, or a doctor of less than twwo. They were formerly privileged to lecture in the schools.

Regent bird (Zoöl.), a beautiful Australian bower bird (Sericulus melinus). The male has the head, neck, and large patches on the wings, bright golden yellow, and the rest of the plumage deep velvety black; -- so called in honor of the Prince of Wales (afterward George IV.), who was Prince Regent in the reign of George III. -- The Regents of the University of the State of New York, the members of a corporate body called the University of New York. They have a certain supervisory power over the incorporated institution for Academic and higher education in the State.

Re"gent*ess, n. A female regent. [R.] Cotgrave.

Re"gent*ship, n. The office of a regent; regency.

Re*ger"mi*nate (r?*j?r"m?*n?t), v. i. [Pref. re- + germinate: cf. L. regerminare.] To germinate again.

Perennial plants regerminate several years successively.

J. Lee.

Re*ger`mi*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. [L. regerminatio.] A germinating again or anew.

Re*gest" (r?*j?st"), n. [L. regesta, pl.: cf. OF. regestes, pl. See Register.] A register. [Obs.] Milton.

Re*get" (r?*g?t"), v. t. To get again.

Re"gi*an (r?"j?-an), n. [L. regius regal.] An upholder of kingly authority; a royalist. [Obs.] Fuller.

Reg"i*ble (r?j"?*b'l), a. [L. regibilis, from regere to rule.] Governable; tractable. [Obs.]

Reg"i*ci`dal (r?j"?*s?`dal), a. Pertaining to regicide, or to one committing it; having the nature of, or resembling, regicide. Bp. Warburton.

Reg"i*cide (r?j"?*s?d), n. [F. régicide; L. rex, regis, a king + caedere to kill. Cf. Homicide.] 1. One who kills or who murders a king; specifically (Eng.Hist.), one of the judges who condemned Charles I. to death.

2. The killing or the murder of a king.

Re*gild" (r?*g?ld"), v. t. To gild anew.

||Ré`gime" (r?`zh?m"), n. [F. See Regimen.] 1. Mode or system of rule or management; character of government, or of the prevailing social system.

I dream . . . of the new régime which is to come.

H. Kingsley.

2. (Hydraul.) The condition of a river with respect to the rate of its flow, as measured by the volume of water passing different cross sections in a given time, uniform régime being the condition when the flow is equal and uniform at all the cross sections.

The ancient régime, or Ancien régime [F.], the former political and social system, as distinguished from the modern; especially, the political and social system existing in France before the Revolution of 1789.

Reg"i*men (r?j"?*m?n), n. [L. regimen, -inis, fr. regere to guide, to rule. See Right, and cf. Regal, Régime, Regiment.] 1. Orderly government; system of order; adminisration. Hallam.

2. Any regulation or remedy which is intended to produce beneficial effects by gradual operation; esp. (Med.), a systematic course of diet, etc., pursed with a view to improving or preserving the health, or for the purpose of attaining some particular effect, as a reduction of flesh; -- sometimes used synonymously with hygiene.

3. (Gram.) (a) A syntactical relation between words, as when one depends on another and is regulated by it in respect to case or mood; government. (b) The word or words governed.

Reg"i*ment (-ment), n. [F. régiment a regiment of men, OF. also government, L. regimentum government, fr. regere to guide, rule. See Regimen.] 1. Government; mode of ruling; rule; authority; regimen. [Obs.] Spenser. "Regiment of health." Bacon.

But what are kings, when regiment is gone,
But perfect shadows in a sunshine day?


The law of nature doth now require of necessity some kind of regiment.


2. A region or district governed. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. (Mil.) A body of men, either horse, foot, or artillery, commanded by a colonel, and consisting of a number of companies, usually ten.

In the British army all the artillery are included in one regiment, which (reversing the usual practice) is divided into brigades.

Regiment of the line (Mil.), a regiment organized for general service; -- in distinction from those (as the Life Guards) whose duties are usually special. [Eng.]

Reg"i*ment (-m?nt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regimented; p. pr. & vb. n. Regimenting.] To form into a regiment or into regiments. Washington.

Reg`i*men"tal (-m?n"tal), a. Belonging to, or concerning, a regiment; as, regimental officers, clothing.

Regimental school, in the British army, a school for the instruction of the private soldiers of a regiment, and their children, in the rudimentary branches of education.

Reg`i*men"tal*ly, adv. In or by a regiment or regiments; as, troops classified regimentally.

Reg`i*men"tals (-talz), n. pl. (Mil.) The uniform worn by the officers and soldiers of a regiment; military dress; -- formerly used in the singular in the same sense. Colman.

Re*gim"i*nal (r?*j?m"?*nal), a. Of or relating to regimen; as, regiminal rules.

Re"gion (r?"j?n), n. [F. région, from L. regio a direction, a boundary line, region, fr. regere to guide, direct. See Regimen.] 1. One of the grand districts or quarters into which any space or surface, as of the earth or the heavens, is conceived of as divided; hence, in general, a portion of space or territory of indefinite extent; country; province; district; tract.

If thence he 'scappe, into whatever world,
Or unknown region.


2. Tract, part, or space, lying about and including anything; neighborhood; vicinity; sphere. "Though the fork invade the region of my heart." Shak.

Philip, tetrarch of .. the region of Trachonitis.

Luke iii. 1.

3. The upper air; the sky; the heavens. [Obs.]

Anon the dreadful thunder
Doth rend the region.


4. The inhabitants of a district. Matt. iii. 5.

5. Place; rank; station. [Obs. or R.]

He is of too high a region.


Re"gion*al (-al), a. Of or pertaining to a particular region; sectional.

Re"gi*ous (-j?*?s), a. [L. regius royal, fr. rex, regis, king.] Regal; royal. [Obs.] Harrington.

Reg"is*ter (rj"s*tr), n. [OE. registre, F. registre, LL. registrum,regestum, L. regesta, pl., fr. regerere, regestum, to carry back, to register; pref. re- re- + gerere to carry. See Jest, and cf. Regest.] 1. A written account or entry; an official or formal enumeration, description, or record; a memorial record; a list or roll; a schedule.

As you have one eye upon my follies, . . . turn another into the register of your own.


2. (Com.) (a) A record containing a list and description of the merchant vessels belonging to a port or customs district. (b) A certificate issued by the collector of customs of a port or district to the owner of a vessel, containing the description of a vessel, its name, ownership, and other material facts. It is kept on board the vessel, to be used as an evidence of nationality or as a muniment of title.

3. [Cf. LL. registrarius. Cf. Regisrar.] One who registers or records; a registrar; a recorder; especially, a public officer charged with the duty of recording certain transactions or events; as, a register of deeds.

4. That which registers or records. Specifically: (a) (Mech.) A contrivance for automatically noting the performance of a machine or the rapidity of a process. (b) (Teleg.) The part of a telegraphic apparatus which records automatically the message received. (c) A machine for registering automatically the number of persons passing through a gateway, fares taken, etc.; a telltale.

5. A lid, stopper, or sliding plate, in a furnace, stove, etc., for regulating the admission of air to the fuel; also, an arrangement containing dampers or shutters, as in the floor or wall of a room or passage, or in a chimney, for admitting or excluding heated air, or for regulating ventilation.

6. (Print.) (a) The inner part of the mold in which types are cast. (b) The correspondence of pages, columns, or lines on the opposite or reverse sides of the sheet. (c) The correspondence or adjustment of the several impressions in a design which is printed in parts, as in chromolithographic printing, or in the manufacture of paper hangings. See Register, v. i. 2.

7. (Mus.) (a) The compass of a voice or instrument; a specified portion of the compass of a voice, or a series of vocal tones of a given compass; as, the upper, middle, or lower register; the soprano register; the tenor register.

In respect to the vocal tones, the thick register properly extends below from the F on the lower space of the treble staff. The thin register extends an octave above this. The small register is above the thin. The voice in the thick register is called the chest voice; in the thin, the head voice. Falsetto is a kind off voice, of a thin, shrull quality, made by using the mechanism of the upper thin register for tones below the proper limit on the scale. E. Behnke.

(b) A stop or set of pipes in an organ.

Parish register, A book in which are recorded the births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, and burials in a parish.

Syn. -- List; catalogue; roll; record; archives; chronicle; annals. See List.

Reg"is*ter (rj"s*tr), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Registered (- trd); p. pr. & vb. n. Registering.] [Cf. F. regisrer, exregistrer, LL. registrare. See Register, n.] 1. To enter in a register; to record formally and distinctly, as for future use or service.

2. To enroll; to enter in a list.

Such follow him as shall be registered.


Registered letter, a letter, the address of which is, on payment of a special fee, registered in the post office and the transmission and delivery of which are attended to with particular care.

Reg"is*ter, v. i. 1. To enroll one's name in a register.

2. (Print.) To correspond in relative position; as, two pages, columns, etc. , register when the corresponding parts fall in the same line, or when line falls exactly upon line in reverse pages, or (as in chromatic printing) where the various colors of the design are printed consecutively, and perfect adjustment of parts is necessary.

Reg"is*ter*ing, a. Recording; -- applied to instruments; having an apparatus which registers; as, a registering thermometer. See Recording.

Reg"is*ter*ship, n. The office of a register.

Reg"is*trant (-trant), n. [L. registrans, p. pr.] One who registers; esp., one who , by virtue of securing an official registration, obtains a certain right or title of possession, as to a trade-mark.

Reg"is*trar (-tr?r), n. [LL. registrarius, or F. régistraire. See Register.] One who registers; a recorder; a keeper of records; as, a registrar of births, deaths, and marriages. See Register, n., 3.

Reg"is*trar*ship, n. The office of a registrar.

Reg"is*tra*ry (- tr?*r?), n. A registrar. [Obs.]

Reg"is*trate (-tr?t), v. t. To register. [R.]

Reg`is*tra"tion (-tr?"sh?n), n. [LL. registratio, or F. régistration. See Register, v.] 1. The act of registering; registry; enrollment.

2. (Mus.) The art of selecting and combining the stops or registers of an organ.

Reg"is*try (r?j"?s*tr?), n. 1. The act of recording or writing in a register; enrollment; registration.

2. The place where a register is kept.

3. A record; an account; a register. Sir W. Temple.

||Re"gi*us (r?l"?*?s), a. [L. regius, from rex, regis, a king.] Of or pertaining to a king; royal.

Regius professor, an incumbent of a professorship founded by royal bounty, as in an English university.

Re*give" (r?*g?v"), v. t. To give again; to give back.

Re"gle (r?g"'l), v. t. [See Reglement.] To rule; to govern. [Obs.] "To regle their lives." Fuller.

Re"gle*ment (r?g"'l*ment), n. [F. réglement, fr. régler, L. regulare. See Regulate.] Regulation. [Obs.]

The reformation and reglement of usury.


Reg`le*men"ta*ry (-l?*m?n"t?*r?), a. [F. réglementaire, fr. réglement.] Regulative. [R.]

Reg"let (r?g"l?t), n. [F. réglet, dim. of règle a rule, L. regula. See Rule.] 1. (Arch.) A flat, narrow molding, used chiefly to separate the parts or members of compartments or panels from one another, or doubled, turned, and interlaced so as to form knots, frets, or other ornaments. See Illust. (12) of Column.

2. (Print.) A strip of wood or metal of the height of a quadrat, used for regulating the space between pages in a chase, and also for spacing out title-pages and other open matter. It is graded to different sizes, and designated by the name of the type that it matches; as, nonpareil reglet, pica reglet, and the like.

||Reg"ma (r?g"m?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;, -&?;&?;&?;, fracture, fr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; to break.] (Bot.) A kind of dry fruit, consisting of three or more cells, each which at length breaks open at the inner angle.

Reg"ma*carp (-k?rp), n. [Regma + Gr. &?;&?;&?; fruit.] (Bot.) Any dry dehiscent fruit.

Reg"nal (r?g"nal), a. [L. regnum reign.] Of or pertaining to the reign of a monarch; as, regnal years.

Reg"nan*cy (-nan*s?), n. The condition or quality of being regnant; sovereignty; rule. Coleridge.

Reg"nant (-nant), a. [L. regnans, -antis, p. pr. of regnare to reign: cf. F régnant. See Reign.] 1. Exercising regal authority; reigning; as, a queen regnant.

2. Having the chief power; ruling; predominant; prevalent. "A traitor to the vices regnant." Swift.

Reg"na*tive (-n?*t?v), a. Ruling; governing. [Obs.]

Regne (r?n), n. & v. See Reign. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*gorge" (r?*g?rj"), v. t. [F. regorder; re- + gorger to gorge. Cf. Regurgitate.] 1. To vomit up; to eject from the stomach; to throw back. Hayward.

2. To swallow again; to swallow back.

Tides at highest mark regorge the flood.


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Re*grade" (r?*gr?d"), v. i. [L. re- re- + gradi to go. Cf. Regrede. ] To retire; to go back. [Obs.] W. Hales.

Re*graft" (r?*gr?ft"), v. t. To graft again.

Re*grant" (r?*gr?nt"), v. t. To grant back; to grant again or anew. Ayliffe.

Re*grant", n. 1. The act of granting back to a former proprietor.

2. A renewed of a grant; as, the regrant of a monopoly.

Re*grate" (r?*gr?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regrated; p. pr. & vb. n. Regrating.] [F. regratter, literally, to scrape again. See Re-, and Grate, v. t.] 1. (Masonry) To remove the outer surface of, as of an old hewn stone, so as to give it a fresh appearance.

2. To offend; to shock. [Obs.] Derham.

Re*grate", v. t. [F. regratter to regrate provisions; of uncertain origin.] (Eng.Law) To buy in large quantities, as corn, provisions, etc., at a market or fair, with the intention of selling the same again, in or near the same place, at a higher price, -- a practice which was formerly treated as a public offense.

Re*grat"er (-?r), n. [F. regrattier.] One who regrates.

Re*grat"er*y, n. The act or practice of regrating.

Re*gra"ti*a*to*ry (r?*gr?"sh?*?*t?*r?), n. A returning or giving of thanks. [Obs.] Skelton.

Re*grat"or (r?*gr?t"?r), n. One guilty of regrating.

Re*grede" (r?*gr?d"), v. i. [L. regredi to go back. Cf. Regrade, Regress.] To go back; to retrograde, as the apsis of a planet's orbit. [R.] Todhunter.

Re*gre"di*ence (r?*gr?"d?-ens), n. A going back; a retrogression; a return. [R.] Herrick.

Re*greet" (r?*gr?t"), v. t. To greet again; to resalute; to return a salutation to; to greet. Shak.

Re*greet", n. A return or exchange of salutation.

Re"gress (r?"gr?s), n. [L. regressus, fr. regredi, regressus. See Regrede.] 1. The act of passing back; passage back; return; retrogression. "The progress or regress of man". F. Harrison.

2. The power or liberty of passing back. Shak.

Re*gress" (r?*gr?s"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Regressed (-gr?st"); p. pr. & vb. n. Regressing.] To go back; to return to a former place or state. Sir T. Browne.

Re*gres"sion (r?*gr?sh"?n), n. [L. regressio: cf. F. régression.] The act of passing back or returning; retrogression; retrogradation. Sir T. Browne.

Edge of regression (of a surface) (Geom.), the line along which a surface turns back upon itself; -- called also a cuspidal edge. -- Regression point (Geom.), a cusp.

Re*gress"ive (r?*gr?s"?v), a. [Cf. F. régressif.]

1. Passing back; returning.

2. Characterized by retrogression; retrogressive.

Regressive metamorphism. (a) (Biol.) See Retrogression. (b) (Physiol.) See Katabolism.

Re*gress"ive*ly, adv. In a regressive manner.

Re*gret" (r?*gr?t"), n. [F., fr. regretter. See Regret, v.] 1. Pain of mind on account of something done or experienced in the past, with a wish that it had been different; a looking back with dissatisfaction or with longing; grief; sorrow; especially, a mourning on account of the loss of some joy, advantage, or satisfaction. "A passionate regret at sin." Dr. H. More.

What man does not remember with regret the first time he read Robinson Crusoe?


Never any prince expressed a more lively regret for the loss of a servant.


From its peaceful bosom [the grave] spring none but fond regrets and tender recollections.

W. Irving.

2. Dislike; aversion. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Syn. -- Grief; concern; sorrow; lamentation; repentance; penitence; self-condemnation. -- Regret, Remorse, Compunction, Contrition, Repentance. Regret does not carry with it the energy of remorse, the sting of compunction, the sacredness of contrition, or the practical character of repentance. We even apply the term regret to circumstance over which we have had no control, as the absence of friends or their loss. When connected with ourselves, it relates rather to unwise acts than to wrong or sinful ones. C. J. Smith.

Re*gret", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regretted (-td); p. pr. & vb. n. Regretting.] [F. regretter, OF. regreter; L. pref. re- re- + a word of Teutonic origin; cf. Goth. grtan to weep, Icel. grta. See Greet to lament.] To experience regret on account of; to lose or miss with a sense of regret; to feel sorrow or dissatisfaction on account of (the happening or the loss of something); as, to regret an error; to regret lost opportunities or friends.

Calmly he looked on either life, and here
Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear.


In a few hours they [the Israelites] began to regret their slavery, and to murmur against their leader.


Recruits who regretted the plow from which they had been violently taken.


Re*gret"ful (-f?l), a. Full of regret; indulging in regrets; repining. -- Re*gret"ful*ly, adv.

Re*grow" (r?*gr?"), v. i. & t. To grow again.

The snail had power to regrow them all [horns, tongue, etc.]

A. B. Buckley.

Re*growth" (r?*gr?th"), n. The act of regrowing; a second or new growth. Darwin.

The regrowth of limbs which had been cut off.

A. B. Buckley.

Re*guard"ant (r?*g?rd"ant), a. (Her.) Same as Regardant.

Re*guer"don (r?*g?r"d?n), v. t. [Pref. re- re- + guerdon: cf. OF. reguerdonner.] To reward. [Obs.] Shak.

Reg"u*la*ble (r?g"?*l?*b'l), a. Capable of being regulated. [R.]

Reg"u*lar (-l?r), a. [L. regularis, fr. regula a rule, fr. regere to guide, to rule: cf. F. régulier. See Rule.]

1. Conformed to a rule; agreeable to an established rule, law, principle, or type, or to established customary forms; normal; symmetrical; as, a regular verse in poetry; a regular piece of music; a regular verb; regular practice of law or medicine; a regular building.

2. Governed by rule or rules; steady or uniform in course, practice, or occurence; not subject to unexplained or irrational variation; returning at stated intervals; steadily pursued; orderlly; methodical; as, the regular succession of day and night; regular habits.

3. Constituted, selected, or conducted in conformity with established usages, rules, or discipline; duly authorized; permanently organized; as, a regular meeting; a regular physican; a regular nomination; regular troops.

4. Belonging to a monastic order or community; as, regular clergy, in distinction dfrom the secular clergy.

5. Thorough; complete; unmitigated; as, a regular humbug. [Colloq.]

6. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Having all the parts of the same kind alike in size and shape; as, a regular flower; a regular sea urchin.

7. (Crystallog.) Same as Isometric.

Regular polygon (Geom.), a plane polygon which is both equilateral and equiangular. -- Regular polyhedron (Geom.), a polyhedron whose faces are equal regular polygons. There are five regular polyhedrons, -- the tetrahedron, the hexahedron, or cube, the octahedron, the dodecahedron, and the icosahedron. -- Regular sales (Stock Exchange), sales of stock deliverable on the day after the transaction. -- Regular troops, troops of a standing or permanent army; -- opposed to militia.

Syn. -- Normal; orderly; methodical. See Normal.

Reg"u*lar (rg"*lr), n. [LL. regularis: cf. F. régulier. See Regular, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) A member of any religious order or community who has taken the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and who has been solemnly recognized by the church. Bp. Fitzpatrick.

2. (Mil.) A soldier belonging to a permanent or standing army; -- chiefly used in the plural.

||Reg`u*la"ri*a (rg`*l"r*), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A division of Echini which includes the circular, or regular, sea urchins.

Reg`u*lar"i*ty (-l?r"?*t?), n. [Cf. F. régularité.] The condition or quality of being regular; as, regularity of outline; the regularity of motion.

Reg"u*lar*ize (rg"*lr*z), v. t. To cause to become regular; to regulate. [R.]

Reg"u*lar*ly, adv. In a regular manner; in uniform order; methodically; in due order or time.

Reg"u*lar*ness, n. Regularity. Boyle.

Reg"u*late (-lt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regulated (- l`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Regulating.] [L. regulatus, p. p. of regulare, fr. regula. See Regular.] 1. To adjust by rule, method, or established mode; to direct by rule or restriction; to subject to governing principles or laws.

The laws which regulate the successions of the seasons.


The herdsmen near the frontier adjudicated their own disputes, and regulated their own police.


2. To put in good order; as, to regulate the disordered state of a nation or its finances.

3. To adjust, or maintain, with respect to a desired rate, degree, or condition; as, to regulate the temperature of a room, the pressure of steam, the speed of a machine, etc.

To regulate a watch or clock, to adjust its rate of running so that it will keep approximately standard time.

Syn. -- To adjust; dispose; methodize; arrange; direct; order; rule; govern.

Reg`u*la"tion (-l?"sh?n), n. 1. The act of regulating, or the state of being regulated.

The temper and regulation of our own minds.


2. A rule or order prescribed for management or government; prescription; a regulating principle; a governing direction; precept; law; as, the regulations of a society or a school.

Regulation sword, cap, uniform, etc. (Mil.), a sword, cap, uniform, etc., of the kind or quality prescribed by the official regulations.

Syn. -- Law; rule; method; principle; order; precept. See Law.

Reg"u*la*tive (r?g"?*l?*t?v), a. 1. Tending to regulate; regulating. Whewell.

2. (Metaph.) Necessarily assumed by the mind as fundamental to all other knowledge; furnishing fundamental principles; as, the regulative principles, or principles a priori; the regulative faculty. Sir W. Hamilton.

These terms are borrowed from Kant, and suggest the thought, allowed by Kant, that possibly these principles are only true for the human mind, the operations and belief of which they regulate.

Reg"u*la`tor (-l?`t?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, regulates.

2. (Mach.) A contrivance for regulating and controlling motion, as: (a) The lever or index in a watch, which controls the effective length of the hairspring, and thus regulates the vibrations of the balance. (b) The governor of a steam engine. (c) A valve for controlling the admission of steam to the steam chest, in a locomotive.

3. A clock, or other timepiece, used as a standard of correct time. See Astronomical clock (a), under Clock.

4. A member of a volunteer committee which, in default of the lawful authority, undertakes to preserve order and prevent crimes; also, sometimes, one of a band organized for the comission of violent crimes. [U.S.]

A few stood neutral, or declared in favor of the Regulators.


Reg"u*line (r?g"?*l?n), a. [Cf. F. régulin. See Regulus.] (Chem. & Metal.) Of or pertaining to regulus.

Reg"u*lize (-l?z), v. t. (Old Chem.) To reduce to regulus; to separate, as a metal from extraneous matter; as, to regulize antimony. [Archaic]

Reg"u*lus (-l?s), n.; pl. E. Reguluses (-&?;z), L. Reguli (- l&?;). [L., a petty king, prince, dim. of rex, regis, a king: cf. F. régule. See Regal.] 1. A petty king; a ruler of little power or consequence.

2. (Chem. & Metal.) The button, globule, or mass of metal, in a more or less impure state, which forms in the bottom of the crucible in smelting and reduction of ores.

The name was introduced by the alchemists, and applied by them in the first instance to antimony. It signifies little king; and from the facility with which antimony alloyed with gold, these empirical philosophers had great hopes that this metal, antimony, would lead them to the discovery of the philosopher's stone. Ure.

3. (Astron.) A star of the first magnitude in the constellation Leo; -- called also the Lion's Heart.

Re*gur"gi*tate (r?*g?r"j?*t?t), v. t. [LL. regurgitare, regurgitatum; L. pref. re- re- + gurges, -itis, a gulf. Cf. Regorge.] To throw or pour back, as from a deep or hollow place; to pour or throw back in great quantity.

Re*gur"gi*tate, v. i. To be thrown or poured back; to rush or surge back.

The food may regurgitatem the stomach into the esophagus and mouth.


Re*gur`gi*ta"tion (-t?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. régurgitation.] 1. The act of flowing or pouring back by the orifice of entrance; specifically (Med.), the reversal of the natural direction in which the current or contents flow through a tube or cavity of the body. Quain.

2. The act of swallowing again; reabsorption.

Re`ha*bil"i*tate (r?`h?*b?l"?*t?t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rehabilitated (- t?`t?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Rehabilitating.] [Pref. re- re- + habilitate: cf. LL. rehabilitare, F. réhabiliter.] To invest or clothe again with some right, authority, or dignity; to restore to a former capacity; to reinstate; to qualify again; to restore, as a delinquent, to a former right, rank, or privilege lost or forfeited; - - a term of civil and canon law.

Restoring and rehabilitating the party.


Re`ha*bil`i*ta"tion (-t?"sh?n), n. [Cf. LL. rehabilitatio, F. Réhabilitation.] The act of rehabilitating, or the state of being rehabilitated. Bouvier. Walsh.

Re*hash" (r?*h?sh"), v. t. To hash over again; to prepare or use again; as, to rehash old arguments.

Re*hash", n. Something hashed over, or made up from old materials.

Re*hear" (r?*h?r"), v. t. To hear again; to try a second time; as, to rehear a cause in Chancery.

Re*hears"al (r?*h?rs"a), n. The act of rehearsing; recital; narration; repetition; specifically, a private recital, performance, or season of practice, in preparation for a public exhibition or exercise. Chaucer.

In rehearsal of our Lord's Prayer.


Here's marvelous convenient place for our rehearsal.


Dress rehearsal (Theater), a private preparatory performance of a drama, opera, etc., in costume.

Re*hearse" (r?*h?rs"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rehearsed (-h?rst"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rehearsing.] [OE. rehercen, rehersen, OF. reherser, rehercier, to harrow over again; pref. re- re- + hercier to harrow, fr. herce a harrow, F. herse. See Hearse.] 1. To repeat, as what has been already said; to tell over again; to recite. Chaucer.

When the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul.

1 Sam. xvii. 31.

2. To narrate; to relate; to tell.

Rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord.

Judg. . v. 11.

3. To recite or repeat in private for experiment and improvement, before a public representation; as, to rehearse a tragedy.

4. To cause to rehearse; to instruct by rehearsal. [R.]

He has been rehearsed by Madame Defarge as to his having seen her.


Syn. -- To recite; recapitulate; recount; detail; describe; tell; relate; narrate.

Re*hearse", v. i. To recite or repeat something for practice. "There will we rehearse." Shak.

Re*hears"er (-?r), n. One who rehearses.

Re*heat" (r?*h?t"), v. t. 1. To heat again.

2. To revive; to cheer; to cherish. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

Re`hi*bi"tion (r?`h?*b?sh"?n), n. [Pref. re- + L. habere to have.] (Law) The returning of a thing purchased to the seller, on the ground of defect or frand.

Re*hib"i*to*ry (r?*h?b"?*t?*r?), a. (Law) Of or relating to rehibition; as, a rehibitory action.

Re*hire" (r?*h?r"), v. t. To hire again.

Re`hy*poth"e*cate (r?`h?*p?th"?*k?t), v. t. (Law) To hypothecate again. -- Re`hy*poth`e*ca"tion, n.

Rei (r?), n.;pl. Reis (r&?;"&?;s or r&?;z). [Pg. real, pl. reis. See Real a coin.] A portuguese money of account, in value about one tenth of a cent. [Spelt also ree.]

||Reichs"rath` (r?ks"r?t), n. [G] The parliament of Austria (exclusive of Hungary, which has its own diet, or parliament). It consists of an Upper and a Lower House, or a House of Lords and a House of Representatives.

||Reichs"stand` (r?ks"st?t`), n. [G.] A free city of the former German empire.

||Reichs"tag` (r?ks"t?g`), n. [G.] The Diet, or House of Representatives, of the German empire, which is composed of members elected for a term of three years by the direct vote of the people. See Bundesrath.

Reif (r?f), n. [AS. re&?;f.] Robbery; spoil. [Obs.]

Rei"gle (r?"g'l), n. [F. règle a rule, fr. L. regula. See Rule.] A hollow cut or channel for quiding anything; as, the reigle of a side post for a flood gate. Carew.

Rei"gle, v. t. To regulate; to govern. [Obs.]

Rei"gle*ment (-ment), n. [See Reglement.] Rule; regulation. [Obs.] Bacon. Jer. Taylor.

Reign (rn), n. [OE. regne, OF. reigne, regne, F. règne, fr. L. regnum, fr. rex, regis, a king, fr. regere to guide, rule. See Regal, Regimen.] 1. Royal authority; supreme power; sovereignty; rule; dominion.

He who like a father held his reign.


Saturn's sons received the threefold reign
Of heaven, of ocean, and deep hell beneath.


2. The territory or sphere which is reigned over; kingdom; empire; realm; dominion. [Obs.] Spenser.

[God] him bereft the regne that he had.


3. The time during which a king, queen, or emperor possesses the supreme authority; as, it happened in the reign of Elizabeth.

<! p. 1212 !>

Reign (r?n), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reigned (r?nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reigning.] [OE. regnen, reinen, OF. regner, F. régner, fr. L. regnare, fr. regnum. See Reign, n.] 1. To possess or exercise sovereign power or authority; to exercise government, as a king or emperor;; to hold supreme power; to rule. Chaucer.

We will not have this man to reign over us.

Luke xix. 14.

Shall Banquo's issue ever
Reign in this kingdom?


2. Hence, to be predominant; to prevail. "Pestilent diseases which commonly reign in summer." Bacon.

3. To have superior or uncontrolled dominion; to rule.

Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body.

Rom. vi. 12.

Syn. -- To rule; govern; direct; control; prevail.

Reign"er (r?n"?r), n. One who reigns. [R.]

Re`il*lume" (r?`?l*l?m"), v. t. To light again; to cause to shine anew; to relume; to reillumine. "Thou must reillume its spark." J. R. Drake.

Re`il*lu"mi*nate (-l?"m?*n?t), v. t. To enlighten again; to reillumine.

Re`il*lu`mi*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. The act or process of enlightening again.

Re`il*lu"mine (-l?"m?n), v. t. To illumine again or anew; to reillume.

Reim (r?m), n. [D. riem, akin to G riemen; CF. Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?; a towing line.] A strip of oxhide, deprived of hair, and rendered pliable, -- used for twisting into ropes, etc. [South Africa] Simmonds.

Re`im*bark" (r?`?m*b?rk"), v. t. & i. See Reëmbark.

Re`im*bod"y (-b?d"?), v. t. & i. [See Reëmbody.] To imbody again. Boyle.

Re`im*burs"a*ble (r?`?m*b?rs"?*b'l), a. [CF. F. remboursable.] Capable of being repaid; repayable.

A loan has been made of two millions of dollars, reimbursable in ten years.

A. Hamilton.

Re`im*burse" (-b?rs"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reimbursed (-b?rst"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reimbursing.] [Pref. re- + imburse: cf. F. rembourser.] 1. To replace in a treasury or purse, as an equivalent for what has been taken, lost, or expended; to refund; to pay back; to restore; as, to reimburse the expenses of a war.

2. To make restoration or payment of an equivalent to (a person); to pay back to; to indemnify; -- often reflexive; as, to reimburse one's self by successful speculation. Paley.

Re`im*burse"ment (-b?rs"ment), n. [Cf. F. rembursement.] The act reimbursing. A. Hamilton.

Re`im*burs"er (-b?rs"?r), n. One who reimburses.

Re`im*plant" (-pl?nt"), v. t. To implant again.

Re`im*port" (-p?rt"), v. t. [Pref. re- + import: cf. F. remporter.] To import again; to import what has been exported; to bring back. Young.

Re*im`por*ta"tion (r?*?m`p?r*t?"sh?n), n. The act of reimporting; also, that which is reimported.

Re*im`por*tune" (-p?r*t?n"), v. t. To importune again.

Re`im*pose" (r?`?m*p?z), v. t. To impose anew.

Re`im*preg"nate (-pr?g"n?t), v. t. To impregnate again or anew. Sir T. Browne.

Re`im*press" (-pr?s"), v. t. To impress anew.

Re`im*pres"sion (-pr?sh"?n), n. A second or repeated impression; a reprint.

Re`im*print" (-pr?nt"), v. t. To imprint again.

Re`im*pris"on (-pr?z'n), v. t. To imprison again.

Re`im*pris"on*ment (-ment), n. The act of reimprisoning, or the state of being reimprisoned.

Rein (r?n), n. [F. rêne, fr. (assumed) LL. retina, fr. L. retinere to hold back. See Retain.] 1. The strap of a bridle, fastened to the curb or snaffle on each side, by which the rider or driver governs the horse.

This knight laid hold upon his reyne.


2. Hence, an instrument or means of curbing, restraining, or governing; government; restraint. "Let their eyes rove without rein." Milton.

To give rein, To give the rein to, to give license to; to leave withouut restrain. -- To take the reins, to take the guidance or government; to assume control.

Rein, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reined (r?nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reining.] 1. To govern or direct with the reins; as, to rein a horse one way or another.

He mounts and reins his horse.


2. To restrain; to control; to check.

Being once chafed, he can not
Be reined again to temperance.


To rein in or rein up, to check the speed of, or cause to stop, by drawing the reins.

Rein, v. i. To be guided by reins. [R.] Shak.

Re`in*au"gu*rate, v. t. To inaugurate anew.

Re"in*cit" (-s?t"), v. t. To incite again.

Re`in*cor"po*rate, v. t. To incorporate again.

Re`in*crease" (-kr?s"), v. t. To increase again.

Re`in*cur" (-k?r"), v. t. To incur again.

Rein"deer` (r?n"d?r), n. [Icel. hreinn reindeer + E. deer. Icel. hreinn is of Lapp or Finnish origin; cf. Lappish reino pasturage.] [Formerly written also raindeer, and ranedeer.] (Zool.) Any ruminant of the genus Rangifer, of the Deer family, found in the colder parts of both the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and having long irregularly branched antlers, with the brow tines palmate.

The common European species (R. tarandus) is domesticated in Lapland. The woodland reindeer or caribou (R. caribou) is found in Canada and Maine (see Caribou.) The Barren Ground reindeer or caribou (R. Grœnlandicus), of smaller size, is found on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, in both hemispheries.

Reindeer moss (Bot.), a gray branching lichen (Cladonia rangiferina) which forms extensive patches on the ground in arctic and even in north temperature regions. It is the principal food of the Lapland reindeer in winter. -- Reindeer period (Geol.), a name sometimes given to a part of the Paleolithic era when the reindeer was common over Central Europe.

Re`in*duce" (r?`?n*d?s"), v. t. To induce again.

Rei*nette" (r?*n?t"), n. [F. See 1st Rennet.] (Bot.) A name given to many different kinds of apples, mostly of French origin.

Re`in*fect" (r?`?n*f?kt), v. t. [Pref. re- + infect: cf. F. réinfecter.] To infect again.

Re`in*fec"tious (-f?k"sh?s), a. Capable of reinfecting.

Re`in*force" (-f?rs"), v. t. See Reënforce, v. t.

Re`in*force", n. See Reënforce, n.

Re`in*force"ment (-ment), n. See Reënforcement.

Re`in*fund" (-f?nd"), v. i. [Pref. re- + L. infundere to pour in.] To flow in anew. [Obs.] Swift.

Re`in*gra"ti*ate (-gr?"sh?*?t), v. t. To ingratiate again or anew. Sir. T. Herbert.

Re`in*hab"it (-h?b"?t), v. t. To inhabit again. Mede.

Rein"less (r?n"l?s), a. Not having, or not governed by, reins; hence, not checked or restrained.

Reins (rnz), n. pl. [F. rein, pl. reins, fr. L. ren, pl. renes.] 1. The kidneys; also, the region of the kidneys; the loins.

2. The inward impulses; the affections and passions; -- so called because formerly supposed to have their seat in the part of the body where the kidneys are.

My reins rejoice, when thy lips speak right things.

Prov. xxiii. 16.

I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts.

Rev. ii. 23.

Reins of a vault (Arch.), the parts between the crown and the spring or abutment, including, and having especial reference to, the loading or filling behind the shell of the vault. The reins are to a vault nearly what the haunches are to an arch, and when a vault gives way by thrusting outward, it is because its reins are not sufficiently filled up.

Re`in*sert" (r?`?n*s?rt"), v. t. To insert again.

Re`in*ser"tion (-s?r"sh?n), n. The act of reinserting.

Re`in*spect" (-sp?kt"), v. t. To inspect again.

Re`in*spec"tion (-sp?k"sh?n), n. The act of reinspecting.

Re`in*spire" (-sp?r"), v. t. To inspire anew. Milton.

Re`in*spir"it (-sp`r"?t), v. t. To give fresh spirit to.

Re`in*stall" (-st?l"), v. t. [Pref. re- + install: cf. F. réinstaller.] To install again. Milton.

Re`in*stall"ment (-ment), n. A renewed installment.

Re`in*state" (-st?t"), v. t. To place again in possession, or in a former state; to restore to a state from which one had been removed; to instate again; as, to reinstate a king in the possession of the kingdom.

For the just we have said already thet some of them were reinstated in their pristine happiness and felicity.


Re`in*state"ment (-ment), n. The act of reinstating; the state of being reinstated; re&?;stablishment.

Re`in*sta"tion (-st?"sh?n), n. Reinstatement. [R.]

Re`in*struct" (-str?kt"), v. t. To instruct anew.

Re`in*sur"ance (-sh?r"ans), n. 1. Insurance a second time or again; renewed insurance.

2. A contract by which an insurer is insured wholly or in part against the risk he has incurred in insuring somebody else. See Reassurance.

Re`in*sure" (-sh?r"), v. t. 1. To insure again after a former insuranse has ceased; to renew insurance on.

2. To insure, as life or property, in favor of one who has taken an insurance risk upon it.

The innsurer may cause the property insured to be reinsured by other persons.


Re`in*sur"er (-sh?r"?r), n. One who gives reinsurance.

Re*in"te*grate (r?*?n"t?*gr?t), v. t. [Pref. re- + integrate. Cf. Redintegrate.] To renew with regard to any state or quality; to restore; to bring again together into a whole, as the parts off anything; to reëstablish; as, to reintegrate a nation. Bacon.

Re*in`te*gra"tion (-gr?"sh?n), n. A renewing, or making whole again. See Redintegration.

Re`in*ter" (r?`?n*t?r"), v. t. To inter again.

Re`in*ter"ro*gate (-t?r"r?*g?t), v. t. To interrogate again; to question repeatedly. Cotgrave.

Re`in*throne" (-thr?n"), v. t. See Reënthrone.

Re`in*thron"ize (-?z), v. t. To enthrone again. [Obs.]

Re*in`tro*duce" (r?*?n`tr?*d?s"), v. t. To introduce again. -- Re*in`tro*duc"tion (- d&?;k"sh&?;n), n.

Re`in*vest" (r?`?n*v?st"), v. t. To invest again or anew.

Re`in*ves"ti*gate (-v?s"t?*g?t), v. t. To investigate again. -- Re`in*ves`ti*ga"tion (- g&?;"sh&?;n), n.

Re`in*vest"ment (-v?st"ment), n. The act of investing anew; a second or repeated investment.

Re`in*vig"or*ate (-v?g"?r*?t), v. t. To invigorate anew.

Re`in*volve" (-v?lv"), v. t. To involve anew.

||Re`is (r?"?s or r?z), n. [Pg., pl. of real, an ancient Portuguese coin.] The word is used as a Portuguese designation of money of account, one hundred reis being about equal in value to eleven cents.

Reis (rs), n. [Ar. raïs head, chief, prince.] A common title in the East for a person in authority, especially the captain of a ship. [Written also rais and ras.]

||Reis` Ef*fen"di (r?s` ?f*f?n"d?). [See 2d Reis, and Effendi.] A title formerly given to one of the chief Turkish officers of state. He was chancellor of the empire, etc.

Reiss"ner's mem"brane (r?s"n?rz m?m"br?n). [Named from E. Reissner, A German anatomist.] (Anat.) The thin membrane which separates the canal of the cochlea from the vestibular scala in the internal ear.

Re*is"su*a*ble (r?*?sh"?*?*b'l), a. Capable of being reissued.

Re*is"sue (r?*?sh"?), v. t. & i. To issue a second time.

Re*is"sue, n. A second or repeated issue.

Reit (r?t), n. Sedge; seaweed. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

||Rei"ter (r?"t?r), n. [G., rider.] A German cavalry soldier of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Re*it"er*ant (r?-?t"?r-ant), a. [See Reiterate.] Reiterating. [R.] Mrs. Browning.

Re*it"er*ate (-t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reiterated (- `td); p. pr. & vb. n. Reiterating.] [Pref. re- + iterate: cf. F. réitérer, LL. reiterare to question again.] To repeat again and again; to say or do repeatedly; sometimes, to repeat.

That with reiterated crimes he might
Heap on himself damnation.


You never spoke what did become you less
Than this; which to reiterate were sin.


Syn. -- To repeat; recapitulate; rehearse.

Re*it"er*ate (-?t), a. Reiterated; repeated. [R.]

Re*it"er*a`ted*ly (-?`t?d-l?), adv. Repeatedly.

Re*it`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réitération.] The act of reiterating; that which is reiterated.

Re*it"er*a*tive (r?-?t"?r-?-t?v), n. 1. (Gram.) A word expressing repeated or reiterated action.

2. A word formed from another, or used to form another, by repetition; as, dillydally.

Reiv"er (r?v"?r), n. See Reaver. Ruskin.

Re*ject" (r?-j?kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rejected; p. pr. & vb. n. Rejecting.] [L. rejectus, p. p. of reicere, rejicere; pref. re- re- + jacere to throw: cf. F. rejeter, formerly also spelt rejecter. See Jet a shooting forth.]

1. To cast from one; to throw away; to discard.

Therefore all this exercise of hunting . . . the Utopians have rejected to their butchers.

Robynson (More's Utopia).

Reject me not from among thy children.

Wisdom ix. 4.

2. To refuse to receive or to acknowledge; to decline haughtily or harshly; to repudiate.

That golden scepter which thou didst reject.


Because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me.

Hos. iv. 6.

3. To refuse to grant; as, to reject a prayer or request.

Syn. -- To repel; renounce; discard; rebuff; refuse; decline.

Re*ject"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being, or that ought to be, rejected.

||Re*jec`ta*men"ta (r?-j?k`t?-m?n"ta), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. rejectare, v. intens. fr. rejicere. See Reject.] Things thrown out or away; especially, things excreted by a living organism. J. Fleming.

Re`jec*ta"ne*ous (r?`j?k-t?"n?-?s), a. [L. rejectaneus.] Not chosen or received; rejected. [Obs.] "Profane, rejectaneous, and reprobate people." Barrow.

Re*ject"er (r?-j?kt"?r), n. One who rejects.

Re*jec"tion (r?-j?k"sh?n), n. [L. rejectio: cf. F. réjection.] Act of rejecting, or state of being rejected.

Re`jec*ti"tious (r?`j?k-t?sh"?s), a. Implying or requiring rejection; rejectable. Cudworth.

Re*ject"ive (r?-j?kt"?v), a. Rejecting, or tending to reject.

Re*ject"ment (-ment), n. Act of rejecting; matter rejected, or thrown away. Eaton.

Re*joice" (r*jois"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rejoiced (-joist"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rejoicing (-joi"s?ng).] [OE. rejoissen, OF. resjouir, resjoir, F. réjouir; pref. re- re- + OF, esjouir, esjoir, F. éjouir, to rejoice; pref. es- (L. ex-) + OF. jouir, joir, F. jouir, from L. gaudere to rejoice. See Joy.] To feel joy; to experience gladness in a high degree; to have pleasurable satisfaction; to be delighted. "O, rejoice beyond a common joy." Shak.

I will be glad and rejoice in thy mercy.

Ps. xxxi. 7.

Syn. -- To delight; joy; exult; triumph.

Re*joice", v. t. 1. To enjoy. [Obs.] Bp. Peacock.

2. To give joy to; to make joyful; to gladden.

I me rejoysed of my liberty.


While she, great saint, rejoices heaven.


Were he [Cain] alive, it would rejoice his soul to see what mischief it had made.


Syn. -- To please; cheer; exhilarate; delight.

Re*joice", n. The act of rejoicing. Sir T. Browne.

Re*joice"ment (-ment), n. Rejoicing. [Obs.]

Re*joi"cer (r?-joi"s?r), n. One who rejoices.

Re*joi"cing (-s?ng), n. 1. Joy; gladness; delight.

We should particularly express our rejoicing by love and charity to our neighbors.

R. Nelson.

2. The expression of joy or gladness.

The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tabernacles of the righteous.

Ps. cxviii. 15.

3. That which causes to rejoice; occasion of joy.

Thy testimonies have I taken as an heritage forever, for they are the rejoicing of my heart.

Ps. cxix. 111.

Re*joi"cing*ly, adv. With joi or exultation.

Re*join" (r?-join"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rejoined (-joind"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rejoining.] [F. rejoindre; pref. re- re- + joindre to join. See Join, and cf. Rejoinder.] 1. To join again; to unite after separation.

2. To come, or go, again into the presence of; to join the company of again.

Meet and rejoin me, in the pensive grot.


3. To state in reply; -- followed by an object clause.

Re*join", v. i. 1. To answer to a reply.

2. (Law) To answer, as the defendant to the plaintiff's replication.

Re*join"der (-d?r), n. [From F. rejoindre, inf., to join again. See Rejoin.] 1. An answer to a reply; or, in general, an answer or reply.

2. (Law) The defendant's answer to the plaintiff's replication.

Syn. -- Reply; answer; replication. See Reply.

Re*join"der, v. i. To make a rejoinder. [Archaic]

Re*join"dure (-dr), n. Act of joining again. [Obs.] "Beguiles our lips of all rejoindure" (i.e., kisses). Shak.

Re*joint" (r-joint"), v. t. 1. To reunite the joints of; to joint anew. Barrow.

2. Specifically (Arch.), to fill up the joints of, as stones in buildings when the mortar has been dislodged by age and the action of the weather. Gwilt.

<! p. 1213 !>

Re*jolt" (r?-j?lt"), n. A reacting jolt or shock; a rebound or recoil. [R.]

These inward rejolts and recoilings of the mind.


Re*jolt", v. t. To jolt or shake again. Locke.

Re*journ" (r?-j?rn"), v. t. [Cf. F. réajourner. See Adjourn.] To adjourn; to put off. [Obs.] Shak.

Re*journ"ment (-ment), n. Adjournment. [Obs.]

Re*judge" (r?-j?j"), v. t. To judge again; to reëxamine; to review; to call to a new trial and decision.

Rejudge his acts, and dignify disgrace.


Re*ju"ve*nate (r?-j?"v?-n?t), v. t. [Pref. re- re- + L. juventis young, youthful.] To render young again.

Re*ju`ve*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. Rejuvenescence.

Re*ju`ve*nes"cence (-n?s"sens), n. 1. A renewing of youth; the state of being or growing young again.

2. (Bot.) A method of cell formation in which the entire protoplasm of an old cell escapes by rupture of the cell wall, and then develops a new cell wall. It is seen sometimes in the formation of zoöspores, etc.

Re*ju`ve*nes"cen*cy (-sen-s?), n. Rejuvenescence.

Re*ju`ve*nes"cent (-sent), a. Becoming, or causing to become, rejuvenated; rejuvenating.

Re*ju`ve*nize (r?-j?"v?-n?z), v. t. To rejuvenate.

Re*kin"dle (r?-k?n"d'l), v. t. & i. To kindle again.

Rek"ne (r?k"ne), v. t. To reckon. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*lade" (r*ld"), v. t. To lade or load again.

Re*laid" (r*ld"), imp. & p. p. of Relay.

||Re*lais" (re*l"), n. [F. See Relay, n.] (Fort.) A narrow space between the foot of the rampart and the scarp of the ditch, serving to receive the earth that may crumble off or be washed down, and prevent its falling into the ditch. Wilhelm.

Re*land" (r?-l?nd"), v. t. To land again; to put on land, as that which had been shipped or embarked.

Re*land", v. i. To go on shore after having embarked; to land again.

Re*lapse" (r?-l?ps"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Relapsed (-l?pst"); p. pr. & vb. n. Relapsing.] [L. relapsus, p. p. of relabi to slip back, to relapse; pref. re- re- + labi to fall, slip, slide. See Lapse.] 1. To slip or slide back, in a literal sense; to turn back. [Obs.] Dryden.

2. To slide or turn back into a former state or practice; to fall back from some condition attained; -- generally in a bad sense, as from a state of convalescence or amended condition; as, to relapse into a stupor, into vice, or into barbarism; -- sometimes in a good sense; as, to relapse into slumber after being disturbed.

That task performed, [preachers] relapse into themselves.


3. (Theol.) To fall from Christian faith into paganism, heresy, or unbelief; to backslide.

They enter into the justified state, and so continue all along, unless they relapse.


Re*lapse", n. [For sense 2 cf. F. relaps. See Relapse, v.] 1. A sliding or falling back, especially into a former bad state, either of body or morals; backsliding; the state of having fallen back.

Alas! from what high hope to what relapse
Unlooked for are we fallen!


2. One who has relapsed, or fallen back, into error; a backslider; specifically, one who, after recanting error, returns to it again. [Obs.]

Re*laps"er (-l?ps"?r), n. One who relapses. Bp. Hall.

Re*laps"ing, a. Marked by a relapse; falling back; tending to return to a former worse state.

Relapsing fever (Med.), an acute, epidemic, contagious fever, which prevails also endemically in Ireland, Russia, and some other regions. It is marked by one or two remissions of the fever, by articular and muscular pains, and by the presence, during the paroxism of spiral bacterium (Spirochæte) in the blood. It is not usually fatal. Called also famine fever, and recurring fever.

Re*late" (r?-l?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Related; p. pr. & vb. n. Relating.] [F. relater to recount, LL. relatare, fr. L. relatus, used as p. p. of referre. See Elate, and cf. Refer.] 1. To bring back; to restore. [Obs.]

Abate your zealous haste, till morrow next again
Both light of heaven and strength of men relate.


2. To refer; to ascribe, as to a source. [Obs. or R.]

3. To recount; to narrate; to tell over.

This heavy act with heavy heart relate.


4. To ally by connection or kindred.

To relate one's self, to vent thoughts in words. [R.]

Syn. -- To tell; recite; narrate; recount; rehearse; report; detail; describe.

Re*late", v. i. 1. To stand in some relation; to have bearing or concern; to pertain; to refer; -- with to.

All negative or privative words relate positive ideas.


2. To make reference; to take account. [R.& Obs.]

Reckoning by the years of their own consecration without relating to any imperial account.


Re*lat"ed (-l?t"?d), p. p. & a. 1. Allied by kindred; connected by blood or alliance, particularly by consanguinity; as, persons related in the first or second degree.

2. Standing in relation or connection; as, the electric and magnetic forcec are closely related.

3. Narrated; told.

4. (Mus.) Same as Relative, 4.

Re*lat"ed*ness, n. The state or condition of being related; relationship; affinity. [R.] Emerson.

Re*lat"er (-?r), n. One who relates or narrates.

Re*la"tion (r?-l?"sh?n), n. [F. relation, L. relatio. See Relate.] 1. The act of relating or telling; also, that which is related; recital; account; narration; narrative; as, the relation of historical events.

&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;oet's relation doth well figure them.


2. The state of being related or of referring; what is apprehended as appertaining to a being or quality, by considering it in its bearing upon something else; relative quality or condition; the being such and such with regard or respect to some other thing; connection; as, the relation of experience to knowledge; the relation of master to servant.

Any sort of connection which is perceived or imagined between two or more things, or any comparison which is made by the mind, is a relation.

I. Taylor.

3. Reference; respect; regard.

I have been importuned to make some observations on this art in relation to its agreement with poetry.


4. Connection by consanguinity or affinity; kinship; relationship; as, the relation of parents and children.

Relations dear, and all the charities
Of father, son, and brother, first were known.


5. A person connected by cosanguinity or affinity; a relative; a kinsman or kinswoman.

For me . . . my relation does not care a rush.

Ld. Lytton.

6. (Law) (a) The carrying back, and giving effect or operation to, an act or proceeding frrom some previous date or time, by a sort of fiction, as if it had happened or begun at that time. In such case the act is said to take effect by relation. (b) The act of a relator at whose instance a suit is begun. Wharton. Burrill.

Syn. -- Recital; rehearsal; narration; account; narrative; tale; detail; description; kindred; kinship; consanguinity; affinity; kinsman; kinswoman.

Re*la"tion*al (r?-l?"sh?n-al), a. 1. Having relation or kindred; related.

We might be tempted to take these two nations for relational stems.


2. Indicating or specifying some relation.

Relational words, as prepositions, auxiliaries, etc.

R. Morris.

Re*la"tion*ist, n. A relative; a relation. [Obs.]

Re*la"tion*ship, n. The state of being related by kindred, affinity, or other alliance. Mason.

Rel"a*tive (r?l"?-t?v), a. [F. relatif, L. relativus. See Relate.] 1. Having relation or reference; referring; respecting; standing in connection; pertaining; as, arguments not relative to the subject.

I'll have grounds
More relative than this.


2. Arising from relation; resulting from connection with, or reference to, something else; not absolute.

Every thing sustains both an absolute and a relative capacity: an absolute, as it is such a thing, endued with such a nature; and a relative, as it is a part of the universe, and so stands in such a relations to the whole.


3. (Gram.) Indicating or expressing relation; refering to an antecedent; as, a relative pronoun.

4. (Mus.) Characterizing or pertaining to chords and keys, which, by reason of the identify of some of their tones, admit of a natural transition from one to the other. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

Relative clause (Gram.), a clause introduced by a relative pronoun. -- Relative term, a term which implies relation to, as guardian to ward, matter to servant, husband to wife. Cf. Correlative.

Rel"a*tive, n. One who, or that which, relates to, or is considered in its relation to, something else; a relative object or term; one of two object or term; one of two objects directly connected by any relation. Specifically: (a) A person connected by blood or affinity; strictly, one allied by blood; a relation; a kinsman or kinswoman. "Confining our care . . . to ourselves and relatives." Bp. Fell. (b) (Gram.) A relative pronoun; a word which relates to, or represents, another word or phrase, called its antecedent; as, the relatives "who", "which", "that".

Rel"a*tive*ly, adv. In a relative manner; in relation or respect to something else; not absolutely.

Consider the absolute affections of any being as it is in itself, before you consider it relatively.

I. Watts.

Rel"a*tive*ness, n. The state of being relative, or having relation; relativity.

Rel`a*tiv"i*ty (-t?v"?-t?), n. The state of being relative; as, the relativity of a subject. Coleridge.

Re*lat"or (r?-l?t"?r), n. [ L.: cf. F. relateur. See Relate.] 1. One who relates; a relater. "The several relators of this history." Fuller.

2. (Law) A private person at whose relation, or in whose behalf, the attorney-general allows an information in the nature of a quo warranto to be filed.

Re*lat"rix (-r?ks), n. [L.] (Law) A female relator.

Re*lax" (r?-l?ks"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relaxed (-l?kst"); p. pr. & vb. n. Relaxing.] [L. relaxare; pref. re- re- + laxare to loose, to slacken, from laxus loose. See Lax, and cf. Relay, n., Release.] 1. To make lax or loose; to make less close, firm, rigid, tense, or the like; to slacken; to loosen; to open; as, to relax a rope or cord; to relax the muscles or sinews.

Horror . . . all his joints relaxed.


Nor served it to relax their serried files.


2. To make less severe or rigorous; to abate the stringency of; to remit in respect to strenuousness, earnestness, or effort; as, to relax discipline; to relax one's attention or endeavors.

The statute of mortmain was at several times relaxed by the legislature.


3. Hence, to relieve from attention or effort; to ease; to recreate; to divert; as, amusement relaxes the mind.

4. To relieve from constipation; to loosen; to open; as, an aperient relaxes the bowels.

Syn. -- To slacken; loosen; loose; remit; abate; mitigate; ease; unbend; divert.

Re*lax", v. i. 1. To become lax, weak, or loose; as, to let one's grasp relax.

His knees relax with toil.


2. To abate in severity; to become less rigorous.

In others she relaxed again,
And governed with a looser rein.


3. To remit attention or effort; to become less diligent; to unbend; as, to relax in study.

Re*lax", n. Relaxation. [Obs.] Feltham.

Re**lax", a. Relaxed; lax; hence, remiss; careless.

Re*lax"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being relaxed.

Re*lax"ant (r?-l?ks"ant), n. [L. relaxans, p. pr. of relaxare.] (Med.) A medicine that relaxes; a laxative.

Re`lax*a"tion (r?`l?ks-?"sh?n;277), n. [L. relaxatio; cf. F. relaxation.] 1. The act or process of relaxing, or the state of being relaxed; as, relaxation of the muscles; relaxation of a law.

2. Remission from attention and effort; indulgence in recreation, diversion, or amusement. "Hours of careless relaxation." Macaulay.

Re*lax"a*tive (r?-l?ks"?-t?v), a. Having the quality of relaxing; laxative. -- n. A relaxant. B. Jonson.

Re*lay" (r?-l?"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relaid (-l?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Relaying.] [Pref. re- + lay, v.] To lay again; to lay a second time; as, to relay a pavement.

Re*lay" (r?-l?"), n. [F. relais (cf. OF. relais relaxation, discontinuance, It. rilascio release, relief, rilasso relay), fr. OF. relaissier to abandon, release, fr. L. relaxare. See Relax.] 1. A supply of anything arranged beforehand for affording relief from time to time, or at successive stages; provision for successive relief. Specifically: (a) A supply of horses placced at stations to be in readiness to relieve others, so that a trveler may proceed without delay. (b) A supply of hunting dogs or horses kept in readiness at certain places to relive the tired dogs or horses, and to continue the pursuit of the game if it comes that way. (c) A number of men who relieve others in carrying on some work.

2. (Elec.) In various forms of telegraphic apparatus, a magnet which receives the circuit current, and is caused by it to bring into into action the power of a local battery for performing the work of making the record; also, a similar device by which the current in one circuit is made to open or close another circuit in which a current is passing.

Relay battery (Elec.), the local battery which is brought into use by the action of the relay magnet, or relay.

Rel"bun (r?l"b?n), n. The roots of the Chilian plant Calceolaria arachnoidea, -- used for dyeing crimson.

Re*leas"a*ble (r?-l?s"?-b'l), a. That may be released.

Re*lease" (r?-l?s"), v. t. [Pref. re + lease to let.] To lease again; to grant a new lease of; to let back.

Re*lease" (r?-l?s"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Released (r?*l?st"); p. pr. & vb. n. Releasing.] [OE. relessen, OF. relassier, to release, to let free. See Relay, n., Relax, and cf. Release to lease again.] 1. To let loose again; to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude; to give liberty to, or to set at liberty; to let go.

Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.

Mark xv. 6.

2. To relieve from something that confines, burdens, or oppresses, as from pain, trouble, obligation, penalty.

3. (Law) To let go, as a legal claim; to discharge or relinquish a right to, as lands or tenements, by conveying to another who has some right or estate in possession, as when the person in remainder releases his right to the tenant in possession; to quit.

4. To loosen; to relax; to remove the obligation of; as, to release an ordinance. [Obs.] Hooker.

A sacred vow that none should aye release.


Syn. -- To free; liberate; loose; discharge; disengage; extricate; let go; quit; acquit.

Re*lease", n. 1. The act of letting loose or freeing, or the state of being let loose or freed; liberation or discharge from restraint of any kind, as from confinement or bondage. "Who boast'st release from hell." Milton.

2. Relief from care, pain, or any burden.

3. Discharge from obligation or responsibility, as from debt, penalty, or claim of any kind; acquittance.

4. (Law) A giving up or relinquishment of some right or claim; a conveyance of a man's right in lands or tenements to another who has some estate in possession; a quitclaim. Blackstone.

5. (Steam Engine) The act of opening the exhaust port to allow the steam to escape.

Lease and release. (Law) See under Lease. -- Out of release, without cessation. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Syn. -- Liberation; freedom; discharge. See Death.

Re*leas`ee" (-?"), n. One to whom a release is given.

Re*lease"ment (r?-l?s"ment), n. The act of releasing, as from confinement or obligation. Milton.

Re*leas"er (-?r), n. One who releases, or sets free.

Re*leas"or (-?r), n. One by whom a release is given.

Rel"e*gate (r?l"?-g?t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relegated (-g?`t?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Relegating.] [L. relegatus, p. p. of relegare; pref. re- re- + legare to send with a commission or charge. See Legate.] To remove, usually to an inferior position; to consign; to transfer; specifically, to send into exile; to banish.

It [the Latin language] was relegated into the study of the scholar.


Rel`e*ga"tion (-g?"sh?n), n. [L. relegatio: cf. F. relégation.] The act of relegating, or the state of being relegated; removal; banishment; exile.

Re*lent" (r?-l?nt"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Relented; p. pr. & vb. n. Relenting.] [F. ralentir, fr. L. pref. re- re- + ad to + lentus pliant, flexible, slow. See Lithe.] 1. To become less rigid or hard; to yield; to dissolve; to melt; to deliquesce. [Obs.]

He stirred the coals till relente gan
The wax again the fire.


[Salt of tartar] placed in a cellar will . . . begin to relent.


When opening buds salute the welcome day,
And earth, relenting, feels the genial ray.


2. To become less severe or intense; to become less hard, harsh, cruel, or the like; to soften in temper; to become more mild and tender; to feel compassion.

Can you . . . behold
My sighs and tears, and will not once relent?


Re*lent", v. t. 1. To slacken; to abate. [Obs.]

And oftentimes he would relent his pace.


2. To soften; to dissolve. [Obs.]

3. To mollify ; to cause to be less harsh or severe. [Obs.]

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Re*lent" (r?-l?nt"), n. Stay; stop; delay. [Obs.]

Nor rested till she came without relent
Unto the land of Amazons.


Re*lent"less, a. Unmoved by appeals for sympathy or forgiveness; insensible to the distresses of others; destitute of tenderness; unrelenting; unyielding; unpitying; as, a prey to relentless despotism.

For this the avenging power employs his darts, . . .
Thus will persist, relentless in his ire.


-- Re*lent"less*ly, adv. -- Re*lent"less*ness, n.

Re*lent"ment (-ment), n. The act or process of relenting; the state of having relented. Sir T. Browne.

Re*lesse" (r?-l?s"), v. t. To release. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re`les*see" (r?`l?s-s?"), n. See Releasee.

Re`les*sor" (-s?r"), n. See Releasor.

Re-let" (r?-l?t"), v. t. To let anew, as a house.

{ Rel"e*vance (r?l"?*vans), Rel"e*van*cy (-van*s?), } n. 1. The quality or state of being relevant; pertinency; applicability.

Its answer little meaning, little relevancy bore.


2. (Scots Law) Sufficiency to infer the conclusion.

Rel"e*vant (-vant), a. [F. relevant, p. pr. of relever to raise again, to relieve. See Relieve.] 1. Relieving; lending aid or support. [R.] Pownall.

2. Bearing upon, or properly applying to, the case in hand; pertinent; applicable.

Close and relevant arguments have very little hold on the passions.

Sydney Smith.

3. (Scots Law) Sufficient to support the cause.

Rel"e*vant*ly, adv. In a relevant manner.

Rel`e*va"tion (-v?"sh?n), n. [L. relevatio, fr. relevare. See Relieve.] A raising or lifting up. [Obs.]

Re*li`a*bil"i*ty (r?-l?`?-b?l"?-t?), n. The state or quality of being reliable; reliableness.

Re*li"a*ble (r?-l?"?-b'l), a. Suitable or fit to be relied on; worthy of dependance or reliance; trustworthy. "A reliable witness to the truth of the miracles." A. Norton.

The best means, and most reliable pledge, of a higher object.


According to General Livingston's humorous account, his own village of Elizabethtown was not much more reliable, being peopled in those agitated times by "unknown, unrecommended strangers, guilty-looking Tories, and very knavish Whigs."

W. Irving.

Some authors take exception to this word, maintaining that it is unnecessary, and irregular in formation. It is, however, sanctioned by the practice of many careful writers as a most convenient substitute for the phrase to be relied upon, and a useful synonym for trustworthy, which is by preference applied to persons, as reliable is to things, such as an account, statement, or the like. The objection that adjectives derived from neuter verbs do not admit of a passive sense is met by the citation of laughable, worthy of being laughed at, from the neuter verb to laugh; available, fit or able to be availed of, from the neuter verb to avail; dispensable, capable of being dispensed with, from the neuter verb to dispense. Other examples might be added.

-- Re*li"a*ble*ness, n. -- Re*li"a*bly, adv.

Re*li"ance (-ans), n. [From Rely.] 1. The act of relying, or the condition or quality of being reliant; dependence; confidence; trust; repose of mind upon what is deemed sufficient support or authority.

In reliance on promises which proved to be of very little value.


2. Anything on which to rely; dependence; ground of trust; as, the boat was a poor reliance. Richardson.

Re*li"ant (-ant), a. Having, or characterized by, reliance; confident; trusting.

Rel"ic (r?l"?k), n. [F. relique, from L. reliquiae, pl., akin to relinquere to leave behind. See Relinquish.] [Formerly written also relique.] 1. That which remains; that which is left after loss or decay; a remaining portion; a remnant. Chaucer. Wyclif.

The relics of lost innocence.


The fragments, scraps, the bits and greasy relics.


2. The body from which the soul has departed; a corpse; especially, the body, or some part of the body, of a deceased saint or martyr; -- usually in the plural when referring to the whole body.

There are very few treasuries of relics in Italy that have not a tooth or a bone of this saint.


Thy relics, Rowe, to this fair urn we trust,
And sacred place by Dryden's awful dust.


3. Hence, a memorial; anything preserved in remembrance; as, relics of youthful days or friendships.

The pearls were spilt;
Some lost, some stolen, some as relics kept.


Rel"ic*ly, adv. In the manner of relics. [Obs.]

Rel"ict (-?kt), n. [L. relicta, fr. of relictus, p. p. of relinquere to leave behind. See Relinquish.] A woman whose husband is dead; a widow.

Eli dying without issue, Jacob was obliged by law to marry his relict, and so to raise up seed to his brother Eli.


Re*lict"ed (r?-l?kt"?d), a. [L. relictus, p. p.] (Law) Left uncovered, as land by recession of water. Bouvier.

Re*lic"tion (r?-l?k"sh?n), n. [L. relictio a leaving behind.] (Law) A leaving dry; a recession of the sea or other water, leaving dry land; land left uncovered by such recession. Burrill.

Re*lief" (r?-l?f"), n. [OE. relef, F. relief, properly, a lifting up, a standing out. See Relieve, and cf. Basrelief, Rilievi.] 1. The act of relieving, or the state of being relieved; the removal, or partial removal, of any evil, or of anything oppressive or burdensome, by which some ease is obtained; succor; alleviation; comfort; ease; redress.

He sees the dire contagion spread so fast,
That, where it seizes, all relief is vain.


2. Release from a post, or from the performance of duty, by the intervention of others, by discharge, or by relay; as, a relief of a sentry.

For this relief much thanks; 'tis bitter cold.


3. That which removes or lessens evil, pain, discomfort, uneasiness, etc.; that which gives succor, aid, or comfort; also, the person who relieves from performance of duty by taking the place of another; a relay.

4. (Feudal Law) A fine or composition which the heir of a deceased tenant paid to the lord for the privilege of taking up the estate, which, on strict feudal principles, had lapsed or fallen to the lord on the death of the tenant.

5. (Sculp. & Arch.) The projection of a figure above the ground or plane on which it is formed.

Relief is of three kinds, namely, high relief (altorilievo), low relief, (basso-rilievo), and demirelief (mezzo-rilievo). See these terms in the Vocabulary.

6. (Paint.) The appearance of projection given by shading, shadow, etc., to any figure.

7. (Fort.) The height to which works are raised above the bottom of the ditch. Wilhelm.

8. (Physical Geog.) The elevations and surface undulations of a country. Guyot.

Relief valve, a valve arranged for relieving pressure of steam, gas, or liquid; an escape valve.

Syn. -- Alleviation; mitigation; aid; help; succor; assistance; remedy; redress; indemnification.

Re*lief"ful (r?-l?f"f?l), a. Giving relief. [Obs.]

Re*lief"less, a. Destitute of relief; also, remediless.

Re*li"er (r?-l?"?r), n. [From Rely.] One who relies.

Re*liev"a*ble (r?-l?v"?-b'l), a. Capable of being relieved; fitted to recieve relief. Sir M. Hale.

Re*lieve" (r?-l?v"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relieved (-l?vd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Relieving.] [OE. releven, F. relever to raise again, discharge, relieve, fr. L. relevare to lift up, raise, make light, relieve; pref. re- re- + levare to raise, fr. levis light. See Levity, and cf. Relevant, Relief.] 1. To lift up; to raise again, as one who has fallen; to cause to rise. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

2. To cause to seem to rise; to put in relief; to give prominence or conspicuousness to; to set off by contrast.

Her tall figure relieved against the blue sky; seemed almost of supernatural height.

Sir W. Scott.

3. To raise up something in; to introduce a contrast or variety into; to remove the monotony or sameness of.

The poet must . . . sometimes relieve the subject with a moral reflection.


4. To raise or remove, as anything which depresses, weighs down, or crushes; to render less burdensome or afflicting; to alleviate; to abate; to mitigate; to lessen; as, to relieve pain; to relieve the wants of the poor.

5. To free, wholly or partly, from any burden, trial, evil, distress, or the like; to give ease, comfort, or consolation to; to give aid, help, or succor to; to support, strengthen, or deliver; as, to relieve a besieged town.

Now lend assistance and relieve the poor.


6. To release from a post, station, or duty; to put another in place of, or to take the place of, in the bearing of any burden, or discharge of any duty.

Who hath relieved you?


7. To ease of any imposition, burden, wrong, or oppression, by judicial or legislative interposition, as by the removal of a grievance, by indemnification for losses, or the like; to right.

Syn. -- To alleviate; assuage; succor; assist; aid; help; support; substain; ease; mitigate; lighten; diminish; remove; free; remedy; redress; indemnify.

Re*lieve"ment (-ment), n. The act of relieving, or the state of being relieved; relief; release. [Archaic.]

Re*liev"er (-?r), n. One who, or that which, relieves.

Re*liev"ing, a. Serving or tending to relieve.

Relieving arch (Arch.), a discharging arch. See under Discharge, v. t. -- Relieving tackle. (Naut.) (a) A temporary tackle attached to the tiller of a vessel during gales or an action, in case of accident to the tiller ropes. (b) A strong tackle from a wharf to a careened vessel, to prevent her from going over entirely, and to assist in righting her. Totten. Craig.

Re*lie"vo (r?-l?"v?), n. [It. rilievo.] See Relief, n., 5.

Re*light" (r?-l?t"), v. t. To light or kindle anew.

{ ||Re*li`gi`euse" (re-l?`zh?`?z"), n. f. ||Re*li`gi`eux" (re-l?`zh?`?"), n. m. } [F.] A person bound by monastic vows; a nun; a monk.

Re*li"gion (r*lj"n), n. [F., from L. religio; cf. religens pious, revering the gods, Gr. 'ale`gein to heed, have a care. Cf. Neglect.] 1. The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers.

An orderly life so far as others are able to observe us is now and then produced by prudential motives or by dint of habit; but without seriousness there can be no religious principle at the bottom, no course of conduct from religious motives; in a word, there can be no religion.


Religion [was] not, as too often now, used as equivalent for godliness; but . . . it expressed the outer form and embodiment which the inward spirit of a true or a false devotion assumed.


Religions, by which are meant the modes of divine worship proper to different tribes, nations, or communities, and based on the belief held in common by the members of them severally. . . . There is no living religion without something like a doctrine. On the other hand, a doctrine, however elaborate, does not constitute a religion.

C. P. Tiele (Encyc. Brit.).

Religion . . . means the conscious relation between man and God, and the expression of that relation in human conduct.

J. Köstlin (Schaff-Herzog Encyc.)

After the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee.

Acts xxvi. 5.

The image of a brute, adorned
With gay religions full of pomp and gold.


2. Specifically, conformity in faith and life to the precepts inculcated in the Bible, respecting the conduct of life and duty toward God and man; the Christian faith and practice.

Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion.


Religion will attend you . . . as a pleasant and useful companion in every proper place, and every temperate occupation of life.


3. (R. C. Ch.) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of life; the religious state; as, to enter religion. Trench.

A good man was there of religion.


4. Strictness of fidelity in conforming to any practice, as if it were an enjoined rule of conduct. [R.]

Those parts of pleading which in ancient times might perhaps be material, but at this time are become only mere styles and forms, are still continued with much religion.

Sir M. Hale.

Religion, as distinguished from theology, is subjective, designating the feelings and acts of men which relate to God; while theology is objective, and denotes those ideas which man entertains respecting the God whom he worships, especially his systematized views of God. As distinguished from morality, religion denotes the influences and motives to human duty which are found in the character and will of God, while morality describes the duties to man, to which true religion always influences. As distinguished from piety, religion is a high sense of moral obligation and spirit of reverence or worship which affect the heart of man with respect to the Deity, while piety, which first expressed the feelings of a child toward a parent, is used for that filial sentiment of veneration and love which we owe to the Father of all. As distinguished from sanctity, religion is the means by which sanctity is achieved, sanctity denoting primarily that purity of heart and life which results from habitual communion with God, and a sense of his continual presence.

Natural religion, a religion based upon the evidences of a God and his qualities, which is supplied by natural phenomena. See Natural theology, under Natural. -- Religion of humanity, a name sometimes given to a religion founded upon positivism as a philosophical basis. -- Revealed religion, that which is based upon direct communication of God's will to mankind; especially, the Christian religion, based on the revelations recorded in the Old and New Testaments.

Re*li"gion*a*ry (r?-l?j"?n-?-r?), a. Relating to religion; pious; as, religionary professions. [Obs.]

{ Re*li"gion*a*ry, Re*li"gion*er (-?r), } n. A religionist. [R.]

Re*li"gion*ism (-?z'm), n. 1. The practice of, or devotion to, religion.

2. Affectation or pretense of religion.

Re*li"gion*ist, n. One earnestly devoted or attached to a religion; a religious zealot.

The chief actors on one side were, and were to be, the Puritan religionists.


It might be that an Antinomian, a Quaker, or other heterodo&?; religionists, was to be scourged out of the town.


Re*li"gion*ize (-?z), v. t. To bring under the influence of religion. [R.] Mallock.

Re*li"gion*less, a. Destitute of religion.

Re*lig`i*os"i*ty (-l?j`?-?s"?-t?), n. [L. religiositas: cf. F. religiosit&?;.] The quality of being religious; religious feeling or sentiment; religiousness. [R.] M. Arnold.

Re*li"gious (r?-l?j"?s), a. [OF. religius, religious, F. religieux, from L. religiosus. See Religion.] 1. Of or pertaining to religion; concerned with religion; teaching, or setting forth, religion; set apart to religion; as, a religious society; a religious sect; a religious place; religious subjects, books, teachers, houses, wars.

Our law forbids at their religious rites
My presence.


2. Possessing, or conforming to, religion; pious; godly; as, a religious man, life, behavior, etc.

Men whose lives
Religious titled them the sons of God.


3. Scrupulously faithful or exact; strict.

Thus, Indianlike,
Religious in my error, I adore
The sun, that looks upon his worshiper.


4. Belonging to a religious order; bound by vows.

One of them is religious.


Syn. -- Pious; godly; holy; devout; devotional; conscientious; strict; rogod; exact.

Re*li"gious, n. A person bound by monastic vows, or sequestered from secular concern, and devoted to a life of piety and religion; a monk or friar; a nun. Addison.

Re*li"gious*ly, adv. In a religious manner. Drayton.

Re*li"gious*ness, n. The quality of being religious.

Rel"ik (r?l"?k), n. Relic. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*lin"quent (r?-l?n"kwent), a. [L. relinquens, p. pr. of relinqquere. See Relinquish.] Relinquishing. [R.]

Re*lin"quent, n. One who relinquishes. [R.]

Re*lin"quish (-kw?sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relinquished (-kw?sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Relinquishing.] [OF. relinquir, L. relinquere to leave behind; pref. re- re + linquere to leave. See Loan, and cf. Relic, Relict.]

1. To withdraw from; to leave behind; to desist from; to abandon; to quit; as, to relinquish a pursuit.

We ought to relinquish such rites.


They placed Irish tenants upon the lands relinquished by the English.

Sir J. Davies.

2. To give up; to renounce a claim to; resign; as, to relinquish a debt.

Syn. -- To resign; leave; quit; forsake; abandon; desert; renounce; forb&?;ar; forego. See Resign.

Re*lin"quish*er (-r?r), n. One who relinquishes.

Re*lin"quish*ment (-ment), n. The act of relinquishing.

Rel"i*qua*ry (r?l"?-kw?-r?), n.; pl. -ries (-rz). [LL. reliquiarium, reliquiare: cf. F. reliquaire. See Relic.] A depositary, often a small box or casket, in which relics are kept.

Re*lique" (r?-l?k"), n. [F.] See Relic. Chaucer.

||Re*liq"ui*æ (r?-l?k"w?-?), n. pl. [L. See Relic.]

1. Remains of the dead; organic remains; relics.

2. (Bot.) Same as Induviæ.

<! p. 1215 !>

Re*liq"ui*an (r?-l?k"w?-an), a. Of or pertaining to a relic or relics; of the nature of a relic. [R.]

Re*liq"ui*date (r?-l?k"w?-d?t), v. t. To liquidate anew; to adjust a second time.

Re*liq`ui*da"tion (-d"sh?n), n. A second or renewed liquidation; a renewed adjustment. A. Hamilton.

Rel"ish (r?l"?sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relished (-&?;sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Relishing.] [Of. relechier to lick or taste anew; pref. re- re-+ lechier to lick, F. l&?;cher. See Lecher, Lick.] 1. To taste or eat with pleasure; to like the flavor of; to partake of with gratification; hence, to enjoy; to be pleased with or gratified by; to experience pleasure from; as, to relish food.

Now I begin to relish thy advice.


He knows how to prize his advantages, and to relish the honors which he enjoys.


2. To give a relish to; to cause to taste agreeably.

A savory bit that served to relish wine.


Rel"ish, v. i. To have a pleasing or appetizing taste; to give gratification; to have a flavor.

Had I been the finder-out of this secret, it would not have relished among my other discredits.


A theory, which, how much soever it may relish of wit and invention, hath no foundation in nature.


Rel"ish, n. 1. A pleasing taste; flavor that gratifies the palate; hence, enjoyable quality; power of pleasing.

Much pleasure we have lost while we abstained
From this delightful fruit, nor known till now
True relish, tasting.


When liberty is gone,
Life grows insipid, and has lost its relish.


2. Savor; quality; characteristic tinge.

It preserve some relish of old writing.


3. A taste for; liking; appetite; fondness.

A relish for whatever was excelent in arts.


I have a relish for moderate praise, because it bids fair to be j&?;dicious.


4. That which is used to impart a flavor; specifically, something taken with food to render it more palatable or to stimulate the appetite; a condiment.

Syn. -- Taste; savor; flavor; appetite; zest; gusto; liking; delight.

Rel"ish, n. (Carp.) The projection or shoulder at the side of, or around, a tenon, on a tenoned piece. Knight.

Rel"ish*a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being relished; agreeable to the taste; gratifying.

Re*live" (r?-l?v"), v. i. To live again; to revive.

Re*live", v. t. To recall to life; to revive. [Obs.]

Re*load" (r?-l?d"), v. t. To load again, as a gun.

Re*loan" (r?-l?n"), n. A second lending of the same thing; a renewal of a loan.

Re*lo"cate (r?-l?"k?t), v. t. To locate again.

Re`lo*ca"tion (r?`l-k?"sh?n), n. 1. A second location.

2. (Roman & Scots Law) Renewal of a lease.

Re*lodge" (r?-l?j"), v. t. To lodge again.

Re*love" (-l?v"), v. t. To love in return. [Obs.] Boyle.

Re*lu"cent (r?-l?"sent), a. [L. relucens, p. pr. relucere. See Lucent.] Reflecting light; shining; glittering; glistening; bright; luminous; splendid.

Gorgeous banners to the sun expand
Their streaming volumes of relucent gold.


Re*luct" (r?-l?kt"), v. i. [L. reluctari, p. p. reluctatus, to struggle; pref. re- re- + luctari to struggle, fr. lucia a wresting.] To strive or struggle against anything; to make resistance; to draw back; to feel or show repugnance or reluctance.

Apt to reluct at the excesses of it [passion].


{ Re*luc"tance (r?-l?k"tans), Re*luc"tan*cy (-tan-s?), } n. [See Reluctant.] The state or quality of being reluctant; repugnance; aversion of mind; unwillingness; -- often followed by an infinitive, or by to and a noun, formerly sometimes by against. "Tempering the severity of his looks with a reluctance to the action." Dryden.

He had some reluctance to obey the summons.

Sir W. Scott.

Bear witness, Heaven, with what reluctancy
Her helpless innocence I doom to die.


Syn. See Dislike.

Re*luc"tant (-tant), a. [L. reluctans, -antis, p. pr. of reluctari. See Reluct.] 1. Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling; disinclined; loth.

Reluctant, but in vain.


Reluctant now I touched the trembling string.


2. Proceeding from an unwilling mind; granted with reluctance; as, reluctant obedience. Mitford.

Syn. -- Averse; unwilling; loth; disinclined; repugnant; backward; coy. See Averse.

Re*luc"tant*ly, adv. In a reluctant manner.

Re*luc"tate (-t?t), v. i. [See Reluct.] To struggle against anything; to resist; to oppose. [Obs.] "To delude their reluctating consciences." Dr. H. More.

Rel`uc*ta"tion (r?l`?k-t?"sh?n), n. Repugnance; resistance; reluctance. [Obs.] Bacon.

Re*lume" (r?-l?m"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relumed (-l?md"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reluming.] [OF. relumer (cf. F. rallumer), L. reluminare; pref. re- re- + luminare to light. Cf. Reillume.] To rekindle; to light again.

Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new.


I know not where is that Promethean heat
That can thy light relume.


Re*lu"mine (r?-l?"m?n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Relumined (-m?nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Relumining.] [See Relume.] 1. To light anew; to rekindle. Shak.

2. To illuminate again.

Re*ly" (r?-l?"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Relied (-l?d"); p. pr. & vb. n. Relying.] [Pref. re- + lie to rest.] To rest with confidence, as when fully satisfied of the veracity, integrity, or ability of persons, or of the certainty of facts or of evidence; to have confidence; to trust; to depend; -- with on, formerly also with in.

Go in thy native innocence; rely
On what thou hast of virtue.


On some fond breast the parting soul relies.


Syn. -- To trust; depend; confide; repose.

Re*made" (r?-m?d"), imp. & p. p. of Remake.

Re*main" (r?-m?n"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Remained (-m?nd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Remaining.] [OF. remaindre, remanoir, L. remanere; pref. re- re- + manere to stay, remain. See Mansion, and cf. Remainder, Remnant.]

1. To stay behind while others withdraw; to be left after others have been removed or destroyed; to be left after a number or quantity has been subtracted or cut off; to be left as not included or comprised.

Gather up the fragments that remain.

John vi. 12.

Of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.

1 Cor. xv. 6.

That . . . remains to be proved.


2. To continue unchanged in place, form, or condition, or undiminished in quantity; to abide; to stay; to endure; to last.

Remain a widow at thy father's house.

Gen. xxxviii. 11.

Childless thou art; childless remain.


Syn. -- To continue; stay; wait; tarry; rest; sojourn; dwell; abide; last; endure.

Re*main", v. t. To await; to be left to. [Archaic]

The easier conquest now remains thee.


Re*main" n. 1. State of remaining; stay. [Obs.]

Which often, since my here remain in England,
I 've seen him do.


2. That which is left; relic; remainder; -- chiefly in the plural. "The remains of old Rome." Addison.

When this remain of horror has entirely subsided.


3. Specif., in the plural: (a) That which is left of a human being after the life is gone; relics; a dead body.

Old warriors whose adored remains
In weeping vaults her hallowed earth contains!


(b) The posthumous works or productions, esp. literary works, of one who is dead; as, Cecil's Remains.

Re*main"der (r?-m?n"d?r), n. [OF. remaindre, inf. See Remain.] 1. Anything that remains, or is left, after the separation and removal of a part; residue; remnant. "The last remainders of unhappy Troy." Dryden.

If these decoctions be repeated till the water comes off clear, the remainder yields no salt.


2. (Math.) The quantity or sum that is left after subtraction, or after any deduction.

3. (Law) An estate in expectancy, generally in land, which becomes an estate in possession upon the determination of a particular prior estate, created at the same time, and by the same instrument; for example, if land be conveyed to A for life, and on his death to B, A's life interest is a particuar estate, and B's interest is a remainder, or estate in remainder.

Syn. -- Balance; rest; residue; remnant; leavings.

Re*main"der, a. Remaining; left; left over; refuse.

Which is as dry as the remainder biscuit
After a voyage.


Re*main"der-man (- mn), n.; pl. Remainder-men (-mn). (Law) One who has an estate after a particular estate is determined. See Remainder, n., 3. Blackstone.

Re*make" (r?-m?k"), v. t. To make anew.

Re*mand" (r?-m?nd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remanded; p. pr. & vb. n. Remanding.] [F. remander to send word again, L. remandare; pref. re- re- + mandare to commit, order, send word. See Mandate.] To recommit; to send back.

Remand it to its former place.


Then were they remanded to the cage again.


Re*mand", n. The act of remanding; the order for recommitment.

Re*mand"ment (-ment), n. A remand.

{ Rem"a*nence (r?m"?*nens), Rem"a*nen*cy (-nen*s?), } n. [Cf. OF. remanence, LL. remanentia, fr. L. remanens. See Remanent, a.] The state of being remanent; continuance; permanence. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

The remanence of the will in the fallen spirit.


Rem"a*nent (-nent), n. [See Remanent, a.] That which remains; a remnant; a residue.

Rem"a*nent, a. [L. remanens, p. pr. of remanere. See Remain, and cf. Remnant.] Remaining; residual.

That little hope that is remanent hath its degree according to the infancy or growth of the habit.

Jer. Taylor.

Remanent magnetism (Physics), magnetism which remains in a body that has little coercive force after the magnetizing force is withdrawn, as soft iron; -- called also residual magnetism.

||Rem"a*net (-n?t), n. [L., it remains.] (Legal Practice) A case for trial which can not be tried during the term; a postponed case. [Eng.]

Re-mark" (r?-m?rk"), v. t. [Pref. re- + mark.] To mark again, or a second time; to mark anew.

Re*mark" (r?-m?rk"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remarked (-m?rkt"); p. pr. & vb. n. Remarking.] [F. remarquer; pref. re- re- + marquer to mark, marque a mark, of German origin, akin to E. mark. See Mark, v.& n.] 1. To mark in a notable manner; to distinquish clearly; to make noticeable or conspicuous; to piont out. [Obs.]

Thou art a man remarked to taste a mischief.


His manacles remark him; there he sits.


2. To take notice of, or to observe, mentally; as, to remark the manner of a speaker.

3. To express in words or writing, as observed or noticed; to state; to say; -- often with a substantive clause; as, he remarked that it was time to go.

Syn. -- To observe; notice; heed; regard; note; say. -- Remark, Observe, Notice. To observe is to keep or hold a thing distinctly before the mind. To remark is simply to mark or take note of whatever may come up. To notice implies still less continuity of attention. When we turn from these mental states to the expression of them in language, we find the same distinction. An observation is properly the result of somewhat prolonged thought; a remark is usually suggested by some passing occurence; a notice is in most cases something cursory and short. This distinction is not always maintained as to remark and observe, which are often used interchangeably. "Observing men may form many judgments by the rules of similitude and proportion." I. Watts. "He can not distinguish difficult and noble speculations from trifling and vulgar remarks." Collier. "The thing to be regarded, in taking notice of a child's miscarriage, is what root it springs from." Locke.

Re*mark" (r?-m?rk"), v. i. To make a remark or remarks; to comment.

Re*mark", n. [Cf. F. remarque.] 1. Act of remarking or attentively noticing; notice or observation.

The cause, though worth the search, may yet elude
Conjecture and remark, however shrewd.


2. The expression, in speech or writing, of something remarked or noticed; the mention of that which is worthy of attention or notice; hence, also, a casual observation, comment, or statement; as, a pertinent remark.

Syn. -- Observation; note; comment; annotation.

Re*mark"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. [F. remarquable.] Worthy of being remarked or noticed; noticeable; conspicuous; hence, uncommon; extraordinary.

'T is remarkable, that they
Talk most who have the least to say.


There is nothing left remarlable
Beneath the visiting moon.


Syn. -- Observable; noticeable; extraordinary; unusual; rare; strange; wonderful; notable; eminent.

-- Re*mark"a*ble*ness, n. -- Re*mark"a*bly, adv.

Re*mark"er (-?r), n. One who remarks.

Re*mar"riage (r?-m?r"r?j), n. A second or repeated marriage.

Re*mar"ry (r?-m?r"rr?), v. t. & i. To marry again.

Re*mast" (r?-m?st"), v. t. To furnish with a new mast or set of masts.

Re*mas"ti*cate (r?-m?s"t?-k?t), v. t. To chew or masticate again; to chew over and over, as the cud.

Re*mas`ti*ca"tion (-k?"sh?n), n. The act of masticating or chewing again or repeatedly.

Rem"berge (r?m"b?rj), n. See Ramberge.

||Rem`blai" (r?n`bl?"), n. [F., fr. remblayer to fill up an excavation, to embank.] (Fort. & Engin.) Earth or materials made into a bank after having been excavated.

Rem"ble (r&?;m"b'l), v. t. [Cf. OF. embler to steal, fr. L. involare to fly into or at, to carry off.] To remove. [Prov. Eng.] Grose. Tennyson.

Reme (r&?;m), n. Realm. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*mean" (r&?;-m&?;n"), v. t. To give meaning to; to explain the meaning of; to interpret. [Obs.] Wyclif.

Re"me*ant (r&?;"m&?;*ant), a. [L. remeans, -antis, p. pr. of remeare to go or come back.] Coming back; returning. [R.] "Like the remeant sun." C. Kingsley.

Re*meas"ure (r?-m?zh"?r; 135), v. t. To measure again; to retrace.

They followed him . . .
The way they came, their steps remeasured right.


Re*mede" (r?-m?d"), n. Remedy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*me"di*a*ble (r?-m?"d?-?-b'l), a. [L. remediabilis: cf. F. remédiable.] Capable of being remedied or cured.

-- Re*me"di*a*ble*ness, n. - Re*me"di*a*bly, adv.

Re*me"di*al (-al), a. [L. remedialis.] Affording a remedy; intended for a remedy, or for the removal or abatement of an evil; as, remedial treatment.

Statutes are declaratory or remedial.


It is an evil not compensated by any beneficial result; it is not remedial, not conservative.

I. Taylor.

Re*me"di*al*ly, adv. In a remedial manner.

Re*me"di*ate (-?t), a. Remedial. [R.] Shak.

Re*med"i*less (r?-m?d"?-l?s or r?m"?-d?-l?s; 277), a. 1. Not admitting of a remedy; incapable of being restored or corrected; incurable; irreparable; as, a remediless mistake or loss. "Chains remedilesse." Spenser.

Hopeless are all my evils, all remediless.


2. Not answering as a remedy; ineffectual. [Obs.]

Forced to forego the attempt remediless.


Syn. -- Incurable; cureless; irremediable; irrecoverable; irretrievable; irreparable; desperate.

-- Re*med"i*less, adv. [Obs.] Udall. -- Re*med"i*less*ly, adv. -- Re*med"i*less*ness, n.

Rem"e*dy (r?m"?-d?), n.; pl. Remedies (-d&?;z). [L. remedium; pref. re- re- + mederi to heal, to cure: cf. F. remède remedy, remédier to remedy. See Medical.]

1. That which relieves or cures a disease; any medicine or application which puts an end to disease and restores health; -- with for; as, a remedy for the gout.

2. That which corrects or counteracts an evil of any kind; a corrective; a counteractive; reparation; cure; -- followed by for or against, formerly by to.

What may else be remedy or cure
To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought,
He will instruct us.


3. (Law) The legal means to recover a right, or to obtain redress for a wrong.

Civil remedy. See under Civil. -- Remedy of the mint (Coinage), a small allowed deviation from the legal standard of weight and fineness; -- called also tolerance.

Syn. -- Cure; restorative; counteraction; reparation; redress; relief; aid; help; assistance.

Rem"e*dy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remedied (-d?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Remedying.] [L. remediare, remediari: cf. F. rem&?;dier. See Remedy, n.] To apply a remedy to; to relieve; to cure; to heal; to repair; to redress; to correct; to counteract.

I will remedy this gear ere long.


Re*melt" (r?-m?lt"), v. t. To melt again.

Re*mem"ber (r?-m?m"b?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remembered (-b?rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Remembering.] [OF. remebrer, L. rememorari; pref. re- re- + memorare to bring to remembrance, from memor mindful. See Memory, and cf. Rememorate.] 1. To have ( a notion or idea) come into the mind again, as previously perceived, known, or felt; to have a renewed apprehension of; to bring to mind again; to think of again; to recollect; as, I remember the fact; he remembers the events of his childhood; I cannot remember dates.

We are said to remember anything, when the idea of it arises in the mind with the consciousness that we have had this idea before.

I. Watts.

2. To be capable of recalling when required; to keep in mind; to be continually aware or thoughtful of; to preserve fresh in the memory; to attend to; to think of with gratitude, affection, respect, or any other emotion.

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.

Ex. xx. 8.

That they may have their wages duly paid 'em,
And something over to remember me by.


Remember what I warn thee; shun to taste.


<! p. 1216 !>

3. To put in mind; to remind; -- also used reflexively and impersonally. [Obs.] "Remembering them the trith of what they themselves known." Milton.

My friends remembered me of home.


Remember you of passed heaviness.


And well thou wost [knowest] if it remember thee.


4. To mention. [Obs.] "As in many cases hereafter to be remembered." Ayliffe.

5. To recall to the mind of another, as in the friendly messages, remember me to him, he wishes to be remembered to you, etc.

Re*mem"ber (r?-m?m"b?r), v. i. To execise or have the power of memory; as, some remember better than others. Shak.

Re*mem"ber*a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable or worthy of being remembered. -- Re*mem"ber*a*bly, adv.

The whole vale of Keswick is so rememberable.


Re*mem"ber*er (-?r), n. One who remembers.

Re*mem"brance (-brans), n. [OF. remembrance.]

1. The act of remembering; a holding in mind, or bringing to mind; recollection.

Lest fierce remembrance wake my sudden rage.


Lest the remembrance of his grief should fail.


2. The state of being remembered, or held in mind; memory; recollection.

This, ever grateful, in remembrance bear.


3. Something remembered; a person or thing kept in memory. Shak.

4. That which serves to keep in or bring to mind; a memorial; a token; a memento; a souvenir; a memorandum or note of something to be remembered.

And on his breast a bloody cross he bore,
The dear remembrance of his dying Lord.


Keep this remembrance for thy Julia's sake.


5. Something to be remembered; counsel; admoni&?;&?;on; instruction. [Obs.] Shak.

6. Power of remembering; reach of personal knowledge; period over which one's memory extends.

Thee I have heard relating what was done
Ere my remembrance.


Syn. -- Recollection; reminiscence. See Memory.

Re*mem"bran*cer (-bran-s?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, serves to bring to, or keep in, mind; a memento; a memorial; a reminder.

Premature consiolation is but the remembrancer of sorrow.


Ye that are the lord's remembrancers.

Isa. lxii. 6. (Rev. Ver.).

2. A term applied in England to several officers, having various functions, their duty originally being to bring certain matters to the attention of the proper persons at the proper time. "The remembrancer of the lord treasurer in the exchequer." Bacon.

Re*mem"o*rate (-?-r?t), v. i. [L. rememoratus, p. p. of rememorari. See Remember.] To recall something by means of memory; to remember. [Obs.] Bryskett.

Re*mem`o*ra"tion (-r?"sh?n), n. [F. remémoration, or L. rememoratio.] A recalling by the faculty of memory; remembrance. [Obs. & R.] Bp. Montagu.

Re*mem"o*ra*tive (r?-mEm"?-r?-t?v), a. Tending or serving to remind. [R.]

Rem"e*nant (r?m"?-nant), n. A remnant. [Obs.]

{ Re*mer"cie, Re*mer"cy } (r- mr"s), v. t. [F. remercier; pref. re- re- + OF. mercier to thank, from OF. & F. merci. See Mercy.] To thank. [Obs.]

She him remercied as the patron of her life.


Re*merge" (r?-m?rj"), v. i. To merge again. "Remerging in the general Soul." Tennyson.

{ Re*meve" (r?-mEv"), Re*mewe" (r?-m?") }, v. t. & i. To remove. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rem"i*form (r?m"?*f?rm), a. [L. remus oar + -form.] Shaped like an oar.

||Rem"i*ges (r?m"?*j?z), n. pl.; sing. Remex. (r&?;"m&?;ks). [L. remex, - igis, an oarsman.] (Zoöl.) The quill feathers of the wings of a bird.

Rem"i*grate (r?m"?-gr?t or r?-m?"gr?t; 277), v. i. [L. remigrare. See Re-, and Migrate.] To migrate again; to go back; to return. Boyle.

Rem`i*gra"tion (r?m`?-gr?"sh?n), n. Migration back to the place from which one came. Sir M. Hale.

Re*mind" (r?-m?nd"), v. t. To put (one) in mind of something; to bring to the remembrance of; to bring to the notice or consideration of (a person).

When age itself, which will not be defied, shall begin to arrest, seize, and remind us of our mortality.


Re*mind"er (-?r), n. One who, or that which, reminds; that which serves to awaken remembrance.

Re**mind"ful (f?l), a. Tending or adapted to remind; careful to remind. Southey.

Rem`i*nis"cence (r?m`?-n?s"sens), n. [F. réminiscence, L. reminiscentia.] 1. The act or power of recalling past experience; the state of being reminiscent; remembrance; memory.

The other part of memory, called reminiscence, which is the retrieving of a thing at present forgot, or but confusedly remembered.


I forgive your want of reminiscence, since it is long since I saw you.

Sir W. Scott.

2. That which is remembered, or recalled to mind; a statement or narration of remembered experience; a recollection; as, pleasing or painful reminiscences.

Syn. -- Remembrance; recollection. See Memory.

Rem`i*nis"cen*cy (-sen-s?), n. Reminiscence. [Obs.]

Rem`i*nis"cent (-sent), a. [L. reminiscens, -entis, p. pr. of reminisci to recall to mind, to recollect; pref. re- re + a word akin to mens mind, memini I remember. See Mind.] Recalling to mind, or capable of recalling to mind; having remembrance; reminding one of something.

Some other of existence of which we have been previously conscious, and are now reminiscent.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Rem`i*nis"cent (r?m`?-n?s"sent), n. One who is addicted to indulging, narrating, or recording reminiscences.

Rem`i*nis*cen"tial (-n?s-s?n"shal), a. Of or pertaining to reminiscence, or remembrance. Sir T. Browne.

Rem"i*ped (r?m"?-p?d), a. [L. remus oar + pes, pedis, foot: cf. F. rémipède.] (Zoöl.) Having feet or legs that are used as oars; -- said of certain crustaceans and insects.

Rem"i*ped, n. (Zoöl.) (a) An animal having limbs like oars, especially one of certain crustaceans. (b) One of a group of aquatic beetles having tarsi adapted for swimming. See Water beetle.

Re*mise" (r?-m?z"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remised (-m?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Remising.] [F. remise delivery, surrender, fr. remettre to put back, deliver, L. remittere. See Remit.] To send, give, or grant back; to release a claim to; to resign or surrender by deed; to return. Blackstone.

Re*mise", n. (Law) A giving or granting back; surrender; return; release, as of a claim.

Re*miss" (r?-m?s"), a. [L. remissus, p. p. of remittere to send back, relax. See Remit.] Not energetic or exact in duty or business; not careful or prompt in fulfilling engagements; negligent; careless; tardy; behindhand; lagging; slack; hence, lacking earnestness or activity; languid; slow.

Thou never wast remiss, I bear thee witness.


These nervous, bold; those languid and remiss.


Its motion becomes more languid and remiss.


Syn. -- Slack; dilatory; slothful; negligent; careless; neglectful; inattentive; heedles; thoughtless.

Re*miss", n. The act of being remiss; inefficiency; failure. [Obs.] "Remisses of laws." Puttenham.

Re*miss"ful (-f?l), a. Inclined to remit punishment; lenient; clement. Drayton.

Re*mis`si*bil"i*ty (r?-m?s`s?-b?l"?-t?), n. The state or quality of being remissible. Jer. Taylor.

Re*mis"si*ble (r?-m?s"s?-b'l), a. [L. remissibilis: cf. F. rémissible. See Remit.] Capable of being remitted or forgiven. Feltham.

Re*mis"sion (r?-m?sh"?n), n. [F. rémission, L. remissio. See Remit.] 1. The act of remitting, surrendering, resigning, or giving up.

2. Discharge from that which is due; relinquishment of a claim, right, or obligation; pardon of transgression; release from forfeiture, penalty, debt, etc.

This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

Matt. xxvi. 28.

That ples, therefore, . . .
Will gain thee no remission.


3. Diminution of intensity; abatement; relaxation.

4. (Med.) A temporary and incomplete subsidence of the force or violence of a disease or of pain, as destinguished from intermission, in which the disease completely leaves the patient for a time; abatement.

5. The act of sending back. [R.] Stackhouse.

6. Act of sending in payment, as money; remittance.

Re*mis"sive (r?-m?s"s?v), a. [L. remissivus. See Remit.] Remitting; forgiving; abating. Bp. Hacket.

Re*miss"ly (r?-m?s"l?), adv. In a remiss or negligent manner; carelessly.

Re*miss"ness, n. Quality or state of being remiss.

Re*mis"so*ry (r?-m?s"s?-r?), a. Serving or tending to remit, or to secure remission; remissive. "A sacrifice expiatory or remissory." Latimer.

Re*mit" (r?-m?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Remitting.] [L. remittere, remissum, to send back, to slacken, relax; pref. re- re- + mittere to send. See Mission, and cf. Remise, Remiss.] 1. To send back; to give up; to surrender; to resign.

In the case the law remits him to his ancient and more certain right.


In grevious and inhuman crimes, offenders should be remitted to their prince.


The prisoner was remitted to the guard.


2. To restore. [Obs.]

The archbishop was . . . remitted to his liberty.


3. (Com.) To transmit or send, esp. to a distance, as money in payment of a demand, account, draft, etc.; as, he remitted the amount by mail.

4. To send off or away; hence: (a) To refer or direct (one) for information, guidance, help, etc. "Remitting them . . . to the works of Galen." Sir T. Elyot. (b) To submit, refer, or leave (something) for judgment or decision. "Whether the counsel be good I remit it to the wise readers." Sir T. Elyot.

5. To relax in intensity; to make less violent; to abate.

So willingly doth God remit his ire.


6. To forgive; to pardon; to remove.

Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them.

John xx. 23.

7. To refrain from exacting or enforcing; as, to remit the performance of an obligation. "The sovereign was undoubtedly competent to remit penalties." Macaulay.

Syn. -- To relax; release; abate; relinguish; forgive; pardon; absolve.

Re*mit", v. i. 1. To abate in force or in violence; to grow less intense; to become moderated; to abate; to relax; as, a fever remits; the severity of the weather remits.

2. To send money, as in payment. Addison.

Re*mit"ment (-ment), n. The act of remitting, or the state of being remitted; remission.

Disavowing the remitment of Claudius.


Re*mit"tal (-tal), n. A remitting; a giving up; surrender; as, the remittal of the first fruits. Swift.

Re*mit"tance (r?-m?t"tans), n. 1. The act of transmitting money, bills, or the like, esp. to a distant place, as in satisfaction of a demand, or in discharge of an obligation.

2. The sum or thing remitted. Addison.

Re*mit`tee" (r?-m?t`t?"), n. (Com.) One to whom a remittance is sent.

Re*mit"tent (r?-m?t"tent), a. [L. remittens, p. pr. : cf. F. rémittent.] Remitting; characterized by remission; having remissions.

Remittent fever (Med.), a fever in which the symptoms temporarily abate at regular intervals, but do not wholly cease. See Malarial fever, under Malarial.

Re*mit"ter (-t?r), n. 1. One who remits. Specifically: (a) One who pardons. (b) One who makes remittance.

2. (Law) The sending or placing back of a person to a title or right he had before; the restitution of one who obtains possession of property under a defective title, to his rights under some valid title by virtue of which he might legally have entered into possession only by suit. Bouvier.

||Re*mit"ti*tur (-t?-t?r), n. [L., (it) is remitted.] (Law) (a) A remission or surrender, -- remittitur damnut being a remission of excess of damages. (b) A sending back, as when a record is remitted by a superior to an inferior court. Wharton.

Re*mit"tor (-t?r), n. (Law) One who makes a remittance; a remitter.

Re*mix" (r?-m?ks"), v. t. To mix again or repeatedly.

Rem"nant (r?m"nant), a. [OF. remanant, p. pr. of remanoir, remaindre. See Remanent, Remain.] Remaining; yet left. [R.] "Because of the remnant dregs of his disease." Fuller.

And quiet dedicate her remnant life
To the just duties of an humble wife.


Rem"nant, n. [OF. remanant. See Remnant, a.]

1. That which remains after a part is removed, destroyed, used up, performed, etc.; residue. Chaucer.

The remnant that are left of the captivity.

Neh. i. 3.

The remnant of my tale is of a length
To tire your patience.


2. A small portion; a slight trace; a fragment; a little bit; a scrap.

Some odd quirks and remnants of wit.


3. (Com.) An unsold end of piece goods, as cloth, ribbons, carpets, etc.

Syn. -- Residue; rest; remains; remainder.

Re*mod"el (r?-m?d"?l), v. t. To model or fashion anew; to change the form of.

The corporation had been remodeled.


Re*mod`i*fi*ca"tion (-?-f?-k?"sh?n), n. The act of remodifying; the state of being remodified.

Re*mod"i*fy (r?-m?d"?-f?), v. t. To modify again or anew; to reshape.

{ ||Ré`mo`lade" (r?`m?`l?d"), ||Ré`mou`lad" (r?`m??`l?d"), } n. [F.] A kind of piquant sauce or salad dressing resembling mayonnaise.

{ Re*mold", Re*mould" } (r*mld"), v. t. To mold or shape anew or again; to reshape.

Re*mol"lient (r?-m?l"yent or -l?-ent), a. [L. remolliens, p. pr. of remollire to mollify: cf. F. rémollient. See Mollient.] Mollifying; softening. [R.]

Re*mon`e*ti*za"tion (r?-m?n`?-t?-z?"sh?n or -m?n`-), n. The act of remonetizing.

Re*mon"e*tize (-t?z), v. t. To restore to use as money; as, to remonetize silver.

Re*mon"strance (-m?n"strans), n. [Cf. OF. remonstrance, F. remonstrance. See Remonstrate.] 1. The act of remonstrating; as: (a) A pointing out; manifestation; proof; demonstration. [Obs.]

You may marvel why I . . . would not rather
Make rash remonstrance of my hidden power
Than let him be so lost.


(b) Earnest presentation of reason in opposition to something; protest; expostulation.

2. (R.C.Ch.) Same as Monstrance.

Re*mon"strant (-strant), a. [LL. remonstranc, -antis, p. pr. of remonstrare: cf. OF. remonstrant, F. remontrant.] Inclined or tending to remonstrate; expostulatory; urging reasons in opposition to something.

Re*mon"strant, n. One who remonstrates; specifically (Eccl. Hist.), one of the Arminians who remonstrated against the attacks of the Calvinists in 1610, but were subsequently condemned by the decisions of the Synod of Dort in 1618. See Arminian.

Re*mon"strant*ly, adv. In a remonstrant manner.

Re*mon"strate (-str?t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remonstrated (-str&?;*t&?;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Remonstrating.] [LL. remonstratus, p. p. of remonstrare to remonstrate; L. pref. re- + monstrare to show. See Monster.] To point out; to show clearly; to make plain or manifest; hence, to prove; to demonstrate. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

I will remonstrate to you the third door.

B. Jonson.

Re*mon"strate, v. i. To present and urge reasons in opposition to an act, measure, or any course of proceedings; to expostulate; as, to remonstrate with a person regarding his habits; to remonstrate against proposed taxation.

It is proper business of a divine to state cases of conscience, and to remonstrate against any growing corruptions in practice, and especially in principles.


Syn. -- Expostulate, Remonstrate. These words are commonly interchangeable, the principal difference being that expostulate is now used especially to signify remonstrance by a superior or by one in authority. A son remonstrates against the harshness of a father; a father expostulates with his son on his waywardness. Subjects remonstrate with their rulers; sovereigns expostulate with the parliament or the people.

Re`mon*stra"tion (r?`m?n*str?"sh?n), n. [Cf. OF. remonstration, LL. remonstratio.] The act of remonstrating; remonstrance. [R.] Todd.

Re*mon"stra*tive (r?*m?n"str?*t?v), a. Having the character of a remonstrance; expressing remonstrance.

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Re*mon"stra*tor (r?*m?n"str?*t?r), n. One who remonstrates; a remonsrant. Bp. Burnet.

Re*mon"tant (-tant), a.[F.] (Hort.) Rising again; -- applied to a class of roses which bloom more than once in a season; the hybrid perpetual roses, of which the Jacqueminot is a well-known example.

||Re*mon`toir" (re-m?n"tw?r"; E. r?- m?n"tw?r), n. [F.] (Horology) See under Escapement.

||Rem"o*ra (r?m"?*r?), n. [L.: cf. F. rémora.]

1. Delay; obstacle; hindrance. [Obs.] Milton.

2. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of fishes belonging to Echeneis, Remora, and allied genera. Called also sucking fish.

The anterior dorsal fin is converted into a large sucking disk, having two transverse rows of lamellæ, situated on the top of the head. They adhere firmly to sharks and other large fishes and to vessels by this curious sucker, letting go at will. The pegador, or remora of sharks (Echeneis naucrates), and the swordfish remora (Remora brachyptera), are common American species.

3. (Surg.) An instrument formerly in use, intended to retain parts in their places. Dunglison.

Rem"o*rate (-r?t), v. t. [L. remoratus, p. p. of remorari; pref. re- re- + morari to delay.] To hinder; to delay. [Obs.] Johnson.

Re*mord" (r?-m?rd"), v. t. [L. remordere to bite again, to torment: cf. F. remordre. See Remorse.] To excite to remorse; to rebuke. [Obs.] Skelton.

Re*mord", v. i. To feel remorse. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.

Re*mord"en*cy (-en*s?), n. Remorse; compunction; compassion. [Obs.] Killingbeck.

Re*morse" (r?*m?rs"), n. [OE. remors, OF. remors,F. remords, LL. remorsus, fr. L. remordere, remorsum, to bite again or back, to torment; pref. re- re- + mordere to bite. See Morsel.] 1. The anguish, like gnawing pain, excited by a sense of guilt; compunction of conscience for a crime committed, or for the sins of one's past life. "Nero will be tainted with remorse." Shak.

2. Sympathetic sorrow; pity; compassion.

Curse on the unpardoning prince, whom tears can draw
To no remorse.


But evermore it seem'd an easier thing
At once without remorse to strike her dead.


Syn. -- Compunction; regret; anguish; grief; compassion. See Compunction.

Re*morsed" (r?-m?rst"), a. Feeling remorse. [Obs.]

Re*morse"ful (-m?rs"f?l), a. 1. Full of remorse.

The full tide of remorseful passion had abated.

Sir W. Scott.

2. Compassionate; feeling tenderly. [Obs.] Shak.

3. Exciting pity; pitiable. [Obs.] Chapman.

-- Re*morse"ful*ly, adv. -- Re*morse"ful*ness, n.

Re*morse"less, a. Being without remorse; having no pity; hence, destitute of sensibility; cruel; insensible to distress; merciless. "Remorseless adversaries." South. "With remorseless cruelty." Milton.

Syn. -- Unpitying; pitiless; relentless; unrelenting; implacable; merciless; unmerciful; savage; cruel.

-- Re*morse"less*ly, adv. -- Re*morse"less*ness, n.

Re*mote" (r?-m?t"), a. [Compar. Remoter (-?r); superl. Remotest.] [L. remotus, p. p. of removere to remove. See Remove.] 1. Removed to a distance; not near; far away; distant; -- said in respect to time or to place; as, remote ages; remote lands.

Places remote enough are in Bohemia.


Remote from men, with God he passed his days.


2. Hence, removed; not agreeing, according, or being related; -- in various figurative uses. Specifically: (a) Not agreeing; alien; foreign. "All these propositions, how remote soever from reason." Locke. (b) Not nearly related; not close; as, a remote connection or consanguinity. (c) Separate; abstracted. "Wherever the mind places itself by any thought, either amongst, or remote from, all bodies." Locke. (d) Not proximate or acting directly; primary; distant. "From the effect to the remotest cause." Granville. (e) Not obvious or sriking; as, a remote resemblance.

3. (Bot.) Separated by intervals greater than usual.

-- Re*mote"ly, adv. -- Re*mote"ness, n.

Re*mo"tion (r?-m?"sh?n), n. [L. remotio. See Remove.] 1. The act of removing; removal. [Obs.]

This remotion of the duke and her
Is practice only.


2. The state of being remote; remoteness. [R.]

The whitish gleam [of the stars] was the mask conferred by the enormity of their remotion.

De Quincey.

Re*mould" (r?-m?ld"), v. t. See Remold.

Re*mount" (r?-mount"), v. t. & i. To mount again.

Re*mount", n. The opportunity of, or things necessary for, remounting; specifically, a fresh horse, with his equipments; as, to give one a remount.

Re*mov"a*ble (r?-m??v"?-b'l), a. Admitting of being removed. Ayliffe. -- Re*mov`a*bil"i*ty (-&?;-b&?;l"&?;-t&?;), n.

Re*mov"al (-al), n. The act of removing, or the state of being removed.

Re*move" (r?-m??v"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Removed (-m??vd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Removing.] [OF. removoir, remouvoir, L. removere, remotum; pref. re- re- + movere to move. See Move.] 1. To move away from the position occupied; to cause to change place; to displace; as, to remove a building.

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor's landmark.

Deut. xix. 14.

When we had dined, to prevent the ladies' leaving us, I generally ordered the table to be removed.


2. To cause to leave a person or thing; to cause to cease to be; to take away; hence, to banish; to destroy; to put an end to; to kill; as, to remove a disease. "King Richard thus removed." Shak.

3. To dismiss or discharge from office; as, the President removed many postmasters.

See the Note under Remove, v. i.

Re*move" (r?-m??v"), v. i. To change place in any manner, or to make a change in place; to move or go from one residence, position, or place to another.

Till Birnam wood remove to Dunsinane,
I can not taint with fear.


The verb remove, in some of its application, is synonymous with move, but not in all. Thus we do not apply remove to a mere change of posture, without a change of place or the seat of a thing. A man moves his head when he turns it, or his finger when he bends it, but he does not remove it. Remove usually or always denotes a change of place in a body, but we never apply it to a regular, continued course or motion. We never say the wind or water, or a ship, removes at a certain rate by the hour; but we say a ship was removed from one place in a harbor to another. Move is a generic term, including the sense of remove, which is more generally applied to a change from one station or permanent position, stand, or seat, to another station.

Re*move", n. 1. The act of removing; a removal.

This place should be at once both school and university, not needing a remove to any other house of scholarship.


And drags at each remove a lengthening chain.


2. The transfer of one's business, or of one's domestic belongings, from one location or dwelling house to another; - - in the United States usually called a move.

It is an English proverb that three removes are as bad as a fire.

J. H. Newman.

3. The state of being removed. Locke.

4. That which is removed, as a dish removed from table to make room for something else.

5. The distance or space through which anything is removed; interval; distance; stage; hence, a step or degree in any scale of gradation; specifically, a division in an English public school; as, the boy went up two removes last year.

A freeholder is but one remove from a legislator.


6. (Far.) The act of resetting a horse's shoe. Swift.

Re*moved" (r?-m??vd"), a. 1. Changed in place.

2. Dismissed from office.

3. Distant in location; remote. "Something finer than you could purchase in so removed a dwelling." Shak.

4. Distant by degrees in relationship; as, a cousin once removed.

-- Re*mov"ed*ness (r&?;-m&?;&?;v"&?;d-n&?;s), n. Shak.

Re*mov"er (-?r), n. One who removes; as, a remover of landmarks. Bacon.

Re*mu"a*ble (r?-m?"?-b'l), a. [F.] That may be removed; removable. [Obs.] Gower.

Re*mue" (r?-m?"), v. t. [F. remuer. See Mew to molt.] To remove. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*mu"gi*ent (r?-m?"j?-ent), a. [L. remugiens, p. pr. of remugire. See Mugient.] Rebellowing. Dr. H. More.

Re**mu"ner*a*ble (r?-m?"n?r-?-b'l), a. [See Remunerate.] Admitting, or worthy, of remuneration. -- Re*mu`ner*a*bil"i*ty (r&?;-m&?;"n&?;r- &?;-b&?;l"i-t&?;), n.

Re*mu"ner*ate (-?t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Remunerated (-?"t?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Remunerating.] [L. remuneratus, p. p. of remunerare, remunerari; pref. re- re- + munerare, munerari, to give, present, from munus, muneris, a gift, present. Cf. Munificent.] To pay an equivalent to for any service, loss, expense, or other sacrifice; to recompense; to requite; as, to remunerate men for labor.

Syn. -- To reward; recompense; compensate; satisfy; requite; repay; pay; reimburse.

Re*mu`ner*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [L. remuneratio: cf. F. rémunération.] 1. The act of remunerating.

2. That which is given to remunerate; an equivalent given, as for services, loss, or sufferings. Shak.

Syn. -- Reward; recompense; compensation; pay; payment; repayment; satisfaction; requital.

Re*mu"ner*a*tive (r?-m?"n?r-?-t?v), a. [Cf.F. rémun&?;ratif.] Affording remuneration; as, a remunerative payment for services; a remunerative business. -Re*mu"ner*a*tive*ly, adv. -- Re*mu"ner*a*tive*ness, n.

Re*mu"ner*a*to*ry (-t?-r?), a. [Cf. F. rémun&?;ratoire.] Remunerative. Johnson.

Re*mur"mur (r?-m?r"m?r), v. t. & i. [Pref. re- + murmur: cf. F. remurmurare.] To murmur again; to utter back, or reply, in murmurs.

The trembling trees, in every plain and wood,
Her fate remurmur to the silver flood.


Ren (r?n), v. t. & i. See Renne. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren, n. A run. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren"a*ble (r?n"?-b'l), a. [OF. resnable.] Reasonable; also, loquacious. [Obs.] "Most renable of tongue." Piers Plowman. -- Ren"a*bly, adv. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Re*nais`sance" (F. re-n`säNs"; E. r-ns"sans), n. [F., fr. renaître to be born again. Cf. Renascence.] A new birth, or revival. Specifically: (a) The transitional movement in Europe, marked by the revival of classical learning and art in Italy in the 15th century, and the similar revival following in other countries. (b) The style of art which prevailed at this epoch.

The Renaissance was rather the last stage of the Middle Ages, emerging from ecclesiastical and feudal despotism, developing what was original in mediæval ideas by the light of classic arts and letters.

J. A. Symonds (Encyc. Brit.).

Re*nais"sant (r?-n?s"sant), a. Of or pertaining to the Renaissance.

Re"nal (r?"nal), a. [L. renalis, fr. renes the kidneys or reins: cf. F. rénal. See Reins.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the kidneys; in the region of the kidneys.

Renal calculus (Med.), a concretion formed in the excretory passages of the kidney. -- Renal capsules or glands, the suprarenal capsules. See under Capsule. -- Renal casts, Renal colic. (Med.) See under Cast, and Colic.

Re"nal-por`tal (r?"nal-p?r"tal), a. (Anat.) Both renal and portal. See Portal.

Re*name" (r?*n?m"), v. t. To give a new name to.

Ren"ard (r?n"?rd), n. [F. renard the fox, the name of the fox in a celebrated epic poem, and of German origin, G. Reinhard, OHG. Reginhard, properly, strong in counsel; regin counsel (akin to Goth. ragin) + hart hard. See Hard.] A fox; -- so called in fables or familiar tales, and in poetry. [Written also reynard.]

Ren"ard*ine (-?n), a. Of or pertaining to Renard, the fox, or the tales in which Renard is mentioned.

Re*nas"cence (r?-n?s"sens), n. [See Renascent, and cf. Renaissance.] 1. The state of being renascent.

Read the Ph&?;nix, and see how the single image of renascence is varied.


2. Same as Renaissance.

The Renascence . . . which in art, in literature, and in physics, produced such splendid fruits.

M. Arnold.

Re*nas"cen*cy (-sen-s?), n. State of being renascent.

Re*nas"cent (-sent), a. [L. renascens, p. pr. of renasci to be born again; pref. re- re- + nasci to be born. See Nascent.] 1. Springing or rising again into being; being born again, or reproduced.

2. See Renaissant.

Re*nas"ci*ble (-s?-b'l), a. [LL. renascibilis, from L. renasci to be born again.] Capable of being reproduced; ablle to spring again into being.

Re*nate" (r?-n?t"), a. [L. renatus, p. p. of renasci.] Born again; regenerate; renewed. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Re*nav"i*gate (r?-n?v"?-g?t), v. t. To navigate again.

Re*nay" (r?-n?"), v. t. [OF. reneier, F. renier, F. renier; L. pref. re- re- + negare to deny. See Renegade.] To deny; to disown. [Obs.]

Ren*con"tre (r?n-k?n"t?r; F. r?N`k?n"tr'), n. [F.] Same as Rencounter, n.

Ren*coun"ter (r?n-koun"t?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rencountered (-t?rd); p. pr. & vb/ n. Rencountering.] [F. rencontrer; pref. re- + OF. encontrer to encounter. See Encounter.] 1. To meet unexpectedly; to encounter.

2. To attack hand to hand. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ren*coun"ter, v. i. To meet unexpectedly; to encounter in a hostile manner; to come in collision; to skirmish.

Ren*coun"ter, n. [F. rencontre, from renconter to meet.] 1. A meeting of two persons or bodies; a collision; especially, a meeting in opposition or contest; a combat, action, or engagement.

The justling chiefs in rude rencounter join.


2. A causal combat or action; a sudden contest or fight without premeditation, as between individuals or small parties.

The confederates should . . . outnumber the enemy in all rencounters and engagements.


Syn. -- Combat; fight; conflict; collision; clash.

Rend (rnd), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rent (r?nt); p. pr. & vb. n. Rending.] [AS. rendan, hrendan; cf. OFries. renda, randa, Fries. renne to cut, rend, Icel. hrinda to push, thrust, AS. hrindan; or cf. Icel. r&?;na to rob, plunder, Ir. rannaim to divide, share, part, W. rhanu, Armor. ranna.] 1. To separate into parts with force or sudden violence; to tear asunder; to split; to burst; as, powder rends a rock in blasting; lightning rends an oak.

The dreadful thunder
Doth rend the region.


2. To part or tear off forcibly; to take away by force.

An empire from its old foundations rent.


I will surely rend the kingdom from thee.

1 Kings xi. 11.

To rap and rend. See under Rap, v. t., to snatch.

Syn. -- To tear; burst; break; rupture; lacerate; fracture; crack; split.

Rend, v. i. To be rent or torn; to become parted; to separate; to split. Jer. Taylor.

Rend"er (-?r), n. [From Rend.] One who rends.

Ren"der (r?n"d?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rendered (-d?rd);p. pr. & vb. n. Rendering.] [F. rendre, LL. rendre, fr. L. reddere; pref. red-, re-, re- + dare to give. See Datetime, and cf. Reddition, Rent.] 1. To return; to pay back; to restore.

Whose smallest minute lost, no riches render may.


2. To inflict, as a retribution; to requite.

I will render vengeance to mine enemies.

Deut. xxxii. 41.

3. To give up; to yield; to surrender.

I 'll make her render up her page to me.


4. Hence, to furnish; to contribute.

Logic renders its daily service to wisdom and virtue.

I. Watts.

5. To furnish; to state; to deliver; as, to render an account; to render judgment.

6. To cause to be, or to become; as, to render a person more safe or more unsafe; to render a fortress secure.

7. To translate from one language into another; as, to render Latin into English.

8. To interpret; to set forth, represent, or exhibit; as, an actor renders his part poorly; a singer renders a passage of music with great effect; a painter renders a scene in a felicitous manner.

He did render him the most unnatural
That lived amongst men.


9. To try out or extract (oil, lard, tallow, etc.) from fatty animal substances; as, to render tallow.

10. To plaster, as a wall of masonry, without the use of lath.

Ren"der, v. i. 1. To give an account; to make explanation or confession. [Obs.]

2. (Naut.) To pass; to run; -- said of the passage of a rope through a block, eyelet, etc.; as, a rope renders well, that is, passes freely; also, to yield or give way. Totten.

Ren"der, n. 1. A surrender. [Obs.] Shak.

2. A return; a payment of rent.

In those early times the king's household was supported by specific renders of corn and other victuals from the tenants of the demains.


3. An account given; a statement. [Obs.] Shak.

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Ren"der*a*ble (r?n"d?r-?-b'l), a. Capable of being rendered.

Ren"der*er (-?r), n. 1. One who renders.

2. A vessel in which lard or tallow, etc., is rendered.

Ren"der*ing, n. The act of one who renders, or that which is rendered. Specifically: (a) A version; translation; as, the rendering of the Hebrew text. Lowth. (b) In art, the presentation, expression, or interpretation of an idea, theme, or part. (c) The act of laying the first coat of plaster on brickwork or stonework. (d) The coat of plaster thus laid on. Gwilt. (e) The process of trying out or extracting lard, tallow, etc., from animal fat.

Ren"dez*vous (r?n"d?*v or r?n"-; 277), n.; pl. Rendezvouses (r&?;n"d&?;-v`z&?;z). [Rare in the plural.] [F. rendez- vous, properly, render yourselves, repair to a place. See Render.] 1. A place appointed for a meeting, or at which persons customarily meet.

An inn, the free rendezvous of all travelers.

Sir W. Scott.

2. Especially, the appointed place for troops, or for the ships of a fleet, to assemble; also, a place for enlistment.

The king appointed his whole army to be drawn together to a rendezvous at Marlborough.


3. A meeting by appointment. Sprat.

4. Retreat; refuge. [Obs.] Shak.

Ren"dez*vous (rn"d*v or räN"-; 277), v. i. [imp. &. p. p. Rendezvoused (-vd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rendezvousing (-v*ng).] To assemble or meet at a particular place.

Ren"dez*vous, v. t. To bring together at a certain place; to cause to be assembled. Echard.

Rend"i*ble (r?nd"?-b'l), a. [From Rend.] Capable of being rent or torn.

Ren"di*ble (r?n"d?-b'l), a. [See Render.] Capable, or admitting, of being rendered.

Ren*di"tion (r?n-d?sh"?n), n. [LL. rendere to render: cf. L. redditio. See Render, and cf. Reddition.]

1. The act of rendering; especially, the act of surrender, as of fugitives from justice, at the claim of a foreign government; also, surrender in war.

The rest of these brave men that suffered in cold blood after articles of rendition.


2. Translation; rendering; version.

This rendition of the word seems also most naturally to agree with the genuine meaning of some other words in the same verse.


Rend"rock` (r?nd"r?k`), n. A kind of dynamite used in blasting. [U.S.]

Ren"e*gade (r?n"?-g?d), n. [Sp. renegado, LL. renegatus, fr. renegare to deny; L. pref. re- re- + negare to deny. See Negation, and cf. Runagate.] One faithless to principle or party. Specifically: (a) An apostate from Christianity or from any form of religious faith.

James justly regarded these renegades as the most serviceable tools that he could employ.


(b) One who deserts from a military or naval post; a deserter. Arbuthnot. (c) A common vagabond; a worthless or wicked fellow.

Ren`e*ga"do (r?n`?-g?"d?), n. [Sp.] See Renegade.

Ren"e*gat (r?n"?-g?t), n. [See Runegate.] A renegade. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren`e*ga"tion (r?n`?-ga"sh?n), n. A denial. [R.] "Absolute renegation of Christ." Milman.

Re*nege" (r?-n?j" or r?-n?g"), v. t. [LL. renegare. See Renegade.] To deny; to disown. [Obs.] Shak.

All Europe high (all sorts of rights reneged)
Against the truth and thee unholy leagued.


Re*nege", v. i. 1. To deny. [Obs.] Shak.

2. (Card Playing) To revoke. [R.]

Re*nerve" (r?-n?rv"), v. t. To nerve again; to give new vigor to; to reinvigorate.

Re*new" (r?-n?"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reneved (-n?d"); p. pr. & vb. n. Renewing.] [Pref. re- + new. Cf. Renovate.] 1. To make new again; to restore to freshness, perfection, or vigor; to give new life to; to rejuvenate; to re&?;stablish; to recreate; to rebuild.

In such a night
Medea gathered the enchanted herbs
That did renew old &?;son.


2. Specifically, to substitute for (an old obligation or right) a new one of the same nature; to continue in force; to make again; as, to renew a lease, note, or patent.

3. To begin again; to recommence.

The last great age . . . renews its finished course.


4. To repeat; to go over again.

The birds-their notes renew.


5. (Theol.) To make new spiritually; to regenerate.

Be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind.

Rom. xii. 2.

Re*new", v. i. To become new, or as new; to grow or begin again.

Re*new`a*bil"i*ty (-?-b?l"?-t?), n. The quality or state of being renewable. [R.]

Re*new"a*ble (r?-n?"?-b'l), a. Capable of being renewed; as, a lease renewable at pleasure. Swift.

Re*new"al (-al), n. The act of renewing, or the state of being renewed; as, the renewal of a treaty.

Re*new"ed*ly, adv. Again; once more. [U.S.]

Re*new"ed*ness, n. The state of being renewed.

Re*new"er (-?r), n. One who, or that which, renews.

Re*neye" (r?-n?"), v. t. [See Renay.] To deny; to reject; to renounce. [Obs.]

For he made every man reneye his law.


Reng (r?ng), n. [See Rank, n.] 1. A rank; a row. [Obs.] "In two renges fair." Chaucer.

2. A rung or round of a ladder. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*nid`i*fi*ca"tion (r?-n?d`?-f?-k?"sh?n), n. (Zoöl.) The act of rebuilding a nest.

Ren"i*form (r?n"?-f?rm; 277), a. [L. renes kidneys + -form: cf. F. réniforme.] Having the form or shape of a kidney; as, a reniform mineral; a reniform leaf.

{ Re*ni"tence (r?-n?"tens), Re*ni"ten*cy (-te-s?), } n. [Cf. F. rénitence.] The state or quality of being renitent; resistance; reluctance. Sterne.

We find a renitency in ourselves to ascribe life and irritability to the cold and motionless fibers of plants.

E. Darwin.

Re*ni"tent (-tent), a. [L. renitens, -entis, p. pr. of renit to strive or struggle against, resist; pref. re- re- + niti to struggle or strive: cf. F. rénitent.] 1. Resisting pressure or the effect of it; acting against impulse by elastic force. "[Muscles] soft and yet renitent." Ray.

2. Persistently opposed.

Ren"ne (r?n"ne), v. t. To plunder; -- only in the phrase "to rape and renne." See under Rap, v. t., to snatch. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren"ne, v. i. To run. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren"ner (-n?r), n. A runner. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ren"net (r?n"n?t), n. [F. rainette, reinette, perhaps fr. raine a tree frog, L. rana, because it is spotted like this kind of frog. Cf. Ranunculus.] (Bot.) A name of many different kinds of apples. Cf. Reinette. Mortimer.

Ren"net, n. [AS. rinnan, rennan, to run, cf. gerinnan to curdle, coagulate. √11. See Run, v.] The inner, or mucous, membrane of the fourth stomach of the calf, or other young ruminant; also, an infusion or preparation of it, used for coagulating milk. [Written also runnet.]

Cheese rennet. (Bot.) See under Cheese. -- Rennet ferment (Physiol. Chem.), a ferment, present in rennet and in variable quantity in the gastric juice of most animals, which has the power of curdling milk. The ferment presumably acts by changing the casein of milk from a soluble to an insoluble form. -- Rennet stomach (Anat.), the fourth stomach, or abomasum, of ruminants.

Ren"net*ed, a. Provided or treated with rennet. [R.] "Pressed milk renneted." Chapman.

Ren"net*ing, n. (Bot.) Same as 1st Rennet.

Ren"ning (r?n"n?ng), n. See 2d Rennet. [Obs.]

Asses' milk is holden for to be thickest, and therefore they use it instead of renning, to turn milk.


Re`no*mee" (r`n*m"), n. [F. renommée.] Renown. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*nounce" (r*nouns"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Renounced (-nounst"); p. pr. & vb. n. Renouncing (-noun"s?ng).] [F. renoncer, L. renuntiare to bring back word, announce, revoke, retract, renounce; pref. re- re- + nuntiare to announce, fr. nuncius, a messenger. See Nuncio, and cf. Renunciation.] 1. To declare against; to reject or decline formally; to refuse to own or acknowledge as belonging to one; to disclaim; as, to renounce a title to land or to a throne.

2. To cast off or reject deliberately; to disown; to dismiss; to forswear.

This world I do renounce, and in your sights
Shake patiently my great affliction off.


3. (Card Playing) To disclaim having a card of (the suit led) by playing a card of another suit.

To renounce probate (Law), to decline to act as the executor of a will. Mozley & W.

Syn. -- To cast off; disavow; disown; disclaim; deny; abjure; recant; abandon; forsake; quit; forego; resign; relinquish; give up; abdicate. -- Renounce, Abjure, Recant. -- To renounce is to make an affirmative declaration of abandonment. To abjure is to renounce with, or as with, the solemnity of an oath. To recant is to renounce or abjure some proposition previously affirmed and maintained.

From Thebes my birth I own; . . . since no disgrace
Can force me to renounce the honor of my race.


Either to die the death, or to abjure
Forever the society of man.


Ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.


Re*nounce", v. i. 1. To make renunciation. [Obs.]

He of my sons who fails to make it good,
By one rebellious act renounces to my blood.


2. (Law) To decline formally, as an executor or a person entitled to letters of administration, to take out probate or letters.

Dryden died without a will, and his widow having renounced, his son Charles administered on June 10.

W. D. Christie.

Re*nounce", n. (Card Playing) Act of renouncing.

Re*nounce"ment (-ment), n. [Cf. F. renoncement.] The act of disclaiming or rejecting; renunciation. Shak.

Re*noun"cer (r?-noun"s?r), n. One who renounces.

Ren"o*vate (r?n"?-v?t), v. t. [L. renovatus, p. p. of renovare;pref. re- re- + novare to make new, fr. novus new. See New, and &?;&?; Renew.] To make over again; to restore to freshness or vigor; to renew.

All nature feels the reniovating force
Of winter.


Ren`o**va"tion (-v?"sh?n), n. [L. renovatio: cf. F. rénovation.] The act or process of renovating; the state of being renovated or renewed. Thomson.

There is something inexpressibly pleasing in the annual renovation of the world.


Ren"o*va`tor (r?n"?-v?`t?r), n. [L.: cf. F. rénovateur.] One who, or that which, renovates. Foster.

Re*nov"el (r?-n?v"el), v. t. [F. renouveler to renew.] To renew; to renovate. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*nov"el*ance (-ans), n. Renewal. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Re*nowme" (r?-noum"), n. Renown. [Obs.]

The glory and renowme of the ancectors.

Robynson (More's Utopia).

Re*nowmed" (r?-noumd"), a. Renowned. [Obs.]

Re*nown" (r?-noun"), n. [F. renom. See Noun, and cf. Renown, v.] 1. The state of being much known and talked of; exalted reputation derived from the extensive praise of great achievements or accomplishments; fame; celebrity; -- always in a good sense.

Nor envy we
Thy great renown, nor grudge thy victory.


2. Report of nobleness or exploits; praise.

This famous duke of Milan,
Of whom so often I have heard renown.


Re*nown" (r?-noun"), v. t. [F. renommer to name again, celebrate, make famous; pref. re- re- + nommer to name, L. nominare , fr. nomen a name. See Noun.] To make famous; to give renown to. [Obs.]

For joi to hear me so renown his son.


The bard whom pilfered pastorals renown.


Re*nowned" (r?-nound"), a. Famous; celebrated for great achievements, for distinguished qualities, or for grandeur; eminent; as, a renowned king. "Some renowned metropolis with glistering spires." Milton.

These were the renowned of the congregation.

Num. i. 61.

Syn. -- Famous; famed; distinguished; noted; eminent; celebrated; remarkable; wonderful. See Famous.

Re*nown"ed*ly (r?-noun"?d-l?), adv. With renown.

Re*nown"er (-?r), n. One who gives renown. [R.]

Re*nown"ful (-f?l), a. Having great renown; famous. "Renownful Scipio." Marston.

Re*nown"less, a. Without renown; inglorius.

Rens"se*laer*ite (r?ns"se-l?r-?t), n. (Min.) A soft, compact variety of talc,, being an altered pyroxene. It is often worked in a lathe into inkstands and other articles.

Rent (r?nt), v. i. To rant. [R. & Obs.] Hudibras.

Rent, imp. & p. p. of Rend.

Rent, n. [From Rend.] 1. An opening made by rending; a break or breach made by force; a tear.

See what a rent the envious Casca made.


2. Figuratively, a schism; a rupture of harmony; a separation; as, a rent in the church.

Syn. -- Fissure; breach; disrupture; rupture; tear; dilaceration; break; fracture.

Rent, v. t. To tear. See Rend. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rent, n. [F. rente, LL. renta, fr. L. reddita, fem. sing. or neut. pl. of redditus, p. p. of reddere to give back, pay. See Render.] 1. Income; revenue. See Catel. [Obs.] "Catel had they enough and rent." Chaucer.

[Bacchus] a waster was and all his rent
In wine and bordel he dispent.


So bought an annual rent or two,
And liv'd, just as you see I do.


2. Pay; reward; share; toll. [Obs.]

Death, that taketh of high and low his rent.


3. (Law) A certain periodical profit, whether in money, provisions, chattels, or labor, issuing out of lands and tenements in payment for the use; commonly, a certain pecuniary sum agreed upon between a tenant and his landlord, paid at fixed intervals by the lessee to the lessor, for the use of land or its appendages; as, rent for a farm, a house, a park, etc.

The term rent is also popularly applied to compensation for the use of certain personal chattels, as a piano, a sewing machine, etc.

Black rent. See Blackmail, 3. -- Forehand rent, rent which is paid in advance; foregift. -- Rent arrear, rent in arrears; unpaid rent. Blackstone. -- Rent charge (Law), a rent reserved on a conveyance of land in fee simple, or granted out of lands by deed; -- so called because, by a covenant or clause in the deed of conveyance, the land is charged with a distress for the payment of it. Bouvier. -- Rent roll, a list or account of rents or income; a rental. -- Rent seck (Law), a rent reserved by deed, but without any clause of distress; barren rent. A power of distress was made incident to rent seck by Statute 4 George II. c. 28. -- Rent service (Eng. Law), rent reserved out of land held by fealty or other corporeal service; -- so called from such service being incident to it. -- White rent, a quitrent when paid in silver; -- opposed to black rent.

Rent, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rented; p. pr. & vb. n. Renting.] [F. renter. See Rent, n.] 1. To grant the possession and enjoyment of, for a rent; to lease; as, the owwner of an estate or house rents it.

2. To take and hold under an agreement to pay rent; as, the tennant rents an estate of the owner.

Rent, v. i. To be leased, or let for rent; as, an estate rents for five hundred dollars a year.

Rent"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being rented, or suitable for renting.

Rent"age (-?j), n. [Cf. OF. rentage.] Rent. [Obs.]

Rent"al (-al), n. [LL. rentale, fr. renta. See Rent income.] 1. A schedule, account, or list of rents, with the names of the tenants, etc.; a rent roll.

2. A sum total of rents; as, an estate that yields a rental of ten thousand dollars a year.

||Rente (räNt), n. [F. See Rent income.] In France, interest payable by government on indebtedness; the bonds, shares, stocks, etc., which represent government indebtedness.

Rent"er (r?nt"?r), n. One who rents or leases an estate; -- usually said of a lessee or tenant.

Ren"ter (r?n"t?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rentered (-t?rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rentering.] [F. rentraire; L. pref. re- re- + in into, in + trahere to draw.] 1. To sew together so that the seam is scarcely visible; to sew up with skill and nicety; to finedraw.

2. To restore the original design of, by working in new warp; -- said with reference to tapestry.

Ren"ter*er (-?r), n. One who renters.

||Ren`tier" (r?N`ty?"), n. [F. See 5th Rent.] One who has a fixed income, as from lands, stocks, or the like.

Re*nu"mer*ate (r?-n?"m?r-?t), v. t. [L. renumeratus, p. p. of renumerare to count over, count up; pref. re- re- + numerare to count. See Numerate.] To recount.

Re*nun`ci*a"tion (r?-n?n`s?-?"sh?n or -sh?-?"sh?n; 277), n. [Cf. F. renonciation, L. renuntiatio ann announcement. See Renounce.] 1. The act of renouncing.

2. (Law) Formal declination to take out letters of administration, or to assume an office, privilege, or right.

Syn. -- Renouncement; disownment; disavowal; disavowment; disclaimer; rejection; abjuration; recantation; denial; abandonment; relinquishment.

<! p. 1219 !>

Re*nun"ci*a*to*ry (r?-n?n"sh?-?-t?-r?), a. [Cf. LL. renuntiatorius.] Pertaining to renunciation; containing or declaring a renunciation; as, renunciatory vows.

Ren*verse" (r?n-vErs"), v. t. [F. renverser; L. pref. re- re- + in in, into + versare, v. intens. fr. vertere to turn.] To reverse. [Obs.]

Whose shield he bears renverst.


{ Ren*verse" (r?n*v?rs"), or ||Ren`ver`sé" (r?n`v?r`s?") }, a. [F. renversé, p. p. ] (Her.) Reversed; set with the head downward; turned contrary to the natural position.

Ren*verse"ment (-ment), n. [F.] A reversing. [Obs.]

Ren*voy" (-voi"), v. t. [F. renvoyer.] To send back. [Obs.] "Not dismissing or renvoying her." Bacon.

Ren*voy", n. [F. renvoi.] A sending back. [Obs.]

Re`ob*tain" (r?`?b-t?n"), v. t. To obtain again.

Re`ob*tain"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. That may be reobtained.

Re*oc"cu*py (r?-?k"k?-p?), v. t. To occupy again.

Re*om"e*ter (r?-?m"?-t$r), n. Same as Rheometer.

Re*o"pen (r?-?"p'n), v. t. & i. To open again.

Re`op*pose" (r?`?p-p?z"), v. t. To oppose again.

Re`or*dain" (r?`?r-d?n"), v. t. [Pref. re- re- + ordain: cf. F. réordonner.] To ordain again, as when the first ordination is considered defective. Bp. Burnet.

Re*or"der (r?-?r"d?r), v. t. To order a second time.

Re*or`di*na"tion, n. A second ordination.

Re*or`gan*i*za"tion (-gan-?-z?"sh?n), n. The act of reorganizing; a reorganized existence; as, reorganization of the troops.

Re*or"gan*ize (r?-?r"gan-?z), v. t. & i. To organize again or anew; as, to reorganize a society or an army.

Re*o"ri*ent (r?-?"r?-ent), a. Rising again. [R.]

The life reorient out of dust.


Re"o*stat (r?"?-st?t), n. (Physics) See Rheostat.

Re"o*trope (-tr?p), n. (Physics) See Rheotrope.

Rep (r?p), n. [Prob. a corruption of rib: cf. F. reps.] A fabric made of silk or wool, or of silk and wool, and having a transversely corded or ribbed surface.

Rep, a. Formed with a surface closely corded, or ribbed transversely; -- applied to textile fabrics of silk or wool; as, rep silk.

Re*pace" (r?-p?s"), v. t. To pace again; to walk over again in a contrary direction.

Re*pac"i*fy (r?-p?s"?-f?), v. t. To pacify again.

Re*pack" (r?-p?k"), v. t. To pack a second time or anew; as, to repack beef; to repack a trunk.

Re*pack"er (-?r), n. One who repacks.

Re*pa"gan*ize (r?-p?"gan-?z), v. t. To paganize anew; to bring back to paganism.

Re*paid" (r?-p?d"), imp. & p. p. of Repay.

Re*paint" (r?-p?nt"), v. t. To paint anew or again; as, to repaint a house; to repaint the ground of a picture.

Re*pair" (r?-p?r"), v. i. [OE. repairen, OF. repairier to return, fr. L. repatriare to return to one's contry, to go home again; pref. re- re- + patria native country, fr. pater father. See Father, and cf. Repatriate.] 1. To return. [Obs.]

I thought . . . that he repaire should again.


2. To go; to betake one's self; to resort; ass, to repair to sanctuary for safety. Chaucer.

Go, mount the winds, and to the shades repair.


Re*pair", n. [OF. repaire retreat, asylum, abode. See Repair to go.] 1. The act of repairing or resorting to a place. [R.] Chaucer.

The king sent a proclamation for their repair to their houses.


2. Place to which one repairs; a haunt; a resort. [R.]

There the fierce winds his tender force assail
And beat him downward to his first repair.


Re*pair", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repaired (-p?rd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Repairing.] [F. réparer, L. reparare; pref. re- re- + parare to prepare. See Pare, and cf. Reparation.] 1. To restore to a sound or good state after decay, injury, dilapidation, or partial destruction; to renew; to restore; to mend; as, to repair a house, a road, a shoe, or a ship; to repair a shattered fortune.

Secret refreshings that repair his strength.


Do thou, as thou art wont, repair
My heart with gladness.


2. To make amends for, as for an injury, by an equivalent; to indemnify for; as, to repair a loss or damage.

I 'll repair the misery thou dost bear.


Syn. -- To restore, recover; renew; amend; mend; retrieve; recruit.

Re*pair", n. 1. Restoration to a sound or good state after decay, waste, injury, or partial restruction; supply of loss; reparation; as, materials are collected for the repair of a church or of a city.

Sunk down and sought repair
Of sleep, which instantly fell on me.


2. Condition with respect to soundness, perfectness, etc.; as, a house in good, or bad, repair; the book is out of repair.

Re*pair"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. Reparable. Gauden.

Re*pair"er (-?r), n. One who, or that which, repairs, restores, or makes amends.

Re*pair"ment, n. Act of repairing.

Re*pand" (r?*p?nd), a. [L. repandus bent backward, turned up; pref. re- re- + pandus bent, crooked.] (Bot. & Zool.) Having a slightly undulating margin; -- said of leaves.

Rep`a*ra*bil"i*ty (r?p`?-r?-b?l"?-t?), n. The quality or state of being reparable.

Rep"a*ra*ble (r?p"?-r?-b'l), a. [L. reparabilis: cf. F. réparable.] Capable of being repaired, restored to a sound or good state, or made good; restorable; as, a reparable injury.

Rep"a*ra*bly, adv. In a reparable manner.

Rep`a*ra"tion (-r?"sh?n), n. [F. réparation, L. reparatio. See Repair to mend.] 1. The act of renewing, restoring, etc., or the state of being renewed or repaired; as, the reparation of a bridge or of a highway; -- in this sense, repair is oftener used. Arbuthnot.

2. The act of making amends or giving satisfaction or compensation for a wrong, injury, etc.; also, the thing done or given; amends; satisfaction; indemnity.

I am sensible of the scandal I have given by my loose writings, and make what reparation I am able.


Syn. -- Restoration; repair; restitution; compensation; amends; satisfaction.

Re*par"a*tive (r?-p?r"?-t?v), a. Repairing, or tending to repair. Jer. Taylor.

Re*par"a*tive, n. That which repairs. Sir H. Wotton.

Re*par"el (-?l), n. [Cf. Reapparel.] A change of apparel; a second or different suit. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Rep`ar*tee" (r?p`3r-t?"), n. [F. repartie, fr. repartir to reply, depart again; pref. re- re- partir to part, depart. See Part.] A smart, ready, and witty reply.

Cupid was as bad as he;
Hear but the youngster's repartee.


Syn. -- Retort; reply. See Retort.

Rep`ar*tee", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reparteed (-t?d"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reparteeing.] To make smart and witty replies. [R.] Prior.

||Re`par*ti`mi*en"to (r?`p?r-t?`m?-?n"t?), n. [Sp., fr. repartir to divide.] A partition or distribution, especially of slaves; also, an assessment of taxes. W. Irving.

Re`par*to"tion (r?-p?r-t?sh"?n), n. Another, or an additional, separation into parts.

Re*pass" (r?-p?s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + pass: cf. F. repasser. Cf. Repace.] To pass again; to pass or travel over in the opposite direction; to pass a second time; as, to repass a bridge or a river; to repass the sea.

Re*pass", v. i. To pass or go back; to move back; as, troops passing and repassing before our eyes.

Re*pas"sage (r?-p?s"s?j;48), n. The act of repassing; passage back. Hakluyt.

Re*pas"sant (r?-p?s"sant), a. [Cf. F. repassant, p. pr.] (Her.) Counterpassant.

Re*past" (r?-p?st"), n. [OF. repast, F. repas, LL. repastus, fr. L. repascere to feed again; pref. re- re- + pascere, pastum, to pasture, feed. See Pasture.] 1. The act of taking food.

From dance to sweet repast they turn.


2. That which is taken as food; a meal; figuratively, any refreshment. "Sleep . . . thy best repast." Denham.

Go and get me some repast.


Re*past", v. t. & i. To supply food to; to feast; to take food. [Obs.] "Repast them with my blood." Shak.

He then, also, as before, left arbitrary the dieting and repasting of our minds.


Re*past"er (-?r), n. One who takes a repast. [Obs.]

Re*pas"ture (-p?s"t?r;135), n. [See Repast.] Food; entertainment. [Obs.]

Food for his rage, repasture for his den.


Re*pa"tri*ate (r?-p?"tr?-?t), v. t. [L. repatriare. See 1st Repair.] To restore to one's own country.

Re*pa`tri*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [Cf. LL. repatriatio return to one's country.] Restoration to one's country.

Re*pay" (r?-p?"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repaid (-p?d"); p. pr. & vb. n. Repaying.] [Pref. re- + pay: cf. F. repayer.] 1. To pay back; to refund; as, to repay money borrowed or advanced.

If you repay me not on such a day,
In such a place, such sum or sums.


2. To make return or requital for; to recompense; -- in a good or bad sense; as, to repay kindness; to repay an injury.

Benefits which can not be repaid . . . are not commonly found to increase affection.


3. To pay anew, or a second time, as a debt.

Syn. -- To refund; restore; return; recompense; compensate; remunerate; satisfy; reimburse; requite.

Re*pay"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being, or proper to be , repaid; due; as, a loan repayable in ten days; services repayable in kind.

Re*pay"ment (-ment), n. 1. The act of repaying; reimbursement. Jer. Taylor.

2. The money or other thing repaid.

Re*peal" (r?-p?l"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repealed (-p?ld"); p. pr. & vb. n. Repealing.] [OF. repeler to call back, F. rappeler; pref. re- re- + OF. apeler, F. appeler, to call, L. appellare. See Appeal, and. cf. Repel.] 1. To recall; to summon again, as persons. [Obs.]

The banished Bolingbroke repeals himself,
And with uplifted arms is safe arrived.


2. To recall, as a deed, will, law, or statute; to revoke; to rescind or abrogate by authority, as by act of the legislature; as, to repeal a law.

3. To suppress; to repel. [Obs.]

Whence Adam soon repealed
The doubts that in his heart arose.


Syn. -- To abolish; revoke; rescind; recall; annul; abrogate; cancel; reverse. See Abolish.

Re*peal", n. 1. Recall, as from exile. [Obs.]

The tribunes are no soldiers; and their people
Will be as rash in the repeal, as hasty
To expel him thence.


2. Revocation; abrogation; as, the repeal of a statute; the repeal of a law or a usage.

Re*peal`a*bil"i*ty (-?-b?l"?-t?), n. The quality or state of being repealable.

Re*peal"a*ble (r?-p?l"?-b'l), a. Capable of being repealed. -- Re*peal"a*ble*ness, n.

Syn. -- Revocable; abrogable; voidable; reversible.

Re*peal"er (-?r), n. One who repeals; one who seeks a repeal; specifically, an advocate for the repeal of the Articles of Union between Great Britain and Ireland.

Re*peal"ment (-ment), n. Recall, as from banishment. [Obs.]

Re*peat" (-p?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repeated; p. pr. & vb. n. Repeating.] [F. répéter, L. repetere; pref. re- re- + petere to fall upon, attack. See Petition.]

1. To go over again; to attempt, do, make, or utter again; to iterate; to recite; as, to repeat an effort, an order, or a poem. "I will repeat our former communication." Robynson (More's Utopia).

Not well conceived of God; who, though his power
Creation could repeat, yet would be loth
Us to abolish.


2. To make trial of again; to undergo or encounter again. [Obs.] Waller.

3. (Scots Law) To repay or refund (an excess received).

To repeat one's self, to do or say what one has already done or said. -- To repeat signals, to make the same signals again; specifically, to communicate, by repeating them, the signals shown at headquarters.

Syn. -- To reiterate; iterate; renew; recite; relate; rehearse; recapitulate. See Reiterate.

Re*peat" (r?-p?t"), n. 1. The act of repeating; repetition.

2. That which is repeated; as, the repeat of a pattern; that is, the repetition of the engraved figure on a roller by which an impression is produced (as in calico printing, etc.).

3. (Mus.) A mark, or series of dots, placed before and after, or often only at the end of, a passage to be repeated in performance.

Re*peat"ed*ly, adv. More than once; again and again; indefinitely.

Re*peat"er (-?r), n. One who, or that which, repeats. Specifically: (a) A watch with a striking apparatus which, upon pressure of a spring, will indicate the time, usually in hours and quarters. (b) A repeating firearm. (c) (Teleg.) An instrument for resending a telegraphic message automatically at an intermediate point. (d) A person who votes more than once at an election. [U.S.] (e) See Circulating decimal, under Decimal. (f) (Naut.) A pennant used to indicate that a certain flag in a hoist of signal is duplicated. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Re*peat"ing, a. Doing the same thing over again; accomplishing a given result many times in succession; as, a repeating firearm; a repeating watch.

Repeating circle. See the Note under Circle, n., 3. -- Repeating decimal (Arith.), a circulating decimal. See under Decimal. -- Repeating firearm, a firearm that may be discharged many times in quick succession; especially: (a) A form of firearm so constructed that by the action of the mechanism the charges are successively introduced from a chamber containing them into the breech of the barrel, and fired. (b) A form in which the charges are held in, and discharged from, a revolving chamber at the breech of the barrel. See Revolver, and Magazine gun, under Magazine. -- Repeating instruments (Astron. & Surv.), instruments for observing angles, as a circle, theodolite, etc., so constructed that the angle may be measured several times in succession, and different, but successive and contiguous, portions of the graduated limb, before reading off the aggregate result, which aggregate, divided by the number of measurements, gives the angle, freed in a measure from errors of eccentricity and graduation. -- Repeating watch. See Repeater (a)

Rep"e*da"tion (r?p`?-da"sh?n), n. [L. repedare to step back; pref. re- re- + pes, pedis, foot.] A stepping or going back. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Re**pel" (r?-p?l"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repelled (-p?ld"); p. pr. & vb. n. Repelling.] [L. repellere, repulsum; pref. re- re- + pellere to drive. See Pulse a beating, and cf. Repulse, Repeal.] 1. To drive back; to force to return; to check the advance of; to repulse as, to repel an enemy or an assailant.

Hippomedon repelled the hostile tide.


They repelled each other strongly, and yet attracted each other strongly.


2. To resist or oppose effectually; as, to repel an assault, an encroachment, or an argument.

[He] gently repelled their entreaties.


Syn. -- Tu repulse; resist; oppose; reject; refuse.

Re*pel", v. i. To act with force in opposition to force impressed; to exercise repulsion.

{ Re*pel"lence (-lens), Re*pel"len*cy (- len-s?), } n. The principle of repulsion; the quality or capacity of repelling; repulsion.

Re*pel"lent (-lent), a. [L. repellens, -entis, p. pr. ] Driving back; able or tending to repel.

Re*pel"lent, n. 1. That which repels.

2. (Med.) A remedy to repel from a tumefied part the fluids which render it tumid. Dunglison.

3. A kind of waterproof cloth. Knight.

Re*pel"ler (-l?r), n. One who, or that which, repels.

Re"pent (r?"p?nt), a. [L. repens, -entis, creeping, p. pr. of repere to creep.] 1. (Bot.) Prostrate and rooting; -- said of stems. Gray.

2. (Zoöl.) Same as Reptant.

Re*pent" (r?-p?nt"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Repented; p. pr. & vb. n. Repenting.] [F. se repentir; L. pref. re- re- + poenitere to make repent, poenitet me it repents me, I repent. See Penitent.] 1. To feel pain, sorrow, or regret, for what one has done or omitted to do.

First she relents
With pity; of that pity then repents.


2. To change the mind, or the course of conduct, on account of regret or dissatisfaction.

Lest, peradventure, the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt.

Ex. xiii. 17.

3. (Theol.) To be sorry for sin as morally evil, and to seek forgiveness; to cease to love and practice sin.

Except ye repent, ye shall likewise perish.

Luke xii. 3.

Re*pent", v. t. 1. To feel pain on account of; to remember with sorrow.

I do repent it from my very soul.


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2. To feel regret or sorrow; -- used reflexively.

My father has repented him ere now.


3. To cause to have sorrow or regret; -- used impersonally. [Archaic] "And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth." Gen. vi. 6.

Re*pent"ance (r*pnt"ans), n. [F. repentance.] The act of repenting, or the state of being penitent; sorrow for what one has done or omitted to do; especially, contrition for sin. Chaucer.

Godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation.

2. Cor. vii. 20.

Repentance is a change of mind, or a conversion from sin to God.


Repentance is the relinquishment of any practice from the conviction that it has offended God. Sorrow, fear, and anxiety are properly not parts, but adjuncts, of repentance; yet they are too closely connected with it to be easily separated.


Syn. -- Contrition; regret; penitence; contriteness; compunction. See Contrition.

Re*pent"ant (-ant), a. [F. repentant.] 1. Penitent; sorry for sin. Chaucer.

Thus they, in lowliest plight, repentant stood.


2. Expressing or showing sorrow for sin; as, repentant tears; repentant ashes. "Repentant sighs and voluntary pains." Pope.

Re*pent"ant, n. One who repents, especially one who repents of sin; a penitent.

Re*pent"ant*ly, adv. In a repentant manner.

Re*pent"er (-r), n. One who repents.

Re*pent"ing*ly, adv. With repentance; penitently.

Re*pent"less, a. Unrepentant. [R.]

Re*peo"ple (r*p"p'l), v. t. [Pref. re- + people: cf. F. repeupler.] To people anew.

Re`per*cep"tion (r?`p?r-s?p"sh?n), n. The act of perceiving again; a repeated perception of the same object.

No external praise can give me such a glow as my own solitary reperception and ratification of what is fine.


Re`per*cuss" (-ks"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Repercussed (-k?st");p. pr. & vb. n. Repercussing.] [L. repercusus, p. p. of repercutere to drive back; pref. re- re- + percutere. See Percussion.] To drive or beat back; hence, to reflect; to reverberate.

Perceiving all the subjacent country, . . . to repercuss such a light as I could hardly look against.


Re`per*cus"sion (-k?sh"?n), n. [L. repercussio: cf. F. répercussion.] 1. The act of driving back, or the state of being driven back; reflection; reverberation; as, the repercussion of sound.

Ever echoing back in endless repercussion.


2. (Mus.) Rapid reiteration of the same sound.

3. (Med.) The subsidence of a tumor or eruption by the action of a repellent. Dunglison.

4. (Obstetrics) In a vaginal examination, the act of imparting through the uterine wall with the finger a shock to the fetus, so that it bounds upward, and falls back again against the examining finger.

Re`per*cuss"ive (-k?s"?v), a. [Cf. F. répercussif.]

1. Tending or able to repercuss; having the power of sending back; causing to reverberate.

Ye repercussive rocks! repeat the sound.

W. Pattison.

2. Repellent. [Obs.] "Blood is stanched by astringent and repercussive medicines." Bacon.

3. Driven back; rebounding; reverberated. "Rages loud the repercussive roar." Thomson.

Re`per*cuss"ive, n. A repellent. [Obs.] Bacon.

Rep`er*ti"tious (r?p`?r-t?sh"?s), a. [L. reperticius. See Repertory.] Found; gained by finding. [Obs.]

||Ré`per`toire" (F. r`pâr`twär"; E. rp"r*twär), n. [F. See Repertory.] A list of dramas, operas, pieces, parts, etc., which a company or a person has rehearsed and is prepared to perform.

Rep"er*to*ry (r?p"?r-t?-r?), n. [L. repertorium, fr. reperire to find again; pref. re- re + parire, parere, to bring forth, procure: cf. F. répertoire. Cf. Parent.]

1. A place in which things are disposed in an orderly manner, so that they can be easily found, as the index of a book, a commonplace book, or the like.

2. A treasury; a magazine; a storehouse.

3. Same as Répertoire.

Re`pe*rus"al (r?`p?-r?z"al), n. A second or repeated perusal.

Re`pe*ruse" (-r?z"), v. t. To peruse again. Ld. Lytton.

Rep`e*tend (r?p`?-t?nd"), n. [L. repetendus to be repeated, fr. repetere to repeat.] (Math.) That part of a circulating decimal which recurs continually, ad infinitum: -- sometimes indicated by a dot over the first and last figures; thus, in the circulating decimal .728328328 + (otherwise .7&2dot;8&3dot;), the repetend is 283.

Rep`e*ti"tion (rp`-tsh"n), n. [L. repetitio: cf. F. répétition. See Repeat.] 1. The act of repeating; a doing or saying again; iteration.

I need not be barren of accusations; he hath faults, with surplus to tire in repetition.


2. Recital from memory; rehearsal.

3. (Mus.) The act of repeating, singing, or playing, the same piece or part a second time; reiteration of a note.

4. (Rhet.) Reiteration, or repeating the same word, or the same sense in different words, for the purpose of making a deeper impression on the audience.

5. (Astron. & Surv.) The measurement of an angle by successive observations with a repeating instrument.

Syn. -- Iteration; rehearsal. See Tautology.

{ Rep`e*ti"tion*al (-al). Rep`e*ti"tion*a*ry (-?-r?) }, a. Of the nature of, or containing, repetition. [R.]

Rep`e*ti"tion*er (-?r), n. One who repeats. [Obs.]

Rep`e*ti"tious (-t?sh"?s), a. Repeating; containing repetition. [U.S.] Dr. T. Dwight.

Re*pet"i*tive (r?-p?t"?-t?v), a. Containing repetition; repeating. [R.]

||Rep"e*ti`tor (r?p"?-t?`t?r), n. [Cf. L. repetitor a reclaimer.] (Ger.Univ.) A private instructor.

Re*pine" (r?-p?n"), v. i. [Pref. re- + pine to languish.]

1. To fail; to wane. [Obs.] "Reppening courage yields no foot to foe." Spenser.

2. To continue pining; to feel inward discontent which preys on the spirits; to indulge in envy or complaint; to murmur.

But Lachesis thereat gan to repine.


What if the head, the eye, or ear repined
To serve mere engines to the ruling mind?


Re*pine", n. Vexation; mortification. [Obs.] Shak.

Re*pin"er (r?-p?n"?r), n. One who repines.

Re*pin"ing*ly, adv. With repening or murmuring.

||Rep"kie (r?p"k?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) Any edible sea urchin. [Alaska]

Re*place" (r?-pl?s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + place: cf. F. replacer.] 1. To place again; to restore to a former place, position, condition, or the like.

The earl . . . was replaced in his government.


2. To refund; to repay; to restore; as, to replace a sum of money borrowed.

3. To supply or substitute an equivalent for; as, to replace a lost document.

With Israel, religion replaced morality.

M. Arnold.

4. To take the place of; to supply the want of; to fulfull the end or office of.

This duty of right intention does not replace or supersede the duty of consideration.


5. To put in a new or different place.

The propriety of the use of replace instead of displace, supersede, take the place of, as in the third and fourth definitions, is often disputed on account of etymological discrepancy; but the use has been sanctioned by the practice of careful writers.

Replaced crystal (Crystallog.), a crystal having one or more planes in the place of its edges or angles.

Re*place`a*bil"i*ty (-?-b?l"?-t?), n. The quality, state, or degree of being replaceable.

Re*place"a*ble (r?-pl?s"?-b'l), a. 1. Capable or admitting of being put back into a place.

2. Admitting of having its place supplied by a like thing or an equivalent; as, the lost book is replaceable.

3. (Chem.) Capable of being replaced (by), or of being exchanged (for); as, the hydrogen of acids is replaceable by metals or by basic radicals.

Re*place"ment (-ment), n. 1. The act of replacing.

2. (Crystallog.) The removal of an edge or an angle by one or more planes.

Re*plait" (r?-pl?t"), v. t. To plait or fold again; to fold, as one part over another, again and again.

Re*plant" (rE-pl?nt"), v. t. To plant again.

Re*plant"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. That may be planted again.

Re`plan*ta"tion (r?`pl?n-t?"sh?n), n. The act of planting again; a replanting. [R.] Hallywell.

Re*plead" (r?-pl?d"), v. t. & i. To plead again.

Re*plead"er (-?r), n. (Law) A second pleading, or course of pleadings; also, the right of pleading again.

Whenever a repleader is granted, the pleadings must begin de novo.


Re*plen"ish (r?-pl?n"?sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Replenished (-?sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Replenishing.] [OE. replenissen, OF. replenir; L. pref. re- re- + plenus full. See Full, -ish, and cf. Replete.] 1. To fill again after having been diminished or emptied; to stock anew; hence, to fill completely; to cause to abound.

Multiply and replenish the earth.

Gen. i. 28.

The waters thus
With fish replenished, and the air with fowl.


2. To finish; to complete; to perfect. [Obs.]

We smothered
The most replenished sweet work of nature.


Re*plen"ish, v. i. To recover former fullness. [Obs.]

The humors will not replenish so soon.


Re*plen"ish*er (-?r), n. One who replenishes.

Re*plen"ish*ment (-ment), n. 1. The act of replenishing, or the state of being replenished.

2. That which replenishes; supply. Cowper.

Re*plete" (r?-pl?t"), a. [L. repletus, p. p. of replere to fill again, fill up; pref. re- re- + plere to fill, akin to plenus full: cf. F. replet corpulent. See Plenty, Replenish.] Filled again; completely filled; full; charged; abounding. "His words replete with guile." Milton.

When he of wine was replet at his feast.


In heads replete with thoughts of other men.


Re*plete", v. t. To fill completely, or to satiety. [R.]

Re*plete"ness, n. The state of being replete.

Re*ple"tion (r?-pl?"sh?n), n. [L. repletio a filling up: cf. F. réplétion. See Replete.] 1. The state of being replete; superabundant fullness.

The tree had too much repletion, and was oppressed with its own sap.


Repleccioun [overeating] ne made her never sick.


2. (Med.) Fullness of blood; plethora.

Re*ple"tive (-t?v), a. [Cf. F. réplétif.] Tending to make replete; filling. -- Re*ple"tive*ly, adv.

Re*ple"to*ry (-t?-r?), a. Repletive. [R.]

Re*plev"i*a*ble (r?-pl?v"?-?-b'l), a. [See Replevy.] (Law) Capable of being replevied.

Re*plev"in (-?n), n. [LL. replevina. See Replevy, and cf. Plevin.] 1. (Law) A personal action which lies to recover possession of goods and chattle wrongfully taken or detained. Originally, it was a remedy peculiar to cases for wrongful distress, but it may generally now be brought in all cases of wrongful taking or detention. Bouvier.

2. The writ by which goods and chattels are replevied.

Re*plev"in, v. t. (Law) To replevy.

Re*plev"i*sa*ble (-?-s?-b'l), a. [OF. replevisable.] Repleviable. Sir M. Hale.

Re*plev"y (-?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Replevied (-?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Replevying.] [OF. replevir, LL. replevire. See Pledge, Replevin.] 1. (Law) To take or get back, by a writ for that purpose (goods and chattels wrongfully taken or detained), upon giving security to try the right to them in a suit at law, and, if that should be determined against the plaintiff, to return the property replevied.

2. (Old Eng. Law) To bail. Spenser.

Re*plev"y (r?-pl?v"?), n. Replevin. Mozley & W.

||Rep"li*ca (r?p"l?-k?), n. [It. See Reply, v. & n.]

1. (Fine Arts) A copy of a work of art, as of a picture or statue, made by the maker of the original.

2. (Mus.) Repetition.

Rep"li*cant (r?p"l?-kant), n. One who replies.

Rep"li*cate (-?-k?t), v. t. To reply. [Obs.]

{ Rep"li*cate (l?-k?t), Rep"li*ca`ted (-k?`t?d), } a. [L. replicatus, p. p. of replicare. See Reply.] Folded over or backward; folded back upon itself; as, a replicate leaf or petal; a replicate margin of a shell.

Rep`li*ca"tion (-k?"sh?n), n. [L. replicatio. See Reply.] 1. An answer; a reply. Shak.

Withouten any repplicacioun.


2. (Law Pleadings) The reply of the plaintiff, in matters of fact, to the defendant's plea.

3. Return or repercussion, as of sound; echo.

To hear the replication of your sounds.


4. A repetition; a copy.


Syn. -- Answer; response; reply; rejoinder.

Re*pli"er (r?-pl?"?r), n. One who replies. Bacon.

||Re"plum (r?"pl?m), n. [L., doorcase.] (Bot.) The framework of some pods, as the cress, which remains after the valves drop off. Gray.

Re*ply" (r?-pl?"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Replied (-pl?d"); p. pr. & vb. n. Replying.] [OE. replien, OF. replier, F. répliquer, fr. L. replicare to fold back, make a reply; pref. re- re- + plicare to fold. See Ply, and cf. Replica.] 1. To make a return in words or writing; to respond; to answer.

O man, who art thou that repliest against God?

Rom. ix. 20.

2. (Law) To answer a defendant's plea.

3. Figuratively, to do something in return for something done; as, to reply to a signal; to reply to the fire of a battery.

Syn. -- To answer; respond; rejoin.

Re*ply", v. t. To return for an answer. Milton.

Lords, vouchsafe
To give me hearing what I shall reply.


Re*ply", n.; pl. Replies (-pl&?;z"). [See Reply, v. i., and cf. Replica.] That which is said, written, or done in answer to what is said, written, or done by another; an answer; a response.

Syn. -- Answer; rejoinder; response. -- Reply, Rejoinder, Answer. A reply is a distinct response to a formal question or attack in speech or writing. A rejoinder is a second reply (a reply to a reply) in a protracted discussion or controversy. The word answer is used in two senses, namely (1), in the most general sense of a mere response; as, the answer to a question; or (2), in the sense of a decisive and satisfactory confutation of an adversary's argument, as when we speak of a triumphant answer to the speech or accusations of an opponent. Here the noun corresponds to a frequent use of the verb, as when we say. "This will answer (i.e., fully meet) the end in view;" "It answers the purpose."

Re*ply"er (-?r), n. See Replier. Bacon.

Re*pol"ish (r?-p?l"?sh), v. t. To polish again.

Re*pone" (r?-p?n"), v. t. [L. reponere; pref. re- re- + ponere to place.] To replace. R. Baillie.

Re*pop`u*la"tion (r?*p?p`?*l?"sh?n), n. The act of repeopling; act of furnishing with a population anew.

Re*port" (r?-p?rt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reported; p. pr. & vb. n. Reporting.] [F. reporter to carry back, carry (cf. rapporter; see Rapport), L. reportare to bear or bring back; pref. re- re- + portare to bear or bring. See Port bearing, demeanor.] 1. To refer. [Obs.]

Baldwin, his son, . . . succeeded his father; so like unto him that we report the reader to the character of King Almeric, and will spare the repeating his description.


2. To bring back, as an answer; to announce in return; to relate, as what has been discovered by a person sent to examine, explore, or investigate; as, a messenger reports to his employer what he has seen or ascertained; the committee reported progress.

There is no man that may reporten all.


3. To give an account of; to relate; to tell; to circulate publicly, as a story; as, in the common phrase, it is reported. Shak.

It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel.

Neh. vi. 6.

4. To give an official account or statement of; as, a treasurer reports the receipts and expenditures.

5. To return or repeat, as sound; to echo. [Obs. or R.] "A church with windows only from above, that reporteth the voice thirteen times." Bacon.

6. (Parliamentary Practice) To return or present as the result of an examination or consideration of any matter officially referred; as, the committee reported the bill witth amendments, or reported a new bill, or reported the results of an inquiry.

7. To make minutes of, as a speech, or the doings of a public body; to write down from the lips of a speaker.

8. To write an account of for publication, as in a newspaper; as, to report a public celebration or a horse race.

9. To make a statement of the conduct of, especially in an unfavorable sense; as, to report a servant to his employer.

To be reported, or To be reported of, to be spoken of; to be mentioned, whether favorably or unfavorably. Acts xvi. 2. -- To report one's self, to betake one's self, as to a superior or one to whom service is due, and be in readiness to receive orders or do service.

Syn. -- To relate; narrate; tell; recite; describe.

Re*port" (r?-p?rt"), v. i. 1. To make a report, or response, in respect of a matter inquired of, a duty enjoined, or information expected; as, the committee will report at twelve o'clock.

2. To furnish in writing an account of a speech, the proceedings at a meeting, the particulars of an occurrence, etc., for publication.

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3. To present one's self, as to a superior officer, or to one to whom service is due, and to be in readiness for orders or to do service; also, to give information, as of one's address, condition, etc.; as, the officer reported to the general for duty; to report weekly by letter.

Re*port" (r*prt"), n. [Cf. F. rapport. See Report.v. t.] 1. That which is reported. Specifically: (a) An account or statement of the results of examination or inquiry made by request or direction; relation. "From Thetis sent as spies to make report." Waller. (b) A story or statement circulating by common talk; a rumor; hence, fame; repute; reputation.

It was a true report that I heard in mine own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom.

1 Kings x. 6.

Cornelius the centurion, a just man, and . . . of good report among all the nation of the Jews.

Acts x. 22.

(c) Sound; noise; as, the report of a pistol or cannon. (d) An official statement of facts, verbal or written; especially, a statement in writing of proceedings and facts exhibited by an officer to his superiors; as, the reports of the heads af departments to Congress, of a master in chancery to the court, of committees to a legislative body, and the like. (e) An account or statement of a judicial opinion or decision, or of case argued and determined in a court of law, chancery, etc.; also, in the plural, the volumes containing such reports; as, Coke's Reports. (f) A sketch, or a fully written account, of a speech, debate, or the proceedings of a public meeting, legislative body, etc.

2. Rapport; relation; connection; reference. [Obs.]

The corridors worse, having no report to the wings they join to.


Syn. -- Account; relation; narration; detail; description; recital; narrative; story; rumor; hearsay.

Re*port"a*ble (-*b'l), a. Capable or admitting of being reported.

Re*port"age (-j), n. SAme as Report. [Obs.]

Re*port"er (-r), n. One who reports. Specifically: (a) An officer or person who makes authorized statements of law proceedings and decisions, or of legislative debates. (b) One who reports speeches, the proceedings of public meetings, news, etc., for the newspapers.

Of our tales judge and reportour.


Re*port"ing*ly, adv. By report or common fame.

Re`por*to"ri*al (r`pr*t"r*al), a. Of or pertaining to a reporter or reporters; as, the reportorial staff of a newspaper.

Re*pos"al (r*pz"al), n. [From Repose.] 1. The act or state of reposing; as, the reposal of a trust. Shak.

2. That on which one reposes. [Obs.] Burton.

Re*pos"ance (-ans), n. Reliance. [Obs.] John Hall.

Re*pose" (r*pz"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reposed (-p?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reposing.] [F. reposer; L. pref. re- re- + pausare to pause. See Pause, Pose, v.] 1. To cause to stop or to rest after motion; hence, to deposit; to lay down; to lodge; to reposit. [Obs.]

But these thy fortunes let us straight repose
In this divine cave's bosom.


Pebbles reposed in those cliffs amongst the earth . . . are left behind.


2. To lay at rest; to cause to be calm or quiet; to compose; to rest, -- often reflexive; as, to repose one's self on a couch.

All being settled and reposed, the lord archbishop did present his majesty to the lords and commons.


After the toil of battle to repose
Your wearied virtue.


3. To place, have, or rest; to set; to intrust.

The king reposeth all his confidence in thee.


Re*pose", v. i. 1. To lie at rest; to rest.

Within a thicket I reposed.


2. Figuratively, to remain or abide restfully without anxiety or alarms.

It is upon these that the soul may repose.

I. Taylor.

3. To lie; to be supported; as, trap reposing on sand.

Syn. -- To lie; recline; couch; rest; sleep; settle; lodge; abide.

Re*pose", n. [F. repos. See Repose, v.] 1. A lying at rest; sleep; rest; quiet.

Shake off the golden slumber of repose.


2. Rest of mind; tranquillity; freedom from uneasiness; also, a composed manner or deportment.

3. (Poetic) A rest; a pause.

4. (Fine Arts) That harmony or moderation which affords rest for the eye; -- opposed to the scattering and division of a subject into too many unconnected parts, and also to anything which is overstrained; as, a painting may want repose.

Angle of repose (Physics), the inclination of a plane at which a body placed on the plane would remain at rest, or if in motion would roll or slide down with uniform velocity; the angle at which the various kinds of earth will stand when abandoned to themselves.

Syn. -- Rest; recumbency; reclination; ease; quiet; quietness; tranquillity; peace.

Re*posed" (r*pzd"), a. Composed; calm; tranquil; at rest. Bacon. -- Re*pos"ed*ly (r*pz"d*l), adv. -- Re*pos"ed*ness, n.

Re*pose"ful (r*pz"fl), a. Full of repose; quiet.

Re*pos"er (r*pz"r), n. One who reposes.

Re*pos"it (r*pz"t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reposited; p. pr. & vb. n. Repositing.] [L. repositus, p. p. of reponere to put back; pref. re- re- + ponere to put. See Position.] To cause to rest or stay; to lay away; to lodge, as for safety or preservation; to place; to store.

Others reposit their young in holes.


Re`po*si"tion (r`p*zsh"n), n. [L. repositio.] The act of repositing; a laying up.

Re*pos"i*tor (r*pz"*tr), n. (Surg.) An instrument employed for replacing a displaced organ or part.

Re*pos"i*to*ry (r*pz"*t*r), n. [L. repositorium, repostorium: cf. OF. repositoire.] A place where things are or may be reposited, or laid up, for safety or preservation; a depository. Locke.

Re`pos*sess" (r?"p?z*z?s" or -p?s*s?s"), v. t. To possess again; as, to repossess the land. Pope.

To repossess one's self of (something), to acquire again (something lost).

Re`pos*ses"sion (r?`p?z-z?sh"?n or -p?s s?sh"?n), n. The act or the state of possessing again.

Re*po"sure (r?-p?"sh?r; 135), n. Rest; quiet.

In the reposure of most soft content.


Re*pour" (r?-p?r"), v. t. To pour again.

||Re*pous`sé" (re -p??`s?"), a. [F., p. p. of repousser to thrust back; pref re- + pousser to push. See Push.] (a) Formed in relief, as a pattern on metal. (b) Ornamented with patterns in relief made by pressing or hammering on the reverse side; -- said of thin metal, or of a vessel made of thin metal. -- n. Repoussé work.

Repoussé work, ornamentation of metal in relief by pressing or hammering on the reverse side.

Re*prefe" (r?-pr?f"), n. Reproof. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Rep`re*hend" (r?p`r?-h?nd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reprehended; p. pr. & vb. n. Reprehending.] [L. reprehendere, reprehensum, to hold back, seize, check, blame; pref. re- re- + prehendere to lay hold of. See Prehensile, and cf. Reprisal. ] To reprove or reprimand with a view of restraining, checking, or preventing; to make charge of fault against; to disapprove of; to chide; to blame; to censure. Chaucer.

Aristippus being reprehended of luxury by one that was not rich, for that he gave six crowns for a small fish.


Pardon me for reprehending thee.


In which satire human vices, ignorance, and errors . . . are severely reprehended.


I nor advise nor reprehend the choice.

J. Philips.

Rep`re*hend"er (-?r), n. One who reprehends.

Rep`re*hen"si*ble (-h?n"s?-b'l), a. [L. reprehensibilis: cf. F. répréhensible.] Worthy of reprehension; culpable; censurable; blamable. -- Rep`re*hen"si*ble*ness, n. -- Rep`re*hen"si*bly, adv.

Rep`re*hen"sion (-sh?n), n. [L. reprehensio: cf. F. répréhension.] Reproof; censure; blame; disapproval.

This Basilius took as though his mistress had given him a secret reprehension that he had not showed more gratefulness to Dorus.

Sir P. Sidney.

Syn. -- Censure; reproof; reprimand. See Admonition.

Rep`re*hen"sive (-h?n"s?v), a. [Cf. F. répréhensif.] Containing reprehension; conveying reproof. South.

-- Rep`re*hen"sive*ly, adv.

Rep`re*hen"so*ry (-s?-r?), a. Containing reproof; reprehensive; as, reprehensory complaint. Johnson.

Re`-pre*sent" (r?`pr?-z?nt"), v. t. To present again; as, to re-present the points of an argument.

Rep`re*sent" (r?p`r?-z?nt"), v. t. [F. repr&?;senter, L. repraesentare, repraesentatum; pref. re- re- + preesentare to place before, present. See Present, v. t.] 1. To present again or anew; to present by means of something standing in the place of; to exhibit the counterpart or image of; to typify.

Before him burn
Seven lamps, as in a zodiac representing
The heavenly fires.


2. To portray by pictoral or plastic art; to delineate; as, to represent a landscape in a picture, a horse in bronze, and the like.

3. To portray by mimicry or action of any kind; to act the part or character of; to personate; as, to represent Hamlet.

4. To stand in the place of; to supply the place, perform the duties, exercise the rights, or receive the share, of; to speak and act with authority in behalf of; to act the part of (another); as, an heir represents his ancestor; an attorney represents his client in court; a member of Congress represents his district in Congress.

5. To exhibit to another mind in language; to show; to give one's own impressions and judgement of; to bring before the mind; to set forth; sometimes, to give an account of; to describe.

He represented Rizzio's credit with the queen to be the chief and only obstacle to his success in that demand.


This bank is thought the greatest load on the Genoese, and the managers of it have been represented as a second kind of senate.


6. To serve as a sign or symbol of; as, mathematical symbols represent quantities or relations; words represent ideas or things.

7. To bring a sensation of into the mind or sensorium; to cause to be known, felt, or apprehended; to present.

Among these. Fancy next
Her office holds; of all external things
Which he five watchful senses represent,
She forms imaginations, aery shapes.


8. (Metaph.) To form or image again in consciousness, as an object of cognition or apprehension (something which was originally apprehended by direct presentation). See Presentative, 3.

The general capability of knowledge necessarily requires that, besides the power of evoking out of unconsciousness one portion of our retained knowledge in preference to another, we posses the faculty of representing in consciousness what is thus evoked . . . This representative Faculty is Imagination or Phantasy.

Sir. W. Hamilton.

Rep`re*sent"a*ble (-?-b'l), a. Capable of being represented.

Rep`re*sent"ance (-ans), n. Representation; likeness. [Obs.] Donne.

Rep`re*sent"ant (-ant), a. [Cf. F. repr&?;sentant.] Appearing or acting for another; representing.

Rep`re*sent"ant, n. [F. representant.] A representative. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

Rep`re*sen*ta"tion (-z?n-t?"sh?n), n. [F. repr&?;sentation, L. representatio.] 1. The act of representing, in any sense of the verb.

2. That which represents. Specifically: (a) A likeness, a picture, or a model; as, a representation of the human face, or figure, and the like. (b) A dramatic performance; as, a theatrical representation; a representation of Hamlet. (c) A description or statement; as, the representation of an historian, of a witness, or an advocate. (d) The body of those who act as representatives of a community or society; as, the representation of a State in Congress. (e) (Insurance Law) Any collateral statement of fact, made orally or in writing, by which an estimate of the risk is affected, or either party is influenced.

3. The state of being represented.

Syn. -- Description; show; delineaton; portraiture; likeness; resemblance; exhibition; sight.

Re-pres`en*ta"tion (r?-prez`?n-t?"sh?n), n. [See Re-present.] The act of re- presenting, or the state of being presented again; a new presentation; as, re-presentation of facts previously stated.

Rep`re*sen*ta"tion*a*ry (r?p`r?--z?n-t?"sh?n-?-r?), a. Implying representation; representative. [R.]

Rep`re*sent"a*tive (-z?nt`?-t?v), a. [Cf. F. repr&?;sentatif.] 1. Fitted to represent; exhibiting a similitude.

2. Bearing the character or power of another; acting for another or others; as, a council representative of the people. Swift.

3. Conducted by persons chosen to represent, or act as deputies for, the people; as, a representative government.

4. (Nat.Hist.) (a) Serving or fitted to present the full characters of the type of a group; typical; as, a representative genus in a family. (b) Similar in general appearance, structure, and habits, but living in different regions; -- said of certain species and varieties.

5. (Metaph.) Giving, or existing as, a transcript of what was originally presentative knowledge; as, representative faculties; representative knowledge. See Presentative, 3 and Represent, 8.

Rep`re*sent"a*tive, n. [Cf. LL. repraesentativus.]

1. One who, or that which, represents (anything); that which exhibits a likeness or similitude.

A statute of Rumor, whispering an idiot in the ear, who was the representative of Credulity.


Difficulty must cumber this doctrine which supposes that the perfections of God are the representatives to us of whatever we perceive in the creatures.


2. An agent, deputy, or substitute, who supplies the place of another, or others, being invested with his or their authority.

3. (Law) One who represents, or stands in the place of, another.

The executor or administrator is ordinarily held to be the representative of a deceased person, and is sometimes called the legal representative, or the personal representative. The heir is sometimes called the real representative of his deceased ancestor. The heirs and executors or administrators of a deceased person are sometimes compendiously described as his real and personal representatives. Wharton. Burrill.

4. A member of the lower or popular house in a State legislature, or in the national Congress. [U.S.]

5. (Nat.Hist.) (a) That which presents the full character of the type of a group. (b) A species or variety which, in any region, takes the place of a similar one in another region.

Rep`re*sent"a*tive*ly, adv. In a representative manner; vicariously.

Rep`re*sent"a*tive*ness, n. The quality or state of being representative.

Dr. Burnet observes, that every thought is attended with consciousness and representativeness.


Rep`re*sent"er (-?r), n. 1. One who shows, exhibits, or describes. Sir T. Browne.

2. A representative. [Obs.] Swift.

Rep`re*sent"ment (-ment), n. Representation. [Obs.]

Re*press" (r?-pr?s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + press.] To press again.

Re*press" (r?-pr?s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + press: cf. L. reprimere, repressum. Cf. Reprimand.] 1. To press back or down effectually; to crush down or out; to quell; to subdue; to supress; as, to repress sedition or rebellion; to repress the first risings of discontent.

2. Hence, to check; to restrain; to keep back.

Desire of wine and all delicious drinks, . . .
Thou couldst repress.


Syn. -- To crush; overpower; subdue; suppress; restrain; quell; curb