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The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary: Letters M, N & O
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 Begin file 6 of 11:  M, N and O.  (Version 0.50) of
          An electronic field-marked version of:

         Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
                 Version published 1913
               by the  C. & G. Merriam Co.
                   Springfield, Mass.
                 Under the direction of
                Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.

   This electronic version was prepared by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ.
   Last edit February 11, 1999.

   MICRA, Inc. makes no proprietary claims on this version of the
1913 Webster dictionary.  If the original printed edition of the
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considered as public domain.

    This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic errors, including errors in the field-marks.  Assistance in bringing this dictionary to a more accurate and useful state will be greatly appreciated.
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     Patrick Cassidy          [email protected]
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M (m). 1. M, the thirteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant, and from the manner of its formation, is called the labio-nasal consonant. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 178-180, 242.

The letter M came into English from the Greek, through the Latin, the form of the Greek letter being further derived from the Phœnician, and ultimately, it is believed, from the Egyptian. Etymologically M is related to n, in lime, linden; emmet, ant; also to b.

M is readily followed by b and p. the position of the lips in the formation of both letters being the same. The relation of b and m is the same as that of d and t to n. and that of g and k to ng.

2. As a numeral, M stands for one thousand, both in English and Latin.

M, n. 1. (Print.) A quadrat, the face or top of which is a perfect square; also, the size of such a square in any given size of type, used as the unit of measurement for that type: 500 m's of pica would be a piece of matter whose length and breadth in pica m's multiplied together produce that number. [Written also em.]

2. (law) A brand or stigma, having the shape of an M, formerly impressed on one convicted of manslaughter and admitted to the benefit of clergy.

M roof (Arch.), a kind of roof formed by the junction of two common roofs with a valley between them, so that the section resembles the letter M.

Ma (mä), n. [Cf. Mamma.] 1. A child's word for mother.

2. [Hind.] In Oriental countries, a respectful form of address given to a woman; mother. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

||Ma, conj. [It.] (Mus.) But; -- used in cautionary phrases; as, "Vivace, ma non troppo presto" (i. e., lively, but not too quick). Moore (Encyc. of Music).

Maa (?), n. [See New a gull.] (Zoöl.) The common European gull (Larus canus); -- called also mar. See New, a gull.

Maad (?), obs. p. p. of Make. Made. Chaucer.

Maa"lin (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The sparrow hawk. (b) The kestrel.

Ma'am (?), n. Madam; my lady; -- a colloquial contraction of madam often used in direct address, and sometimes as an appellation.

Ma"a*ra shell` (?). (Zoöl.) A large, pearly, spiral, marine shell (Turbo margaritaceus), from the Pacific Islands. It is used as an ornament.

||Ma*ash"a (?), n. An East Indian coin, of about one tenth of the weight of a rupee.

Maat (?), a. [See Mate, a.] Dejected; sorrowful; downcast. [Obs.] "So piteous and so maat." Chaucer.

Mab (mb), n. [Cf. W. mad a male child, a boy.]

1. A slattern. [Prov. Eng.]

2. The name of a female fairy, esp. the queen of the fairies; and hence, sometimes, any fairy. Shak.

Mab"ble (?), v. t. To wrap up. [Obs.]

Mab"by (?), n. A spirituous liquor or drink distilled from potatoes; -- used in the Barbadoes.

||Ma*bo"lo (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of persimmon tree (Diospyros discolor) from the Philippine Islands, now introduced into the East and West Indies. It bears an edible fruit as large as a quince.

Mac (?). [Gael., son.] A prefix, in names of Scotch origin, signifying son.

||Ma*ca"co (?), n. [Cf. Pg. macaco.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of lemurs, as the ruffed lemur (Lemur macaco), and the ring- tailed lemur (L. catta).

||Ma*ca"cus (?), n. [NL., a word of African origin. Cf. Macaco, Macaque.] (Zoöl.) A genus of monkeys, found in Asia and the East Indies. They have short tails and prominent eyebrows.

Mac*ad`am*i*za"tion (?), n. The process or act of macadamizing.

Mac*ad"am*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Macadamized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Macadamizing.] [From John Loudon McAdam, who introduced the process into Great Britain in 1816.] To cover, as a road, or street, with small, broken stones, so as to form a smooth, hard, convex surface.

Mac*ad"am road` (?). [See Macadamize.] A macadamized road.

Ma*ca"o (?), n. (Zoöl.) A macaw.

||Ma`caque" (?), n. [F. See Macacus.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of short-tailed monkeys of the genus Macacus; as, M. maurus, the moor macaque of the East Indies.

Mac`a*ran"ga gum` (?). A gum of a crimson color, obtained from a tree (Macaranga Indica) that grows in the East Indies. It is used in taking impressions of coins, medallions, etc., and sometimes as a medicine. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

Mac"a*rize, v. t. [Gr. &?; to bless.] To congratulate. [Oxford Univ. Cant] Whately.

Mac`a*ro"ni (?), n.; pl. Macaronis (#), or Macaronies. [Prov. It. macaroni, It. maccheroni, fr. Gr. &?; happiness, later, a funeral feast, fr. &?; blessed, happy. Prob. so called because eaten at such feasts in honor of the dead; cf. Gr. &?; blessed, i. e., dead. Cf. Macaroon.] 1. Long slender tubes made of a paste chiefly of wheat flour, and used as an article of food; Italian or Genoese paste.

A paste similarly prepared is largely used as food in Persia, India, and China, but is not commonly made tubular like the Italian macaroni. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

2. A medley; something droll or extravagant.

3. A sort of droll or fool. [Obs.] Addison.

4. A finical person; a fop; -- applied especially to English fops of about 1775. Goldsmith.

5. pl. (U. S. Hist.) The designation of a body of Maryland soldiers in the Revolutionary War, distinguished by a rich uniform. W. Irving.

{ Mac`a*ro"ni*an (?), Mac`a*ron"ic (?), } a. [Cf. It. maccheronico, F. macaronique.] 1. Pertaining to, or like, macaroni (originally a dish of mixed food); hence, mixed; confused; jumbled.

2. Of or pertaining to the burlesque composition called macaronic; as, macaronic poetry.

Mac`a*ron"ic (?), n. 1. A heap of thing confusedly mixed together; a jumble.

2. A kind of burlesque composition, in which the vernacular words of one or more modern languages are intermixed with genuine Latin words, and with hybrid formed by adding Latin terminations to other roots.

Mac`a*roon" (?), n. [F. macaron, It. maccherone. See Macaroni.] 1. A small cake, composed chiefly of the white of eggs, almonds, and sugar.

2. A finical fellow, or macaroni. [Obs.]

Ma*cart"ney (?), n. [From Lord Macartney.] (Zoöl.) A fire-backed pheasant. See Fireback.

Ma*cas`sar oil" (?). A kind of oil formerly used in dressing the hair; -- so called because originally obtained from Macassar, a district of the Island of Celebes. Also, an imitation of the same, of perfumed castor oil and olive oil.

||Ma*cau"co (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small lemurs, as Lemur murinus, which resembles a rat in size.

||Ma`ca*va"hu (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small Brazilian monkey (Callithrix torquatus), -- called also collared teetee.

Ma*caw" (?), n. [From the native name in the Antilles.] (Zoöl.) Any parrot of the genus Sittace, or Macrocercus. About eighteen species are known, all of them American. They are large and have a very long tail, a strong hooked bill, and a naked space around the eyes. The voice is harsh, and the colors are brilliant and strongly contrasted.

Macaw bush (Bot.), a West Indian name for a prickly kind of nightshade (Solanum mammosum). -- Macaw palm, Macaw tree (Bot.), a tropical American palm (Acrocomia fusiformis and other species) having a prickly stem and pinnately divided leaves. Its nut yields a yellow butter, with the perfume of violets, which is used in making violet soap. Called also grugru palm.

Mac`ca*be"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Judas Maccabeus or to the Maccabees; as, the Maccabean princes; Maccabean times.

Mac"ca*bees (?), n. pl. 1. The name given in later times to the Asmonæans, a family of Jewish patriots, who headed a religious revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV., 168-161 B. C., which led to a period of freedom for Israel. Schaff-Herzog.

2. The name of two ancient historical books, which give accounts of Jewish affairs in or about the time of the Maccabean princes, and which are received as canonical books in the Roman Catholic Church, but are included in the Apocrypha by Protestants. Also applied to three books, two of which are found in some MSS. of the Septuagint.

<! p. 879 !>

{ Mac"ca*boy (?), Mac"co*boy (?), } n. [From a district in the Island of Martinique where it is made: cf. F. macouba.] A kind of snuff.

Mac"co (?), n. A gambling game in vogue in the eighteenth century. Thackeray.

Mace (?), n. [Jav. & Malay. ms, fr. Skr. msha a bean.] A money of account in China equal to one tenth of a tael; also, a weight of 57.98 grains. S. W. Williams.

Mace (?), n. [F. macis, L. macis, macir, Gr. &?;; cf. Skr. makaranda the nectar or honey of a flower, a fragrant mango.] (Bot.) A kind of spice; the aril which partly covers nutmegs. See Nutmeg.

Red mace is the aril of Myristica tingens, and white mace that of M. Otoba, -- East Indian trees of the same genus with the nutmeg tree.

Mace, n. [OF. mace, F. masse, from (assumed) L. matea, of which the dim. mateola a kind of mallet or beetle, is found.] 1. A heavy staff or club of metal; a spiked club; -- used as weapon in war before the general use of firearms, especially in the Middle Ages, for breaking metal armor. Chaucer.

Death with his mace petrific . . . smote.


2. Hence: A staff borne by, or carried before, a magistrate as an ensign of his authority. "Swayed the royal mace." Wordsworth.

3. An officer who carries a mace as an emblem of authority. Macaulay.

4. A knobbed mallet used by curriers in dressing leather to make it supple.

5. (Billiards) A rod for playing billiards, having one end suited to resting on the table and pushed with one hand.

Mace bearer, an officer who carries a mace before persons in authority.

Mac`e*do"ni*an (?), a. [L. Macedonius, Gr. &?;.] (Geog.) Belonging, or relating, to Macedonia. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Macedonia.

Mac`e*do"ni*an, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a certain religious sect, followers of Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople, in the fourth century, who held that the Holy Ghost was a creature, like the angels, and a servant of the Father and the Son.

Mac`e*do"ni*an*ism (?), n. The doctrines of Macedonius.

Ma"cer (?), n. [F. massier. See Mace staff.] A mace bearer; an officer of a court. P. Plowman.

Mac"er*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Macerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Macerating.] [L. maceratus, p. p. of macerare to make soft, weaken, enervate; cf. Gr. &?; to knead.] 1. To make lean; to cause to waste away. [Obs. or R.] Harvey.

2. To subdue the appetites of by poor and scanty diet; to mortify. Baker.

3. To soften by steeping in a liquid, with or without heat; to wear away or separate the parts of by steeping; as, to macerate animal or vegetable fiber.

Mac"er*a`ter (?), n. One who, or that which, macerates; an apparatus for converting paper or fibrous matter into pulp.

Mac`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. maceratio: cf. F. macération.] The act or process of macerating.

{ ||Ma*chæ"ro*dus (m*k"r*ds), ||Ma*chai"ro*dus (m*k"r*ds), } n. [NL., fr. Gr. ma`chaira dagger + 'odoy`s tooth.] (Paleon.) A genus of extinct mammals allied to the cats, and having in the upper jaw canine teeth of remarkable size and strength; -- hence called saber-toothed tigers.

||Ma*che"te (m*ch"t), n. [Sp.] A large heavy knife resembling a broadsword, often two or three feet in length, -- used by the inhabitants of Spanish America as a hatchet to cut their way through thickets, and for various other purposes. J. Stevens.

Mach`i*a*vel"ian (?), a. [From Machiavel, an Italian writer, secretary and historiographer to the republic of Florence.] Of or pertaining to Machiavel, or to his supposed principles; politically cunning; characterized by duplicity or bad faith; crafty.

Mach`i*a*vel"ian, n. One who adopts the principles of Machiavel; a cunning and unprincipled politician.

{ Mach"i*a*vel*ism (?), Mach`i*a*vel"ian*ism (?), } n. [Cf. F. machiavélisme; It. machiavellismo.] The supposed principles of Machiavel, or practice in conformity to them; political artifice, intended to favor arbitrary power.

Ma*chic"o*la`ted (?), a. [LL. machicolatus, p. p. of machicolare, machicollare. See Machicolation.] Having machicolations. "Machicolated turrets." C. Kingsley.

Mach`i*co*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. LL. machicolamentum, machacolladura, F. mâchicolis, mâchecoulis; perh. fr. F. mèche match, combustible matter + OF. coulis, couleis, flowing, fr. OF. & F. couler to flow. Cf. Match for making fire, and Cullis.]

1. (Mil. Arch.) An opening between the corbels which support a projecting parapet, or in the floor of a gallery or the roof of a portal, for shooting or dropping missiles upon assailants attacking the base of the walls. Also, the construction of such defenses, in general, when of this character. See Illusts. of Battlement and Castle.

2. The act of discharging missiles or pouring burning or melted substances upon assailants through such apertures.

||Ma`chi`cou`lis" (?), n. [F. mâchicoulis.] (Mil. Arch.) Same as Machicolation.

Ma*chin"al (?), a. [L. machinalis: cf. F. machinal.] Of or pertaining to machines.

Mach"i*nate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Machinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Machinating (?).] [L. machinatus, p. p. of machinari to devise, plot. See Machine.] To plan; to contrive; esp., to form a scheme with the purpose of doing harm; to contrive artfully; to plot. "How long will you machinate!" Sandys.

Mach"i*nate (?), v. t. To contrive, as a plot; to plot; as, to machinate evil.

Mach`i*na"tion (?), n. [L. machinatio: cf. F. machination.] 1. The act of machinating. Shak.

2. That which is devised; a device; a hostile or treacherous scheme; an artful design or plot.

Devilish machinations come to naught.


His ingenious machinations had failed.


Mach"i*na`tor (?), n. [L.] One who machinates, or forms a scheme with evil designs; a plotter or artful schemer. Glanvill. Sir W. Scott.

Ma*chine" (m*shn"), n. [F., fr. L. machina machine, engine, device, trick, Gr. &?;, from &?; means, expedient. Cf. Mechanic.] 1. In general, any combination of bodies so connected that their relative motions are constrained, and by means of which force and motion may be transmitted and modified, as a screw and its nut, or a lever arranged to turn about a fulcrum or a pulley about its pivot, etc.; especially, a construction, more or less complex, consisting of a combination of moving parts, or simple mechanical elements, as wheels, levers, cams, etc., with their supports and connecting framework, calculated to constitute a prime mover, or to receive force and motion from a prime mover or from another machine, and transmit, modify, and apply them to the production of some desired mechanical effect or work, as weaving by a loom, or the excitation of electricity by an electrical machine.

The term machine is most commonly applied to such pieces of mechanism as are used in the industrial arts, for mechanically shaping, dressing, and combining materials for various purposes, as in the manufacture of cloth, etc. Where the effect is chemical, or other than mechanical, the contrivance is usually denominated an apparatus, not a machine; as, a bleaching apparatus. Many large, powerful, or specially important pieces of mechanism are called engines; as, a steam engine, fire engine, graduating engine, etc. Although there is no well-settled distinction between the terms engine and machine among practical men, there is a tendency to restrict the application of the former to contrivances in which the operating part is not distinct from the motor.

2. Any mechanical contrivance, as the wooden horse with which the Greeks entered Troy; a coach; a bicycle. Dryden. Southey. Thackeray.

3. A person who acts mechanically or at the will of another.

4. A combination of persons acting together for a common purpose, with the agencies which they use; as, the social machine.

The whole machine of government ought not to bear upon the people with a weight so heavy and oppressive.


5. A political organization arranged and controlled by one or more leaders for selfish, private or partisan ends. [Political Cant]

6. Supernatural agency in a poem, or a superhuman being introduced to perform some exploit. Addison.

Elementary machine, a name sometimes given to one of the simple mechanical powers. See under Mechanical. -- Infernal machine. See under Infernal. -- Machine gun.See under Gun. -- Machine screw, a screw or bolt adapted for screwing into metal, in distinction from one which is designed especially to be screwed into wood. -- Machine shop, a workshop where machines are made, or where metal is shaped by cutting, filing, turning, etc. -- Machine tool, a machine for cutting or shaping wood, metal, etc., by means of a tool; especially, a machine, as a lathe, planer, drilling machine, etc., designed for a more or less general use in a machine shop, in distinction from a machine for producing a special article as in manufacturing. -- Machine twist, silken thread especially adapted for use in a sewing machine. -- Machine work, work done by a machine, in contradistinction to that done by hand labor.

Ma*chine", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Machined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Machining.] To subject to the action of machinery; to effect by aid of machinery; to print with a printing machine.

Ma*chin"er (?), n. One who or operates a machine; a machinist. [R.]

Ma*chin"er*y (?), n. [From Machine: cf. F. machinerie.] 1. Machines, in general, or collectively.

2. The working parts of a machine, engine, or instrument; as, the machinery of a watch.

3. The supernatural means by which the action of a poetic or fictitious work is carried on and brought to a catastrophe; in an extended sense, the contrivances by which the crises and conclusion of a fictitious narrative, in prose or verse, are effected.

The machinery, madam, is a term invented by the critics, to signify that part which the deities, angels, or demons, are made to act in a poem.


4. The means and appliances by which anything is kept in action or a desired result is obtained; a complex system of parts adapted to a purpose.

An indispensable part of the machinery of state.


The delicate inflexional machinery of the Aryan languages.

I. Taylor (The Alphabet).

Ma*chin"ing, a. Of or pertaining to the machinery of a poem; acting or used as a machine. [Obs.] Dryden.

Ma*chin"ist, n. [Cf. F. machiniste.] 1. A constrictor of machines and engines; one versed in the principles of machines.

2. One skilled in the use of machine tools.

3. A person employed to shift scenery in a theater.

Ma"cho (?), n. [Sp.] (Zoöl.) The striped mullet of California (Mugil cephalus, or Mexicanus).

Mac"i*len*cy (?), n. [See Macilent.] Leanness. [Obs.] Sandys.

Mac"i*lent (?), a. [L. macilentus, fr. macies leanness, macere to be lean.] Lean; thin. [Obs.] Bailey.

Mac"in*tosh (?), n. Same as Mackintosh.

Mack"er*el (?), n. [OF. maquerel, F. maquereau, fr. D. makelaar mediator, agent, fr. makelen to act as agent.] A pimp; also, a bawd. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Mack`er*el (?), n. [OF. maquerel, F. maquereau (LL. macarellus), prob. for maclereau, fr. L. macula a spot, in allusion to the markings on the fish. See Mail armor.] (Zoöl.) Any species of the genus Scomber, and of several related genera. They are finely formed and very active oceanic fishes. Most of them are highly prized for food.

The common mackerel (Scomber scombrus), which inhabits both sides of the North Atlantic, is one of the most important food fishes. It is mottled with green and blue. The Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus), of the American coast, is covered with bright yellow circular spots.

Bull mackerel, Chub mackerel. (Zoöl.) See under Chub. -- Frigate mackerel. See under Frigate. -- Horse mackerel . See under Horse. -- Mackerel bird (Zoöl.), the wryneck; -- so called because it arrives in England at the time when mackerel are in season. -- Mackerel cock (Zoöl.), the Manx shearwater; -- so called because it precedes the appearance of the mackerel on the east coast of Ireland. -- Mackerel guide. (Zoöl.) See Garfish (a). -- Mackerel gull (Zoöl.) any one of several species of gull which feed upon or follow mackerel, as the kittiwake. -- Mackerel midge (Zoöl.), a very small oceanic gadoid fish of the North Atlantic. It is about an inch and a half long and has four barbels on the upper jaw. It is now considered the young of the genus Onos, or Motella. -- Mackerel plow, an instrument for creasing the sides of lean mackerel to improve their appearance. Knight. -- Mackerel shark (Zoöl.), the porbeagle. -- Mackerel sky, or Mackerel-back sky, a sky flecked with small white clouds; a cirro-cumulus. See Cloud.

Mackerel sky and mare's-tails
Make tall ships carry low sails.

Old Rhyme.

{ Mack"i*naw blan"ket (?), Mack"i*naw. }[From Mackinac, the State of Michigan, where blankets and other stores were distributed to the Indians.] A thick blanket formerly in common use in the western part of the United States.

Mack"in*tosh (?), n. A waterproof outer garment; -- so called from the name of the inventor.

Mac"kle (?), n. [See Macle.] Same as Macule.

Mac"kle, v. t. & i. To blur, or be blurred, in printing, as if there were a double impression.

Ma"cle (?), n. [L. macula a spot: cf. F. macle. Cf. Mackle, Mascle.] (Min.) (a) Chiastolite; -- so called from the tessellated appearance of a cross section. See Chiastolite. (b) A crystal having a similar tessellated appearance. (c) A twin crystal.

Ma"cled (?), a. 1. (Min.) (a) Marked like macle (chiastolite). (b) Having a twin structure. See Twin, a.

2. See Mascled.

||Ma*clu"re*a (?), n. [NL. Named from William Maclure, the geologist.] (Paleon.) A genus of spiral gastropod shells, often of large size, characteristic of the lower Silurian rocks.

Ma*clu"rin (?), n. (Chem.) See Morintannic.

Mac"ra*me lace" (?). A coarse lace made of twine, used especially in decorating furniture.

{ Mac`ren*ce*phal"ic (?), Mac`ren*ceph"a*lous (?), } a. [Macro + encephalic, encephalous.] Having a large brain.

Mac"ro- (?). [Gr. makro`s, adj.] A combining form signifying long, large, great; as macrodiagonal, macrospore.

Mac`ro*bi*ot"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; long- lived; makro`s long + &?; life: cf. F. macrobiotique.] Long-lived. Dunglison.

Mac`ro*bi*ot"ics (?), n. (Physiol.) The art of prolonging life.

Mac`ro*ceph"a*lous (?), a. [Macro + Gr. kefalh` the head.] 1. Having a large head.

2. (Bot.) Having the cotyledons of a dicotyledonous embryo confluent, and forming a large mass compared with the rest of the body. Henslow.

Mac`ro-chem"is*try (?), n. [Macro- + chemistry.] (Chem.) The science which treats of the chemical properties, actions or relations of substances in quantity; -- distinguished from micro-chemistry.

||Mac`ro*chi"res (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. makro`s long + &?; hand.] (Zoöl.) A division of birds including the swifts and humming birds. So called from the length of the distal part of the wing.

Mac"ro*cosm (?), n. [Macro- + Gr. &?; the world: cf. F. macrocosme.] The great world; that part of the universe which is exterior to man; -- contrasted with microcosm, or man. See Microcosm.

Mac`ro*cos"mic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the macrocosm. Tylor.

||Mac`ro*cys"tis (?), n. [NL. See Macro-, and Cyst.] (Bot.) An immensely long blackish seaweed of the Pacific (Macrocystis pyrifera), having numerous almond-shaped air vessels.

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Mac`ro*dac"tyl (mk`r*dk"tl), n. [Gr. makroda`ktylos long-fingered; makro`s long + da`ktylos finger: cf. F. macrodactyle.] (Zoöl.) One of a group of wading birds (Macrodactyli) having very long toes. [Written also macrodactyle.]

{ Mac`ro*dac*tyl"ic (?), Mac`ro*dac"tyl*ous (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Having long toes.

Mac`ro*di*ag"o*nal (?), n. [Macro- + diagonal.] (Crystallog.) The longer of two diagonals, as of a rhombic prism. See Crystallization.

Mac"ro*dome (?), n. [Macro- + dome.] (Crystallog.) A dome parallel to the longer lateral axis of an orthorhombic crystal. See Dome, n., 4.

Mac"ro*dont, a. [Macro- + Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth.] (Zoöl.) Having large teeth. -- n. A macrodont animal.

Mac"ro*far`ad (?), n. [Macro- + farad.] (Elec.) See Megafarad. [R.]

||Mac`ro*glos"si*a (?), n. [NL. See Macro-, and Glossa.] (Med.) Enlargement or hypertrophy of the tongue.

Mac`rog*nath"ic (?), a. [Macro- + gnathic.] (Anthropol.) Long-jawed. Huxley.

Ma*crol"o*gy (?), n. [L. macrologia, Gr. &?;; &?; long + lo`gos discourse: cf. F. macrologie.] Long and tedious talk without much substance; superfluity of words.

Ma*crom"e*ter (?), n. [Macro- + -meter.] An instrument for determining the size or distance of inaccessible objects by means of two reflectors on a common sextant.

Ma"cron (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; long.] (Pron.) A short, straight, horizontal mark [-], placed over vowels to denote that they are to be pronounced with a long sound; as, , in dme; , in sam, etc.

Mac`ro*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Macro- + petal.] (Bot.) Having long or large petals.

Ma*croph"yl*lous (?), a. [Macro- + Gr. &?; a leaf.] (Bot.) Having long or large leaves.

Mac`ro*pin"a*coid (?), n. [Macro- + pinacoid.] (Crystallog.) One of the two planes of an orthorhombic crystal which are parallel to the vertical and longer lateral (macrodiagonal) axes.

Mac"ro*pod (?), n. [Macro- + -pod.] (Zoöl.) Any one of a group of maioid crabs remarkable for the length of their legs; -- called also spider crab.

Ma*crop"o*dal (?), a. Having long or large feet, or a long stem.

Mac`ro*po"di*an (?), n. A macropod.

Ma*crop"o*dous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having long legs or feet.

Mac"ro*prism (?), n. [Macro- + prism.] (Crystallog.) A prism of an orthorhombic crystal between the macropinacoid and the unit prism; the corresponding pyramids are called macropyramids.

||Ma*crop"te*res (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; long + &?; feather, wing.] (Zoöl.) A division of birds; the Longipennes.

Ma*crop"ter*ous (?), a. [See Macropteres.] (Zoöl.) Having long wings.

||Mac"ro*pus (?), n. [NL. See Macropod.] (Zoöl.) A genus of marsupials including the common kangaroo.

Mac`ro*pyr"a*mid (?), n. [Macro- + pyramid.] (Crystallog.) See Macroprism.

{ Mac`ro*scop"ic (?), Mac`ro*scop"ic*al (?), } a. [Macro- + Gr. &?; to view.] Visible to the unassisted eye; -- as opposed to microscopic. -- Mac`ro*scop"ic*al*ly, adv.

||Mac`ro*spo*ran"gi*um (?), n. [NL. See Macro-, and Sporangium.] (Bot.) A sporangium or conceptacle containing only large spores; -- opposed to microsporangium. Both are found in the genera Selaginella, Isoctes, and Marsilia, plants remotely allied to ferns.

Mac"ro*spore (?), n. [Macro- + spore.] (Bot.) One of the specially large spores of certain flowerless plants, as Selaginella, etc.

Mac`ro*spor"ic (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to macrospores.

Mac"ro*tone (?), n. [Gr. &?; stretched out. See Macro-, and Tone.] (Pron.) Same as Macron.

Ma*cro"tous (?), a. [Macro- + Gr. o"y^s, gen. 'wto`s, the ear.] (Zoöl.) Large-eared.

||Ma*crou"ra (?), n. pl., Ma*crou"ral (&?;), a., etc. (Zoöl.) Same as Macrura, Macrural, etc.

Mac`ro*zo"ö*spore (?), n. [Macro- + zoöspore.] (Bot.) A large motile spore having four vibratile cilia; -- found in certain green algæ.

||Ma*cru"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; long + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) A subdivision of decapod Crustacea, having the abdomen largely developed. It includes the lobster, prawn, shrimp, and many similar forms. Cf. Decapoda.

Ma*cru"ral (?), a. (Zoöl.) Same as Macrurous.

Ma*cru"ran (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Macrura.

Ma*cru"roid (?), a. [Macrura + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to the Macrura.

Ma*cru"rous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Macrura; having a long tail.

Mac*ta"tion (?), n. [L. mactatio, fr. macture to slay, sacrifice.] The act of killing a victim for sacrifice. [Obs.]

||Mac"tra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; kneading trough, fr. &?; to knead.] (Zoöl.) Any marine bivalve shell of the genus Mactra, and allied genera. Many species are known. Some of them are used as food, as Mactra stultorum, of Europe. See Surf clam, under Surf.

||Mac"u*la (?), n.; pl. Maculæ (#). [L., spot, stain, blot. See Mail armor, and cf. Mackle, Macule.] 1. A spot, as on the skin, or on the surface of the sun or of some other luminous orb.

2. (Zoöl.) A rather large spot or blotch of color.

Mac"u*late (?), v. t. [L. maculatus, p. p. of maculare to spot. See Macula, and cf. Macule, v.] To spot; to stain; to blur.

Maculate the honor of their people.

Sir T. Elyot.

Mac"u*late (?), a. [L. maculatus, p. p.] Marked with spots or maculæ; blotched; hence, defiled; impure; as, most maculate thoughts. Shak.

Mac"u*la`ted (?), a. Having spots or blotches; maculate.

Mac"u*la"tion (?), n. [L. maculatio.] The act of spotting; a spot; a blemish. Shak.

Mac"u*la*to*ry (?), a. Causing a spot or stain. T. Adams.

Mac"u*la*ture (?), n. Blotting paper. [Obs.]

Mac"ule (?), n. [F. macule. See Macula.] 1. A spot. [Obs.]

2. (Print.) A blur, or an appearance of a double impression, as when the paper slips a little; a mackle.

Mac"ule, v. t. [Cf. F. maculer. See Maculate, v.] To blur; especially (Print.), to blur or double an impression from type. See Mackle.

Mac"u*lose` (?), a. [L. maculosus.] Of or pertaining to spots upon a surface; spotted; maculate.

Mad (?), obs. p. p. of Made. Chaucer.

Mad (?), a. [Compar. Madder (?); superl. Maddest (?).] [AS. gem&?;d, gemd, mad; akin to OS. gem&?;d foolish, OHG. gameit, Icel. mei&?;a to hurt, Goth. gamáids weak, broken. &?;.] 1. Disordered in intellect; crazy; insane.

I have heard my grandsire say full oft,
Extremity of griefs would make men mad.


2. Excited beyond self-control or the restraint of reason; inflamed by violent or uncontrollable desire, passion, or appetite; as, to be mad with terror, lust, or hatred; mad against political reform.

It is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their idols.

Jer. 1. 88.

And being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities.

Acts xxvi. 11.

3. Proceeding from, or indicating, madness; expressing distraction; prompted by infatuation, fury, or extreme rashness. "Mad demeanor." Milton.

Mad wars destroy in one year the works of many years of peace.


The mad promise of Cleon was fulfilled.

Jowett (Thucyd.).

4. Extravagant; immoderate. "Be mad and merry." Shak. "Fetching mad bounds." Shak.

5. Furious with rage, terror, or disease; -- said of the lower animals; as, a mad bull; esp., having hydrophobia; rabid; as, a mad dog.

6. Angry; out of patience; vexed; as, to get mad at a person. [Colloq.]

7. Having impaired polarity; -- applied to a compass needle. [Colloq.]

Like mad, like a mad person; in a furious manner; as, to run like mad. L'Estrange. -- To run mad. (a) To become wild with excitement. (b) To run wildly about under the influence of hydrophobia; to become affected with hydrophobia. -- To run mad after, to pursue under the influence of infatuation or immoderate desire. "The world is running mad after farce." Dryden.

Mad, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Madded; p. pr. & vb. n. Madding.] To make mad or furious; to madden.

Had I but seen thy picture in this plight,
It would have madded me.


Mad, v. i. To be mad; to go mad; to rave. See Madding. [Archaic] Chaucer.

Festus said with great voice, Paul thou maddest.

Wyclif (Acts).

Mad, n. [AS. ma&?;a; akin to D. & G. made, Goth. mapa, and prob. to E. moth.] (Zoöl.) An earthworm. [Written also made.]

Mad"am (?), n.; pl. Madams, or Mesdames (#). [See Madame.] A gentlewoman; -- an appellation or courteous form of address given to a lady, especially an elderly or a married lady; -- much used in the address, at the beginning of a letter, to a woman. The corresponding word in addressing a man is Sir.

||Ma`dame" (?), n.; pl. Mesdames (#). [F., fr. ma my (L. mea) + dame dame. See Dame, and cf. Madonna.] My lady; -- a French title formerly given to ladies of quality; now, in France, given to all married women. Chaucer.

Mad"-ap`ple (?), n. (Bot.) See Eggplant.

Mad"brain` (?), a. Hot-headed; rash. Shak. -- n. A rash or hot- headed person.

Mad"brained` (?), a. Disordered in mind; hot-headed. Shak.

Mad"cap` (?), a. 1. Inclined to wild sports; delighting in rash, absurd, or dangerous amusements. "The merry madcap lord." Shak.

2. Wild; reckless. "Madcap follies" Beau. & Fl.

Mad"cap`, n. A person of wild behavior; an excitable, rash, violent person. Shak.

Mad"den (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maddened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Maddening.] To make mad; to drive to madness; to craze; to excite violently with passion; to make very angry; to enrage.

Mad"den, v. i. To become mad; to act as if mad.

They rave, recite, and madden round the land.


Mad"der (md"dr), n. [OE. mader, AS. mædere; akin to Icel. maðra.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Rubia (R. tinctorum). The root is much used in dyeing red, and formerly was used in medicine. It is cultivated in France and Holland. See Rubiaceous.

Madder is sometimes used in forming pigments, as lakes, etc., which receive their names from their colors; as. madder yellow.

Field madder, an annual European weed (Sherardia arvensis) resembling madder. -- Indian madder , the East Indian Rubia cordifolia, used in the East for dyeing; -- called also munjeet. -- Wild madder, Rubia peregrina of Europe; also the Galium Mollugo, a kind of bedstraw.

Mad"der*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A name proposed for any plant of the same natural order (Rubiaceæ) as the madder.

Mad"ding (?), a. Affected with madness; raging; furious. -- Mad"ding*ly, adv. [Archaic]

Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.


The madding wheels
Of brazen chariots raged.


Mad"dish (?), a. Somewhat mad. Beau. & Fl.

Made (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Mad, n.

Made (?), imp. & p. p. of Make.

Made, a. Artificially produced; pieced together; formed by filling in; as, made ground; a made mast, in distinction from one consisting of a single spar.

Made up. (a) Complete; perfect. "A made up villain." Shak. (b) Falsely devised; fabricated; as, a made up story. (c) Artificial; as, a made up figure or complexion.

{ Mad"e*cass (?), Mad`e*cas"see (?), } n. A native or inhabitant of Madagascar, or Madecassee; the language of the natives of Madagascar. See Malagasy.

Mad`e*cas"see, a. Of or pertaining to Madagascar or its inhabitants.

{ Mad`e*fac"tion (?), Mad`e*fi*ca"tion (?), } n. [L. madefacere to make wet; madere to be wet + facere to make: cf. F. madéfaction.] The act of madefying, or making wet; the state of that which is made wet. [R.] Bacon.

Mad"e*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Madefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Madefying (?).] [Cf. F. madéfier, L. madefacere. See Madefaction.] To make wet or moist. [R.]

Mad`e*gas"sy (?), n. & a. See Madecassee.

Ma*dei"ra (?), n. [Pg., the Island Madeira, properly, wood, fr. L. materia stuff, wood. The island was so called because well wooded. See Matter.] A rich wine made on the Island of Madeira.

A cup of Madeira, and a cold capon's leg.


Madeira nut (Bot.), the European walnut; the nut of the Juglans regia.

||Ma`de*moi`selle" (?), n.; pl. Mesdemoiselles (#). [F., fr. ma my, f. of mon + demoiselle young lady. See Damsel.] 1. A French title of courtesy given to a girl or an unmarried lady, equivalent to the English Miss. Goldsmith.

2. (Zoöl.) A marine food fish (Sciæna chrysura), of the Southern United States; -- called also yellowtail, and silver perch.

Madge, n. [Cf. OF. & Prov. F. machette.] (Zoöl.) (a) The barn owl. (b) The magpie.

Mad"-head`ed (?), a. Wild; crack- brained.

Mad"house` (?), n. A house where insane persons are confined; an insane asylum; a bedlam.

||Ma"di*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Sp. madi, fr. Chilian madi, the native name.] (Bot.) A genus of composite plants, of which one species (Madia sativa) is cultivated for the oil yielded from its seeds by pressure. This oil is sometimes used instead of olive oil for the table.

Mad"id (?), a. [L. madidus, fr. madere to be wet.] Wet; moist; as, a madid eye. [R.] Beaconsfield.

||Mad`is*te"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Surg.) An instrument to extract hairs.

||Mad"joun (?), n. [Hind., fr. Ar. ma'j&?;n.] An intoxicating confection from the hemp plant; -- used by the Turks and Hindoos. [Written also majoun.]

Mad"ly (?), adv. [From Mad, a.] In a mad manner; without reason or understanding; wildly.

Mad"man (?), n.; pl. Madmen (&?;). A man who is mad; lunatic; a crazy person.

When a man mistakes his thoughts for person and things, he is mad. A madman is properly so defined.


Mad"nep (?), n. (Bot.) The masterwort (Peucedanum Ostruthium).

Mad"ness, n. [From Mad, a.] 1. The condition of being mad; insanity; lunacy.

2. Frenzy; ungovernable rage; extreme folly.

Syn. -- Insanity; distraction; derangement; craziness; lunacy; mania; frenzy; franticness; rage; aberration; alienation; monomania. See Insanity.

Ma*don"na (?), n. [It. madonna my lady. See Dame, Donna, and cf. Madame, Monkey.] 1. My lady; -- a term of address in Italian formerly used as the equivalent of Madame, but for which Signora is now substituted. Sometimes introduced into English. Shak.

2. [pl. Madonnas (nz).] A picture of the Virgin Mary (usually with the babe).

The Italian painters are noted for drawing the Madonnas by their own wives or mistresses.


||Ma"do*qua (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small Abyssinian antelope (Neotragus Saltiana), about the size of a hare.

||Ma`drague" (?), n. [R.] A large fish pound used for the capture of the tunny in the Mediterranean; also applied to the seines used for the same purpose.

Ma"dre*perl (?), n. [It. madreperla.] Mother-of-pearl.

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||Mad`re*po"ra (md`r*p"r), n. [NL. See Madrepore.] (Zoöl.) A genus of reef corals abundant in tropical seas. It includes than one hundred and fifty species, most of which are elegantly branched. -- Mad`re*po"ral (#), a.

||Mad`re*po*ra"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Madrepore.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of Anthozoa, including most of the species that produce stony corals. See Illust. of Anthozoa. -- Mad`re*po*ra"ri*an (#), a. & n.

Mad"re*pore (?), n. [F. madrepore, perh. fr. madré spotted, fr. OF. madre, mazre, a kind of knotty wood with brown spots, fr. OHG. masar a knot, grain, or vein in wood, a speck, G. maser + pore (see Pore); or perh. F. madrépore is rather from It. madrepora, and this perh. fr. It. madre mother (see Mother) + Gr. &?; a soft stone.] (Zoöl.) Any coral of the genus Madrepora; formerly, often applied to any stony coral.

{ Mad`re*po"ri*an (?), Mad`re*po"ric (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Resembling, or pertaining to, the genus Madrepora.

Madreporic plate (Zoöl.), a perforated plate in echinoderms, through which water is admitted to the ambulacral tubes; -- called also madreporic tubercule.

Mad`re*po"ri*form (?), a. [Madrepore + -form.] (Zoöl.) Resembling a madreporian coral in form or structure.

Mad"re*po*rite (?), n. [Cf. F. madréporite] 1. (Paleon.) A fossil coral.

2. (Zoöl.) The madreporic plate of echinoderms.

Ma*drier" (?), n. [F., from Sp. madero, or Pg. madeiro, fr. Sp. madera wood for building, timber, Pg. madeira, L. materia stuff, materials, lumber. See Matter.] A thick plank, used for several mechanical purposes; especially: (a) A plank to receive the mouth of a petard, with which it is applied to anything intended to be broken down. (b) A plank or beam used for supporting the earth in mines or fortifications.

Mad"ri*gal (md"r*gal), n. [It. madrigale, OIt. madriale, mandriale (cf. LL. matriale); of uncertain origin, possibly fr. It mandra flock, L. mandra stall, herd of cattle, Gr. ma`ndra fold, stable; hence, madrigal, originally, a pastoral song.] 1. A little amorous poem, sometimes called a pastoral poem, containing some tender and delicate, though simple, thought.

Whose artful strains have oft delayed
The huddling brook to hear his madrigal.


2. (Mus.) An unaccompanied polyphonic song, in four, five, or more parts, set to secular words, but full of counterpoint and imitation, and adhering to the old church modes. Unlike the freer glee, it is best sung with several voices on a part. See Glee.

Mad"ri*gal*er (?), n. A madrigalist.

Mad"ri*gal*ist, n. A composer of madrigals.

Mad`ri*le"ni*an (?), a. [Sp. Madrileño.] Of or pertaining to Madrid in Spain, or to its inhabitants. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Madrid.

||Ma*dri"na (?), n. [Sp., prop., a godmother.] An animal (usually an old mare), wearing a bell and acting as the leader of a troop of pack mules. [S. America]

Ma*dro"ña (?), n. [Sp. madroño.] (Bot.) A small evergreen tree or shrub (Arbutus Menziesii), of California, having a smooth bark, thick shining leaves, and edible red berries, which are often called madroña apples. [Written also madroño.]

Mad"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of cruciferous plants (Alyssum) with white or yellow flowers and rounded pods. A. maritimum is the commonly cultivated sweet alyssum, a fragrant white-flowered annual.

{ Mæg"bote`, Mag"bote` } (?), n. [AS. mg kinsman + bt compensation.] (Anglo-Saxon Law) Compensation for the injury done by slaying a kinsman. Spelman.

Mael"strom (?), n. [Norw., a whirlpool.] 1. A celebrated whirlpool on the coast of Norway.

2. Also Fig. ; as, a maelstrom of vice.

||Mæ"nad (?), n. [L. Maenas, -adis, Gr. &?;, &?;, fr. &?; to rave.] 1. A Bacchante; a priestess or votary of Bacchus.

2. A frantic or frenzied woman.

||Ma`es*to"so (?), a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Majestic or majestically; -- a direction to perform a passage or piece of music in a dignified manner.

Maes"tricht mon"i*tor (?). [So called from Maestricht, a town in Holland.] (Paleon.) The Mosasaurus Hofmanni. See Mosasaurus.

||Ma*es"tro (?), n. [It., fr. L. magister. See Master.] A master in any art, especially in music; a composer.

Maf"fle (?), v. i. [Akin to OD. maffelen to stammer. Cf. Muffle to mumble.] To stammer. [Obs.]

Maf"fler (?), n. A stammerer. [Obs.]

Mag`a*zine" (?), n. [F. magasin, It. magazzino, or Sp. magacen, almagacen; all fr. Ar. makhzan, almakhzan, a storehouse, granary, or cellar.]

1. A receptacle in which anything is stored, especially military stores, as ammunition, arms, provisions, etc. "Armories and magazines." Milton.

2. The building or room in which the supply of powder is kept in a fortification or a ship.

3. A chamber in a gun for holding a number of cartridges to be fed automatically to the piece.

4. A pamphlet published periodically containing miscellaneous papers or compositions.

Magazine dress, clothing made chiefly of woolen, without anything metallic about it, to be worn in a powder magazine. -- Magazine gun, a portable firearm, as a rifle, with a chamber carrying cartridges which are brought automatically into position for firing. -- Magazine stove, a stove having a chamber for holding fuel which is supplied to the fire by some self-feeding process, as in the common base-burner.

Mag`a*zine" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Magazined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Magazining.] To store in, or as in, a magazine; to store up for use.

Mag`a*zin"er (?), n. One who edits or writes for a magazine. [R.] Goldsmith.

Mag`a*zin"ing, n. The act of editing, or writing for, a magazine. [Colloq.] Byron.

Mag`a*zin"ist, n. One who edits or writes for a magazine. [R.]

Mag"bote` (?), n. See Mægbote.

Mag"da*la (?), a. Designating an orange-red dyestuff obtained from naphthylamine, and called magdala red, naphthalene red, etc.

Mag"da*len (?), n. [From Mary Magdalene, traditionally reported to have been the repentant sinner forgiven by Christ. See Luke vii. 36.] A reformed prostitute.

Mag*da"le*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; crumb of bread, fr. &?; to knead.] (Med.) A medicine in the form of a roll, a esp. a roll of plaster.

Mag"de*burg (?), n. A city of Saxony.

Magdeburg centuries, Magdeburg hemispheres. See under Century, and Hemisphere.

Mage (?), n. [F. mage. See Magi.] A magician. [Archaic] Spenser. Tennyson.

Mag`el*lan"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or named from, Magellan, the navigator.

Magellenic clouds (Astron.), three conspicuous nebulæ near the south pole, resembling thin white clouds.

Ma*gen"ta (?), n. (Chem.) An aniline dye obtained as an amorphous substance having a green bronze surface color, which dissolves to a shade of red; also, the color; -- so called from Magenta, in Italy, in allusion to the battle fought there about the time the dye was discovered. Called also fuchsine, roseïne, etc.

Magged (?), a. (Naut.) Worn; fretted; as, a magged brace. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

||Mag`gio"re (?), a. [It., from L. major, compar. of magnus great. See Major.] (Mus.) Greater, in respect to scales, intervals, etc., when used in opposition to minor; major. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

Mag"got (?), n. [W. macai, pl. maceiod, magiod, a worn or grub; cf. magu to bread.] 1. (Zoöl.) The footless larva of any fly. See Larval.

2. A whim; an odd fancy. Hudibras. Tennyson.

Mag"got*i*ness (?), n. State of being maggoty.

Mag"got*ish, a. Full of whims or fancies; maggoty.

Mag"got-pie` (?), n. A magpie. [Obs.] Shak.

Mag"got*y (?), a. 1. Infested with maggots.

2. Full of whims; capricious. Norris.

Ma"ghet (?), n. [Cf. Fl. maghet maid.] (Bot.) A name for daisies and camomiles of several kinds.

||Ma"gi (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of Magus, Gr. &?;; of Per. origin. Cf. Mage, Magic.] A caste of priests, philosophers, and magicians, among the ancient Persians; hence, any holy men or sages of the East.

The inspired Magi from the Orient came.


Ma"gi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Magi.

Ma"gi*an, n. One of the Magi, or priests of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia; an adherent of the Zoroastrian religion. -- Ma"gi*an*ism (#), n.

Mag"ic (?), n. [OE. magique, L. magice, Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?;. See Magic, a., and Magi.] A comprehensive name for all of the pretended arts which claim to produce effects by the assistance of supernatural beings, or departed spirits, or by a mastery of secret forces in nature attained by a study of occult science, including enchantment, conjuration, witchcraft, sorcery, necromancy, incantation, etc.

An appearance made by some magic.


Celestial magic, a supposed supernatural power which gave to spirits a kind of dominion over the planets, and to the planets an influence over men. -- Natural magic, the art of employing the powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural. -- Superstitious, or Geotic, magic, the invocation of devils or demons, involving the supposition of some tacit or express agreement between them and human beings.

Syn. -- Sorcery; witchcraft; necromancy; conjuration; enchantment.

{ Mag"ic (?), Mag"ic*al (?), } a. [L. magicus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?;: cf. F. magique. See Magi.] 1. Pertaining to the hidden wisdom supposed to be possessed by the Magi; relating to the occult powers of nature, and the producing of effects by their agency.

2. Performed by, or proceeding from, occult and superhuman agencies; done by, or seemingly done by, enchantment or sorcery. Hence: Seemingly requiring more than human power; imposing or startling in performance; producing effects which seem supernatural or very extraordinary; having extraordinary properties; as, a magic lantern; a magic square or circle.

The painter's magic skill.


Although with certain words magic is used more than magical, -- as, magic circle, magic square, magic wand, -- we may in general say magic or magical; as, a magic or magical effect; a magic or magical influence, etc. But when the adjective is predicative, magical, and not magic, is used; as, the effect was magical.

Magic circle, a series of concentric circles containing the numbers 12 to 75 in eight radii, and having somewhat similar properties to the magic square. -- Magic humming bird (Zoöl.), a Mexican humming bird (Iache magica) , having white downy thing tufts. -- Magic lantern. See Lantern. -- Magic square, numbers so disposed in parallel and equal rows in the form of a square, that each row, taken vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, shall give the same sum, the same product, or an harmonical series, according as the numbers taken are in arithmetical, geometrical, or harmonical progression. -- Magic wand, a wand used by a magician in performing feats of magic.

Mag"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a magical manner; by magic, or as if by magic.

Ma*gi"cian (?), n. [F. magicien. See Magic, n.] One skilled in magic; one who practices the black art; an enchanter; a necromancer; a sorcerer or sorceress; a conjurer.

{ Ma*gilp" (?), Ma*gilph" (?), } n. (Paint.) See Megilp.

||Ma*gis"ter (?), n. [L. See Master.] Master; sir; -- a title of the Middle Ages, given to a person in authority, or to one having a license from a university to teach philosophy and the liberal arts.

Mag`is*te"ri*al (?), a. [L. magisterius magisterial. See Master.] 1. Of or pertaining to a master or magistrate, or one in authority; having the manner of a magister; official; commanding; authoritative. Hence: Overbearing; dictatorial; dogmatic.

When magisterial duties from his home
Her father called.


We are not magisterial in opinions, nor, dictator-like, obtrude our notions on any man.

Sir T. Browne.

Pretenses go a great way with men that take fair words and magisterial looks for current payment.


2. (Alchem. & Old Chem.) Pertaining to, produced by, or of the nature of, magistery. See Magistery, 2.

Syn. -- Authoritative; stately; august; pompous; dignified; lofty; commanding; imperious; lordly; proud; haughty; domineering; despotic; dogmatical; arrogant. -- Magisterial, Dogmatical, Arrogant. One who is magisterial assumes the air of a master toward his pupils; one who is dogmatical lays down his positions in a tone of authority or dictation; one who is arrogant in sults others by an undue assumption of superiority. Those who have long been teachers sometimes acquire, unconsciously, a manner which borders too much on the magisterial, and may be unjustly construed as dogmatical, or even arrogant.

Mag`is*te`ri*al"i*ty (?), n. Magisterialness; authoritativeness. [R.] Fuller.

Mag`is*te"ri*al*ly (?), adv. In a magisterial manner.

Mag`is*te"ri*al*ness, n. The quality or state of being magisterial.

Mag"is*ter*y (?), n. [L. magisterium the office of a chief, president, director, tutor. See Magistrate.] 1. Mastery; powerful medical influence; renowned efficacy; a sovereign remedy. [Obs.] Holland.

2. A magisterial injunction. [R.] Brougham.

3. (Chem.) A precipitate; a fine substance deposited by precipitation; -- applied in old chemistry to certain white precipitates from metallic solutions; as, magistery of bismuth. Ure.

Mag"is*tra*cy (?), n.; pl. Magistracies (#). [From Magistrate.] 1. The office or dignity of a magistrate. Blackstone.

2. The collective body of magistrates.

Mag"is*tral (?), a. [L. magistralis: cf. F. magistral. See Magistrate.] 1. Pertaining to a master; magisterial; authoritative; dogmatic.

2. Commanded or prescribed by a magister, esp. by a doctor; hence, effectual; sovereign; as, a magistral sirup. "Some magistral opiate." Bacon.

3. (Pharmacy) Formulated extemporaneously, or for a special case; -- opposed to officinal, and said of prescriptions and medicines. Dunglison.

Magistral line (Fort.), the guiding line, or outline, by which the form of the work is determined. It is usually the crest line of the parapet in fieldworks, or the top line of the escarp in permanent fortifications.

Mag"is*tral, n. 1. (Med.) A sovereign medicine or remedy. [Obs.] Burton.

2. (Fort.) A magistral line.

3. (Metal.) Powdered copper pyrites used in the amalgamation of ores of silver, as at the Spanish mines of Mexico and South America.

Mag`is*tral"i*ty (?), n.; pl. -ties (&?;). Magisterialness; arbitrary dogmatism. Bacon.

Mag"is*tral*ly (?), adv. In a magistral manner. Abp. Bramhall.

Mag"is*trate (?), n. [L. magistratus, fr. magister master: cf. F. magistrat. See Master.] A person clothed with power as a public civil officer; a public civil officer invested with the executive government, or some branch of it. "All Christian rulers and magistrates." Book of Com. Prayer.

Of magistrates some also are supreme, in whom the sovereign power of the state resides; others are subordinate.


{ Mag`is*trat"ic (?), Mag`is*trat"ic*al (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or proceeding from, a magistrate; having the authority of a magistrate. Jer. Taylor.

Mag"is*tra`ture (?), n. [Cf. F. magistrature.] Magistracy. [Obs.]

||Mag"ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to squeeze, knead.] 1. Any crude mixture of mineral or organic matters in the state of a thin paste. Ure.

2. (Med.) (a) A thick residuum obtained from certain substances after the fluid parts are expressed from them; the grounds which remain after treating a substance with any menstruum, as water or alcohol. (b) A salve or confection of thick consistency. Dunglison.

<! p. 882 !>

3. (Geol.) (a) The molten matter within the earth, the source of the material of lava flows, dikes of eruptive rocks, etc. (b) The glassy base of an eruptive rock.

4. (Chem.) The amorphous or homogenous matrix or ground mass, as distinguished from well-defined crystals; as, the magma of porphyry.

||Mag"na Char"ta (?). [L., great charter.] 1. The great Charter, so called, obtained by the English barons from King John, A. D. 1215. This name is also given to the charter granted to the people of England in the ninth year of Henry III., and confirmed by Edward I.

2. Hence, a fundamental constitution which guaranties rights and privileges.

Mag*nal"i*ty (?), n. [L. magnalis mighty, fr. magnus great.] A great act or event; a great attainment. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Mag`na*nim"i*ty (?), n. [F. magnanimité, L. magnanimitas.] The quality of being magnanimous; greatness of mind; elevation or dignity of soul; that quality or combination of qualities, in character, which enables one to encounter danger and trouble with tranquility and firmness, to disdain injustice, meanness and revenge, and to act and sacrifice for noble objects.

Mag*nan"i*mous (?), a.[L. magnanimus; magnus great + animus mind. See Magnate, and Animus.] 1. Great of mind; elevated in soul or in sentiment; raised above what is low, mean, or ungenerous; of lofty and courageous spirit; as, a magnanimous character; a magnanimous conqueror.

Be magnanimous in the enterprise.


To give a kingdom hath been thought
Greater and nobler done, and to lay down
Far more magnanimous than to assume.


2. Dictated by or exhibiting nobleness of soul; honorable; noble; not selfish.

Both strived for death; magnanimous debate.


There is an indissoluble union between a magnanimous policy and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity.


Mag*nan"i*mous*ly, adv. In a magnanimous manner; with greatness of mind.

Mag"nase black` (?). (Paint.) A black pigment which dries rapidly when mixed with oil, and is of intense body. Fairholt.

Mag"nate (?), [F. magnat, L. (pl.) magnates, magnati, fr. magnus great. See Master.] 1. A person of rank; a noble or grandee; a person of influence or distinction in any sphere. Macaulay.

2. One of the nobility, or certain high officers of state belonging to the noble estate in the national representation of Hungary, and formerly of Poland.

Mag"nes (?), n. [L.] Magnet. [Obs.] Spenser.

Mag*ne"si*a (?; 277), n. [L. Magnesia, fem. of Magnesius of the country Magnesia, Gr. h` Magnhsi`a li`qos a magnet. Cf. Magnet.] (Chem.) A light earthy white substance, consisting of magnesium oxide, and obtained by heating magnesium hydrate or carbonate, or by burning magnesium. It has a slightly alkaline reaction, and is used in medicine as a mild antacid laxative. See Magnesium.

Magnesia alba [L.] (Med. Chem.), a bulky white amorphous substance, consisting of a hydrous basic carbonate of magnesium, and used as a mild cathartic.

Mag*ne"sian (?), a. Pertaining to, characterized by, or containing, magnesia or magnesium.

Magnesian limestone. (Min.) See Dolomite.

Mag*ne"sic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, magnesium; as, magnesic oxide.

Mag"ne*site (?), n. [Cf. F. magnésite.] (Min.) Native magnesium carbonate occurring in white compact or granular masses, and also in rhombohedral crystals.

Mag*ne"si*um (?), n. [NL. & F. See Magnesia.] (Chem.) A light silver-white metallic element, malleable and ductile, quite permanent in dry air but tarnishing in moist air. It burns, forming (the oxide) magnesia, with the production of a blinding light (the so-called magnesium light) which is used in signaling, in pyrotechny, or in photography where a strong actinic illuminant is required. Its compounds occur abundantly, as in dolomite, talc, meerschaum, etc. Symbol Mg. Atomic weight, 24.4. Specific gravity, 1.75.

Magnesium sulphate. (Chem.) Same as Epsom salts.

Mag"net (mg"nt), n. [OE. magnete, OF. magnete, L. magnes, - etis, Gr. Magnh^tis li`qos a magnet, metal that looked like silver, prop., Magnesian stone, fr. Gr. Magnhsi`a, a country in Thessaly. Cf. Magnesia, Manganese.] 1. The loadstone; a species of iron ore (the ferrosoferric or magnetic ore, Fe3O4) which has the property of attracting iron and some of its ores, and, when freely suspended, of pointing to the poles; -- called also natural magnet.

Dinocrates began to make the arched roof of the temple of Arsinoë all of magnet, or this loadstone.


Two magnets, heaven and earth, allure to bliss,
The larger loadstone that, the nearer this.


2. (Physics) A bar or mass of steel or iron to which the peculiar properties of the loadstone have been imparted; -- called, in distinction from the loadstone, an artificial magnet.

An artificial magnet, produced by the action of a voltaic or electrical battery, is called an electro-magnet.

Field magnet (Physics & Elec.), a magnet used for producing and maintaining a magnetic field; -- used especially of the stationary or exciting magnet of a dynamo or electromotor in distinction from that of the moving portion or armature.

{ Mag*net"ic (?), Mag*net"ic*al (?), } a. [L. magneticus: cf. F. magnétique.] 1. Pertaining to the magnet; possessing the properties of the magnet, or corresponding properties; as, a magnetic bar of iron; a magnetic needle.

2. Of or pertaining to, or characterized by, the earth's magnetism; as, the magnetic north; the magnetic meridian.

3. Capable of becoming a magnet; susceptible to magnetism; as, the magnetic metals.

4. Endowed with extraordinary personal power to excite the feelings and to win the affections; attractive; inducing attachment.

She that had all magnetic force alone.


5. Having, susceptible to, or induced by, animal magnetism, so called; as, a magnetic sleep. See Magnetism.

Magnetic amplitude, attraction, dip, induction, etc. See under Amplitude, Attraction, etc. -- Magnetic battery, a combination of bar or horseshoe magnets with the like poles adjacent, so as to act together with great power. -- Magnetic compensator, a contrivance connected with a ship's compass for compensating or neutralizing the effect of the iron of the ship upon the needle. -- Magnetic curves, curves indicating lines of magnetic force, as in the arrangement of iron filings between the poles of a powerful magnet. -- Magnetic elements. (a) (Chem. Physics) Those elements, as iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, etc., which are capable or becoming magnetic. (b) (Physics) In respect to terrestrial magnetism, the declination, inclination, and intensity. (c) See under Element. -- Magnetic equator, the line around the equatorial parts of the earth at which there is no dip, the dipping needle being horizontal. -- Magnetic field, or Field of magnetic force, any space through which a magnet exerts its influence. -- Magnetic fluid, the hypothetical fluid whose existence was formerly assumed in the explanations of the phenomena of magnetism. -- Magnetic iron, or Magnetic iron ore. (Min.) Same as Magnetite. -- Magnetic needle, a slender bar of steel, magnetized and suspended at its center on a sharp-pointed pivot, or by a delicate fiber, so that it may take freely the direction of the magnetic meridian. It constitutes the essential part of a compass, such as the mariner's and the surveyor's. -- Magnetic poles, the two points in the opposite polar regions of the earth at which the direction of the dipping needle is vertical. -- Magnetic pyrites. See Pyrrhotite. -- Magnetic storm (Terrestrial Physics), a disturbance of the earth's magnetic force characterized by great and sudden changes. -- Magnetic telegraph, a telegraph acting by means of a magnet. See Telegraph.

Mag*net"ic (?), n. 1. A magnet. [Obs.]

As the magnetic hardest iron draws.


2. Any metal, as iron, nickel, cobalt, etc., which may receive, by any means, the properties of the loadstone, and which then, when suspended, fixes itself in the direction of a magnetic meridian.

Mag*net"ic*al*ly, adv. By or as by, magnetism.

Mag*net"ic*al*ness, n. Quality of being magnetic.

Mag`ne*ti"cian (?), n. One versed in the science of magnetism; a magnetist.

Mag*net"ic*ness, n. Magneticalness. [Obs.]

Mag*net"ics (?), n. The science of magnetism.

Mag`net*if"er*ous (?), a. [L. magnes, -etis + -ferous.] Producing or conducting magnetism.

Mag"net*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. magnétisme.] The property, quality, or state, of being magnetic; the manifestation of the force in nature which is seen in a magnet.

2. The science which treats of magnetic phenomena.

3. Power of attraction; power to excite the feelings and to gain the affections. "By the magnetism of interest our affections are irresistibly attracted." Glanvill.

Animal magnetism, a force, more or less analogous to magnetism, which, it has been alleged, is produced in animal tissues, and passes from one body to another with or without actual contact. The existence of such a force, and its potentiality for the cure of disease, were asserted by Mesmer in 1775. His theories and methods were afterwards called mesmerism, a name which has been popularly applied to theories and claims not put forward by Mesmer himself. See Mesmerism, Biology, Od, Hypnotism. -- Terrestrial magnetism, the magnetic force exerted by the earth, and recognized by its effect upon magnetized needles and bars.

Mag"net*ist, n. One versed in magnetism.

Mag"net*ite (?), n. (Min.) An oxide of iron (Fe3O4) occurring in isometric crystals, also massive, of a black color and metallic luster. It is readily attracted by a magnet and sometimes possesses polarity, being then called loadstone. It is an important iron ore. Called also magnetic iron.

Mag"net*i`za*ble (?), a. Capable of being magnetized.

Mag`net*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of magnetizing, or the state of being magnetized.

Mag"net*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Magnetized (?); prep. & adv. Magnetizing (?).] [Cf. F. magnétiser.] 1. To communicate magnetic properties to; as, to magnetize a needle.

2. To attract as a magnet attracts, or like a magnet; to move; to influence.

Fascinated, magnetized, as it were, by his character.


3. To bring under the influence of animal magnetism.

Mag`net*i*zee" (?), n. A person subjected to the influence of animal magnetism. [R.]

Mag"net*i`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, imparts magnetism.

Mag"net*o- (?). [See Magnet.] A prefix meaning pertaining to, produced by, or in some way connected with, magnetism.

{ Mag`net*o-e*lec"tric (?), Mag`net*o- e*lec"tric*al (?), } a. (Physics) Pertaining to, or characterized by, electricity by the action of magnets; as, magneto-electric induction.

Magneto-electric machine, a form of dynamo- electric machine in which the field is maintained by permanent steel magnets instead of electro-magnets.

Mag`net*o-e`lec*tric"i*ty (?), n. 1. Electricity evolved by the action of magnets.

2. (Physics) That branch of science which treats of the development of electricity by the action of magnets; -- the counterpart of electro-magnetism.

Mag*net"o*graph (?), n. [Magneto- + -graph.] (Physics) An automatic instrument for registering, by photography or otherwise, the states and variations of any of the terrestrial magnetic elements.

Mag`net*om"e*ter (?), n. [Magneto- + -meter: cf. F. magnétomètre.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the intensity of magnetic forces; also, less frequently, an instrument for determining any of the terrestrial magnetic elements, as the dip and declination.

Mag`net*o*met"ric (?), a. Pertaining to, or employed in, the measurement of magnetic forces; obtained by means of a magnetometer; as, magnetometric instruments; magnetometric measurements.

Mag`net*o*mo"tor (?), n. A voltaic series of two or more large plates, producing a great quantity of electricity of low tension, and hence adapted to the exhibition of electro-magnetic phenomena. [R.]

Mag`net*o*ther"a*py (?), n. (Med.) The treatment of disease by the application of magnets to the surface of the body.

Mag"ni*fi`a*ble, a. [From Magnify.] Such as can be magnified, or extolled.

{ Mag*nif"ic (?), Mag*nif"ic*al (?), } a. [L. magnificus; magnus great + facere to make: cf. F. magnifique. See Magnitude, Fact. and cf. Magnificent.] Grand; splendid; illustrious; magnificent. [Obs.] 1 Chron. xxii. 5. "Thy magnific deeds." Milton. -- Mag*nif"ic*al*ly, adv. [Obs.]

||Mag*nif"i*cat (?), n. [L., it magnifies.] The song of the Virgin Mary, Luke i. 46; -- so called because it commences with this word in the Vulgate.

Mag*nif"i*cate (?), v. t. [L. magnificatus, p. p. of magnificare.] To magnify or extol. [Obs.] Marston.

Mag`ni*fi*ca"tion (?), n. The act of magnifying; enlargement; exaggeration. [R.]

Mag*nif"i*cence (?), n. [F. magnificence, L. magnificentia. See Magnific.] The act of doing what is magnificent; the state or quality of being magnificent. Acts xix. 27. "Then cometh magnificence." Chaucer.

And, for the heaven's wide circuit, let it speak
The Maker's high magnificence, who built
so spacious.


The noblest monuments of Roman magnificence.


Mag*nif"i*cent (?), a. [See Magnificence.] 1. Doing grand things; admirable in action; displaying great power or opulence, especially in building, way of living, and munificence.

A prince is never so magnificent
As when he's sparing to enrich a few
With the injuries of many.


2. Grand in appearance; exhibiting grandeur or splendor; splendid; pompous.

When Rome's exalted beauties I descry
Magnificent in piles of ruin lie.


Syn. -- Glorious; majestic; sublime. See Grand.

Mag*nif"i*cent*ly, adv. In a Magnificent manner.

Mag*nif"i*co (?), n.; pl. Magnificoes (#). [It. See Magnific.] 1. A grandee or nobleman of Venice; -- so called in courtesy. Shak.

2. A rector of a German university.

Mag"ni*fi`er (?), n. One who, or that which, magnifies.

Mag"ni*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Magnified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Magnifying (?).] [OE. magnifien, F. magnifier, L. magnificare. See Magnific.] 1. To make great, or greater; to increase the dimensions of; to amplify; to enlarge, either in fact or in appearance; as, the microscope magnifies the object by a thousand diameters.

The least error in a small quantity . . . will in a great one . . . be proportionately magnified.


2. To increase the importance of; to augment the esteem or respect in which one is held.

On that day the Lord magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel.

Joshua iv. 14.

3. To praise highly; to laud; to extol. [Archaic]

O, magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his name together.

Ps. xxxiv. 3.

4. To exaggerate; as, to magnify a loss or a difficulty.

To magnify one's self (Script.), to exhibit pride and haughtiness; to boast. -- To magnify one's self against (Script.), to oppose with pride.

Mag"ni*fy, v. i. 1. To have the power of causing objects to appear larger than they really are; to increase the apparent dimensions of objects; as, some lenses magnify but little.

2. To have effect; to be of importance or significance. [Cant & Obs.] Spectator.

Magnifying glass, a lens which magnifies the apparent dimensions of objects seen through it.

Mag*nil"o*quence (?), n. [L. magniloquentia.] The quality of being magniloquent; pompous discourse; grandiloquence.

Mag*nil"o*quent (?), a. [L. magnus great + loquens, -entis, p. pr. of loqui to speak. See Magnitude, Loquacious.] Speaking pompously; using swelling discourse; bombastic; tumid in style; grandiloquent. -- Mag*nil"o*quent*ly, adv.

Mag*nil"o*quous (?), a. [L. magniloquus.] Magniloquent. [Obs.]

Mag"ni*tude (?), n. [L. magnitudo, from magnus great. See Master, and cf. Maxim.] 1. Extent of dimensions; size; -- applied to things that have length, breadth, and thickness.

Conceive those particles of bodies to be so disposed amongst themselves, that the intervals of empty spaces between them may be equal in magnitude to them all.

Sir I. Newton.

2. (Geom.) That which has one or more of the three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness.

3. Anything of which greater or less can be predicated, as time, weight, force, and the like.

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4. Greatness; grandeur. "With plain, heroic magnitude of mind." Milton.

5. Greatness, in reference to influence or effect; importance; as, an affair of magnitude.

The magnitude of his designs.

Bp. Horsley.

Apparent magnitude (Opt.), the angular breadth of an object viewed as measured by the angle which it subtends at the eye of the observer; -- called also apparent diameter. -- Magnitude of a star (Astron.), the rank of a star with respect to brightness. About twenty very bright stars are said to be of first magnitude, the stars of the sixth magnitude being just visible to the naked eye. Telescopic stars are classified down to the twelfth magnitude or lower. The scale of the magnitudes is quite arbitrary, but by means of photometers, the classification has been made to tenths of a magnitude.

Mag*no"li*a (?), n. [NL. Named after Pierre Magnol, professor of botany at Montpellier, France, in the 17th century.] (Bot.) A genus of American and Asiatic trees, with aromatic bark and large sweet-scented whitish or reddish flowers.

Magnolia grandiflora has coriaceous shining leaves and very fragrant blossoms. It is common from North Carolina to Florida and Texas, and is one of the most magnificent trees of the American forest. The sweet bay (M. glauca)is a small tree found sparingly as far north as Cape Ann. Other American species are M. Umbrella, M. macrophylla, M. Fraseri, M. acuminata, and M. cordata. M. conspicua and M. purpurea are cultivated shrubs or trees from Eastern Asia. M. Campbellii, of India, has rose-colored or crimson flowers.

Magnolia warbler (Zoöl.), a beautiful North American wood warbler (Dendroica maculosa). The rump and under parts are bright yellow; the breast and belly are spotted with black; the under tail coverts are white; the crown is ash.

Mag*no`li*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to a natural order (Magnoliaceæ) of trees of which the magnolia, the tulip tree, and the star anise are examples.

||Mag"num (?), n. [Neut. sing. of L. magnus great.] 1. A large wine bottle.

They passed the magnum to one another freely.

Sir W. Scott.

2. (Anat.) A bone of the carpus at the base of the third metacarpal bone.

Mag"ot (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) The Barbary ape.

Mag"ot-pie` (?), n. A magpie. [Obs.] Shak.

Mag"pie (?), n. [OE. & Prov. E. magot pie, maggoty pie, fr. Mag, Maggot, equiv. to Margaret, and fr. F. Marquerite, and common name of the magpie. Marguerite is fr. L. margarita pearl, Gr. &?;, prob. of Eastern origin. See Pie magpie, and cf. the analogous names Tomtit, and Jackdaw.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of the genus Pica and related genera, allied to the jays, but having a long graduated tail.

The common European magpie (Pica pica, or P. caudata) is a black and white noisy and mischievous bird. It can be taught to speak. The American magpie (P. Hudsonica) is very similar. The yellow-belled magpie (P. Nuttalli) inhabits California. The blue magpie (Cyanopolius Cooki) inhabits Spain. Other allied species are found in Asia. The Tasmanian and Australian magpies are crow shrikes, as the white magpie (Gymnorhina organicum), the black magpie (Strepera fuliginosa), and the Australian magpie (Cracticus picatus).

Magpie lark (Zoöl.), a common Australian bird (Grallina picata), conspicuously marked with black and white; -- called also little magpie. -- Magpie moth (Zoöl.), a black and white European geometrid moth (Abraxas grossulariata); the harlequin moth. Its larva feeds on currant and gooseberry bushes.

||Ma`gua*ri" (?), n. [From native name: cf. Pg. magoari.] (Zoöl.) A South American stork (Euxenara maguari), having a forked tail.

Mag"uey (?), n. [Sp. maguey, Mexican maguei and metl.] (Bot.) The century plant, a species of Agave (A. Americana). See Agave.

Mag"yar (mg"yär; Hung. md"yr), n. [Hung.] 1. (Ethnol.) One of the dominant people of Hungary, allied to the Finns; a Hungarian.

2. The language of the Magyars.

||Ma"ha (?), n. (Zoöl.) A kind of baboon; the wanderoo.

{ ||Ma*ha*ba"ra*ta (?), ||Ma*ha*bha"ra*tam (?), } n. [Skr. mahbhrata.] A celebrated epic poem of the Hindus. It is of great length, and is chiefly devoted to the history of a civil war between two dynasties of ancient India.

||Ma*ha"led (?), n.[Ar. mahled.] (Bot.) A cherry tree (Prunus Mahaleb) of Southern Europe. The wood is prized by cabinetmakers, the twigs are used for pipe stems, the flowers and leaves yield a perfume, and from the fruit a violet dye and a fermented liquor (like kirschwasser) are prepared.

||Ma*ha*ra"jah (?), n. [Skr. mahrja; mahat great + rja king.] A sovereign prince in India; -- a title given also to other persons of high rank.

||Ma`ha*rif" (?), n. (Zoöl.) An African antelope (Hippotragus Bakeri). Its face is striped with black and white.

||Ma*har"mah (?), n. A muslin wrapper for the head and the lower part of the face, worn by Turkish and Armenian women when they go abroad.

Mah"di (?), n. [Ar., guide, leader.] Among Mohammedans, the last imam or leader of the faithful. The Sunni, the largest sect of the Mohammedans, believe that he is yet to appear.

The title has been taken by several persons in countries where Mohammedanism prevails, -- notably by Mohammad Ahmed, who overran the Egyptian Sudan, and in 1885 captured Khartum, his soldiers killing General Gordon, an Englishman, who was then the Egyptian governor of the region.

Mahl"-stick` (?), n. See Maul- stick.

Ma"hoe (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several malvaceous trees (species of Hibiscus, Ochroma, etc.), and to their strong fibrous inner bark, which is used for strings and cordage.

Ma*hog"a*ny (?), n. [From the South American name.] 1. (Bot.) A large tree of the genus Swietenia (S. Mahogoni), found in tropical America.

Several other trees, with wood more or less like mahogany, are called by this name; as, African mahogany (Khaya Senegalensis), Australian mahogany (Eucalyptus marginatus), Bastard mahogany (Batonia apetala of the West Indies), Indian mahogany (Cedrela Toona of Bengal, and trees of the genera Soymida and Chukrassia), Madeira mahogany (Persea Indica), Mountain mahogany, the black or cherry birch (Betula lenta), also the several species of Cercocarpus of California and the Rocky Mountains.

2. The wood of the Swietenia Mahogoni. It is of a reddish brown color, beautifully veined, very hard, and susceptible of a fine polish. It is used in the manufacture of furniture.

3. A table made of mahogany wood. [Colloq.]

To be under the mahogany, to be so drunk as to have fallen under the table. [Eng.] -- To put one's legs under some one's mahogany, to dine with him. [Slang]

||Ma*ho"li (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South African lemur (Galago maholi), having very large ears. [Written also moholi.]

{ Ma*hom"ed*an (?), Ma*hom"et*an (?), } n. See Mohammedan.

Ma*hom"et*an*ism (?), n. See Mohammedanism.

Ma*hom"et*an*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mahometanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mahometanizing (?).] To convert to the religion of Mohammed; to Mohammedanize.

Ma*hom"et*ism (?), n. See Mohammedanism.

Ma*hom"et*ist, n. A Mohammedan. [R.]

Ma*hom"et*ry (?), n. Mohammedanism. [Obs.]

Ma*hone" (?), n. A large Turkish ship. Crabb.

Ma*ho"ni*a (?), n. [Named after Bernard McMahon.] (Bot.) The Oregon grape, a species of barberry (Berberis Aquifolium), often cultivated for its hollylike foliage.

Ma*hon" stock` (?). (Bot.) An annual cruciferous plant with reddish purple or white flowers (Malcolmia maritima). It is called in England Virginia stock, but the plant comes from the Mediterranean.

||Ma*hoo"hoo (?), n. (Zoöl.) The African white two-horned rhinoceros (Atelodus simus).

Ma"ho*ri (?), n. [Native name. Cf. Maori.] (Ethnol.) One of the dark race inhabiting principally the islands of Eastern Polynesia. Also used adjectively.

Ma`hound (?), n. A contemptuous name for Mohammed; hence, an evil spirit; a devil. [Obs.]

Who's this, my mahound cousin ?

Beau. & Fl.

||Ma*hout" (?), n. [Hind. mahwat, Skr. mahmtra; mahat great + mtr measure.] The keeper and driver of an elephant. [East Indies]

Ma*ho"vo (?), n. (Mach.) A device for saving power in stopping and starting a railroad car, by means of a heavy fly wheel.

Mah*rat"i (?), n. The language of the Mahrattas; the language spoken in the Deccan and Concan. [Written also Marathi.]

Mah*rat"ta (?), n. [Hind. Marhat, Marhtt, the name of a famous Hindoo race, from the old Skr. name Mah- rshtra.] One of a numerous people inhabiting the southwestern part of India. Also, the language of the Mahrattas; Mahrati. It is closely allied to Sanskrit. -- a. Of or pertaining to the Mahrattas. [Written also Maratha.]

{ Ma*hu"met*an (?), Ma*hu"met*an*ism (?), n. } See Mohammedan, Mohammedanism.

Mah"wa tree` (?). (Bot.) An East Indian sapotaceous tree (Bassia latifolia, and also B. butyracea), whose timber is used for wagon wheels, and the flowers for food and in preparing an intoxicating drink. It is one of the butter trees. The oil, known as mahwa and yallah, is obtained from the kernels of the fruit.

||Ma"i*a (?), n. [From L. Maia, a goddess.] (Zoöl.) (a) A genus of spider crabs, including the common European species (Maia squinado). (b) A beautiful American bombycid moth (Eucronia maia).

Ma"ian (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any spider crab of the genus Maia, or family Maiadæ.

Maid (?), n. [Shortened from maiden. &?;. See Maiden.] 1. An unmarried woman; usually, a young unmarried woman; esp., a girl; a virgin; a maiden.

Would I had died a maid,
And never seen thee, never borne thee son.


Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire? Yet my people have forgotten me.

Jer. ii. 32.

2. A man who has not had sexual intercourse. [Obs.]

Christ was a maid and shapen as a man.


3. A female servant.

Spinning amongst her maids.


Maid is used either adjectively or in composition, signifying female, as in maid child, maidservant.

4. (Zoöl.) The female of a ray or skate, esp. of the gray skate (Raia batis), and of the thornback (R. clavata). [Prov. Eng.]

Fair maid. (Zoöl.) See under Fair, a. -- Maid of honor, a female attendant of a queen or royal princess; -- usually of noble family, and having to perform only nominal or honorary duties. -- Old maid. See under Old.

Maid"en (?), n. [OE. maiden, meiden, AS. mægden, dim. of AS. mæg&?;, fr. mago son, servant; akin to G. magd, mädchen, maid, OHG. magad, Icel. mögr son, Goth. magus boy, child, magaps virgin, and perh. to Zend. magu youth. Cf. Maid a virgin.] 1. An unmarried woman; a girl or woman who has not experienced sexual intercourse; a virgin; a maid.

She employed the residue of her life to repairing of highways, building of bridges, and endowing of maidens.


A maiden of our century, yet most meek.


2. A female servant. [Obs.]

3. An instrument resembling the guillotine, formerly used in Scotland for beheading criminals. Wharton.

4. A machine for washing linen.

Maid"en, a. 1. Of or pertaining to a maiden, or to maidens; suitable to, or characteristic of, a virgin; as, maiden innocence. "Amid the maiden throng." Addison.

Have you no modesty, no maiden shame ?


2. Never having been married; not having had sexual intercourse; virgin; -- said usually of the woman, but sometimes of the man; as, a maiden aunt. "A surprising old maiden lady." Thackeray.

3. Fresh; innocent; unpolluted; pure; hitherto unused. "Maiden flowers." Shak.

Full bravely hast thou fleshed
Thy maiden sword.


4. Used of a fortress, signifying that it has never been captured, or violated. T. Warton. Macaulay.

Maiden assize (Eng. Law), an assize which there is no criminal prosecution; an assize which is unpolluted with blood. It was usual, at such an assize, for the sheriff to present the judge with a pair of white gloves. Smart. -- Maiden name, the surname of a woman before her marriage. -- Maiden pink. (Bot.) See under Pink. -- Maiden plum (Bot.), a West Indian tree (Comocladia integrifolia) with purplish drupes. The sap of the tree is glutinous, and gives a persistent black stain. -- Maiden speech, the first speech made by a person, esp. by a new member in a public body. -- Maiden tower, the tower most capable of resisting an enemy.

Maid"en, v. t. To act coyly like a maiden; -- with it as an indefinite object.

For had I maiden'd it, as many use.
Loath for to grant, but loather to refuse.

Bp. Hall.

Maid"en*hair` (?), n. (Bot.) A fern of the genus Adiantum (A. pedatum), having very slender graceful stalks. It is common in the United States, and is sometimes used in medicine. The name is also applied to other species of the same genus, as to the Venus-hair.

Maiden grass, the smaller quaking grass. -- Maiden tree. See Ginkgo.

Maid"en*head (?), n. [See Maidenhood.] 1. The state of being a maiden; maidenhood; virginity. Shak.

2. The state of being unused or uncontaminated; freshness; purity. [Obs.]

The maidenhead of their credit.

Sir H. Wotton.

3. The hymen, or virginal membrane.

Maid"en*hood (?), n. [AS. mægdenhd. See Maid, and -hood.] 1. The state of being a maid or a virgin; virginity. Shak.

2. Newness; freshness; uncontaminated state.

The maidenhood
Of thy fight.


Maid"en*like` (?), a. Like a maiden; modest; coy.

Maid"en*li*ness (?), n. The quality of being maidenly; the behavior that becomes a maid; modesty; gentleness.

Maid"en*ly, a. Like a maid; suiting a maid; maiden-like; gentle, modest, reserved.

Must you be blushing ? . . .
What a maidenly man-at-arms are you become !


Maid"en*ly, adv. In a maidenlike manner. "Maidenly demure." Skelton.

Maid"en*ship, n. Maidenhood. [Obs.] Fuller.

Maid"hood (?), n. [AS. mægðhd. See Maid, and -hood.] Maidenhood. Shak.

Maid`ma"ri*an (?), n. [Maid + Marian, relating to Mary, or the Virgin Mary.] 1. The lady of the May games; one of the characters in a morris dance; a May queen. Afterward, a grotesque character personated in sports and buffoonery by a man in woman's clothes.

2. A kind of dance. Sir W. Temple.

Maid"pale` (?), a. Pale, like a sick girl. Shak.

Maid"serv`ant (?), n. A female servant.

Maid's" hair` (?). (Bot.) The yellow bedstraw (Galium verum).

{ Ma*ieu"tic (m*"tk), Ma*ieu"tic*al (-t*kal), } a. [Gr. maieytiko`s, fr. mai^a midwife.] 1. Serving to assist childbirth. Cudworth.

2. Fig. : Aiding, or tending to, the definition and interpretation of thoughts or language. Payne.

Ma*ieu"tics (?), n. The art of giving birth (i. e., clearness and conviction) to ideas, which are conceived as struggling for birth. Payne.

Mai"ger (?), n. (Zoöl.) The meagre.

Mai"gre (?), a. [F. See Meager.] Belonging to a fast day or fast; as, a maigre day. Walpole.

Maigre food (R. C. Ch.), food allowed to be eaten on fast days.

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Mai"hem (m"hm), n. See Maim, and Mayhem.

||Mai*kel" (mä*kl"), n. (Zoöl.) A South American carnivore of the genus Conepatus, allied to the skunk, but larger, and having a longer snout. The tail is not bushy.

||Mai*kong" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South American wild dog (Canis cancrivorus); the crab- eating dog.

Mail (ml), n. A spot. [Obs.]

Mail, n. [F. maille, OF. also maaille, LL. medalia. See Medal.] 1. A small piece of money; especially, an English silver half-penny of the time of Henry V. [Obs.] [Written also maile, and maille.]

2. Rent; tribute. [Obs., except in certain compounds and phrases, as blackmail, mails and duties, etc.]

Mail and duties (Scots Law), the rents of an estate, in whatever form paid.

Mail, n. [OE. maile, maille, F. maille a ring of mail, mesh, network, a coat of mail, fr. L. macula spot, a mesh of a net. Cf. Macle, Macula, Mascle.] 1. A flexible fabric made of metal rings interlinked. It was used especially for defensive armor. Chaucer.

Chain mail, Coat of mail. See under Chain, and Coat.

2. Hence generally, armor, or any defensive covering.

3. (Naut.) A contrivance of interlinked rings, for rubbing off the loose hemp on lines and white cordage.

4. (Zoöl.) Any hard protective covering of an animal, as the scales and plates of reptiles, shell of a lobster, etc.

We . . . strip the lobster of his scarlet mail.


Mail, v. t. 1. To arm with mail.

2. To pinion. [Obs.]

Mail, n. [OE. male bag, OF. male, F. malle bag, trunk, mail, OHG. malaha, malha, wallet; akin to D. maal, male; cf. Gael. & Ir. mala, Gr. molgo`s hide, skin.] 1. A bag; a wallet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. The bag or bags with the letters, papers, or other matter contained therein, conveyed under public authority from one post office to another; the whole system of appliances used by government in the conveyance and delivery of mail matter.

There is a mail come in to-day, with letters dated Hague.


3. That which comes in the mail; letters, etc., received through the post office.

4. A trunk, box, or bag, in which clothing, etc., may be carried. [Obs.] Sir W. Scott.

Mail bag, a bag in which mailed matter is conveyed under public authority. -- Mail boat, a boat that carries the mail. -- Mail catcher, an iron rod, or other contrivance, attached to a railroad car for catching a mail bag while the train is in motion. -- Mail guard, an officer whose duty it is to guard the public mails. [Eng.] -- Mail train, a railroad train carrying the mail.

Mail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mailed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mailing.] To deliver into the custody of the postoffice officials, or place in a government letter box, for transmission by mail; to post; as, to mail a letter. [U. S.]

In the United States to mail and to post are both in common use; as, to mail or post a letter. In England post is the commoner usage.

Mail"a*ble (?), a. Admissible lawfully into the mail. [U.S.]

Mail"clad` (?), a. Protected by a coat of mail; clad in armor. Sir W. Scott.

Mailed (?), a. (Zoöl.) Protected by an external coat, or covering, of scales or plates.

Mailed, a. [See 1st Mail.] Spotted; speckled.

Mail"ing (?), n. [Scot., fr. mail tribute, rent. See 2d Mail.] A farm. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Mail"-shell` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A chiton.

Maim (mm), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maimed (mmd);p. pr. & vb. n. Maiming.] [OE. maimen, OF. mahaignier, mehaignier, meshaignier, cf. It. magagnare, LL. mahemiare, mahennare; perh. of Celtic origin; cf. Armor. mac'haña to mutilate, mc'ha to crowd, press; or cf. OHG. mangn to lack, perh. akin to E. mangle to lacerate. Cf. Mayhem.] 1. To deprive of the use of a limb, so as to render a person in fighting less able either to defend himself or to annoy his adversary.

By the ancient law of England he that maimed any man whereby he lost any part of his body, was sentenced to lose the like part.


2. To mutilate; to cripple; to injure; to disable; to impair.

My late maimed limbs lack wonted might.


You maimed the jurisdiction of all bishops.


Syn. -- To mutilate; mangle; cripple.

Maim, n. [Written in law language maihem, and mayhem.] [OF. mehaing. See Maim, v.] 1. The privation of the use of a limb or member of the body, by which one is rendered less able to defend himself or to annoy his adversary.

2. The privation of any necessary part; a crippling; mutilation; injury; deprivation of something essential. See Mayhem.

Surely there is more cause to fear lest the want there of be a maim than the use of it a blemish.


A noble author esteems it to be a maim in history that the acts of Parliament should not be recited.


Maim"ed*ly (?), adv. In a maimed manner.

Maim"ed*ness, n. State of being maimed. Bolton.

Main (?), n. [F. main hand, L. manus. See Manual.] 1. A hand or match at dice. Prior. Thackeray.

2. A stake played for at dice. [Obs.] Shak.

3. The largest throw in a match at dice; a throw at dice within given limits, as in the game of hazard.

4. A match at cockfighting. "My lord would ride twenty miles . . . to see a main fought." Thackeray.

5. A main-hamper. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Main, n. [AS. mægen strength, power, force; akin to OHG. magan, Icel. megin, and to E. may, v. &?;. See May, v.] 1. Strength; force; might; violent effort. [Obs., except in certain phrases.]

There were in this battle of most might and main.

R. of Gl.

He 'gan advance,
With huge force, and with importable main.


2. The chief or principal part; the main or most important thing. [Obs., except in special uses.]

Resolved to rest upon the title of Lancaster as the main, and to use the other two . . . but as supporters.


3. Specifically: (a) The great sea, as distinguished from an arm, bay, etc. ; the high sea; the ocean. "Struggling in the main." Dryden. (b) The continent, as distinguished from an island; the mainland. "Invaded the main of Spain." Bacon. (c) principal duct or pipe, as distinguished from lesser ones; esp. (Engin.), a principal pipe leading to or from a reservoir; as, a fire main.

Forcing main, the delivery pipe of a pump. -- For the main, or In the main, for the most part; in the greatest part. -- With might and main, or With all one's might and main, with all one's strength; with violent effort.

With might and main they chased the murderous fox.


Main (?), a. [From Main strength, possibly influenced by OF. maine, magne, great, L. magnus. Cf. Magnate.] 1. Very or extremely strong. [Obs.]

That current with main fury ran.


2. Vast; huge. [Obs.] "The main abyss." Milton.

3. Unqualified; absolute; entire; sheer. [Obs.] "It's a man untruth." Sir W. Scott.

4. Principal; chief; first in size, rank, importance, etc.

Our main interest is to be happy as we can.


5. Important; necessary. [Obs.]

That which thou aright
Believest so main to our success, I bring.


By main force, by mere force or sheer force; by violent effort; as, to subdue insurrection by main force.

That Maine which by main force Warwick did win.


-- By main strength, by sheer strength; as, to lift a heavy weight by main strength. -- Main beam (Steam Engine), working beam. -- Main boom (Naut.), the boom which extends the foot of the mainsail in a fore and aft vessel. -- Main brace. (a) (Mech.) The brace which resists the chief strain. Cf. Counter brace. (b) (Naut.) The brace attached to the main yard. -- Main center (Steam Engine), a shaft upon which a working beam or side lever swings. -- Main chance. See under Chance. -- Main couple (Arch.), the principal truss in a roof. -- Main deck (Naut.), the deck next below the spar deck; the principal deck. -- Main keel (Naut.), the principal or true keel of a vessel, as distinguished from the false keel.

Syn. -- Principal; chief; leading; cardinal; capital.

Main, adv. [See Main, a.] Very; extremely; as, main heavy. "I'm main dry." Foote. [Obs. or Low]

Maine (?), n. One of the New England States.

Maine law, any law prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages, esp. one resembling that enacted in the State of Maine.

Main`-gauche" (mN`gsh"), n. [F., the left hand.] (Ancient Armor) The dagger held in the left hand, while the rapier is held in the right; -- used to parry thrusts of the adversary's rapier.

Main"-ham`per (?), n. [F. main hand (see Main a hand at dice) + E. hamper.] A hamper to be carried in the hand; a hand basket used in carrying grapes to the press.

Main"land` (?), n. The continent; the principal land; -- opposed to island, or peninsula. Dryden.

After the two wayfarers had crossed from the peninsula to the mainland.


Main"ly (?), adv. [From main strong. See Main strength.] Very strongly; mightily; to a great degree. [Obs.] Bacon. Shak.

Main"ly, adv. [From main principal, chief.] Principally; chiefly.

Main"mast` (?), n. (Naut.) The principal mast in a ship or other vessel.

Main"or (?), n. [Anglo-Norm. meinoure, OF. manuevre. See Maneuver.] (O. Eng. Law) A thing stolen found on the person of the thief.

A thief was said to be "taken with the mainor," when he was taken with the thing stolen upon him, that is, in his hands. Wharton. Bouvier.

Main"per*na*ble (?), a. [OF. main hand + pernable, for prenable, that may be taken, pregnable. See Mainpernor.] (Law) Capable of being admitted to give surety by mainpernors; able to be mainprised.

Main"per*nor (?), n. [OF. main hand + pernor, for preneor, a taker, F. preneur, fr. prendre to take.] (Law) A surety, under the old writ of mainprise, for a prisoner's appearance in court at a day.

Mainpernors differ from bail in that a man's bail may imprison or surrender him before the stipulated day of appearance; mainpernors can do neither; they are bound to produce him to answer all charges whatsoever. Blackstone.

Main"pin (?), n. (Vehicles) A kingbolt.

Main"prise (?), n. [F. main hand + prise a taking, fr. prendre, p. p. pris to take, fr. L. prehendere, prehensum.] (Law) (a) A writ directed to the sheriff, commanding him to take sureties, called mainpernors, for the prisoner's appearance, and to let him go at large. This writ is now obsolete. Wharton. (b) Deliverance of a prisoner on security for his appearance at a day.

Main"prise, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mainprised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mainprising.] (Law) To suffer to go at large, on his finding sureties, or mainpernors, for his appearance at a day; -- said of a prisoner.

Mains (mnz), n. [Scot. See Manse.] The farm attached to a mansion house. [Scot.]

Main"sail` (mn"sl`), n. (Naut.) The principal sail in a ship or other vessel.

[They] hoised up the mainsail to the wind.

Acts xxvii. 40.

The mainsail of a ship is extended upon a yard attached to the mainmast, and that of a sloop or schooner upon the boom.

Main"sheet` (?), n. (Naut.) One of the ropes by which the mainsail is hauled aft and trimmed.

Main"spring` (?), n. The principal or most important spring in a piece of mechanism, especially the moving spring of a watch or clock or the spring in a gunlock which impels the hammer. Hence: The chief or most powerful motive; the efficient cause of action.

Main"stay` (?), n. 1. (Naut.) The stay extending from the foot of the foremast to the maintop.

2. Main support; principal dependence.

The great mainstay of the Church.


Main"swear` (?), v. i. [AS. mnswerian to forswear; mn sin, crime + swerian to swear.] To swear falsely. [Obs.] Blount.

Main*tain (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maintained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Maintaining.] [OE. maintenen, F. maintenir, properly, to hold by the hand; main hand (L. manus) + F. tenir to hold (L. tenere). See Manual, and Tenable.] 1. To hold or keep in any particular state or condition; to support; to sustain; to uphold; to keep up; not to suffer to fail or decline; as, to maintain a certain degree of heat in a furnace; to maintain a fence or a railroad; to maintain the digestive process or powers of the stomach; to maintain the fertility of soil; to maintain present reputation.

2. To keep possession of; to hold and defend; not to surrender or relinquish.

God values . . . every one as he maintains his post.


3. To continue; not to suffer to cease or fail.

Maintain talk with the duke.


4. To bear the expense of; to support; to keep up; to supply with what is needed.

Glad, by his labor, to maintain his life.


What maintains one vice would bring up two children.


5. To affirm; to support or defend by argument.

It is hard to maintain the truth, but much harder to be maintained by it.


Syn. -- To assert; vindicate; allege. See Assert.

Main*tain"a*ble (?), a. That may be maintained.

Main*tain"er (?), n. One who maintains.

Main*tain"or (?), n. [OF. mainteneor, F. mainteneur.] (Crim. Law) One who, not being interested, maintains a cause depending between others, by furnishing money, etc., to either party. Bouvier. Wharton.

Main"te*nance (?), n. [OF. maintenance. See Maintain.] 1. The act of maintaining; sustenance; support; defense; vindication.

Whatsoever is granted to the church for God's honor and the maintenance of his service, is granted to God.


2. That which maintains or supports; means of sustenance; supply of necessaries and conveniences.

Those of better fortune not making learning their maintenance.


3. (Crim. Law) An officious or unlawful intermeddling in a cause depending between others, by assisting either party with money or means to carry it on. See Champerty. Wharton.

Cap of maintenance. See under Cap.

Main"top` (?), n. (Naut.) The platform about the head of the mainmast in square-rigged vessels.

Main" yard` (?). (Naut.) The yard on which the mainsail is extended, supported by the mainmast.

Mai"oid (?), a. [Maia + - oid.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the genus Maia, or family Maiadeæ.

Mais"ter (?), n. Master. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.

Mais"ter, a. Principal; chief. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{ Mais"tre (?), Mais"trie, Mais"try (?) }, n. Mastery; superiority; art. See Mastery. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mais"tress (?), n. Mistress. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mai"thes (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Maghet.

Maize (?), n. [Sp. maiz. fr. mahiz or mahis, is the language of the Island of Hayti.] (Bot.) A large species of American grass of the genus Zea (Z. Mays), widely cultivated as a forage and food plant; Indian corn. Also, its seed, growing on cobs, and used as food for men and animals.

Maize eater (Zoöl.), a South American bird of the genus Pseudoleistes, allied to the troupials. -- Maize yellow, a delicate pale yellow.

{ Maj`es*tat"ic (?), Maj`es*tat"*al (?), } a. Majestic. [Obs.] E. Pocock. Dr. J. Scott.

Ma*jes"tic (?), a. [From Majesty.] Possessing or exhibiting majesty; of august dignity, stateliness, or imposing grandeur; lofty; noble; grand. "The majestic world." Shak. "Tethys' grave majestic pace." Milton.

The least portions must be of the epic kind; all must be grave, majestic, and sublime.


Syn. -- August; splendid; grand; sublime; magnificent; imperial; regal; pompous; stately; lofty; dignified; elevated.

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Ma*jes"tic*al (?), a. Majestic. Cowley.

An older architecture, greater, cunninger, more majestical.

M. Arnold.

-- Ma*jes"tic*al*ly, adv. -- Ma*jes"tic*al*ness, n.

Ma*jes"tic*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being majestic. Oldenburg.

Maj"es*ty (?), n.; pl. Majesties (#). [OE. magestee, F. majesté, L. majestas, fr. an old compar. of magnus great. See Major, Master.] The dignity and authority of sovereign power; quality or state which inspires awe or reverence; grandeur; exalted dignity, whether proceeding from rank, character, or bearing; imposing loftiness; stateliness; -- usually applied to the rank and dignity of sovereigns.

The Lord reigneth; he is clothed with majesty.

Ps. xciii. 1.

No sovereign has ever represented the majesty of a great state with more dignity and grace.


2. Hence, used with the possessive pronoun, the title of an emperor, king or queen; -- in this sense taking a plural; as, their majesties attended the concert.

In all the public writs which he [Emperor Charles V.] now issued as King of Spain, he assumed the title of Majesty, and required it from his subjects as a mark of respect. Before that time all the monarchs of Europe were satisfied with the appellation of Highness or Grace.


3. Dignity; elevation of manner or style. Dryden.

Ma*jol"i*ca (?), n. [It.] A kind of pottery, with opaque glazing and showy decoration, which reached its greatest perfection in Italy in the 16th century.

The term is said to be derived from Majorca, which was an early seat of this manufacture. Heyse.

Ma"jor (?), [L. major, compar. of magnus great: cf. F. majeur. Cf. Master, Mayor, Magnitude, More, a.] 1. Greater in number, quantity, or extent; as, the major part of the assembly; the major part of the revenue; the major part of the territory.

2. Of greater dignity; more important. Shak.

3. Of full legal age. [Obs.]

4. (Mus.) Greater by a semitone, either in interval or in difference of pitch from another tone.

Major axis (Geom.), the greater axis. See Focus, n., 2. -- Major key (Mus.), a key in which one and two, two and three, four and five, five and six and seven, make major seconds, and three and four, and seven and eight, make minor seconds. -- Major offense (Law), an offense of a greater degree which contains a lesser offense, as murder and robbery include assault. -- Major premise (Logic), that premise of a syllogism which contains the major term. -- Major scale (Mus.), the natural diatonic scale, which has semitones between the third and fourth, and seventh and fourth, and seventh and eighth degrees; the scale of the major mode, of which the third is major. See Scale, and Diatonic. -- Major second (Mus.), a second between whose tones is a difference in pitch of a step. -- Major sixth (Mus.), a sixth of four steps and a half step. In major keys the third and sixth from the key tone are major. Major keys and intervals, as distinguished from minors, are more cheerful. -- Major term (Logic), that term of a syllogism which forms the predicate of the conclusion. -- Major third (Mus.), a third of two steps.

Ma"jor, n. [F. major. See Major, a.] 1. (Mil.) An officer next in rank above a captain and next below a lieutenant colonel; the lowest field officer.

2. (Law) A person of full age.

3. (Logic) That premise which contains the major term. It its the first proposition of a regular syllogism; as: No unholy person is qualified for happiness in heaven [the major]. Every man in his natural state is unholy [minor]. Therefore, no man in his natural state is qualified for happiness in heaven [conclusion or inference].

In hypothetical syllogisms, the hypothetical premise is called the major.

4. [LL. See Major.] A mayor. [Obs.] Bacon.

||Ma`jo`rat" (?), n. [F. majorat, LL. majoratus. See Major, a., and cf. Majorate.] 1. The right of succession to property according to age; -- so termed in some of the countries of continental Europe.

2. (French Law) Property, landed or funded, so attached to a title of honor as to descend with it.

Ma"jor*ate (?), n. The office or rank of a major.

Ma"jor*ate (?), v. t. [LL. majorare to augment. See Major, a.] To augment; to increase. [Obs.] Howell.

Ma`jor*a"tion (?), n. Increase; enlargement. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ma*jor"can (?), a. Of or pertaining to Majorca. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Majorca.

Ma`jor-do"mo (?), n. [Sp. mayordomo, or It. maggiordomo; both fr. LL. majordomus; L. major greater + domus house.] A man who has authority to act, within certain limits, as master of the house; a steward; also, a chief minister or officer.

Ma"jor gen"er*al (?). An officer of the army holding a rank next above that of brigadier general and next below that of lieutenant general, and who usually commands a division or a corps.

Ma*jor"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Majorities (#). [F. majorité. See Major.] 1. The quality or condition of being major or greater; superiority. Specifically: (a) The military rank of a major. (b) The condition of being of full age, or authorized by law to manage one's own affairs.

2. The greater number; more than half; as, a majority of mankind; a majority of the votes cast.

3. [Cf. L. majores.] Ancestors; ancestry. [Obs.]

4. The amount or number by which one aggregate exceeds all other aggregates with which it is contrasted; especially, the number by which the votes for a successful candidate exceed those for all other candidates; as, he is elected by a majority of five hundred votes. See Plurality.

To go over to, or To join, the majority, to die.

Ma"jor*ship (?), n. The office of major.

Maj"oun (?), n. See Madjoun.

||Ma*jus"cu*læ (?), n. pl. [L., fem. pl. fr. majusculus somewhat greater or great, dim. of major, majus. See Major.] (Palæography) Capital letters, as found in manuscripts of the sixth century and earlier.

Ma*jus"cule (?), n. [Cf. F. majuscule. See Majusculæ.] A capital letter; especially, one used in ancient manuscripts. See Majusculæ.

Majuscule writing, writing composed wholly of capital letters, especially the style which prevailed in Europe from the third to the sixth century.

Mak"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being made.

Mak"a*ron (?), n. See Macaroon, 2. [Obs.]

Make (?), n. [AS. maca, gemaca. See Match.] A companion; a mate; often, a husband or a wife. [Obs.]

For in this world no woman is
Worthy to be my make.


Make, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Made (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Making.] [OE. maken, makien, AS. macian; akin to OS. mak&?;n, OFries. makia, D. maken, G. machen, OHG. mahh&?;n to join, fit, prepare, make, Dan. mage. Cf. Match an equal.] 1. To cause to exist; to bring into being; to form; to produce; to frame; to fashion; to create. Hence, in various specific uses or applications: (a) To form of materials; to cause to exist in a certain form; to construct; to fabricate.

He . . . fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf.

Ex. xxxii. 4.

(b) To produce, as something artificial, unnatural, or false; -- often with up; as, to make up a story.

And Art, with her contending, doth aspire
To excel the natural with made delights.


(c) To bring about; to bring forward; to be the cause or agent of; to effect, do, perform, or execute; -- often used with a noun to form a phrase equivalent to the simple verb that corresponds to such noun; as, to make complaint, for to complain; to make record of, for to record; to make abode, for to abide, etc.

Call for Samson, that he may make us sport.

Judg. xvi. 25.

Wealth maketh many friends.

Prov. xix. 4.

I will neither plead my age nor sickness in excuse of the faults which I have made.


(d) To execute with the requisite formalities; as, to make a bill, note, will, deed, etc. (e) To gain, as the result of one's efforts; to get, as profit; to make acquisition of; to have accrue or happen to one; as, to make a large profit; to make an error; to make a loss; to make money.

He accuseth Neptune unjustly who makes shipwreck a second time.


(f) To find, as the result of calculation or computation; to ascertain by enumeration; to find the number or amount of, by reckoning, weighing, measurement, and the like; as, he made the distance of; to travel over; as, the ship makes ten knots an hour; he made the distance in one day. (h) To put in a desired or desirable condition; to cause to thrive.

Who makes or ruins with a smile or frown.


2. To cause to be or become; to put into a given state verb, or adjective; to constitute; as, to make known; to make public; to make fast.

Who made thee a prince and a judge over us?

Ex. ii. 14.

See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh.

Ex. vii. 1.

When used reflexively with an adjective, the reflexive pronoun is often omitted; as, to make merry; to make bold; to make free, etc.

3. To cause to appear to be; to constitute subjectively; to esteem, suppose, or represent.

He is not that goose and ass that Valla would make him.


4. To require; to constrain; to compel; to force; to cause; to occasion; -- followed by a noun or pronoun and infinitive.

In the active voice the to of the infinitive is usually omitted.

I will make them hear my words.

Deut. iv. 10.

They should be made to rise at their early hour.


5. To become; to be, or to be capable of being, changed or fashioned into; to do the part or office of; to furnish the material for; as, he will make a good musician; sweet cider makes sour vinegar; wool makes warm clothing.

And old cloak makes a new jerkin.


6. To compose, as parts, ingredients, or materials; to constitute; to form; to amount to.

The heaven, the air, the earth, and boundless sea,
Make but one temple for the Deity.


7. To be engaged or concerned in. [Obs.]

Gomez, what makest thou here, with a whole brotherhood of city bailiffs?


8. To reach; to attain; to arrive at or in sight of. "And make the Libyan shores." Dryden.

They that sail in the middle can make no land of either side.

Sir T. Browne.

To make a bed, to prepare a bed for being slept on, or to put it in order. -- To make a card (Card Playing), to take a trick with it. -- To make account. See under Account, n. -- To make account of, to esteem; to regard. -- To make away. (a) To put out of the way; to kill; to destroy. [Obs.]

If a child were crooked or deformed in body or mind, they made him away.


(b) To alienate; to transfer; to make over. [Obs.] Waller. -- To make believe, to pretend; to feign; to simulate. -- To make bold, to take the liberty; to venture. -- To make the cards (Card Playing), to shuffle the pack. -- To make choice of, to take by way of preference; to choose. -- To make danger, to make experiment. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. -- To make default (Law), to fail to appear or answer. -- To make the doors, to shut the door. [Obs.]

Make the doors upon a woman's wit, and it will out at the casement.


- To make free with. See under Free, a. -- To make good. See under Good. -- To make head, to make headway. -- To make light of. See under Light, a. -- To make little of. (a) To belittle. (b) To accomplish easily. -- To make love to. See under Love, n. -- To make meat, to cure meat in the open air. [Colloq. Western U. S.] -- To make merry, to feast; to be joyful or jovial. -- To make much of, to treat with much consideration,, attention, or fondness; to value highly. -- To make no bones. See under Bone, n. -- To make no difference, to have no weight or influence; to be a matter of indifference. -- To make no doubt, to have no doubt. -- To make no matter, to have no weight or importance; to make no difference. -- To make oath (Law), to swear, as to the truth of something, in a prescribed form of law. -- To make of. (a) To understand or think concerning; as, not to know what to make of the news. (b) To pay attention to; to cherish; to esteem; to account. "Makes she no more of me than of a slave." Dryden. -- To make one's law (Old Law), to adduce proof to clear one's self of a charge. -- To make out. (a) To find out; to discover; to decipher; as, to make out the meaning of a letter. (b) To prove; to establish; as, the plaintiff was unable to make out his case. (c) To make complete or exact; as, he was not able to make out the money. -- To make over, to transfer the title of; to convey; to alienate; as, he made over his estate in trust or in fee. -- To make sail. (Naut.) (a) To increase the quantity of sail already extended. (b) To set sail. -- To make shift, to manage by expedients; as, they made shift to do without it. [Colloq.]. -- To make sternway, to move with the stern foremost; to go or drift backward. -- To make strange, to act in an unfriendly manner or as if surprised; to treat as strange; as, to make strange of a request or suggestion. -- To make suit to, to endeavor to gain the favor of; to court. -- To make sure. See under Sure. -- To make up. (a) To collect into a sum or mass; as, to make up the amount of rent; to make up a bundle or package. (b) To reconcile; to compose; as, to make up a difference or quarrel. (c) To supply what is wanting in; to complete; as, a dollar is wanted to make up the stipulated sum. (d) To compose, as from ingredients or parts; to shape, prepare, or fabricate; as, to make up a mass into pills; to make up a story.

He was all made up of love and charms!


(e) To compensate; to make good; as, to make up a loss. (f) To adjust, or to arrange for settlement; as, to make up accounts. (g) To dress and paint for a part, as an actor; as, he was well made up. -- To make up a face, to distort the face as an expression of pain or derision. -- To make up one's mind, to reach a mental determination; to resolve. -- To make water. (a) (Naut.) To leak. (b) To urinate. -- To make way, or To make one's way. (a) To make progress; to advance. (b) To open a passage; to clear the way. -- To make words, to multiply words.

Make (?), v. i. 1. To act in a certain manner; to have to do; to manage; to interfere; to be active; -- often in the phrase to meddle or make. [Obs.]

A scurvy, jack-a-nape priest to meddle or make.


2. To proceed; to tend; to move; to go; as, he made toward home; the tiger made at the sportsmen.

Formerly, authors used to make on, to make forth, to make about; but these phrases are obsolete. We now say, to make at, to make away, to make for, to make off, to make toward, etc.

3. To tend; to contribute; to have effect; -- with for or against; as, it makes for his advantage. M. Arnold.

Follow after the things which make for peace.

Rom. xiv. 19.

Considerations infinite
Do make against it.


4. To increase; to augment; to accrue.

5. To compose verses; to write poetry; to versify. [Archaic] Chaucer. Tennyson.

To solace him some time, as I do when I make.

P. Plowman.

To make as if, or To make as though, to pretend that; to make show that; to make believe (see under Make, v. t.).

Joshua and all Israel made as if they were beaten before them, and fled.

Josh. viii. 15.

My lord of London maketh as though he were greatly displeased with me.


-- To make at, to go toward hastily, or in a hostile manner; to attack. -- To make away with. (a) To carry off. (b) To transfer or alienate; hence, to spend; to dissipate. (c) To kill; to destroy. -- To make off, to go away suddenly. -- To make out, to succeed; to be able at last; to make shift; as, he made out to reconcile the contending parties. -- To make up, to become reconciled or friendly. -- To make up for, to compensate for; to supply an equivalent for. -- To make up to. (a) To approach; as, a suspicious boat made up to us. (b) To pay addresses to; to make love to. -- To make up with, to become reconciled to. [Colloq.] -- To make with, to concur or agree with. Hooker.

Make, n. Structure, texture, constitution of parts; construction; shape; form.

It our perfection of so frail a make
As every plot can undermine and shake?


On the make,bent upon making great profits; greedy of gain. [Low, U. S.]

Make"bate` (?), n. [Make, v. + bate a quarrel.] One who excites contentions and quarrels. [Obs.]

Make"-be*lief` (?), n. A feigning to believe; make believe. J. H. Newman.

Make"-be*lieve` (?), n. A feigning to believe, as in the play of children; a mere pretense; a fiction; an invention. "Childlike make-believe." Tylor.

To forswear self-delusion and make- believe.

M. Arnold.

Make"-be*lieve`, a. Feigned; insincere. "Make-believe reverence." G. Eliot.

Mak"ed (?), obs. p. p. of Make. Made. Chaucer.

Make"-game` (?), n. An object of ridicule; a butt. Godwin.

Make"less, a. [See 1st Make, and cf. Matchless, Mateless.] 1. Matchless. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Without a mate. Shak.

Make"-peace` (-ps`), n. A peacemaker. [R.] Shak.

Mak"er (mk"r), n. 1. One who makes, forms, or molds; a manufacturer; specifically, the Creator.

The universal Maker we may praise.


2. (Law) The person who makes a promissory note.

3. One who writes verses; a poet. [Obs.]

"The Greeks named the poet poihth`s, which name, as the most excellent, hath gone through other languages. It cometh of this word poiei^n, make; wherein, I know not whether by luck or wisdom, we Englishmen have met well the Greeks in calling him a maker." Sir P. Sidney.

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Make"shift` (mk"shft`), n. That with which one makes shift; a temporary expedient. James Mill.

I am not a model clergyman, only a decent makeshift.

G. Eliot.

Make"-up` (?), n. The way in which the parts of anything are put together; often, the way in which an actor is dressed, painted, etc., in personating a character.

The unthinking masses are necessarily teleological in their mental make-up.

L. F. Ward.

Make"weight` (&?;), n. That which is thrown into a scale to make weight; something of little account added to supply a deficiency or fill a gap.

||Ma"ki (?), n. [F., from native name.] (Zoöl.) A lemur. See Lemur.

Mak"ing (?), n. 1. The act of one who makes; workmanship; fabrication; construction; as, this is cloth of your own making; the making of peace or war was in his power.

2. Composition, or structure.

3. a poem. [Obs.] Sir J. Davies.

4. That which establishes or places in a desirable state or condition; the material of which something may be made; as, early misfortune was the making of him.

5. External appearance; from. [Obs.] Shak.

Mak"ing-i`ron (?), n. A tool somewhat like a chisel with a groove in it, used by calkers of ships to finish the seams after the oakum has been driven in.

Mak"ing-up` (?), n. 1. The act of bringing spirits to a certain degree of strength, called proof.

2. The act of becoming reconciled or friendly.

Mal- (ml-). A prefix in composition denoting ill, or evil, F. male, adv., fr. malus, bad, ill. In some words it has the form male-, as in malediction, malevolent. See Malice.

The form male- is chiefly used in cases where the e, either alone or with other letters, is pronounced as a separate syllable, as in malediction, malefactor, maleficent, etc. Where this is not the case, as in malfeasance or male-feasance, malformation or male-formation, etc., as also where the word to which it is prefixed commences with a vowel, as in maladministration, etc., the form mal is to be preferred, and is the one commonly employed.

||Ma"la (?), n.; pl. of Malum. [L.] Evils; wrongs; offenses against right and law.

Mala in se [L.] (Law), offenses which are such from their own nature, at common law, irrespective of statute. -- Mala prohibita [L.] (Law), offenses prohibited by statute, as distinguished from mala in se, which are offenses at common law.

Mal"a*bar` (?), n. A region in the western part of the Peninsula of India, between the mountains and the sea.

Malabar nut (Bot.), the seed of an East Indian acanthaceous shrub, the Adhatoda Vasica, sometimes used medicinally.

Mal`a*ca*tune" (?), n. See Melocoton.

Ma*lac"ca (?), n. A town and district upon the seacoast of the Malay Peninsula.

Malacca cane (Bot.), a cane obtained from a species of palm of the genus Calamus (C. Scipionum), and of a brown color, often mottled. The plant is a native of Cochin China, Sumatra, and Malays.

Mal"a*chite (?), n. [Fr. Gr. &?; a mallow, from its resembling the green color of the leaf of mallows: cf. F. malachite. Cf. Mallow.] (Min.) Native hydrous carbonate of copper, usually occurring in green mammillary masses with concentric fibrous structure.

Green malachite, or malachite proper, admits of a high polish, and is sometimes used for ornamental work. Blue malachite, or azurite, is a related species of a deep blue color.

Malachite green. See Emerald green, under Green, n.

Mal`a*cis"sant (?), a. [See Malacissation.] Softening; relaxing. [Obs.]

Mal`a*cis*sa"tion (?), n. [L. malacissare to make soft, Gr. &?;.] The act of making soft or supple. [Obs.] Bacon.

||Mal`a*cob*del"la (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; soft + &?; a leech.] (Zoöl.) A genus of nemertean worms, parasitic in the gill cavity of clams and other bivalves. They have a large posterior sucker, like that of a leech. See Illust. of Bdellomorpha.

Mal"a*co*derm (?), n. [Gr. &?; soft + &?; skin.] (Zoöl.) One of a tribe of beetles (Malacodermata), with a soft and flexible body, as the fireflies.

Mal"a*co*lite (?), n. [Gr. &?; soft + -lite.] (Min.) A variety of pyroxene.

Mal`a*col"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the science of malacology.

Mal`a*col"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; soft + -logy: cf. F. malacologie.] The science which relates to the structure and habits of mollusks.

||Mal`a*cop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; soft + -poda.] (Zoöl.) A class of air-breathing Arthropoda; -- called also Protracheata, and Onychophora.

They somewhat resemble myriapods, and have from seventeen to thirty-three pairs of short, imperfectly jointed legs, two pairs of simple jaws, and a pair of antennæ. The trancheæ are connected with numerous spiracles scattered over the surface of the body. Peripatus is the only known genus. See Peripatus.

Mal`a*cop`ter*yg"i*an (?), n. [Cf. F. malacoptérygien.] (Zoöl.) One of the Malacopterygii.

||Mal`a*cop`te*ryg"i*i (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; soft + &?; wing, fin, fr. &?; feather.] (Zoöl.) An order of fishes in which the fin rays, except the anterior ray of the pectoral and dorsal fins, are closely jointed, and not spiny. It includes the carp, pike, salmon, shad, etc. Called also Malacopteri.

Mal`a*cop`ter*yg"i*ous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Malacopterygii.

Mal`a*cos"te*on (?), n. [NL., Gr. fr. &?; soft + &?; bone.] (Med.) A peculiar disease of the bones, in consequence of which they become softened and capable of being bent without breaking.

Mal`a*cos"to*mous (?), a. [Gr. &?; soft + &?; mouth.] (Zoöl.) Having soft jaws without teeth, as certain fishes.

||Mal`a*cos"tra*ca (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; soft + &?; shell of a testacean.] (Zoöl.) A subclass of Crustacea, including Arthrostraca and Thoracostraca, or all those higher than the Entomostraca.

Mal`a*cos"tra*can (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Malacostraca.

Mal`a*cos`tra*col"o*gy (?), n. [Malacostracan + -logy.] That branch of zoölogical science which relates to the crustaceans; -- called also carcinology.

Mal`a*cos"tra*cous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Malacostraca.

Mal`a*co*toon" (?), n. (Bot.) See Melocoton.

||Mal`a*co*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; soft + zo^,on an animal.] (Zoöl.) An extensive group of Invertebrata, including the Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Bryozoa. Called also Malacozoaria.

Mal`a*co*zo"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Malacozoa.

Mal`ad*dress" (?), n. [Mal- + address.] Bad address; an awkward, tactless, or offensive way of accosting one or talking with one. W. D. Howells.

Mal`ad*just"ment (?), n. [Mal- + adjustment.] A bad adjustment.

Mal`ad*min`is*tra"tion (?), n. [Mal- + administration.] Bad administration; bad management of any business, especially of public affairs. [Written also maleadministration.]

Mal`a*droit" (?), a. [F. See Malice, and Adroit.] Of a quality opposed to adroitness; clumsy; awkward; unskillful. -- Mal"a*droit`ly, adv. -- Mal`a*droit"ness, n.

Mal"a*dy (?), n.; pl. Maladies (#). [F. maladie, fr. malade ill, sick, OF. also, malabde, fr. L. male habitus, i. e., ill-kept, not in good condition. See Malice, and Habit.] 1. Any disease of the human body; a distemper, disorder, or indisposition, proceeding from impaired, defective, or morbid organic functions; especially, a lingering or deep-seated disorder.

The maladies of the body may prove medicines to the mind.


2. A moral or mental defect or disorder.

Love's a malady without a cure.


Syn. -- Disorder; distemper; sickness; ailment; disease; illness. See Disease.

Mal"a*ga (?), n. A city and a province of Spain, on the Mediterranean. Hence, Malaga grapes, Malaga raisins, Malaga wines.

||Mal`a*gash" (?), n. Same as Malagasy.

Mal`a*gas"y (?), n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Madagascar; also (sing.), the language.

||Ma`laise" (?), n. [F., fr. mal ill + aise ease.] (Med.) An indefinite feeling of uneasiness, or of being sick or ill at ease.

Ma*lam"ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of malamic acid.

||Ma*lam"bo (?), n. [Pg.] A yellowish aromatic bark, used in medicine and perfumery, said to be from the South American shrub Croton Malambo.

Mal`am*eth"ane (?), n. [Malamic + ethane.] (Chem.) A white crystalline substance forming the ethyl salt of malamic acid.

Ma*lam"ic (?), a. [Malic + amic.] (Chem.) Of or designating an acid intermediate between malic acid and malamide, and known only by its salts.

Ma*lam"ide (?), n. [Malic + amide.] (Chem.) The acid amide derived from malic acid, as a white crystalline substance metameric with asparagine.

Mal"an*ders (?), n. pl. [F. malandres, fr. L. malandria blisters or pustules on the neck, especially in horses.] (Far.) A scurfy eruption in the bend of the knee of the fore leg of a horse. See Sallenders. [Written also mallenders.]

Mal"a*pert (?), a. [OF. malapert unskillful, ill-taught, ill-bred; mal ill + apert open, adroit, intelligent, L. apertus, p. p. of aperire to open. See Malice, and Aperient.] Bold; forward; impudent; saucy; pert. Shak. -- n. A malapert person.

Are you growing malapert! Will you force me to make use of my authority ?


-- Mal"a*pert`ly, adv. -- Mal"a*pert`ness, n.

Mal"a*prop*ism (?), n. [From Mrs. Malaprop, a character in Sheridan's drama, " The Rivals," who makes amusing blunders in her use of words. See Malapropos.] A grotesque misuse of a word; a word so used.

Mal*ap"ro*pos` (?), a. & adv. [F. mal à propos; mal evil + à propos to the purpose.] Unseasonable or unseasonably; unsuitable or unsuitably.

||Mal*ap`te*ru"rus (ml*p`t*r"rs), n. [NL., from Gr. malako`s soft + ptero`n wing + o'yra` tail.] (Zoöl.) A genus of African siluroid fishes, including the electric catfishes. See Electric cat, under Electric.

Ma"lar (?), a. [L. mala the cheek: cf. F. malaire.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the region of the cheek bone, or to the malar bone; jugal.

Ma"lar (?), n. (Anat.) The cheek bone, which forms a part of the lower edge of the orbit.

Ma*la"ri*a (?), n. [It., contr. fr. malaaria bad air. See Malice, and Air.] 1. Air infected with some noxious substance capable of engendering disease; esp., an unhealthy exhalation from certain soils, as marshy or wet lands, producing fevers; miasma.

The morbific agent in malaria is supposed by some to be a vegetable microbe or its spores, and by others to be a very minute animal blood parasite (an infusorian).

2. (Med.) A morbid condition produced by exhalations from decaying vegetable matter in contact with moisture, giving rise to fever and ague and many other symptoms characterized by their tendency to recur at definite and usually uniform intervals.

{ Ma*la"ri*al (?), Ma*la"ri*an (?), Ma*la"ri*ous (?) }, a. Of or pertaining, to or infected by, malaria.

Malarial fever (Med.), a fever produced by malaria, and characterized by the occurrence of chills, fever, and sweating in distinct paroxysms, At intervals of definite and often uniform duration, in which these symptoms are wholly absent (intermittent fever), or only partially so (remittent fever); fever and ague; chills and fever.

Ma`la*sha"ga*nay (?), n. [Indian name.] (Zoöl.) The fresh-water drumfish (Haploidonotus grunniens).

Mal`as*sim`i*la"tion (?), n. [Mal- + assimilation.] (Physiol.) (a) Imperfect digestion of the several leading constituents of the food. (b) An imperfect elaboration by the tissues of the materials brought to them by the blood.

Ma"late (?), n. [L. malum apple: cf. F. malate. See Malic.] (Chem.) A salt of malic acid.

{ Ma"lax (?), Ma*lax"ate (?), } v. t. [L. malaxare, malaxatum, cf. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; soft: cf. F. malaxer.] To soften by kneading or stirring with some thinner substance. [R.]

Mal`ax*a"tion (?), n. [L. malaxatio: cf. F. malaxation.] The act of softening by mixing with a thinner substance; the formation of ingredients into a mass for pills or plasters. [R.]

Mal"ax*a`tor (?), n. One who, or that which, malaxates; esp., a machine for grinding, kneading, or stirring into a pasty or doughy mass. [R.]

Ma*lay" (?), n. One of a race of a brown or copper complexion in the Malay Peninsula and the western islands of the Indian Archipelago.

{ Ma*lay" (?), Ma*lay"an (?), } a. Of or pertaining to the Malays or their country. -- n. The Malay language.

Malay apple (Bot.), a myrtaceous tree (Eugenia Malaccensis) common in India; also, its applelike fruit.

Ma"la*ya"lam (?), n. The name given to one the cultivated Dravidian languages, closely related to the Tamil. Yule.

||Mal"brouck (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) A West African arboreal monkey (Cercopithecus cynosurus).

Mal*con`for*ma"tion (?), n. [Mal- + conformation.] Imperfect, disproportionate, or abnormal formation; ill form; disproportion of parts.

Mal"con*tent` (?), a. [F., fr. mal ill + content. See Malice, Content.] discontented; uneasy; dissatisfied; especially, dissatisfied with the government. [Written also malecontent.]

The famous malcontent earl of Leicester.


Mal"con*tent`, n. [F. malcontent.] One who discontented; especially, a discontented subject of a government; one who expresses his discontent by words or overt acts. Spenser. Berkeley.

Mal`con*tent"ed (?), a. Malcontent. -- Mal`con*tent"ed*ly, adv. -- Mal`con*tent"ed*ness, n.

Mal*da"ni*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of marine annelids of the genus Maldane, or family Maldanidæ. They have a slender, round body, and make tubes in the sand or mud.

Male- (ml- or ml-). See Mal-.

Male (ml), a. [L. malus. See Malice.] Evil; wicked; bad. [Obs.] Marston.

Male, n. Same as Mail, a bag. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Male, a. [F. mâle, OF. masle, mascle, fr. L. masculus male, masculine, dim. of mas a male; possibly akin to E. man. Cf. Masculine, Marry, v. t.] 1. Of or pertaining to the sex that begets or procreates young, or (in a wider sense) to the sex that produces spermatozoa, by which the ova are fertilized; not female; as, male organs.

2. (Bot.) Capable of producing fertilization, but not of bearing fruit; -- said of stamens and antheridia, and of the plants, or parts of plants, which bear them.

3. Suitable to the male sex; characteristic or suggestive of a male; masculine; as, male courage.

4. Consisting of males; as, a male choir.

5. (Mech.) Adapted for entering another corresponding piece (the female piece) which is hollow and which it fits; as, a male gauge, for gauging the size or shape of a hole; a male screw, etc.

Male berry (Bot.), a kind of coffee. See Pea berry. -- Male fern (Bot.), a fern of the genus Aspidium (A. Filixmas), used in medicine as an anthelmintic, esp. against the tapeworm. Aspidium marginale in America, and A. athamanticum in South Africa, are used as good substitutes for the male fern in medical practice. See Female fern, under Female. -- Male rhyme, a rhyme in which only the last syllables agree, as laid, afraid, dismayed. See Female rhyme, under Female. - - Male screw (Mech.), a screw having threads upon its exterior which enter the grooves upon the inside of a corresponding nut or female screw. -- Male thread, the thread of a male screw.

Male, n. 1. An animal of the male sex.

2. (Bot.) A plant bearing only staminate flowers.

Male`ad*min`is*tra"tion (ml`d*mn`s*tr"shn), n. Maladministration.

Ma*le"ate (?), n. A salt of maleic acid.

Male*branch"ism (?), n. The philosophical system of Malebranche, an eminent French metaphysician. The fundamental doctrine of his system is that the mind can not have knowledge of anything external to itself except in its relation to God.

<! p. 887 !>

Male*con`for*ma"tion (?), n. Malconformation.

Male"con*tent` (?), a. Malcontent.

Mal`e*di"cen*cy (?), n. [L. maledicentia. See Maledicent.] Evil speaking. [Obs.] Atterbury.

Mal`e*di"cent (?), a. [L. maledicens, p. pr. of maledicere to speak ill; male ill + dicere to say, speak. See Malice, and Diction.] Speaking reproachfully; slanderous. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.

Mal"e*dict (?), a. [L. maledictus, p. p. of maledicere.] Accursed; abominable. [R.]

Mal`e*dic"tion, n. [L. maledictio: cf. F. malédiction. See Maledicent.] A proclaiming of evil against some one; a cursing; imprecation; a curse or execration; -- opposed to benediction.

No malediction falls from his tongue.


Syn. -- Cursing; curse; execration; imprecation; denunciation; anathema. -- Malediction, Curse, Imprecation, Execration. Malediction is the most general term, denoting bitter reproach, or wishes and predictions of evil. Curse implies the desire or threat of evil, declared upon oath or in the most solemn manner. Imprecation is literally the praying down of evil upon a person. Execration is literally a putting under the ban of excommunication, a curse which excludes from the kingdom of God. In ordinary usage, the last three words describe profane swearing, execration being the strongest.

Mal`e*fac"tion (?), n. [See Malefactor.] A crime; an offense; an evil deed. [R.] Shak.

Mal`e*fac"tor (?), n. [L., fr. malefacere to do evil; male ill, evil + facere to do. See Malice, and Fact.] 1. An evil doer; one who commits a crime; one subject to public prosecution and punishment; a criminal.

2. One who does wrong by injuring another, although not a criminal. [Obs.] H. Brooke. Fuller.

Syn. -- Evil doer; criminal; culprit; felon; convict.

Mal`e*fac"tress (?), n. A female malefactor. Hawthorne.

Male*fea"sance (?), n. See Malfeasance.

Ma*lef"ic (?), a. [L. maleficus: cf. F. maléfique. See Malefaction.] Doing mischief; causing harm or evil; nefarious; hurtful. [R.] Chaucer.

Mal"e*fice (?), n. [L. maleficium: cf. F. maléfice. See Malefactor.] An evil deed; artifice; enchantment. [Obs.]

Ma*lef"i*cence (?), n. [L. maleficentia. Cf. Malfeasance.] Evil doing, esp. to others.

Ma*lef"i*cent (?), a. [See Malefic.] Doing evil to others; harmful; mischievous.

Mal`e*fi"cial (?), a. Injurious. Fuller.

Mal`e*fi"ci*ate (?), v. t. [LL. maleficiatus, p. p. of maleficiare to bewitch, fr. L. maleficium. See Malefice.] To bewitch; to harm. [Obs.] Burton.

Mal`e*fi`ci*a"tion (?), n. A bewitching. [Obs.]

Mal`e*fi"cience (?), n. [See Maleficence.] The doing of evil, harm, or mischief.

Mal`e*fi"cient (?), a. [See Maleficent.] Doing evil, harm, or mischief.

Male`for*ma"tion (?), n. See Malformation.

Ma*le"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. maléique. See Malic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of the ethylene series, metameric with fumaric acid and obtained by heating malic acid.

Ma*len"gine (?), n. [OF. malengin; L. malus bad, evil + ingenium natural capacity. See Engine.] Evil machination; guile; deceit. [Obs.] Gower.

Ma"le*o (?), n. [From its native name.] (Zoöl.) A bird of Celebes (megacephalon maleo), allied to the brush turkey. It makes mounds in which to lay its eggs.

Male-o"dor (?), n. See Malodor.

Male*prac"tice (?), n. See Malpractice.

Male"-spir`it*ed (?), a. Having the spirit of a male; vigorous; courageous. [R.] B. Jonson.

Mal"et (?), n. [F. mallette, dim. of malle. See Mail a bag.] A little bag or budget. [Obs.] Shelton.

Male*treat" (?), v. t. See Maltreat.

Ma*lev"o*lence (?), n. [L. malevolentia. See Malevolent.] The quality or state of being malevolent; evil disposition toward another; inclination to injure others; ill will. See Synonym of Malice.

Ma*lev"o*lent (?), a. [L. malevolens, -entis; male ill + volens, p. pr. of velle to be willing or disposed, to wish. See Malice, and Voluntary.] Wishing evil; disposed to injure others; rejoicing in another's misfortune.

Syn. -- Ill-disposed; envious; mischievous; evil-minded; spiteful; malicious; malignant; rancorous.

Ma*lev"o*lent*ly, adv. In a malevolent manner.

Ma*lev"o*lous (?), a. [L. malevolus; fr. male ill + velle to be disposed.] Malevolent. [Obs.] Bp. Warburton.

Mal*ex`e*cu"tion (?), n. [Mal- + execution.] Bad execution. D. Webster.

Ma*le"yl (?), n. [Maleic + - yl.] (Chem.) A hypothetical radical derived from maleic acid.

Mal*fea"sance (?), n. [F. malfaisance, fr. malfaisant injurious, doing ill; mal ill, evil + faisant doing, p. pr. of faire to do. See Malice, Feasible, and cf. Maleficence.] (Law) The doing of an act which a person ought not to do; evil conduct; an illegal deed. [Written also malefeasance.]

Mal`for*ma"tion (?), n. [Mal- + formation.] Ill formation; irregular or anomalous formation; abnormal or wrong conformation or structure.

Mal*gra"cious (?), a. [F. malgracieux.] Not graceful; displeasing. [Obs.] Gower.

Mal"gre (?), prep. See Mauger.

Ma"lic (?), a. [L. malum an apple: cf. F. malique.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, apples; as, malic acid.

Malic acid, a hydroxy acid obtained as a substance which is sirupy or crystallized with difficulty, and has a strong but pleasant sour taste. It occurs in many fruits, as in green apples, currants, etc. It is levorotatory or dextrorotatory according to the temperature and concentration. An artificial variety is a derivative of succinic acid, but has no action on polarized light, and thus malic acid is a remarkable case of physical isomerism.

Mal"ice (ml"s), n. [F. malice, fr. L. malitia, from malus bad, ill, evil, prob. orig., dirty, black; cf. Gr. me`las black, Skr. mala dirt. Cf. Mauger.] 1. Enmity of heart; malevolence; ill will; a spirit delighting in harm or misfortune to another; a disposition to injure another; a malignant design of evil. "Nor set down aught in malice." Shak.

Envy, hatred, and malice are three distinct passions of the mind.

Ld. Holt.

2. (Law) Any wicked or mischievous intention of the mind; a depraved inclination to mischief; an intention to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or to do a wrongful act without just cause or cause or excuse; a wanton disregard of the rights or safety of others; willfulness.

Malice aforethought or prepense, malice previously and deliberately entertained.

Syn. -- Spite; ill will; malevolence; grudge; pique; bitterness; animosity; malignity; maliciousness; rancor; virulence. See Spite. -- Malevolence, Malignity, Malignancy. Malice is a stronger word than malevolence, which may imply only a desire that evil may befall another, while malice desires, and perhaps intends, to bring it about. Malignity is intense and deepseated malice. It implies a natural delight in hating and wronging others. One who is malignant must be both malevolent and malicious; but a man may be malicious without being malignant.

Proud tyrants who maliciously destroy
And ride o'er ruins with malignant joy.


in some connections, malignity seems rather more pertinently applied to a radical depravity of nature, and malignancy to indications of this depravity, in temper and conduct in particular instances.


Mal"ice, v. t. To regard with extreme ill will. [Obs.]

Mal"i*cho (?), n. [Sp. malhecho; mal bad + hecho deed, L. factum. See Fact.] Mischief. [Obs.] Shak.

Ma*li"cious (?), a. [Of. malicius, F. malicieux, fr. L. malitiosus. See Malice.] 1. Indulging or exercising malice; harboring ill will or enmity.

I grant him bloody, . . .
Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin
That has a name.


2. Proceeding from hatred or ill will; dictated by malice; as, a malicious report; malicious mischief.

3. (Law) With wicked or mischievous intentions or motives; wrongful and done intentionally without just cause or excuse; as, a malicious act.

Malicious abandonment, the desertion of a wife or husband without just cause. Burrill. -- Malicious mischief (Law), malicious injury to the property of another; -- an offense at common law. Wharton. -- Malicious prosecution or arrest (Law), a wanton prosecution or arrest, by regular process in a civil or criminal proceeding, without probable cause. Bouvier.

Syn. -- Ill-disposed; evil-minded; mischievous; envious; malevolent; invidious; spiteful; bitter; malignant; rancorous; malign.

-- Ma*li"cious*ly, adv. -- Ma*li"cious*ness, n.

Ma*lign" (?), a. [L. malignus, for maligenus, i. e., of a bad kind or nature; malus bad + the root of genus birth, race, kind: cf. F. malin, masc., maligne, fem. See Malice, Gender, and cf. Benign, Malignant.] 1. Having an evil disposition toward others; harboring violent enmity; malevolent; malicious; spiteful; -- opposed to benign.

Witchcraft may be by operation of malign spirits.


2. Unfavorable; unpropitious; pernicious; tending to injure; as, a malign aspect of planets.

3. Malignant; as, a malign ulcer. [R.] Bacon.

Ma*lign", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maligned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Maligning.] [Cf. L. malignare. See Malign, a.] To treat with malice; to show hatred toward; to abuse; to wrong; to injure. [Obs.]

The people practice what mischiefs and villainies they will against private men, whom they malign by stealing their goods, or murdering them.


2. To speak great evil of; to traduce; to defame; to slander; to vilify; to asperse.

To be envied and shot at; to be maligned standing, and to be despised falling.


Ma*lign", v. i. To entertain malice. [Obs.]

{ Ma*lig"nance (?), Ma*lig"nan*cy , } n. [See Malignant.] 1. The state or quality of being malignant; extreme malevolence; bitter enmity; malice; as, malignancy of heart.

2. Unfavorableness; evil nature.

The malignancy of my fate might perhaps distemner yours.


3. (Med.) Virulence; tendency to a fatal issue; as, the malignancy of an ulcer or of a fever.

4. The state of being a malignant.

Syn. -- Malice; malevolence; malignity. See Malice.

Ma*lig"nant (?), a. [L. malignans, -antis, p. pr. of malignare, malignari, to do or make maliciously. See Malign, and cf. Benignant.] 1. Disposed to do harm, inflict suffering, or cause distress; actuated by extreme malevolence or enmity; virulently inimical; bent on evil; malicious.

A malignant and a turbaned Turk.


2. Characterized or caused by evil intentions; pernicious. "Malignant care." Macaulay.

Some malignant power upon my life.


Something deleterious and malignant as his touch.


3. (Med.) Tending to produce death; threatening a fatal issue; virulent; as, malignant diphtheria.

Malignant pustule (Med.), a very contagious disease, transmitted to man from animals, characterized by the formation, at the point of reception of the virus, of a vesicle or pustule which first enlarges and then breaks down into an unhealthy ulcer. It is marked by profound exhaustion and usually fatal. Called also charbon, and sometimes, improperly, anthrax.

Ma*lig"nant (?), n. 1. A man of extreme enmity or evil intentions. Hooker.

2. (Eng. Hist.) One of the adherents of Charles I. or Charles II.; -- so called by the opposite party.

Ma*lig"nant*ly, adv. In a malignant manner.

Ma*lign"er (?), n. One who maligns.

Ma*lig"ni*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Malignified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Malignifying (?).] [L. malignus malign + -fy.] To make malign or malignant. [R.] "A strong faith malignified." Southey.

Ma*lig"ni*ty (?), n. [F. malignité, L. malignitas.] 1. The state or quality of being malignant; disposition to do evil; virulent enmity; malignancy; malice; spite.

2. Virulence; deadly quality.

His physicians discerned an invincible malignity in his disease.


3. Extreme evilness of nature or influence; perniciousness; heinousness; as, the malignity of fraud. [R.]

Syn. -- See Malice.

Ma*lign"ly (?), adv. In a malign manner; with malignity.

Ma*lin"ger (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. MAlingered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Malingering.] To act the part of a malingerer; to feign illness or inability.

Ma*lin"ger*er (?), n. [F. malingre sickly, weakly, prob. from mal ill + OF. heingre, haingre, thin, lean, infirm, fr. L. aeger.] In the army, a soldier who feigns himself sick, or who induces or protracts an illness, in order to avoid doing his duty; hence, in general, one who shirks his duty by pretending illness or inability.

Ma*lin"ger*y (?), n. The spirit or practices of a malingerer; malingering.

Mal"i*son (?), n. [OF. maleicon, L. maledictio. See Malediction, and cf. Benison.] Malediction; curse; execration. [Poetic]

God's malison on his head who this gainsays.

Sir W. Scott.

Mal"kin (?), n. [Dim. of Maud, the proper name. Cf. Grimalkin.] [Written also maukin.] 1. Originally, a kitchenmaid; a slattern. Chaucer.

2. A mop made of clouts, used by the kitchen servant.

3. A scarecrow. [Prov. Eng.]

4. (Mil.) A mop or sponge attached to a jointed staff for swabbing out a cannon.

Mall (ml; 277), n. [Written also maul.] [OE. malle, F. mail, L. malleus. Cf. Malleus.] 1. A large heavy wooden beetle; a mallet for driving anything with force; a maul. Addison.

2. A heavy blow. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. An old game played with malls or mallets and balls. See Pall-mall. Cotton.

4. A place where the game of mall was played. Hence: A public walk; a level shaded walk.

Part of the area was laid out in gravel walks, and planted with elms; and these convenient and frequented walks obtained the name of the City Mall.


Mall (ml), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Malled (mld); p. pr. & vb. n. Malling.] [Cf. OF. mailler. See Mall beetle, and cf. Malleate.] To beat with a mall; to beat with something heavy; to bruise; to maul.

Mall (ml), n. [LL. mallum a public assembly; cf. OHG. mahal assembly, transaction; akin to AS. mæðel, meðel, assembly, mlan to speak, Goth. maþl market place.] Formerly, among Teutonic nations, a meeting of the notables of a state for the transaction of public business, such meeting being a modification of the ancient popular assembly. Hence: (a) A court of justice. (b) A place where justice is administered. (c) A place where public meetings are held.

Councils, which had been as frequent as diets or malls, ceased.


Mal"lard (?), n. [F. malari,fr. mâle male + -art =-ard. See Male, a., and -ard.] 1. (Zoöl.) A drake; the male of Anas boschas.

2. (Zoöl.) A large wild duck (Anas boschas) inhabiting both America and Europe. The domestic duck has descended from this species. Called also greenhead.

Mal"le*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [CF. F. malléabilité.] The quality or state of being malleable; -- opposed to friability and brittleness. Locke.

Mal"le*a*ble (?), a. [F. malléable, fr. LL. malleare to hammer. See Malleate.] Capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer, or by the pressure of rollers; -- applied to metals.

Malleable iron, iron that is capable of extension or of being shaped under the hammer; decarbonized cast iron. See under Iron. -- Malleable iron castings, articles cast from pig iron and made malleable by heating then for several days in the presence of some substance, as hematite, which deprives the cast iron of some of its carbon.

Mal"le*a*ble*ize (?), v. t. To make malleable.

Mal"le*a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being malleable.

Mal"le*al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the malleus.

Mal"le*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Malleated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Malleating (?).] [L. malleatus hammered, fr. malleus a hammer. See Mall, v. t.] To hammer; to beat into a plate or leaf.

Mal`le*a"tion (?), n. [LL. malleatio: cf. OF. malléation.] The act or process of beating into a plate, sheet, or leaf, as a metal; extension by beating.

<! p. 888 !>

Mal"le*cho (?), n. Same as Malicho.

Mal*lee" bird` (?). (Zoöl.) [From native name.] The leipoa. See Leipoa.

{ Mal"le*mock (?), Mal"le*moke (?), } n. (Zoöl.) See Mollemoke.

Mal"len*ders (?), n. pl. (Far.) Same as Malanders.

Mal*le"o*lar (?), a. [See Malleolus.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the malleolus; in the region of the malleoli of the ankle joint.

||Mal*le"*o*lus (?), n.; pl. Malleoli (#). [L., dim. of malleus hammer.] 1. (Anat.) A projection at the distal end of each bone of the leg at the ankle joint. The malleolus of the tibia is the internal projection, that of the fibula the external.

2. " A layer, " a shoot partly buried in the ground, and there cut halfway through.

Mal"let (?), n. [F. maillet, dim. of mail. See Mall a beetle.] A small maul with a short handle, -- used esp. for driving a tool, as a chisel or the like; also, a light beetle with a long handle, -- used in playing croquet.

||Mal"le*us (?), n.; pl. Mallei (#). [L., hammer. See Mall a beetle.] 1. (Anat.) The outermost of the three small auditory bones, ossicles; the hammer. It is attached to the tympanic membrane by a long process, the handle or manubrium. See Illust. of Far.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the hard lateral pieces of the mastax of Rotifera. See Mastax.

3. (Zoöl.) A genus of bivalve shells; the hammer shell.

||Mal*loph"a*ga (ml*lf"*g), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. mallo`s a lock of wool + fagei^n to eat.] (Zoöl.) An extensive group of insects which are parasitic on birds and mammals, and feed on the feathers and hair; -- called also bird lice. See Bird louse, under Bird.

||Mal*lo"tus (?), n. [NL., fr Gr. &?; fleecy.] (Zoöl.) A genus of small Arctic fishes. One American species, the capelin (Mallotus villosus), is extensively used as bait for cod.

{ Mal"low (?), Mal"lows (?), } n. [OE. malwe, AS. mealwe, fr. L. malva, akin to Gr. mala`chh; cf. mala`ssein to soften, malako`s soft. Named either from its softening or relaxing properties, or from its soft downy leaves. Cf. Mauve, Malachite.] (Bot.) A genus of plants (Malva) having mucilaginous qualities. See Malvaceous.

The flowers of the common mallow (M. sylvestris) are used in medicine. The dwarf mallow (M. rotundifolia) is a common weed, and its flattened, dick-shaped fruits are called cheeses by children. Tree mallow (M. Mauritiana and Lavatera arborea), musk mallow (M. moschata), rose mallow or hollyhock, and curled mallow (M. crispa), are less commonly seen.

Indian mallow. See Abutilon. -- Jew's mallow, a plant (Corchorus olitorius) used as a pot herb by the Jews of Egypt and Syria. -- Marsh mallow. See under Marsh.

Mal"low*wort` (ml"l*wûrt), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the order Malvaceæ.

{ Malm (?), Malm"brick` (?), } n. [Cf. AS. mealm sand.] A kind of brick of a light brown or yellowish color, made of sand, clay, and chalk.

Mal"ma (?), n. (Zoöl.) A spotted trout (Salvelinus malma), inhabiting Northern America, west of the Rocky Mountains; -- called also Dolly Varden trout, bull trout, red-spotted trout, and golet.

||Mal"mag (?), n. [F., from native name in Madagascar.] (Zoöl.) The tarsius, or spectral lemur.

Malm"sey (?), n. [OE. malvesie, F. malvoisie, It. malvasia, malavagia, fr. Malvasia, or Napoli di Malvasia, in the Morea.] A kind of sweet wine from Crete, the Canary Islands, etc. Shak.

Mal`nu*tri"tion (?), n. [Mal- + nutrition.] (Physiol.) Faulty or imperfect nutrition.

Mal*ob`ser*va"tion (?), n. [Mal- + observation.] Erroneous observation. J. S Mill.

Mal*o"dor (?), n. An offensive odor.
[1913 Webster]

Mal*o"dor*ous (?), a. Offensive to the sense of smell; ill-smelling. -- Mal*o"dor*ous*ness. n. Carlyle.
[1913 Webster]

Mal"o*nate (?), a. (Chem.) A salt of malonic acid.

Ma*lon"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid produced artifically as a white crystalline substance, CH2.(CO2H)2, and so called because obtained by the oxidation of malic acid.

Mal"o*nyl (?), n. [Malonic + -yl.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical, CH2.(CO)2, from malonic acid.

||Mal*pi"ghi*a (?), n. [NL. See Malpighian.] (Bot.) A genus of tropical American shrubs with opposite leaves and small white or reddish flowers. The drupes of Malpighia urens are eaten under the name of Barbadoes cherries.

Mal*pi`ghi*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of tropical trees and shrubs (Malpighiaceæ), some of them climbing plants, and their stems forming many of the curious lianes of South American forests.

Mal*pi"ghi*an (?), a. (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or discovered by, Marcello Malpighi, an Italian anatomist of the 17th century.

Malpighian capsules or corpuscles, the globular dilatations, containing the glomeruli or Malpighian tufts, at the extremities of the urinary tubules of the kidney. -- Malpighian corpuscles of the spleen, masses of adenoid tissue connected with branches of the splenic artery.

Mal`po*si"tion (?), n. [Mal- + position.] A wrong position.

Mal*prac"tice (?), n. [Mal- + practice.] Evil practice; illegal or immoral conduct; practice contrary to established rules; specifically, the treatment of a case by a surgeon or physician in a manner which is contrary to accepted rules and productive of unfavorable results. [Written also malepractice.]

Malt (?), n. [AS. mealt; akin to D. mout, G. malz, Icel., Sw., & Dan. malt, and E. melt. √108. See Melt.] Barley or other grain, steeped in water and dried in a kiln, thus forcing germination until the saccharine principle has been evolved. It is used in brewing and in the distillation of whisky.

Malt, a. Relating to, containing, or made with, malt.

Malt liquor, an alcoholic liquor, as beer, ale, porter, etc., prepared by fermenting an infusion of malt. - - Malt dust, fine particles of malt, or of the grain used in making malt; -- used as a fertilizer. " Malt dust consists chiefly of the infant radicle separated from the grain." Sir H. Davy. -- Malt floor, a floor for drying malt. -- Malt house, or Malthouse, a house in which malt is made. -- Malt kiln, a heated chamber for drying malt.

Malt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Malted: p. pr. & vb. n. Malting.] To make into malt; as, to malt barley.

Malt, v. i. To become malt; also, to make grain into malt. Mortimer.

Mal"ta*lent (?), n. [F. See Malice, and Talent.] Ill will; malice. [Obs.] Rom. of R. Spenser.

Mal*tese" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Malta or to its inhabitants. -- n. sing. & pl. A native or inhabitant of Malta; the people of Malta.

Maltese cat (Zoöl.), a mouse- colored variety of the domestic cat. -- Maltese cross. See Illust. 5, of Cross. -- Maltese dog (Zoöl.), a breed of small terriers, having long silky white hair. The breed originated in Malta.

||Mal"tha (ml"th), n. [L., fr. Gr. ma`lqa.] 1. A variety of bitumen, viscid and tenacious, like pitch, unctuous to the touch, and exhaling a bituminous odor.

2. Mortar. [Obs.] Holland.

Mal*thu"sian (?), a. Of or pertaining to the political economist, the Rev. T. R. Malthus, or conforming to his views; as, Malthusian theories.

Malthus held that population tends to increase faster than its means of subsistence can be made to do, and hence that the lower classes must necessarily suffer more or less from lack of food, unless an increase of population be checked by prudential restraint or otherwise.

Mal*thu"sian, n. A follower of Malthus.

Mal*thu"sian*ism (?), n. The system of Malthusian doctrines relating to population.

{ Malt"in (?), Malt"ine (?), } n. (Physiol. Chem.) The fermentative principle of malt; malt diastase; also, a name given to various medicinal preparations made from or containing malt.

Malt"ing (?), n. The process of making, or of becoming malt.

Malt"man (?), n.; pl. Maltmen (&?;). A man whose occupation is to make malt.

Mal*ton"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, maltose; specif., designating an acid called also gluconic or dextronic acid. See Gluconic.

Malt"ose` (mlt"s`), n. [From Malt.] (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline sugar formed from starch by the action of diastase of malt, and the amylolytic ferment of saliva and pancreatic juice. It resembles dextrose, but rotates the plane of polarized light further to the right and possesses a lower cupric oxide reducing power.

Mal*treat" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maltreated; p. pr. & vb. n. Maltreating.] [Mal- + treat: cf. F. maltraiter.] To treat ill; to abuse; to treat roughly.

Mal*treat"ment (?), n.; [Cf. F. maltraitement.] Ill treatment; ill usage; abuse.

Malt"ster (?), n. A maltman. Swift.

Malt"worm` (?), n. A tippler. [R.] Shak.

Malt"y (?), a. Containing, or like, malt. Dickens.

||Ma"lum (?), n.; pl. Mala (#). [L.] An evil. See Mala.

Mal*va"ceous (?), a. [L. malvaceus, from malva mallows. See Mallow.] (Bot.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Malvaceæ), of which the mallow is the type. The cotton plant, hollyhock, and abutilon are of this order, and the baobab and the silk-cotton trees are now referred to it.

Mal`ver*sa"tion (?), n. [F., fr. malverser to be corrupt in office, fr. L. male ill + versari to move about, to occupy one's self, vertere to turn. See Malice, and Verse.] Evil conduct; fraudulent practices; misbehavior, corruption, or extortion in office.

Mal"ve*sie (?), n. Malmsey wine. See Malmsey. " A jub of malvesye." Chaucer.

Mam (mm), n. [Abbrev. fr. mamma.] Mamma.

Ma*ma" (?), n. See Mamma.

Mam"a*luke (?), n. Same as Mameluke.

||Mam"e*lon (?), n. [F.] A rounded hillock; a rounded elevation or protuberance. Westmin. Rev.

||Mam`e*lu"co (?), n. [Pg.] A child born of a white father and Indian mother. [S. Amer.]

Mam"e*luke (?), n. [F. mamelouk, cf. Sp. mameluco, It. mammalucco; all fr. Ar. maml&?;k a purchased slave or captive; lit., possessed or in one's power, p. p. of malaka to possesses.] One of a body of mounted soldiers recruited from slaves converted to Mohammedanism, who, during several centuries, had more or less control of the government of Egypt, until exterminated or dispersed by Mehemet Ali in 1811.

Mam"il*la`ted (?), a. See Mammillated.

Mam*ma" (?), n. [Reduplicated from the infantine word ma, influenced in spelling by L. mamma.] Mother; -- word of tenderness and familiarity. [Written also mama.]

Tell tales papa and mamma.


Mam"ma (?), n.; pl. Mammæ (#). [L. mamma breast.] (Anat.) A glandular organ for secreting milk, characteristic of all mammals, but usually rudimentary in the male; a mammary gland; a breast; udder; bag.

Mam"mal (?), n.; pl. Mammals (#). [L. mammalis belonging to the breast, fr. mamma the breast or pap: cf. F. mammal.] (Zoöl.) One of the Mammalia.

Age of mammals. See under Age, n., 8.

||Mam*ma"li*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from L. mammalis. See Mammal.] (Zoöl.) The highest class of Vertebrata. The young are nourished for a time by milk, or an analogous fluid, secreted by the mammary glands of the mother.

Mammalia are divided into three subclasses; --

I. Placentalia. This subclass embraces all the higher orders, including man. In these the fetus is attached to the uterus by a placenta.

II. Marsupialia. In these no placenta is formed, and the young, which are born at an early state of development, are carried for a time attached to the teats, and usually protected by a marsupial pouch. The opossum, kangaroo, wombat, and koala are examples.

III. Monotremata. In this group, which includes the genera Echidna and Ornithorhynchus, the female lays large eggs resembling those of a bird or lizard, and the young, which are hatched like those of birds, are nourished by a watery secretion from the imperfectly developed mammæ.

Mam*ma"li*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Mammalia or mammals.

Mam`ma*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Mammal + -ferous.] (Geol.) Containing mammalian remains; -- said of certain strata.

Mam`ma*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to mammalogy.

Mam*mal"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. mammalogiste.] One versed in mammalogy.

Mam*mal"o*gy (?), n. [Mamma breast + -logy: cf. f. mammalogie.] The science which relates to mammals or the Mammalia. See Mammalia.

Mam"ma*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. mammaire.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mammæ or breasts; as, the mammary arteries and veins.

Mam*mee" (?), n. [Haytian mamey.] (Bot.) A fruit tree of tropical America, belonging to the genus Mammea (M. Americana); also, its fruit. The latter is large, covered with a thick, tough ring, and contains a bright yellow pulp of a pleasant taste and fragrant scent. It is often called mammee apple.

Mam"mer (?), v. i. [Cf. G. memme coward, poltroon.] To hesitate; to mutter doubtfully. [Obs.]

Mam"met (?), n. [See Mawmet.] An idol; a puppet; a doll. [Obs.] Selden. Shak.

Mam"met*ry (?), n. See Mawmetry. [Obs.]

Mam"mi*fer (?), n. [NL. See Mammiferous.] (Zoöl.) A mammal. See Mammalia.

Mam*mif"er*ous (?), a. [Mamma breast + -ferous: cf. F. mammifère.] Having breasts; of, pertaining to, or derived from, the Mammalia.

Mam"mi*form (?), a. [Mamma breast + -form: cf. F. mammiforme.] Having the form of a mamma (breast) or mammæ.

||Mam*mil"la (?), n.; pl. Mammilæ (#). [L., dim. of mamma a breast.] (Anat.) The nipple.

Mam"mil*la*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. mammilaire. See Mammilla.] 1. Of or pertaining to the mammilla, or nipple, or to the breast; resembling a mammilla; mammilloid.

2. (Min.) Composed of convex convex concretions, somewhat resembling the breasts in form; studded with small mammiform protuberances.

{ Mam"mil*late (?), Mam"mil*la`ted (?), } a. [See Mammilla.] 1. Having small nipples, or small protuberances like nipples or mammæ.

2. (Zoöl.) Bounded like a nipple; -- said of the apex of some shells.

Mam*mil"li*form (?), a. [Mammilla + -form.] Having the form of a mammilla.

Mam"mil*loid (?), a. [Mammilla + -oid.] Like a mammilla or nipple; mammilliform.

Mam"mock (?), n. [Ir. & Gael. mam a round hill + -ock.] A shapeless piece; a fragment. [Obs.]

Mam"mock, v. t. To tear to pieces. [Obs.] Milton.

Mam"mo*dis (?), n. [F. mamoudis, fr. Hind. mahmd a muslin.] Coarse plain India muslins.

Mam*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Mamma + -logy.] Mastology. See Mammalogy.

Mam"mon (?), n. [L. mammona, Gr. &?; riches, Syr. mam&?;n; cf. Heb. matm&?;n a hiding place, subterranean storehouse, treasury, fr. tman to hide.] Riches; wealth; the god of riches; riches, personified.

Ye can not serve God and Mammon.

Matt. vi. 24.

Mam"mon*ish, a. Actuated or prompted by a devotion to money getting or the service of Mammon. Carlyle.

Mam"mon*ism (?), n. Devotion to the pursuit of wealth; worldliness. Carlyle.

Mam"mon*ist, n. A mammonite.

Mam"mon*ite (?), n. One devoted to the acquisition of wealth or the service of Mammon. C. Kingsley.

Mam`mon*i*za"tion (?), n. The process of making mammonish; the state of being under the influence of mammonism.

Mam"mon*ize (?), v. t. To make mammonish.

Mam*mose" (?), a. [L. mammosus having large breasts, mamma breast.] (Bot.) Having the form of the breast; breast-shaped.

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Mam"moth (?), n. [Russ. mâmont, mámant, fr. Tartar mamma the earth. Certain Tartar races, the Tungooses and Yakoots, believed that the mammoth worked its way in the earth like a mole.] (Zoöl.) An extinct, hairy, maned elephant (Elephas primigenius), of enormous size, remains of which are found in the northern parts of both continents. The last of the race, in Europe, were coeval with prehistoric man.

Several specimens have been found in Siberia preserved entire, with the flesh and hair remaining. They were imbedded in the ice cliffs at a remote period, and became exposed by the melting of the ice.

Mam"moth (?), a. Resembling the mammoth in size; very large; gigantic; as, a mammoth ox.

Mam"mo*thrept (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; grandmother + &?; to nourish.] A child brought up by its grandmother; a spoiled child. [R.]

O, you are a more mammothrept in judgment.

B. Jonson.

Mam"my (?), n.; pl. Mammies (&?;). A child's name for mamma, mother.

||Mam"zer (?), n. [Heb. mámz&?;r.] A person born of relations between whom marriage was forbidden by the Mosaic law; a bastard. Deut. xxiii. 2 (Douay version).

Man (mn), n.; pl. Men (mn). [AS. mann, man, monn, mon; akin to OS., D., & OHG. man, G. mann, Icel. maðr, for mannr, Dan. Mand, Sw. man, Goth. manna, Skr. manu, manus, and perh. to Skr. man to think, and E. mind. √104. Cf. Minx a pert girl.] 1. A human being; -- opposed to beast.

These men went about wide, and man found they none,
But fair country, and wild beast many [a] one.

R. of Glouc.

The king is but a man, as I am; the violet smells to him as it doth to me.


2. Especially: An adult male person; a grown- up male person, as distinguished from a woman or a child.

When I became a man, I put away childish things.

I Cor. xiii. 11.

Ceneus, a woman once, and once a man.


3. The human race; mankind.

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and let them have dominion.

Gen. i. 26.

The proper study of mankind is man.


4. The male portion of the human race.

Woman has, in general, much stronger propensity than man to the discharge of parental duties.


5. One possessing in a high degree the distinctive qualities of manhood; one having manly excellence of any kind. Shak.

This was the noblest Roman of them all . . . the elements
So mixed in him that Nature might stand up
And say to all the world "This was a man!"


6. An adult male servant; also, a vassal; a subject.

Like master, like man.

Old Proverb.

The vassal, or tenant, kneeling, ungirt, uncovered, and holding up his hands between those of his lord, professed that he did become his man from that day forth, of life, limb, and earthly honor.


7. A term of familiar address often implying on the part of the speaker some degree of authority, impatience, or haste; as, Come, man, we 've no time to lose!

8. A married man; a husband; -- correlative to wife.

I pronounce that they are man and wife.

Book of Com. Prayer.

every wife ought to answer for her man.


9. One, or any one, indefinitely; -- a modified survival of the Saxon use of man, or mon, as an indefinite pronoun.

A man can not make him laugh.


A man would expect to find some antiquities; but all they have to show of this nature is an old rostrum of a Roman ship.


10. One of the piece with which certain games, as chess or draughts, are played.

Man is often used as a prefix in composition, or as a separate adjective, its sense being usually self-explaining; as, man child, man eater or maneater, man- eating, man hater or manhater, man-hating, manhunter, man-hunting, mankiller, man- killing, man midwife, man pleaser, man servant, man-shaped, manslayer, manstealer, man-stealing, manthief, man worship, etc.

Man is also used as a suffix to denote a person of the male sex having a business which pertains to the thing spoken of in the qualifying part of the compound; ashman, butterman, laundryman, lumberman, milkman, fireman, showman, waterman, woodman. Where the combination is not familiar, or where some specific meaning of the compound is to be avoided, man is used as a separate substantive in the foregoing sense; as, apple man, cloth man, coal man, hardware man, wood man (as distinguished from woodman).

Man ape (Zoöl.), a anthropoid ape, as the gorilla. -- Man at arms, a designation of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries for a soldier fully armed. -- Man engine, a mechanical lift for raising or lowering people through considerable distances; specifically (Mining), a contrivance by which miners ascend or descend in a shaft. It consists of a series of landings in the shaft and an equal number of shelves on a vertical rod which has an up and down motion equal to the distance between the successive landings. A man steps from a landing to a shelf and is lifted or lowered to the next landing, upon which he them steps, and so on, traveling by successive stages. -- Man Friday, a person wholly subservient to the will of another, like Robinson Crusoe's servant Friday. -- Man of straw, a puppet; one who is controlled by others; also, one who is not responsible pecuniarily. -- Man-of-the earth (Bot.), a twining plant (Ipomœa pandurata) with leaves and flowers much like those of the morning-glory, but having an immense tuberous farinaceous root. -- Man of war. (a) A warrior; a soldier. Shak. (b) (Naut.) See in the Vocabulary. -- To be one's own man, to have command of one's self; not to be subject to another.

Man (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manning.] 1. To supply with men; to furnish with a sufficient force or complement of men, as for management, service, defense, or the like; to guard; as, to man a ship, boat, or fort.

See how the surly Warwick mans the wall !


They man their boats, and all their young men arm.


2. To furnish with strength for action; to prepare for efficiency; to fortify. "Theodosius having manned his soul with proper reflections." Addison.

3. To tame, as a hawk. [R.] Shak.

4. To furnish with a servant or servants. [Obs.] Shak.

5. To wait on as a manservant. [Obs.] Shak.

In "Othello," V. ii. 270, the meaning is uncertain, being, perhaps: To point, to aim, or to manage.

To man a yard (Naut.), to send men upon a yard, as for furling or reefing a sail. -- To man the yards (Naut.), to station men on the yards as a salute or mark of respect.

Man"a*ble (?), a. Marriageable. [Obs.]

Man"ace (?), n. & v. Same as Menace. [Obs.]

Man"a*cle (?), n. [OE. manicle, OF. manicle, F. manicle sort glove, manacle, L. manicula a little hand, dim. of manus hand; cf. L. manica sleeve, manacle, fr. manus. See Manual.] A handcuff; a shackle for the hand or wrist; -- usually in the plural.

Doctrine unto fools is as fetters on the feet, and like manacles on the right hand.

Ecclus. xxi. 19.

Man"a*cle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manacled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manacling (?).] To put handcuffs or other fastening upon, for confining the hands; to shackle; to confine; to restrain from the use of the limbs or natural powers.

Is it thus you use this monarch, to manacle and shackle him hand and foot ?


Man"age (?), n. [F. manège, It. maneggio, fr. maneggiare to manage, fr. L. manushand. Perhaps somewhat influenced by F. ménage housekeeping, OF. mesnage, akin to E. mansion. See Manual, and cf. Manege.] The handling or government of anything, but esp. of a horse; management; administration. See Manege. [Obs.]

Young men, in the conduct and manage of actions, embrace more than they can hold.


Down, down I come; like glistering Phaëthon
Wanting the manage of unruly jades.


The unlucky manage of this fatal brawl.


This word, in its limited sense of management of a horse, has been displaced by manege; in its more general meaning, by management.

Man"age (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Managed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Managing (?).] [From Manage, n.] 1. To have under control and direction; to conduct; to guide; to administer; to treat; to handle.

Long tubes are cumbersome, and scarce to be easily managed.

Sir I. Newton.

What wars Imanage, and what wreaths I gain.


2. Hence: Esp., to guide by careful or delicate treatment; to wield with address; to make subservient by artful conduct; to bring around cunningly to one's plans.

It was so much his interest to manage his Protestant subjects.


It was not her humor to manage those over whom she had gained an ascendant.

Bp. Hurd.

3. To train in the manege, as a horse; to exercise in graceful or artful action.

4. To treat with care; to husband. Dryden.

5. To bring about; to contrive. Shak.

Syn. -- To direct; govern; control; wield; order; contrive; concert; conduct; transact.

Man"age, v. i. To direct affairs; to carry on business or affairs; to administer.

Leave them to manage for thee.


Man`age*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being manageable; manageableness.

Man"age*a*ble (?), a. Such as can be managed or used; suffering control; governable; tractable; subservient; as, a manageable horse.

Syn. -- Governable; tractable; controllable; docile.

-- Man"age*a*ble*ness, n. -- Man"age*a*bly, adv.

Man"age*less, a. Unmanageable. [R.]

Man"age*ment (?), n. [From Manage, v.] 1. The act or art of managing; the manner of treating, directing, carrying on, or using, for a purpose; conduct; administration; guidance; control; as, the management of a family or of a farm; the management of state affairs. "The management of the voice." E. Porter.

2. Business dealing; negotiation; arrangement.

He had great managements with ecclesiastics.


3. Judicious use of means to accomplish an end; conduct directed by art or address; skillful treatment; cunning practice; -- often in a bad sense.

Mark with what management their tribes divide
Some stick to you, and some to t'other side.


4. The collective body of those who manage or direct any enterprise or interest; the board of managers.

Syn. -- Conduct; administration; government; direction; guidance; care; charge; contrivance; intrigue.

Man"a*ger (?), n. 1. One who manages; a conductor or director; as, the manager of a theater.

A skillful manager of the rabble.


2. A person who conducts business or household affairs with economy and frugality; a good economist.

A prince of great aspiring thoughts; in the main, a manager of his treasure.

Sir W. Temple.

3. A contriver; an intriguer. Shak.

Man`a*ge"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to management or a manager; as, managerial qualities. "Managerial responsibility." C. Bronté.

Man"a*ger*ship (?), n. The office or position of a manager.

Man"age*ry (?), n. [Cf. OF. menagerie, mesnagerie. See Manage, n., and cf. Menagerie.] 1. Management; manner of using; conduct; direction.

2. Husbandry; economy; frugality. Bp. Burnet.

Man"a*kin (?), n. [Cf. F. & G. manakin; prob. the native name.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous small birds belonging to Pipra, Manacus, and other genera of the family Pipridæ. They are mostly natives of Central and South America. Some are bright-colored, and others have the wings and tail curiously ornamented. The name is sometimes applied to related birds of other families.

Man"a*kin, n. A dwarf. See Manikin. Shak.

Man`a*tee" (?), n. [Sp. manatí, from the native name in Hayti. Cf. Lamantin.] (Zoöl.) Any species of Trichechus, a genus of sirenians; -- called also sea cow. [Written also manaty, manati.]

One species (Trichechus Senegalensis) inhabits the west coast of Africa; another (T. Americanus) inhabits the east coast of South America, and the West-Indies. The Florida manatee (T. latirostris) is by some considered a distinct species, by others it is thought to be a variety of T. Americanus. It sometimes becomes fifteen feet or more in length, and lives both in fresh and salt water. It is hunted for its oil and flesh.

Ma*na"tion (?), n.[L. manatio, fr. manare to flow.] The act of issuing or flowing out. [Obs.]

Man"bote` (?), n. [AS. man man, vassal + bt recompense.] (Anglo-Saxon Law) A sum paid to a lord as a pecuniary compensation for killing his man (that is, his vassal, servant, or tenant). Spelman.

Man"ca (?), n. [LL.] See Mancus.

Manche (?), n. [Also maunch.] [F. manche, fr. L. manica. See Manacle.] A sleeve. [Obs.]

Man"chet (?), n. Fine white bread; a loaf of fine bread. [Archaic] Bacon. Tennyson.

Man`chi*neel" (?), n. [Sp. manzanillo, fr. manzana an apple, fr. L. malum Matianum a kind of apple. So called from its apple-like fruit.] (Bot.) A euphorbiaceous tree (Hippomane Mancinella) of tropical America, having a poisonous and blistering milky juice, and poisonous acrid fruit somewhat resembling an apple.

Bastard manchineel, a tree (Cameraria latifolia) of the East Indies, having similar poisonous properties. Lindley.

Man*chu" (?), a. [Written also Manchoo, Mantchoo, etc.] Of or pertaining to Manchuria or its inhabitants. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Manchuria; also, the language spoken by the Manchus.

Man"ci*pate (?), v. t. [L. mancipatus, p. p. of mancipare to sell. Cf. Emancipate.] To enslave; to bind; to restrict. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

Man`ci*pa"tion (?), n. [L. mancipatio a transfer.] Slavery; involuntary servitude. [Obs.] Johnson.

Man"ci*ple (?), n. [From OF. mancipe slave, servant (with l inserted, as in participle), fr. L. mancipium. See Mancipate.] A steward; a purveyor, particularly of a college or Inn of Court. Chaucer.

Man*co"na bark` (?). See Sassy bark.

Man"cus (?), n. [AS.] An old Anglo Saxon coin both of gold and silver, and of variously estimated values. The silver mancus was equal to about one shilling of modern English money.

-man`cy (?). [Gr. &?; divination: cf. F. -mancie.] A combining form denoting divination; as, aleuromancy, chiromancy, necromancy, etc.

Mand (?), n. A demand. [Obs.] See Demand.

||Man*da"mus (?), n. [L., we command, fr. mandare to command.] (Law) A writ issued by a superior court and directed to some inferior tribunal, or to some corporation or person exercising authority, commanding the performance of some specified duty.

Man`da*rin" (?), n. [Pg. mandarim, from Malay mantr minister of state, prop. a Hind. word, fr. Skr. mantrin a counselor, manira a counsel, man to think.] 1. A Chinese public officer or nobleman; a civil or military official in China and Annam.

2. (Bot.) A small orange, with easily separable rind. It is thought to be of Chinese origin, and is counted a distinct species (Citrus nobilis).

Mandarin duck (Zoöl.), a beautiful Asiatic duck (Dendronessa galericulata), often domesticated, and regarded by the Chinese as an emblem of conjugal affection. -- Mandarin language, the spoken or colloquial language of educated people in China. -- Mandarin yellow (Chem.), an artificial aniline dyestuff used for coloring silk and wool, and regarded as a complex derivative of quinoline.

Man`da*rin"ate (?), n. The collective body of officials or persons of rank in China. S. W. Williams.

<! p. 890 !>

Man`da*rin"ic (?), a. Appropriate or peculiar to a mandarin.

Man`da*rin"ing, n. (Dyeing) The process of giving an orange color to goods formed of animal tissue, as silk or wool, not by coloring matter, but by producing a certain change in the fiber by the action of dilute nitric acid. Tomlinson.

Man`da*rin"ism (?), n. A government mandarins; character or spirit of the mandarins. F. Lieder.

Man"da*ta*ry (?), n. [L. mandatarius, fr. mandatum a charge, commission, order: cf. F. mandataire. See Mandate.] 1. One to whom a command or charge is given; hence, specifically, a person to whom the pope has, by his prerogative, given a mandate or order for his benefice. Ayliffe.

2. (Law) One who undertakes to discharge a specific business commission; a mandatory. Wharton.

Man"date (?), n. [L. mandatum, fr. mandare to commit to one's charge, order, orig., to put into one's hand; manus hand + dare to give: cf. F. mandat. See Manual, Date a time, and cf. Commend, Maundy Thursday.] 1. An official or authoritative command; an order or injunction; a commission; a judicial precept.

This dream all-powerful Juno; I bear
Her mighty mandates, and her words you hear.


2. (Canon Law) A rescript of the pope, commanding an ordinary collator to put the person therein named in possession of the first vacant benefice in his collation.

3. (Scots Law) A contract by which one employs another to manage any business for him. By the Roman law, it must have been gratuitous. Erskine.

||Man*da"tor (?), n. [L.] 1. A director; one who gives a mandate or order. Ayliffe.

2. (Rom. Law) The person who employs another to perform a mandate. Bouvier.

Man"da*to*ry (?), a. [L. mandatorius.] Containing a command; preceptive; directory.

Man"da*to*ry, n. Same as Mandatary.

Man"del*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of mandelic acid.

Man*del"ic (?), a. [G. mandel almond.] (Chem.) Pertaining to an acid first obtained from benzoic aldehyde (oil of better almonds), as a white crystalline substance; -- called also phenyl glycolic acid.

Man"der (?), v. t. & i. See Maunder.

Man"der*il (?), n. A mandrel.

Man"di*ble (?), n. [L. mandibula, mandibulum, fr. mandere to chew. Cf. Manger.] 1. (Anat.) The bone, or principal bone, of the lower jaw; the inferior maxilla; -- also applied to either the upper or the lower jaw in the beak of birds.

2. (Zoöl.) The anterior pair of mouth organs of insects, crustaceaus, and related animals, whether adapted for biting or not. See Illust. of Diptera.

Man*dib"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. mandibulaire.] Of or pertaining to a mandible; like a mandible. -- n. The principal mandibular bone; the mandible.

Mandibular arch (Anat.), the most anterior visceral arch, -- that in which the mandible is developed.

{ Man*dib"u*late (?), Man*dib"u*la`ted (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Provided with mandibles adapted for biting, as many insects.

Man*dib"u*late (?), n. (Zoöl.) An insect having mandibles.

Man`di*bu"li*form (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having the form of a mandible; -- said especially of the maxillæ of an insect when hard and adapted for biting.

Man*dib`u*lo*hy"oid (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining both to the mandibular and the hyoid arch, or situated between them.

Man"dil (mn"dl), n. [OF. mandil; cf. Sp. & Pg. mandil a coarse apron, a haircloth; all from Ar. mandil tablecloth, handkerchief, mantle, fr. LGr. mandh`lion, fr. L. mantile, mantele. See Mantle.] A loose outer garment worn the 16th and 17th centuries.

Man*dil"ion (?), n. See Mandil. Chapman.

Man*din"gos (?), n. pl. sing. Mandingo. (Ethnol.) An extensive and powerful tribe of West African negroes.

{ Man"di*oc (?), ||Man`di*o"ca (?), } n. (Bot.) See Manioc.

Man"dle*stone` (?), n. [G. mandelstein almond stone.] (Min.) Amygdaloid.

Mand"ment (?), n. Commandment. [Obs.]

{ Man"do*lin, Man"do*line } (?), n. [F. mandoline, It. mandolino, dim. of mandola, fr. L. pandura. See Bandore.] (Mus.) A small and beautifully shaped instrument resembling the lute.

Man"dore (?), n. [See Mandolin, and Bandore.] (Mus.) A kind of four-stringed lute.

Man*drag"o*ra (?), n. [L., mandragoras the mandrake.] (Bot.) A genus of plants; the mandrake. See Mandrake, 1.

Man*drag"o*rite (?), n. One who habitually intoxicates himself with a narcotic obtained from mandrake.

Man"drake (mn"drk), n. [AS. mandragora, L. mandragoras, fr. Gr. mandrago`ras: cf. F. mandragore.] 1. (Bot.) A low plant (Mandragora officinarum) of the Nightshade family, having a fleshy root, often forked, and supposed to resemble a man. It was therefore supposed to have animal life, and to cry out when pulled up. All parts of the plant are strongly narcotic. It is found in the Mediterranean region.

And shrieks like mandrakes, torn out of the earth,
That living mortals, hearing them, run mad.


The mandrake of Scripture was perhaps the same plant, but proof is wanting.

2. (Bot.) The May apple (Podophyllum peltatum). See May apple under May, and Podophyllum. [U.S.]

Man"drel (?), n. [F. mandrin, prob. through (assumed) LL. mamphurinum, fr. L. mamphur a bow drill.] (Mach.) (a) A bar of metal inserted in the work to shape it, or to hold it, as in a lathe, during the process of manufacture; an arbor. (b) The live spindle of a turning lathe; the revolving arbor of a circular saw. It is usually driven by a pulley. [Written also manderil.]

Mandrel lathe, a lathe with a stout spindle, adapted esp. for chucking, as for forming hollow articles by turning or spinning.

Man"drill (-drl), n. [Cf. F. mandrille, Sp. mandril, It. mandrillo; prob. the native name in Africa. Cf. Drill an ape.] (Zoöl.) A large West African baboon (Cynocephalus, or Papio, mormon). The adult male has, on the sides of the nose, large, naked, grooved swellings, conspicuously striped with blue and red.

Man"du*ca*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. manducable. See Manducate.] Such as can be chewed; fit to be eaten. [R.]

Any manducable creature.

Sir T. Herbert.

Man"du*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manducated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manducating (?).] [L. manducatus, p. p. of manducare to chew. See Manger.] To masticate; to chew; to eat. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Man`du*ca"tion (?), n. [L. manducatio: cf. F. manducation.] The act of chewing. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Man"du*ca*to*ry (?), a. Pertaining to, or employed in, chewing.

||Man*du"cus (?), n. [L., fr. manducare to chew.] (Gr. & Rom. Antiq.) A grotesque mask, representing a person chewing or grimacing, worn in processions and by comic actors on the stage.

Mane (mn), n. [AS. manu; akin to OD. mane, D. maan, G. mähne, OHG. mana, Icel. mön, Dan. & Sw. man, AS. mene necklace, Icel. men, L. monile, Gr. &?;, &?;, Skr. many neck muscles. √275.] 1. The long and heavy hair growing on the upper side of, or about, the neck of some quadrupedal animals, as the horse, the lion, etc. See Illust. of Horse.

2. The hair growing on a person's head, especially hair that is long and thick; -- usually used humorously. [jocose]

Man"-eat`er (?), n. (Zoöl.) One who, or that which, has an appetite for human flesh; specifically, one of certain large sharks (esp. Carcharodon Rondeleti); also, a lion or a tiger which has acquired the habit of feeding upon human flesh.

Maned (?), a. Having a mane.

Maned seal (Zoöl.), the sea lion. -- Maned sheep (Zoöl.), the aoudad.

Ma*nege" (?; 277), n. [F. manège. See Manage, n.] 1. Art of horsemanship, or of training horses.

2. A school for teaching horsemanship, and for training horses. Chesterfield.

||Ma"neh (?), n. [Heb. mneh.] A Hebrew weight for gold or silver, being one hundred shekels of gold and sixty shekels of silver. Ezek. xlv. 12.

Mane"less (?), a. Having no mane.

Maneless lion (Zoöl.), a variety of the lion having a short, inconspicuous mane. It inhabits Arabia and adjacent countries.

Man"e*quin (?), n. [See Manikin.] An artist's model of wood or other material.

Ma*ne"ri*al (?), a. See Manorial.

||Ma"nes (?), n. pl. [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) The benevolent spirits of the dead, especially of dead ancestors, regarded as family deities and protectors.

Hail, O ye holy manes!


Mane"sheet` (?), n. A covering placed over the upper part of a horse's head.

{ Ma*neu"ver, Ma*nœu"vre } (?), n. [F. manœuvre, OF. manuevre, LL. manopera, lit., hand work, manual labor; L. manus hand + opera, fr. opus work. See Manual, Operate, and cf. Mainor, Manure.]

1. Management; dexterous movement; specif., a military or naval evolution, movement, or change of position.

2. Management with address or artful design; adroit proceeding; stratagem.

{ Ma*neu"ver, Ma*nœu"vre, } v. i. [imp. & p. p. Maneuvered (#) or Manœuvred; p. pr. & vb. n. Maneuvering (&?;), or Manœuvring (&?;).] [Cf. F. manœuvrer. See Maneuver, n.] 1. To perform a movement or movements in military or naval tactics; to make changes in position with reference to getting advantage in attack or defense.

2. To manage with address or art; to scheme.

{ Ma*neu"ver, Ma*nœu"vre, } v. t. To change the positions of, as of troops of ships.

{ Ma*neu"ver*er (?), Ma*nœu"vrer (?), } n. One who maneuvers.

This charming widow Beaumont is a nanœuvrer. We can't well make an English word of it.

Miss Edgeworth.

Man"ful (?), a. Showing manliness, or manly spirit; hence, brave, courageous, resolute, noble. " Manful hardiness." Chaucer. -- Man"ful*ly, adv. -- Man"ful*ness, n.

Man"ga*bey (?), n. [So called by Buffon from Mangaby, in Madagascar, where he erroneously supposed them be native.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several African monkeys of the genus Cercocebus, as the sooty mangabey (C. fuliginosus), which is sooty black. [Also written mangaby.]

Man"gan (?), n. See Mangonel.

Man"ga*nate (?), n. [Cf. F. manganate.] (Chem.) A salt of manganic acid.

The manganates are usually green, and are well-known compounds, though derived from a hypothetical acid.

Man`ga*ne"sate (?), n. (Chem.) A manganate. [Obs.]

Man`ga*nese" (?), n. [F. manganèse, It. manganese, sasso magnesio; prob. corrupted from L. magnes, because of its resemblance to the magnet. See Magnet, and cf. Magnesia.] (Chem.) An element obtained by reduction of its oxide, as a hard, grayish white metal, fusible with difficulty, but easily oxidized. Its ores occur abundantly in nature as the minerals pyrolusite, manganite, etc. Symbol Mn. Atomic weight 54.8.

An alloy of manganese with iron (called ferromanganese) is used to increase the density and hardness of steel.

Black oxide of manganese, Manganese dioxide or peroxide, or Black manganese (Chem.), a heavy black powder MnO2, occurring native as the mineral pyrolusite, and valuable as a strong oxidizer; -- called also familiarly manganese. It colors glass violet, and is used as a decolorizer to remove the green tint of impure glass. -- Manganese bronze, an alloy made by adding from one to two per cent of manganese to the copper and zinc used in brass.

Man`ga*ne"sian (?), a. [Cf. F. manganésien.] (Chem.) Manganic. [R.]

Man`ga*ne"sic (?), a. [Cf. F. manganésique.] (Chem.) Manganic. [Obs.]

Man`ga*ne"sious (?), a. (Chem.) Manganous.

Man`ga*ne"si*um (?), n. [NL.] Manganese.

Man`ga*ne"sous (?), a. (Chem.) Manganous.

Man`gan"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. manganique.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to resembling, or containing, manganese; specif., designating compounds in which manganese has a higher valence as contrasted with manganous compounds. Cf. Manganous.

Manganic acid, an acid, H2MnO4, formed from manganese, analogous to sulphuric acid.

Man`ga*nif"er*ous (?), a. [Manganese + -ferous.] Containing manganese.

Man"ga*nite (?), n. 1. (Min.) One of the oxides of manganese; -- called also gray manganese ore. It occurs in brilliant steel-gray or iron- black crystals, also massive.

2. (Chem.) A compound of manganese dioxide with a metallic oxide; so called as though derived from the hypothetical manganous acid.

Man*ga"ni*um (?), n. [NL.] Manganese.

Man"ga*nous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, designating, those compounds of manganese in which the element has a lower valence as contrasted with manganic compounds; as, manganous oxide.

Manganous acid, a hypothetical compound analogous to sulphurous acid, and forming the so-called manganites.

Mang"corn` (?), n. [OE. mengen to mix. See Mingle, and Corn.] A mixture of wheat and rye, or other species of grain. [Prov Eng.]

Mange (?), n. [See Mangy.] (Vet.) The scab or itch in cattle, dogs, and other beasts.

Mange insect (Zoöl.), any one of several species of small parasitic mites, which burrow in the skin of cattle. horses, dogs, and other animals, causing the mange. The mange insect of the horse (Psoroptes, or Dermatodectes, equi), and that of cattle (Symbiotes, or Dermatophagys, bovis) are the most important species. See Acarina.

Man"gel-wur`zel (?), n. [G., corrupted fr. mangoldwurzel; mangold beet + wurzel root.] (Bot.) A kind of large field beet (B. macrorhiza), used as food for cattle, -- by some considered a mere variety of the ordinary beet. See Beet. [Written also mangold- wurzel.]

Man"ger (?), n. [F. mangeoire, fr. manger to eat, fr. L. manducare, fr. mandere to chew. Cf. Mandible, Manducate.] 1. A trough or open box in which fodder is placed for horses or cattle to eat.

2. (Naut.) The fore part of the deck, having a bulkhead athwart ships high enough to prevent water which enters the hawse holes from running over it.

Man"gi*ly (?), adv. In a mangy manner; scabbily.

Man"gi*ness, n. [From Mangy.] The condition or quality of being mangy.

Man"gle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mangled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mangling (?).] [A frequentative fr. OE. manken to main, AS. mancian, in bemancian to mutilate, fr. L. mancus maimed; perh. akin to G. mangeln to be wanting.] 1. To cut or bruise with repeated blows or strokes, making a ragged or torn wound, or covering with wounds; to tear in cutting; to cut in a bungling manner; to lacerate; to mutilate.

Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail.


2. To mutilate or injure, in making, doing, or performing; as, to mangle a piece of music or a recitation.

To mangle a play or a novel.


Man"gle, n. [D. mangel, fr. OE. mangonel a machine for throwing stones, LL. manganum, Gr. &?; a machine for defending fortifications, axis of a pulley. Cf. Mangonel.] A machine for smoothing linen or cotton cloth, as sheets, tablecloths, napkins, and clothing, by roller pressure.

Mangle rack (Mach.), a contrivance for converting continuous circular motion into reciprocating rectilinear motion, by means of a rack and pinion, as in the mangle. The pinion is held to the rack by a groove in such a manner that it passes alternately from one side of the rack to the other, and thus gives motion to it in opposite directions, according to the side in which its teeth are engaged. -- Mangle wheel, a wheel in which the teeth, or pins, on its face, are interrupted on one side, and the pinion, working in them, passes from inside to outside of the teeth alternately, thus converting the continuous circular motion of the pinion into a reciprocating circular motion of the wheel.

<! p. 891 !>

Man"gle (?), v. t. [Cf. D. mangelen. See Mangle, n.] To smooth with a mangle, as damp linen or cloth.

Man"gler (?), n. [See 1st Mangle.] One who mangles or tears in cutting; one who mutilates any work in doing it.

Man"gler, n. [See 3d Mangle.] One who smooths with a mangle.

Man"go (?), n.; pl. Mangoes (#). [Pg. manga, fr. Tamil mnky.] 1. The fruit of the mango tree. It is rather larger than an apple, and of an ovoid shape. Some varieties are fleshy and luscious, and others tough and tasting of turpentine. The green fruit is pickled for market.

2. A green muskmelon stuffed and pickled.

Mango bird (Zoöl.), an oriole (Oriolus kundoo), native of India. -- Mango fish (Zoöl.), a fish of the Ganges (Polynemus risua), highly esteemed for food. It has several long, slender filaments below the pectoral fins. It appears about the same time with the mango fruit, in April and May, whence the name. -- Mango tree (Bot.), an East Indian tree of the genus Mangifera (M. Indica), related to the cashew and the sumac. It grows to a large size, and produces the mango of commerce. It is now cultivated in tropical America.

Man"gold*wur`zel (?), n. [G.] (Bot.) See Mangel-wurzel.

Man"go*nel (?), n. [OF. mangonel, LL. manganellus, manganum, fr. Gr. &?; See Mangle, n.] A military engine formerly used for throwing stones and javelins.

Man"go*nism (?), n. The art of mangonizing, or setting off to advantage. [Obs.]

Man"go*nist (?), n. 1. One who mangonizes. [Obs.]

2. A slave dealer; also, a strumpet. [Obs.]

Man"go*nize (?), v. t. [L. mangonizare, fr. mango a dealer in slaves or wares, to which he tries to give an appearance of greater value by decking them out or furbishing them up.] To furbish up for sale; to set off to advantage. [Obs. or R.] B. Jonson.

{ Man"go*steen (?), Man"go*stan (?), } n. [Malay mangusta, mangis.] (Bot.) A tree of the East Indies of the genus Garcinia (G. Mangostana). The tree grows to the height of eighteen feet, and bears fruit also called mangosteen, of the size of a small apple, the pulp of which is very delicious food.

Man"grove (?), n. [Malay manggi- manggi.] 1. (Bot.) The name of one or two trees of the genus Rhizophora (R. Mangle, and R. mucronata, the last doubtfully distinct) inhabiting muddy shores of tropical regions, where they spread by emitting aërial roots, which fasten in the saline mire and eventually become new stems. The seeds also send down a strong root while yet attached to the parent plant.

The fruit has a ruddy brown shell, and a delicate white pulp which is sweet and eatable. The bark is astringent, and is used for tanning leather. The black and the white mangrove (Avicennia nitida and A. tomentosa) have much the same habit.

2. (Zoöl.) The mango fish.

||Mangue (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) The kusimanse.

Man"gy (?), a. [Compar. Mangier (?); superl. Mangiest.] [F. mangé, p. p. of manger to eat. See Manger.] Infected with the mange; scabby.

Man*ha"den (?), n. See Menhaden.

Man"head (?), n. Manhood. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Man"hole` (?), n. A hole through which a man may descend or creep into a drain, sewer, steam boiler, parts of machinery, etc., for cleaning or repairing.

Man"hood, n. [Man- + - hood.] 1. The state of being man as a human being, or man as distinguished from a child or a woman.

2. Manly quality; courage; bravery; resolution.

I am ashamed
That thou hast power to shake my manhood thus.


Ma"ni*a (?), n. [L. mania, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to rage; cf. OE. manie, F. manie. Cf. Mind, n., Necromancy.] 1. Violent derangement of mind; madness; insanity. Cf. Delirium.

2. Excessive or unreasonable desire; insane passion affecting one or many people; as, the tulip mania.

Mania a potu [L.], madness from drinking; delirium tremens.

Syn. -- Insanity; derangement; madness; lunacy; alienation; aberration; delirium; frenzy. See Insanity.

Man"i*a*ble (?), a. [F., fr. manier to manage, fr. L. manus hand.] Manageable. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ma"ni*ac (?), a. [F. maniaque. See Mania.] Raving with madness; raging with disordered intellect; affected with mania; mad.

Ma"ni*ac (?), n. A raving lunatic; a madman.

Ma*ni"a*cal (?), a. Affected with, or characterized by, madness; maniac. -- Ma*ni"a*cal*ly, adv.

Man"i*cate (?), a. [L. manicatus sleeved, fr. manica a sleeve.] (Bot.) Covered with hairs or pubescence so platted together and interwoven as to form a mass easily removed.

{ Man`i*chæ"an (?), Man`i*che"an, Man"i*chee (?) }, n. [LL. Manichaeus: cf. F. manichéen.] A believer in the doctrines of Manes, a Persian of the third century A. D., who taught a dualism in which Light is regarded as the source of Good, and Darkness as the source of Evil.

The Manichæans stand as representatives of dualism pushed to its utmost development.


{ Man`i*chæ"an, Man`i*che"an (?) }, a. Of or pertaining to the Manichæans.

{ Man"i*chæ*ism, Man"i*che*ism (?) }, n. [Cf. F. manichéisme.] The doctrines taught, or system of principles maintained, by the Manichæans.

Man"i*che*ist, n. [Cf. F. manichéiste.] Manichæan.

{ Man"i*chord (?), Man`i*chor"don (?), } [L. monochordon, Gr. &?;; -- so called because it orig. had only one string. See Monochord.] (Mus.) The clavichord or clarichord; -- called also dumb spinet.

Man"i*cure (?), n. [F., fr. L. manus hand + curare to cure.] A person who makes a business of taking care of people's hands, especially their nails.

[Men] who had taken good care of their hands by wearing gloves and availing themselves of the services of a manicure.

Pop. Sci. Monthly.

Ma"nid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of the genus Manis, or family Manidæ.

Ma`nie" (?), n. [F. See Mania.] Mania; insanity. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Man"i*fest (?), a. [F. manifeste, L. manifestus, lit., struck by the hand, hence, palpable; manus hand + fendere (in comp.) to strike. See Manual, and Defend.] 1. Evident to the senses, esp. to the sight; apparent; distinctly perceived; hence, obvious to the understanding; apparent to the mind; easily apprehensible; plain; not obscure or hidden.

Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight.

Heb. iv. 13.

That which may be known of God is manifest in them.

Rom. i. 19.

Thus manifest to sight the god appeared.


2. Detected; convicted; -- with of. [R.]

Calistho there stood manifest of shame.


Syn. -- Open; clear; apparent; evident; visible; conspicuous; plain; obvious. -- Manifest, Clear, Plain, Obvious, Evident. What is clear can be seen readily; what is obvious lies directly in our way, and necessarily arrests our attention; what is evident is seen so clearly as to remove doubt; what is manifest is very distinctly evident.

So clear, so shining, and so evident,
That it will glimmer through a blind man's eye.


Entertained with solitude,
Where obvious duty erewhile appeared unsought.


I saw, I saw him manifest in view,
His voice, his figure, and his gesture knew.


Man"i*fest, n.; pl. Manifests (#). [Cf. F. manifeste. See Manifest, a., and cf. Manifesto.] 1. A public declaration; an open statement; a manifesto. See Manifesto. [Obs.]

2. A list or invoice of a ship's cargo, containing a description by marks, numbers, etc., of each package of goods, to be exhibited at the customhouse. Bouvier.

Man"i*fest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manifested (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manifesting.] 1. To show plainly; to make to appear distinctly, -- usually to the mind; to put beyond question or doubt; to display; to exhibit.

There is nothing hid which shall not be manifested.

Mark iv. 22.

Thy life did manifest thou lovedst me not.


2. To exhibit the manifests or prepared invoices of; to declare at the customhouse.

Syn. -- To reveal; declare; evince; make known; disclose; discover; display.

Man"i*fest`a*ble (?), a. Such as can be manifested.

Man`i*fes*ta"tion (?), n. [L. manifestatio: cf. F. manifestation.] The act of manifesting or disclosing, or the state of being manifested; discovery to the eye or to the understanding; also, that which manifests; exhibition; display; revelation; as, the manifestation of God's power in creation.

The secret manner in which acts of mercy ought to be performed, requires this public manifestation of them at the great day.


Man"i*fest`i*ble (?), a. Manifestable.

Man"i*fest*ly (?), adv. In a manifest manner.

Man"i*fest*ness, n. The quality or state of being manifest; obviousness.

Man`i*fes"to (?), n.; pl. Manifestoes (#). [It. manifesto. See Manifest, n. & a.] A public declaration, usually of a prince, sovereign, or other person claiming large powers, showing his intentions, or proclaiming his opinions and motives in reference to some act done or contemplated by him; as, a manifesto declaring the purpose of a prince to begin war, and explaining his motives. Bouvier.

it was proposed to draw up a manifesto, setting forth the grounds and motives of our taking arms.


Frederick, in a public manifesto, appealed to the Empire against the insolent pretensions of the pope.


Man"i*fold (?), a. [AS. manigfeald. See Many, and Fold.] 1. Various in kind or quality; many in number; numerous; multiplied; complicated.

O Lord, how manifold are thy works!

Ps. civ. 24.

I know your manifold transgressions.

Amos v. 12.

2. Exhibited at divers times or in various ways; -- used to qualify nouns in the singular number. "The manifold wisdom of God." Eph. iii. 10. "The manifold grace of God." 1 Pet. iv. 10.

Manifold writing, a process or method by which several copies, as of a letter, are simultaneously made, sheets of coloring paper being infolded with thin sheets of plain paper upon which the marks made by a stylus or a type-writer are transferred.

Man"i*fold (?), n. 1. A copy of a writing made by the manifold process.

2. (Mech.) A cylindrical pipe fitting, having a number of lateral outlets, for connecting one pipe with several others.

3. pl. The third stomach of a ruminant animal. [Local, U.S.]

Man"i*fold, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manifolded (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manifolding.] To take copies of by the process of manifold writing; as, to manifold a letter.

Man"i*fold`ed, a. Having many folds, layers, or plates; as, a manifolded shield. [Obs.]

Man"i*fold`ly, adv. In a manifold manner.

Man"i*fold`ness, n. 1. Multiplicity. Sherwood.

2. (Math.) A generalized concept of magnitude.

Man"i*form (?), a. [L. manus hand + -form.] Shaped like the hand.

Ma*ni"glion (m*nl"yn), n. [It. maniglio, maniglia, bracelet, handle. Cf. Manilio.] (Gun.) Either one of two handles on the back of a piece of ordnance.

{ Man"i*hoc (?), Man"i*hot (?), } n. See Manioc.

Man"i*kin (?), n. [OD. manneken, dim. of man man. See Man, and -kin.] 1. A little man; a dwarf; a pygmy; a manakin.

2. A model of the human body, made of papier- mache or other material, commonly in detachable pieces, for exhibiting the different parts and organs, their relative position, etc.

{ Ma*nil"a (?), Ma*nil"la }, a. Of or pertaining to Manila or Manilla, the capital of the Philippine Islands; made in, or exported from, that city.

Manila cheroot or cigar, a cheroot or cigar made of tobacco grown in the Philippine Islands. -- Manila hemp, a fibrous material obtained from the Musa textilis, a plant allied to the banana, growing in the Philippine and other East India islands; - - called also by the native name abaca. From it matting, canvas, ropes, and cables are made. -- Manila paper, a durable brown or buff paper made of Manila hemp, used as a wrapping paper, and as a cheap printing and writing paper. The name is also given to inferior papers, made of other fiber.

Ma*nil"io (?), n. See Manilla, 1. Sir T. Herbert.

Ma*nil"la (?), n. [Sp. manilla; cf. It. maniglio, maniglia; F. manille; Pg. manilha; all fr. L. manus hand, and formed after the analogy of L. monile, pl. monilia, necklace: cf. F. manille.] 1. A ring worn upon the arm or leg as an ornament, especially among the tribes of Africa.

2. A piece of copper of the shape of a horseshoe, used as money by certain tribes of the west coast of Africa. Simmonds.

Ma*nil"la, a. Same as Manila.

||Ma*nille" (?), n. [F.] See 1st Manilla, 1.

Ma"ni*oc (?), n. [Pg. mandioca, fr. Braz.] (Bot.) The tropical plants (Manihot utilissima, and M. Aipi), from which cassava and tapioca are prepared; also, cassava. [Written also mandioc, manihoc, manihot.]

Man"i*ple (?), n. [L. manipulus, maniplus, a handful, a certain number of soldiers; manus hand + root of plere to fill, plenus full: cf. F. maniple. See Manual, and Full, a.] 1. A handful. [R.] B. Jonson.

2. A division of the Roman army numbering sixty men exclusive of officers; any small body of soldiers; a company. Milton.

3. Originally, a napkin; later, an ornamental band or scarf worn upon the left arm as a part of the vestments of a priest in the Roman Catholic Church. It is sometimes worn in the English Church service.

Ma*nip"u*lar (?), a. [L. manipularis: cf. F. manipulaire.] 1. Of or pertaining to the maniple, or company.

2. Manipulatory; as, manipular operations.

Ma*nip"u*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manipulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manipulating (?).] [LL. manipulatus, p. p. of manipulare to lead by the hand, fr. L. manipulus. See Maniple.] 1. To treat, work, or operate with the hands, especially when knowledge and dexterity are required; to manage in hand work; to handle; as, to manipulate scientific apparatus.

2. To control the action of, by management; as, to manipulate a convention of delegates; to manipulate the stock market; also, to manage artfully or fraudulently; as, to manipulate accounts, or election returns.

Ma*nip"u*late, v. i. To use the hands in dexterous operations; to do hand work; specifically, to manage the apparatus or instruments used in scientific work, or in artistic or mechanical processes; also, specifically, to use the hand in mesmeric operations.

Ma*nip`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. manipulation.] 1. The act or process of manipulating, or the state of being manipulated; the act of handling work by hand; use of the hands, in an artistic or skillful manner, in science or art.

Manipulation is to the chemist like the external senses to the mind.


2. The use of the hands in mesmeric operations.

3. Artful management; as, the manipulation of political bodies; sometimes, a management or treatment for purposes of deception or fraud.

Ma*nip"u*la*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to manipulation; performed by manipulation.

Ma*nip"u*la`tor (?), n. One who manipulates.

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Ma*nip"u*la*to*ry (m*np"*l*t*r), a. Of or pertaining to manipulation.

||Ma"nis (m"ns), n. [NL., fr. L. manes the ghosts or shades of the dead. So called from its dismal appearance, and because it seeks for its food by night.] (Zoöl.) A genus of edentates, covered with large, hard, triangular scales, with sharp edges that overlap each other like tiles on a roof. They inhabit the warmest parts of Asia and Africa, and feed on ants. Called also Scaly anteater. See Pangolin.

{ Man"i*to (?), Man"i*tou (?), Man"i*tu (?) }, n. A name given by tribes of American Indians to a great spirit, whether good or evil, or to any object of worship. Tylor.

Gitche Manito the mighty,
The Great Spirit, the creator,
Smiled upon his helpless children!


Mitche Manito the mighty,
He the dreadful Spirit of Evil,
As a serpent was depicted.


Man"i*trunk (?), n. [L. manus hand + E. trunk.] (Zoöl.) The anterior segment of the thorax in insects. See Insect.

Man`kind" (?), n. [AS. mancynn. See Kin kindred, Kind, n.] 1. The human race; man, taken collectively.

The proper study of mankind is man.


2. Men, as distinguished from women; the male portion of human race. Lev. xviii. 22.

3. Human feelings; humanity. [Obs] B. Jonson.

Man"kind` (?), a. Manlike; not womanly; masculine; bold; cruel. [Obs]

Are women grown so mankind? Must they be wooing?

Beau. & Fl.

Be not too mankind against your wife.


Manks (mks), prop. a. Of or pertaining to the language or people of the Isle of Man. -- n. The language spoken in the Isle of Man. See Manx.

Man"less (?), a. 1. Destitute of men. Bakon.

2. Unmanly; inhuman. [Obs.] Chapman.

Man"less*ly, adv. Inhumanly. [Obs.]

Man"like` (?), a. [Man + like. Cf. Manly.] Like man, or like a man, in form or nature; having the qualities of a man, esp. the nobler qualities; manly. " Gentle, manlike speech." Testament of Love. " A right manlike man." Sir P. Sidney.

In glaring Chloe's manlike taste and mien.


Man"li*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being manly.

Man"ling (?), n. A little man. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Man"ly, a. [Compar. Manlier (?); superl. Manliest.] [Man + -ly. Cf. Manlike.] Having qualities becoming to a man; not childish or womanish; manlike, esp. brave, courageous, resolute, noble.

Let's briefly put on manly readiness.


Serene and manly, hardened to sustain
The load of life.


Syn. -- Bold; daring; brave; courageous; firm; undaunted; hardy; dignified; stately.

Man"ly, adv. In a manly manner; with the courage and fortitude of a manly man; as, to act manly.

Man"na (mn"n), n. [L., fr. Gr. ma`nna, Heb. mn; cf. Ar. mann, properly, gift (of heaven).] 1. (Script.) The food supplied to the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness of Arabia; hence, divinely supplied food. Ex. xvi. 15.

2. (Bot.) A name given to lichens of the genus Lecanora, sometimes blown into heaps in the deserts of Arabia and Africa, and gathered and used as food.

3. (Bot. & Med.) A sweetish exudation in the form of pale yellow friable flakes, coming from several trees and shrubs and used in medicine as a gentle laxative, as the secretion of Fraxinus Ornus, and F. rotundifolia, the manna ashes of Southern Europe.

Persian manna is the secretion of the camel's thorn (see Camel's thorn, under Camel); Tamarisk manna, that of the Tamarisk mannifera, a shrub of Western Asia; Australian, manna, that of certain species of eucalyptus; Briançon manna, that of the European larch.

Manna grass (Bot.), a name of several tall slender grasses of the genus Glyceria. they have long loose panicles, and grow in moist places. Nerved manna grass is Glyceria nervata, and Floating manna grass is G. fluitans. -- Manna insect (Zoöl), a scale insect (Gossyparia mannipara), which causes the exudation of manna from the Tamarix tree in Arabia.

Man"na croup` (krp`). [Manna + Russ. & Pol. krupa groats, grits.] 1. The portions of hard wheat kernels not ground into flour by the millstones: a kind of semolina prepared in Russia and used for puddings, soups, etc. -- called also manna groats.

2. The husked grains of manna grass.

Man"ner (?), n. [OE. manere, F. manière, from OF. manier, adj., manual, skillful, handy, fr. (assumed) LL. manarius, for L. manuarius belonging to the hand, fr. manus the hand. See Manual.] 1. Mode of action; way of performing or effecting anything; method; style; form; fashion.

The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land.

2 Kings xvii. 26.

The temptations of prosperity insinuate themselves after a gentle, but very powerful, manner.


2. Characteristic mode of acting, conducting, carrying one's self, or the like; bearing; habitual style.

Specifically: (a) Customary method of acting; habit.

Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them.

Acts xvii. 2.

Air and manner are more expressive than words.


(b) pl. Carriage; behavior; deportment; also, becoming behavior; well-bred carriage and address.

Good manners are made up of petty sacrifices.


(c) The style of writing or thought of an author; characteristic peculiarity of an artist.

3. Certain degree or measure; as, it is in a manner done already.

The bread is in a manner common.

1 Sam. xxi.5.

4. Sort; kind; style; -- in this application sometimes having the sense of a plural, sorts or kinds.

Ye tithe mint, and rue, and all manner of herbs.

Luke xi. 42.

I bid thee say,
What manner of man art thou?


In old usage, of was often omitted after manner, when employed in this sense. "A manner Latin corrupt was her speech." Chaucer.

By any manner of means, in any way possible; by any sort of means. -- To be taken in, or with the manner. [A corruption of to be taken in the mainor. See Mainor.] To be taken in the very act. [Obs.] See Mainor. -- To make one's manners, to make a bow or courtesy; to offer salutation. -- Manners bit, a portion left in a dish for the sake of good manners. Hallwell.

Syn. -- Method; mode; custom; habit; fashion; air; look; mien; aspect; appearance. See Method.

Man"nered (?), a. 1. Having a certain way, esp. a polite way, of carrying and conducting one's self.

Give her princely training, that she may be
Mannered as she is born.


2. Affected with mannerism; marked by excess of some characteristic peculiarity.

His style is in some degree mannered and confined.


Man"ner*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. maniérisme.] Adherence to a peculiar style or manner; a characteristic mode of action, bearing, or treatment, carried to excess, especially in literature or art.

Mannerism is pardonable,and is sometimes even agreeable, when the manner, though vicious, is natural . . . . But a mannerism which does not sit easy on the mannerist, which has been adopted on principle, and which can be sustained only by constant effort, is always offensive.


Man"ner*ist, n. [Cf. F. maniériste.] One addicted to mannerism; a person who, in action, bearing, or treatment, carries characteristic peculiarities to excess. See citation under Mannerism.

Man"ner*li*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being mannerly; civility; complaisance. Sir M. Hale.

Man"ner*ly, a. Showing good manners; civil; respectful; complaisant.

What thou thinkest meet, and is most mannerly.


Man"ner*ly, adv. With good manners. Shak.

Mann"heim gold" (?). [From Mannheim in Germany, where much of it was made.] A kind of brass made in imitation of gold. It contains eighty per cent of copper and twenty of zinc. Ure.

Man"nide (?), n. [Mannite + anhydride.] (Chem.) A white amorphous or crystalline substance, obtained by dehydration of mannite, and distinct from, but convertible into, mannitan.

Man"nish (?), a. [Man + - ish: cf. AS. mennisc, menisc.] 1. Resembling a human being in form or nature; human. Chaucer.

But yet it was a figure
Most like to mannish creature.


2. Resembling, suitable to, or characteristic of, a man, manlike, masculine. Chaucer.

A woman impudent and mannish grown.


3. Fond of men; -- said of a woman. [Obs.] Chaucer.

-- Man"nish*ly (#),adv. -- Man"nish*ness, n.

Man"ni*tan (?), n. [Mannite + anhydrite.] (Chem.) A white amorphous or crystalline substance obtained by the partial dehydration of mannite.

Man"ni*tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of mannitic acid.

Man"nite (?), n. [Cf. F. mannite.] 1. (Chem.) A white crystalline substance of a sweet taste obtained from a so-called manna, the dried sap of the flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus); -- called also mannitol, and hydroxy hexane. Cf. Dulcite.

2. (Bot.) A sweet white efflorescence from dried fronds of kelp, especially from those of the Laminaria saccharina, or devil's apron.

Man*nit"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, resembling, or derived from, mannite.

Mannitic acid (Chem.), a white amorphous substance, intermediate between saccharic acid and mannite, and obtained by the partial oxidation of the latter.

Man"ni*tol (?), n. [Mannite + -ol.] (Chem.) The technical name of mannite. See Mannite.

Man"ni*tose` (?), n. (Chem.) A variety of sugar obtained by the partial oxidation of mannite, and closely resembling levulose.

Ma*nœu"vre (?), n. & v. See Maneuver.

Man`-of-war" (?), n; pl. Men-of-war. A government vessel employed for the purposes of war, esp. one of large size; a ship of war.

Man-of-war bird (Zoöl.), The frigate bird; also applied to the skua gulls, and to the wandering albatross. -- Man-of-war hawk (Zoöl.), the frigate bird. -- Man-of- war's man, a sailor serving in a ship of war. -- Portuguese man-of-war (Zoöl.), any species of the genus Physalia. See Physalia.

Ma*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; thin, rare + -meter: cf. F. manomètre.] An instrument for measuring the tension or elastic force of gases, steam, etc., constructed usually on the principle of allowing the gas to exert its elastic force in raising a column of mercury in an open tube, or in compressing a portion of air or other gas in a closed tube with mercury or other liquid intervening, or in bending a metallic or other spring so as to set in motion an index; a pressure gauge. See Pressure, and Illust. of Air pump.

{ Man`o*met"ric (?), Man`o*met"ric*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. manométrique.] Of or pertaining to the manometer; made by the manometer.

Man"or (?), n. [OE. maner, OF. maneir habitation, village, F. manoir manor, prop. the OF. inf. maneir to stay, remain, dwell, L. manere, and so called because it was the permanent residence of the lord and of his tenants. See Mansion, and cf. Remain.] 1. (Eng. Law) The land belonging to a lord or nobleman, or so much land as a lord or great personage kept in his own hands, for the use and subsistence of his family.

My manors, rents, revenues, l forego.


In these days, a manor rather signifies the jurisdiction and royalty incorporeal, than the land or site, for a man may have a manor in gross, as the law terms it, that is, the right and interest of a court-baron, with the perquisites thereto belonging.

2. (American Law) A tract of land occupied by tenants who pay a free-farm rent to the proprietor, sometimes in kind, and sometimes by performing certain stipulated services. Burrill.

Manor house, or Manor seat, the house belonging to a manor.

Ma*no"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a manor. " Manorial claims." Paley.

Man"o*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; thin, rare + -scope.] Same as Manometer.

Ma*nos"co*py (?), n. The science of the determination of the density of vapors and gases.

Ma*no"ver*y (?), n. [See Maneuver.] (Eng. Law) A contrivance or maneuvering to catch game illegally.

Man"quell`er (?), n. A killer of men; a manslayer. [Obs.] Carew.

{ Man"red (?), Man"rent` (?), } n. Homage or service rendered to a superior, as to a lord; vassalage. [Obs. or Scots Law] Jamieson.

Man"rope` (?), n. (Naut.) One of the side ropes to the gangway of a ship. Totten.

Man"sard roof" (?). [So called from its inventor, François Mansard, or Mansart, a distinguished French architect, who died in 1666.] (Arch.) A hipped curb roof; that is, a roof having on all sides two slopes, the lower one being steeper than the upper one.

Manse (?), n. [LL. mansa, mansus, mansum, a farm, fr. L. manere, mansum, to stay, dwell. See Mansion, Manor.] 1. A dwelling house, generally with land attached.

2. The parsonage; a clergyman's house. [Scot.]

Capital manse, the manor house, or lord's court.

Man"serv`ant (?), n. A male servant.

Man"sion (?), n. [OF. mansion, F. maison, fr. L. mansio a staying, remaining, a dwelling, habitation, fr. manere, mansum, to stay, dwell; akin to Gr. &?;. Cf. Manse, Manor, Menagerie, Menial, Permanent.] 1. A dwelling place, -- whether a part or whole of a house or other shelter. [Obs.]

In my Father's house are many mansions.

John xiv. 2.

These poets near our princes sleep,
And in one grave their mansions keep.


2. The house of the lord of a manor; a manor house; hence: Any house of considerable size or pretension.

3. (Astrol.) A twelfth part of the heavens; a house. See 1st House, 8. Chaucer.

4. The place in the heavens occupied each day by the moon in its monthly revolution. [Obs.]

The eight and twenty mansions
That longen to the moon.


Mansion house, the house in which one resides; specifically, in London and some other cities, the official residence of the Lord Mayor. Blackstone.

Man"sion, v. i. To dwell; to reside. [Obs.] Mede.

Man"sion*a*ry (?), a. Resident; residentiary; as, mansionary canons.

Man"sion*ry (?), n. The state of dwelling or residing; occupancy as a dwelling place. [Obs.] Shak.

Man"slaugh`ter (?), n. 1. The slaying of a human being; destruction of men. Milton.

2. (Law) The unlawful killing of a man, either in negligence or incidentally to the commission of some unlawful act, but without specific malice, or upon a sudden excitement of anger.

Man"slay`er (?), n. One who kills a human being; one who commits manslaughter.

Man"steal`er (?), n. A person who steals or kidnaps a human being or beings.

Man"steal`ing, n. The act or business of stealing or kidnaping human beings, especially with a view to e&?;slave them.

Man"suete (?), a. [L. mansuetus, p. p. of mansuescere to tame; manus hand + suescere to accustom: cf. F. mansuet.] Tame; gentle; kind. [Obs.] Ray.

Man"sue*tude (?), n. [L. mansuetudo: cf. F. mansuétude.] Tameness; gentleness; mildness. [Archaic]

Man"swear` (?), v. i. To swear falsely. Same as Mainswear.

||Man"ta (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) See Cephaloptera and Sea devil.

Mant*choo" (?), a. & n. Same as Manchu.

||Man`teau" (?), n.; pl. F. Manteaux (#), E. Manteaus (#). [F. See Mantle, n.] 1. A woman's cloak or mantle.

2. A gown worn by women. [Obs.]

Man"tel (?), n. [The same word as mantle a garment; cf. F. manteau de cheminée. See Mantle.] (Arch.) The finish around a fireplace, covering the chimney-breast in front and sometimes on both sides; especially, a shelf above the fireplace, and its supports. [Written also mantle.]

Man"tel*et (?), n. [F., dim. of manteau, OF. mantel. See Mantle.] 1. (a) A short cloak formerly worn by knights. (b) A short cloak or mantle worn by women.

A mantelet upon his shoulders hanging.


2. (Fort.) A musket-proof shield of rope, wood, or metal, which is sometimes used for the protection of sappers or riflemen while attacking a fortress, or of gunners at embrasures; -- now commonly written mantlet.

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Man"tel*piece` (?), n. Same as Mantel.

Man"tel*shelf` (?), n. The shelf of a mantel.

Man"tel*tree` (?), n. (Arch.) The lintel of a fireplace when of wood, as frequently in early houses.

Man"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; prophetic.] Of or pertaining to divination, or to the condition of one inspired, or supposed to be inspired, by a deity; prophetic. [R.] "Mantic fury." Trench.

Man*til"la (?), n. [Sp. See Mantle.] 1. A lady's light cloak of cape of silk, velvet, lace, or the like.

2. A kind of veil, covering the head and falling down upon the shoulders; -- worn in Spain, Mexico, etc.

||Man"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a prophet.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of voracious orthopterous insects of the genus Mantis, and allied genera. They are remarkable for their slender grotesque forms, and for holding their stout anterior legs in a manner suggesting hands folded in prayer. The common American species is M. Carolina.

Mantis shrimp. (Zoöl.) See Sguilla.

Man*tis"pid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any neuropterous insect of the genus Mantispa, and allied genera. The larvæ feed on plant lice. Also used adjectively. See Illust. under Neuroptera.

Man*tis*sa (?), n. [L., an addition, makeweight; of Tuscan origin.] (Math.) The decimal part of a logarithm, as distinguished from the integral part, or characteristic.

Man"tle (?), n. [OE. mantel, OF. mantel, F. manteau, fr. L. mantellum, mantelum, a cloth, napkin, cloak, mantle (cf. mantele, mantile, towel, napkin); prob. from manus hand + the root of tela cloth. See Manual, Textile, and cf. Mandil, Mantel, Mantilla.]

1. A loose garment to be worn over other garments; an enveloping robe; a cloak. Hence, figuratively, a covering or concealing envelope.

[The] children are clothed with mantles of satin.


The green mantle of the standing pool.


Now Nature hangs her mantle green
On every blooming tree.


2. (Her.) Same as Mantling.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) The external fold, or folds, of the soft, exterior membrane of the body of a mollusk. It usually forms a cavity inclosing the gills. See Illusts. of Buccinum, and Byssus. (b) Any free, outer membrane. (c) The back of a bird together with the folded wings.

4. (Arch.) A mantel. See Mantel.

5. The outer wall and casing of a blast furnace, above the hearth. Raymond.

6. (Hydraulic Engin.) A penstock for a water wheel.

Man"tle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mantled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mantling (?).] To cover or envelop, as with a mantle; to cloak; to hide; to disguise. Shak.

Man"tle, v. i. 1. To unfold and spread out the wings, like a mantle; -- said of hawks. Also used figuratively.

Ne is there hawk which mantleth on her perch.


Or tend his sparhawk mantling in her mew.

Bp. Hall.

My frail fancy fed with full delight.
Doth bathe in bliss, and mantleth most at ease.


2. To spread out; -- said of wings.

The swan, with arched neck
Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows.


3. To spread over the surface as a covering; to overspread; as, the scum mantled on the pool.

Though mantled in her cheek the blood.

Sir W. Scott.

4. To gather, assume, or take on, a covering, as froth, scum, etc.

There is a sort of men whose visages
Do cream and mantle like a standing pond.


Nor bowl of wassail mantle warm.


Man"tlet (?), n. See Mantelet.

Man"tling (?), n. (Her.) The representation of a mantle, or the drapery behind and around a coat of arms: -- called also lambrequin.

Man"to (?), n. [It. or Sp. manto, abbrev., from L. mantelum. See Mantle.] See Manteau. [Obs.] Bailey.

Man*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in mantology; a diviner. [R.]

Man*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; prophet + -logy.] The act or art of divination. [R.]

||Man"tra (?), n. [Skr.] A prayer; an invocation; a religious formula; a charm. [India]

Among the Hindoos each caste and tribe has a mantra peculiar to itself; as, the mantra of the Brahmans. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

Man"trap` (?), n. 1. A trap for catching trespassers. [Eng.]

2. A dangerous place, as an open hatch, into which one may fall.

Man"tu*a (?), n. 1. A superior kind of rich silk formerly exported from Mantua in Italy. [Obs.] Beck (Draper's Dict.).

2. A woman's cloak or mantle; also, a woman's gown. [Obs.]

Man"tu*a*mak`er (?), n. One who makes dresses, cloaks, etc., for women; a dressmaker.

Man"tu*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Mantua. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Mantua.

||Ma"nu (?), n. [Skr.] (Hind. Myth.) One of a series of progenitors of human beings, and authors of human wisdom.

Man"u*al (mn"*al), a. [OE. manuel, F. manuel, L. manualis, fr. manus hand; prob. akin to AS. mund hand, protection, OHG. munt, G. mündel a ward, vormund guardian, Icel. mund hand. Cf. Emancipate, Legerdemain, Maintain, Manage, Manner, Manure, Mound a hill.] Of or pertaining to the hand; done or made by the hand; as, manual labor; the king's sign manual. "Manual and ocular examination." Tatham.

Manual alphabet. See Dactylology. -- Manual exercise (Mil.) the exercise by which soldiers are taught the use of their muskets and other arms. -- Seal manual, the impression of a seal worn on the hand as a ring. -- Sign manual. See under Sign.

Man"u*al (?), n. [Cf. F. manuel, LL. manuale. See Manual, a.] 1. A small book, such as may be carried in the hand, or conveniently handled; a handbook; specifically, the service book of the Roman Catholic Church.

This manual of laws, styled the Confessor's Laws.

Sir M. Hale.

2. (Mus.) A keyboard of an organ or harmonium for the fingers, as distinguished from the pedals; a clavier, or set of keys. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

3. (Mil.) A prescribed exercise in the systematic handing of a weapon; as, the manual of arms; the manual of the sword; the manual of the piece (cannon, mortar, etc.).

Man"u*al*ist, n. One who works with the hands; an artificer.

Man"u*al*ly, adv. By hand.

Man"u*a*ry (?), a. [L. manuarius, fr. manus hand.] Manual. -- n. An artificer. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Ma*nu"bi*al (?), a. [L. manubialis, fr. manubiae money obtained from the sale of booty, booty.] Belonging to spoils; taken in war. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ma*nu"bri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a manubrium; shaped like a manubrium; handlelike.

||Ma*nu"bri*um (?), n.; pl. L. Manubria (#), E. Manubriums (#). [L., handle, fr. manus hand.]

1. (Anat.) A handlelike process or part; esp., the anterior segment of the sternum, or presternum, and the handlelike process of the malleus.

2. (Zoöl.) The proboscis of a jellyfish; -- called also hypostoma. See Illust. of Hydromedusa.

Man"u*code (?), n. [Javanese manukdewata the bird of the gods: cf. F. manucode.] (Zoöl.) Any bird of the genus Manucodia, of Australia and New Guinea. They are related to the bird of paradise.

Man`u*du"cent (?), n. One who leads by the hand; a manuductor. [Obs.]

Man`u*duc"tion (?), n. [L. manus hand + ductio a leading, ducere to lead: cf. F. manuduction.] Guidance by the hand. [Obs.] Glanvill. South.

Man`u*duc"tor (?), n. [L. manus the hand + ductor a leader, ducere to lead: cf. F. manuducteur.] (Mus.) A conductor; an officer in the ancient church who gave the signal for the choir to sing, and who beat time with the hand, and regulated the music. Moore (Encyc. of Music.)

Man`u*fac"to*ry (?), n.; pl. -ries (#). [Cf. L. factorium an oil press, prop., place where something is made. See Manufacture.] 1. Manufacture. [Obs.]

2. A building or place where anything is manufactured; a factory.

Man`u*fac"to*ry, a. Pertaining to manufacturing.

Man`u*fac"tur*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to manufactures. [R.]

Man`u*fac"ture (?), n. [L. manus the hand + factura a making, fr. facere to make: cf. F. manufacture. See Manual, and Fact.] 1. The operation of making wares or any products by hand, by machinery, or by other agency.

2. Anything made from raw materials by the hand, by machinery, or by art, as cloths, iron utensils, shoes, machinery, saddlery, etc.

Man`u*fac"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manufactured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manufacturing.] [Cf. F. manufacturer.] 1. To make (wares or other products) by hand, by machinery, or by other agency; as, to manufacture cloth, nails, glass, etc.

2. To work, as raw or partly wrought materials, into suitable forms for use; as, to manufacture wool, cotton, silk, or iron.

Man`u*fac"ture, v. i. To be employed in manufacturing something.

Man`u*fac"tur*er (?), n. One who manufactures.

Man`u*fac"tur*ing, a. 1. Employed, or chiefly employed, in manufacture; as, a manufacturing community; a manufacturing town.

2. Pertaining to manufacture; as, manufacturing projects.

||Ma"nul (?), n. (Zoöl.) A wild cat (Felis manul), having long, soft, light- colored fur. It is found in the mountains of Central Asia, and dwells among rocks.

Man"u*mise` (?), v. t. [See Manumit.] To manumit. [Obs.] Dryden.

Man`u*mis"sion (?), n. [L. manumissio: cf. F. manumission. See Manumit.] The act of manumitting, or of liberating a slave from bondage. "Given to slaves at their manumission." Arbuthnot.

Man`u*mit" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manumitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Manumitting.] [L. manumittere, manumissum; manus the hand + mittere to send, to send off. See Manual, and Missile.] To release from slavery; to liberate from personal bondage or servitude; to free, as a slave. "Manumitted slaves." Hume.

Man"u*mo`tive (?), a. [L. manus the hand + E. motive.] Movable by hand. [R.]

Man"u*mo`tor (?), n. [L. manus the hand + E. motor.] A small wheel carriage, so constructed that a person sitting in it may move it.

Ma*nur"a*ble (&?;), a. 1. Capable of cultivation. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

2. Capable of receiving a fertilizing substance.

Ma*nur"age (?), n. Cultivation. [Obs.] Warner.

Ma*nur"ance (?), n. Cultivation. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ma*nure" (m*nr"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manuring.] [Contr, from OF. manuvrer, manovrer, to work with the hand, to cultivate by manual labor, F. manœuvrer. See Manual, Ure, Opera, and cf. Inure.] 1. To cultivate by manual labor; to till; hence, to develop by culture. [Obs.]

To whom we gave the strand for to manure.


Manure thyself then; to thyself be improved;
And with vain, outward things be no more moved.


2. To apply manure to; to enrich, as land, by the application of a fertilizing substance.

The blood of English shall manure the ground.


Ma*nure" (m*nr"), n. Any matter which makes land productive; a fertilizing substance, as the contents of stables and barnyards, dung, decaying animal or vegetable substances, etc. Dryden.

Ma*nure"ment, n. [Cf. OF. manouvrement.] Cultivation. [Obs.] W. Wotton.

Ma*nur"er (?), n. One who manures land.

Ma*nu"ri*al (?), a. Relating to manures.

Ma*nur"ing (?), n. The act of process of applying manure; also, the manure applied.

||Ma"nus (?), n.; pl. Manus. [L., the hand.] (Anat.) The distal segment of the fore limb, including the carpus and fore foot or hand.

Man"u*script (?), a. [L. manu scriptus. See Manual, and Scribe.] Written with or by the hand; not printed; as, a manuscript volume.

Man"u*script, n. [LL. manuscriptum, lit., something written with the hand. See Manuscript, a.] 1. A literary or musical composition written with the hand, as distinguished from a printed copy.

2. Writing, as opposed to print; as, the book exists only in manuscript. Craik.

The word is often abbreviated to MS., plural MSS.

Man"u*script`al (?), a. Manuscript. [Obs.]

Man`u*ten"en*cy (?), n. [L. manus hand + tenere to hold.] Maintenance. [Obs.] Abp. Sancroft.

Man"way` (?), n. A small passageway, as in a mine, that a man may pass through. Raymond.

Manx (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Isle of Man, or its inhabitants; as, the Manx language.

Manx cat (Zoöl.), a breed of domestic cats having a rudimentary tail, containing only about three vertebrae. -- Manx shearwater (Zoöl.), an oceanic bird (Puffinus anglorum, or P. puffinus), called also Manx petrel, Manx puffin. It was formerly abundant in the Isle of Man.

Manx, n. The language of the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, a dialect of the Celtic.

Ma"ny (?), n. [See Meine, Mansion.] A retinue of servants; a household. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ma"ny, a. or pron. [It has no variation to express degrees of comparison; more and most, which are used for the comparative and superlative degrees, are from a different root.] [OE. mani, moni, AS. manig, mænig, monig; akin to D. menig, OS. & OHG. manag, G. manch, Dan. mange, Sw. månge, Goth. manags, OSlav. mnog', Russ. mnogii; cf. Icel. margr, Prov. E. mort. √103.] Consisting of a great number; numerous; not few.

Thou shalt be a father of many nations.

Gen. xvii. 4.

Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called.

1 Cor. i. 26.

Many is freely prefixed to participles, forming compounds which need no special explanation; as, many-angled, many-celled, many-eyed, many-footed, many- handed, many-leaved, many-lettered, many- named, many-peopled, many-petaled, many- seeded, many-syllabled (polysyllabic), many- tongued, many-voiced, many-wived, and the like. Comparison is often expressed by many with as or so. "As many as were willing hearted . . . brought bracelets." Exod. xxxv. 22. "So many laws argue so many sins." Milton. Many stands with a singular substantive with a or an.

Many a, a large number taken distributively; each one of many. "For thy sake have I shed many a tear." Shak. "Full many a gem of purest ray serene." Gray. -- Many one, many a one; many persons. Bk. of Com. Prayer. -- The many, the majority; -- opposed to the few. See Many, n. -- Too many, too numerous; hence, too powerful; as, they are too many for us. L'Estrange.

Syn. -- Numerous; multiplied; frequent; manifold; various; divers; sundry.

Ma"ny, n. [AS. menigeo, menigo, menio, multitude; akin to G. menge, OHG. manag, menig, Goth. managei. See Many, a.] 1. The populace; the common people; the majority of people, or of a community.

After him the rascal many ran.


2. A large or considerable number.

A many of our bodies shall no doubt
Find native graves.


Seeing a great many in rich gowns.


It will be concluded by manythat he lived like an honest man.


In this sense, many is connected immediately with another substantive (without of) to show of what the many consists; as, a good many [of] people think so.

He is liable to a great many inconveniences.


Ma"ny-mind`ed (?), a. Having many faculties; versatile; many-sided.

Ma"ny*plies (?), n. [Many, adj. + plies, pl. of ply a fold.] (Anat.) The third division, or that between the reticulum, or honeycomb stomach, and the abomasum, or rennet stomach, in the stomach of ruminants; the omasum; the psalterium. So called from the numerous folds in its mucous membrane. See Illust of Ruminant.

Ma"ny-sid`ed (?), a. 1. Having many sides; -- said of figures. Hence, presenting many questions or subjects for consideration; as, a many-sided topic.

2. Interested in, and having an aptitude for, many unlike pursuits or objects of attention; versatile.

-- Ma"ny-sid`ed*ness, n.

<! p. 894 !>

{ Ma"ny*ways` (?), Ma"ny*wise` (?), } adv. In many different ways; variously.

Man`za*ni"ta (?), n. [Sp., dim. of munzana an apple.] (Bot.) A name given to several species of Arctostaphylos, but mostly to A. glauca and A. pungens, shrubs of California, Oregon, etc., with reddish smooth bark, ovate or oval coriaceous evergreen leaves, and bearing clusters of red berries, which are said to be a favorite food of the grizzly bear.

Ma"o*ri (?), n.; pl. Maoris (&?;). (Ethnol.) One of the aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand; also, the original language of New Zealand. -- a. Of or pertaining to the Maoris or to their language.

Map (?), n. [From F. mappe, in mappemonde map of the world, fr. L. mappa napkin, signal cloth; -- a Punic word. Cf. Apron, Napkin, Nappe.] 1. A representation of the surface of the earth, or of some portion of it, showing the relative position of the parts represented; -- usually on a flat surface. Also, such a representation of the celestial sphere, or of some part of it.

There are five principal kinds of projection used in making maps: the orthographic, the stereographic, the globuar, the conical, and the cylindrical, or Mercator's projection. See Projection.

2. Anything which represents graphically a succession of events, states, or acts; as, an historical map.

Thus is his cheek the map of days outworn.


Map lichen (Bot.), a lichen (Lecidea geographica.) growing on stones in curious maplike figures. Dr. Prior.

Map, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mapping (?).] To represent by a map; -- often with out; as, to survey and map, or map out, a county. Hence, figuratively: To represent or indicate systematically and clearly; to sketch; to plan; as, to map, or map out, a journey; to map out business.

I am near to the place where they should meet, if Pisanio have mapped it truly.


||Ma*pach" (?), n. [Mexican.] The raccoon.

Ma"ple (?), n. [AS. mapolder, mapulder, mapol; akin to Icel. möpurr; cf. OHG. mazzaltra, mazzoltra, G. massholder.] (Bot.) A tree of the genus Acer, including about fifty species. A. saccharinum is the rock maple, or sugar maple, from the sap of which sugar is made, in the United States, in great quantities, by evaporation; the red or swamp maple is A. rubrum; the silver maple, A. dasycarpum, having fruit wooly when young; the striped maple, A. Pennsylvanium, called also moosewood. The common maple of Europe is A. campestre, the sycamore maple is A. Pseudo-platanus, and the Norway maple is A. platanoides.

Maple is much used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound; as, maple tree, maple leaf, etc.

Bird's-eye maple, Curled maple, varieties of the wood of the rock maple, in which a beautiful lustrous grain is produced by the sinuous course of the fibers. -- Maple honey, Maple molasses, or Maple sirup, maple sap boiled to the consistency of molasses. -- Maple sugar, sugar obtained from the sap of the sugar maple by evaporation.

Map"like` (?), a. Having or consisting of lines resembling a map; as, the maplike figures in which certain lichens grow.

Map"per*y (?), n. [From Map.] The making, or study, of maps. [Obs.] Shak.

Ma"qui (?), n. (Bot.) A Chilian shrub (Aristotelia Maqui). Its bark furnishes strings for musical instruments, and a medicinal wine is made from its berries.

Mar (?), n. A small lake. See Mere. [Prov. Eng.]

Mar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marred (märd); p. pr. & vb. n. Marring.] [OE. marren, merren, AS. merran, myrran (in comp.), to obstruct, impede, dissipate; akin to OS. merrian, OHG. marrjan, merran; cf. D. marren, meeren, to moor a ship, Icel. merja to bruise, crush, and Goth. marzjan to offend. Cf. Moor, v.] 1. To make defective; to do injury to, esp. by cutting off or defacing a part; to impair; to disfigure; to deface.

I pray you mar no more trees with wiring love songs in their barks.


But mirth is marred, and the good cheer is lost.


Ire, envy, and despair
Which marred all his borrowed visage.


2. To spoil; to ruin. "It makes us, or it mars us." "Striving to mend, to mar the subject." Shak.

Mar, n. A mark or blemish made by bruising, scratching, or the like; a disfigurement.

||Ma"ra (?), n. [Skr. mra.] (Hind. Myth.) The principal or ruling evil spirit. E. Arnold.

||Ma"ra, n. [Icel. mara nightmare, an ogress. See Nightmare.] (Norse Myth.) A female demon who torments people in sleep by crouching on their chests or stomachs, or by causing terrifying visions.

||Ma"ra, n. (Zoöl.) The Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis Patagonicus).

Mar`a*bou" (?), n. [F.] 1. (Zoöl.) A large stork of the genus Leptoptilos (formerly Ciconia), esp. the African species (L. crumenifer), which furnishes plumes worn as ornaments. The Asiatic species (L. dubius, or L. argala) is the adjutant. See Adjutant. [Written also marabu.]

2. One having five eighths negro blood; the offspring of a mulatto and a griffe. [Louisiana] Bartlett.

Marabout" (?), n. [F., from Pg. marabuto, Ar. morbit. Cf. Maravedi.] A Mohammedan saint; especially, one who claims to work cures supernaturally.

Mar"a*can (?), n. [Braz. maracaná.] (Zoöl.) A macaw.

||Ma*rai" (?), n. A sacred inclosure or temple; -- so called by the islanders of the Pacific Ocean.

Mar`a*nath"a (?), n. [Aramaic mran ath.] "Our Lord cometh;" -- an expression used by St. Paul at the conclusion of his first Epistle to the Corinthians (xvi. 22). This word has been used in anathematizing persons for great crimes; as much as to say, "May the Lord come quickly to take vengeance of thy crimes." See Anathema maranatha, under Anathema.

Ma*ran"ta (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) A genus of endogenous plants found in tropical America, and some species also in India. They have tuberous roots containing a large amount of starch, and from one species (Maranta arundinacea) arrowroot is obtained. Many kinds are cultivated for ornament.

||Ma`ra*schi"no (?), n. [It., fr. marasca, amarasca, a sour cherry, L. amarus bitter.] A liqueur distilled from fermented cherry juice, and flavored with the pit of a variety of cherry which grows in Dalmatia.

Ma*ras"mus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; , fr. &?;, to quench, as fire; pass., to die away.] (Med.) A wasting of flesh without fever or apparent disease; a kind of consumption; atrophy; phthisis.

Pining atrophy,
Marasmus, and wide-wasting pestilence.


Marasmus senilis [L.], progressive atrophy of the aged.

Ma*raud" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Marauded; p. pr. & vb. n. Marauding.] [F. marauder, fr. maraud vagabond, OF. marault; of uncertain origin, perh. for malault, fr. (assumed) LL. malaldus; fr. L. malus bad, ill + a suffix of German origin (cf. Herald). Cf. Malice.] To rove in quest of plunder; to make an excursion for booty; to plunder. "Marauding hosts." Milman.

Ma*raud", n. An excursion for plundering.

Ma*raud`er (?), n. [From Maraud, v.: cf. F. maraudeur.] A rover in quest of booty or plunder; a plunderer; one who pillages. De Quincey.

Mar`a*ve"di (?), n. [Sp. maravedí; -- so called from the Morbitn (lit., the steadfast), an Arabian dynasty which reigned in Africa and Spain. Cf. Marabout.] (Numis.) A small copper coin of Spain, equal to three mils American money, less than a farthing sterling. Also, an ancient Spanish gold coin.

Mar"ble (mär"b'l), n. [OE. marbel, marbre, F. marbre, L. marmor, fr. Gr. ma`rmaros, fr. marmai`rein to sparkle, flash. Cf. Marmoreal.] 1. A massive, compact limestone; a variety of calcite, capable of being polished and used for architectural and ornamental purposes. The color varies from white to black, being sometimes yellow, red, and green, and frequently beautifully veined or clouded. The name is also given to other rocks of like use and appearance, as serpentine or verd antique marble, and less properly to polished porphyry, granite, etc.

Breccia marble consists of limestone fragments cemented together. -- Ruin marble, when polished, shows forms resembling ruins, due to disseminated iron oxide. -- Shell marble contains fossil shells. -- Statuary marble is a pure, white, fine-grained kind, including Parian (from Paros) and Carrara marble. If coarsely granular it is called saccharoidal.

2. A thing made of, or resembling, marble, as a work of art, or record, in marble; or, in the plural, a collection of such works; as, the Arundel or Arundelian marbles; the Elgin marbles.

3. A little ball of marble, or of some other hard substance, used as a plaything by children; or, in the plural, a child's game played with marbles.

Marble is also much used in self-explaining compounds; when used figuratively in compounds it commonly means, hard, cold, destitute of compassion or feeling; as, marble- breasted, marble-faced, marble-hearted.

Mar"ble, a. 1. Made of, or resembling, marble; as, a marble mantel; marble paper.

2. Cold; hard; unfeeling; as, a marble breast or heart.

Mar"ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marbling (?).] [Cf. F. marbrer. See Marble, n.] To stain or vein like marble; to variegate in color; as, to marble the edges of a book, or the surface of paper.

Mar"bled (?), a. 1. Made of, or faced with, marble. [Obs.] "The marbled mansion." Shak.

2. Made to resemble marble; veined or spotted like marble. "Marbled paper." Boyle.

3. (zoöl.) Varied with irregular markings, or witch a confused blending of irregular spots and streaks.

Mar"ble-edged` (?), a. Having the edge veined or spotted with different colors like marble, as a book.

Mar"ble*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marbleized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marbleizing (?).] To stain or grain in imitation of marble; to cover with a surface resembling marble; as, to marbleize slate, wood, or iron.

Mar"bler (&?;), n. 1. One who works upon marble or other stone. [R.] Fuller.

2. One who colors or stains in imitation of marble.

Mar"bling (?), n. 1. The art or practice of variegating in color, in imitation of marble.

2. An intermixture of fat and lean in meat, giving it a marbled appearance.

3. pl. (Zoöl.) Distinct markings resembling the variegations of marble, as on birds and insects.

Mar"bly, a. Containing, or resembling, marble.

||Mar*bri"nus (?), n. [LL., fr. OF. & F. marble marble. See Marble.] A cloth woven so as to imitate the appearance of marble; -- much used in the 15th and 16th centuries. Beck (Draper's Dict.).

Marc (?), n. [F.] The refuse matter which remains after the pressure of fruit, particularly of grapes.

Marc, n. [AS. marc; akin to G. mark, Icel. mörk, perh. akin to E. mark a sign. √106, 273.] [Written also mark.] 1. A weight of various commodities, esp. of gold and silver, used in different European countries. In France and Holland it was equal to eight ounces.

2. A coin formerly current in England and Scotland, equal to thirteen shillings and four pence.

3. A German coin and money of account. See Mark.

Mar"can*tant (?), n. [It. mercatante. See Merchant.] A merchant. [Obs.] Shak.

Mar"ca*site (?), n. [F. marcassite; cf. It. marcassita, Sp. marquesita, Pg. marquezita; all fr. Ar. marqashtha.] (Min.) A sulphide of iron resembling pyrite or common iron pyrites in composition, but differing in form; white iron pyrites.

Golden marcasite, tin. [Obs.]

{ Mar`ca*sit"ic (?), Mar`ca*sit"ic*al (?), } a. Containing, or having the nature of, marcasite.

Mar*cas"sin (?), n. [F.] (Her.) A young wild boar.

||Mar*ca"to (?), a. [It.] (Mus.) In a marked emphatic manner; -- used adverbially as a direction.

Mar"cel*ine (?), n. [F., fr. L. marcidus withered, fr. marcere to wither, shrivel.] A thin silk fabric used for linings, etc., in ladies' dresses.

Mar*ces"cent (?), a. [L. marcescens, p. pr. of marcescere to wither, decay, fr. marcere to wither, droop: cf. F. marcescent.] (Bot.) Withering without falling off; fading; decaying.

Mar*ces"ci*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. marcescible.] Liable to wither or decay.

March (?), n. [L. Martius mensis Mars'month fr. Martius belonging to Mars, the god of war: cf. F. mars. Cf. Martial.] The third month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

The stormy March is come at last,
With wind, and cloud, and changing skies.


As mad as a March Hare, an old English Saying derived from the fact that March is the rutting time of hares, when they are excitable and violent. Wright.

March, n. [OE. marche, F. marche; of German origin; cf. OHG. marcha, G. mark, akin to OS. marka, AS. mearc, Goth. marka, L. margo edge, border, margin, and possibly to E. mark a sign. √106. Cf. Margin, Margrave, Marque, Marquis.] A territorial border or frontier; a region adjacent to a boundary line; a confine; -- used chiefly in the plural, and in English history applied especially to the border land on the frontiers between England and Scotland, and England and Wales.

Geneva is situated in the marches of several dominions -- France, Savoy, and Switzerland.


Lords of waste marches, kings of desolate isles.


March, v. i. [Cf. OF. marchir. See 2d March.] To border; to be contiguous; to lie side by side. [Obs.]

That was in a strange land
Which marcheth upon Chimerie.


To march with, to have the same boundary for a greater or less distance; -- said of an estate.

March, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Marched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marching.] [F. marcher, in OF. also, to tread, prob. fr. L. marcus hammer. Cf. Mortar.] 1. To move with regular steps, as a soldier; to walk in a grave, deliberate, or stately manner; to advance steadily. Shak.

2. To proceed by walking in a body or in military order; as, the German army marched into France.

March, v. t. To cause to move with regular steps in the manner of a soldier; to cause to move in military array, or in a body, as troops; to cause to advance in a steady, regular, or stately manner; to cause to go by peremptory command, or by force.

March them again in fair array.


March, n. [F. marche.] 1. The act of marching; a movement of soldiers from one stopping place to another; military progress; advance of troops.

These troops came to the army harassed with a long and wearisome march.


2. Hence: Measured and regular advance or movement, like that of soldiers moving in order; stately or deliberate walk; steady onward movement.

With solemn march
Goes slow and stately by them.


This happens merely because men will not bide their time, but will insist on precipitating the march of affairs.


3. The distance passed over in marching; as, an hour's march; a march of twenty miles.

4. A piece of music designed or fitted to accompany and guide the movement of troops; a piece of music in the march form.

The drums presently striking up a march.


To make a march, (Card Playing), to take all the tricks of a hand, in the game of euchre.

March"er (?), n. One who marches.

March"er, n. [See 2d March.] The lord or officer who defended the marches or borders of a territory.

{ Mar"chet (?), Mer"chet (?) }, n. [LL. marcheta; of uncertain origin.] In old English and in Scots law, a fine paid to the lord of the soil by a tenant upon the marriage of one the tenant's daughters.

March"ing (?), a. & n., fr. March, v.

Marching money (Mil.), the additional pay of officer or soldier when his regiment is marching. -- In marching order (Mil.), equipped for a march. -- Marching regiment. (Mil.) (a) A regiment in active service. (b) In England, a regiment liable to be ordered into other quarters, at home or abroad; a regiment of the line.

Mar"chion*ess (?), n. [LL. marchionissa, fr. marchio a marquis. See Marquis.] The wife or the widow of a marquis; a woman who has the rank and dignity of a marquis. Spelman.

March"-mad` (?), a. Extremely rash; foolhardy. See under March, the month. Sir W. Scott.

March"man (?), n. A person living in the marches between England and Scotland or Wales.

March"pane` (?), n. [Cf. It. marzapane,Sp. pan,. massepain, prob. fr. L. maza frumenty (Gr. ma^za) + L. panis bread; but perh. the first part of the word is from the name of the inventor.] A kind of sweet bread or biscuit; a cake of pounded almonds and sugar. [Obs.] Shak.

March"-ward` (?), n. A warden of the marches; a marcher.

Mar"cian (?), a. Under the influence of Mars; courageous; bold. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mar"cid (?), a. [L. marcidus, fr. marcere to wither, pine.] 1. Pining; lean; withered. Dryden.

2. Characterized by emaciation, as a fever. Harvey.

Mar*cid"i*ty (?), n. [LL. marciditas.] The state or quality of being withered or lean. [R.]

<! p. 895 !>

Mar"cion*ite (?), n. (Eccl. Hist) A follower of Marcion, a Gnostic of the second century, who adopted the Oriental notion of the two conflicting principles, and imagined that between them there existed a third power, neither wholly good nor evil, the Creator of the world and of man, and the God of the Jewish dispensation. Brande & C.

||Mar`co*brun"ner (?), n. [G. Marcobrunner.] A celebrated Rhine wine.

||Mar"cor (?), n. [L., fr. marcere to wither.] A wasting away of flesh; decay. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Mar*co"sian (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a Gnostic sect of the second century, so called from Marcus, an Egyptian, who was reputed to be a margician.

||Mar"di` gras" (?), n. [F., literally, fat Tuesday.] The last day of Carnival; Shrove Tuesday; -- in some cities a great day of carnival and merrymaking.

Mare (mâr), n. [OE. mere, AS. mere, myre, fem of AS. mearh horse, akin to D. merrie mare, G. mähre, OHG. marah horse, meriha mare, Icel. marr horse, OCelt. marka (Pausan. 19, 19,4), Ir. marc, W. march. Cf. Marshal.] The female of the horse and other equine quadrupeds.

Mare, n. [AS. mara incubus; akin to OHG. & Icel. mara; cf. Pol. mora, Bohem. mra.] (Med.) Sighing, suffocative panting, intercepted utterance, with a sense of pressure across the chest, occurring during sleep; the incubus; -- obsolete, except in the compound nightmare.

I will ride thee o' nights like the mare.


Mare"chal Niel" (?). [F.] A kind of large yellow rose. [Written also Marshal Niel.]

Mar"eis (?), n. A Marsh. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ma*re"na (?), n. [NL. Salmo maraena, G. maräne, moräne; -- so called from Lake Morin, in the March of Brandenburg, in Prussia.] (Zoöl.) A European whitefish of the genus Coregonus.

Mare"schal (?), n. [OF. mareschal, F. maréchal. See Marshal.] A military officer of high rank; a marshal. [Obs.]

Mare's"-nest` (?), n. A supposed discovery which turns out to be a hoax; something grossly absurd.

Mare's"-tail` (?), n. 1. A long streaky cloud, spreading out like a horse's tail, and believed to indicate rain; a cirrus cloud. See Cloud.

Mackerel sky and mare's-tails
Make tall ships carry low sails.

Old Rhyme.

2. (Bot.) An aquatic plant of the genus Hippuris (H. vulgaris), having narrow leaves in whorls.

Mar"ga*rate (?), n. [Cf. F. margarate.] (Physiol. Chem.) A compound of the so- called margaric acid with a base.

Mar*gar"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. margarique. See Margarite.] Pertaining to, or resembling, pearl; pearly.

Margaric acid. (a) (Physiol. Chem.) A fatty body, crystallizing in pearly scales, and obtained by digesting saponified fats (soaps) with an acid. It was formerly supposed to be an individual fatty acid, but is now known to be simply an intimate mixture of stearic and palmitic acids. (b) (Chem.) A white, crystalline substance, C17H34O2 of the fatty acid series, intermediate between palmitic and stearic acids, and obtained from the wax of certain lichens, from cetyl cyanide, and other sources.

Mar"ga*rin (?), n. [Cf. F. margarine. See Margarite.] (Physiol. Chem.) A fatty substance, extracted from animal fats and certain vegetable oils, formerly supposed to be a definite compound of glycerin and margaric acid, but now known to be simply a mixture or combination of tristearin and tripalmitin.

Mar`ga*ri*ta"ceous (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, pearl; pearly.

Mar"ga*rite (?), n. [L. margarita, Gr. &?; a pearl; cf. F. marguerite.] 1. A pearl. [Obs.] Peacham.

2. (Min.) A mineral related to the micas, but low in silica and yielding brittle folia with pearly luster.

Mar`ga*rit"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. margaritique.] (Physiol. Chem.) Margaric.

Mar`ga*ri*tif"er*ous (?), a. [L. margaritifer; margarita pearl + ferre to bear: cf. F. margaritifère.] Producing pearls.

Mar*gar"o*dite (?), n. [Gr. &?; pearl- like.] (Min.) A hidrous potash mica related to muscovite.

Mar"ga*rone (?), n. [Margaric + -one.] (Chem.) The ketone of margaric acid.

Mar"ga*rous (?), a. (Chem.) Margaric; -- formerly designating a supposed acid. [Obs.]

Mar"gate fish" (?). (Zoöl.) A sparoid fish (Diabasis aurolineatus) of the Gulf of Mexico, esteemed as a food fish; -- called also red-mouth grunt.

Mar"gay (?), n. (Zoöl.) An American wild cat (Felis tigrina), ranging from Mexico to Brazil. It is spotted with black. Called also long-tailed cat.

Marge (?), n. [F. marge. See Margin.] Border; margin; edge; verge. [Poetic] Tennyson.

Along the river's stony marge.


Mar"gent (?), n. [OE. See Margin.] A margin; border; brink; edge. [Obs.]

The beached margent of the sea.


Mar"gent, v. t. To enter or note down upon the margin of a page; to margin. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag.

Mar"gin (?), n. [OE. margine, margent, L. margo, ginis. Cf. March a border, Marge.] 1. A border; edge; brink; verge; as, the margin of a river or lake.

2. Specifically: The part of a page at the edge left uncovered in writing or printing.

3. (Com.) The difference between the cost and the selling price of an article.

4. Something allowed, or reserved, for that which can not be foreseen or known with certainty.

5. (Brokerage) Collateral security deposited with a broker to secure him from loss on contracts entered into by him on behalf of his principial, as in the speculative buying and selling of stocks, wheat, etc. N. Biddle.

Margin draft (Masonry), a smooth cut margin on the face of hammer-dressed ashlar, adjacent to the joints. -- Margin of a course (Arch.), that part of a course, as of slates or shingles, which is not covered by the course immediately above it. See 2d Gauge.

Syn. -- Border; brink; verge; brim; rim.

Mar"gin (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Margined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marginging.] 1. To furnish with a margin.

2. To enter in the margin of a page.

Mar"gin*al (?), a. [Cf. F. marginal.] 1. Of or pertaining to a margin.

2. Written or printed in the margin; as, a marginal note or gloss.

||Mar`gi*na"li*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] Marginal notes.

Mar"gin*al*ly, adv. In the margin of a book.

Mar"gin*ate (?), a. [L. marginatus, p. p. of marginare to margin. See Margin, n.] Having a margin distinct in appearance or structure.

Mar"gin*ate (?), v. t. To furnish with a distinct margin; to margin. [R.] Cockeram.

Mar"gin*a`ted (?), a. Same as Marginate, a.

Mar"gined (?), a. 1. Having a margin. Hawthorne.

2. (Zoöl.) Bordered with a distinct line of color.

||Mar`gi*nel"la (?), n. [NL., dim. of L. margo, marginis, a margin.] (Zoöl.) A genus of small, polished, marine univalve shells, native of all warm seas.

Mar"gin*i*ci`dal (?), a. [L. margo, -ginis, margin + caedere to cut.] (Bot.) Dehiscent by the separation of united carpels; -- said of fruits.

Mar*go"sa (?), n. [Pg. amargoso bitter.] (Bot.) A large tree of the genus Melia (M. Azadirachta) found in India. Its bark is bitter, and used as a tonic. A valuable oil is expressed from its seeds, and a tenacious gum exudes from its trunk. The M. Azedarach is a much more showy tree, and is cultivated in the Southern United States, where it is known as Pride of India, Pride of China, or bead tree. Various parts of the tree are considered anthelmintic.

The margosa oil . . . is a most valuable balsam for wounds, having a peculiar smell which prevents the attacks of flies.

Sir S. Baker.

{ Mar"gra*vate (?), Mar*gra"vi*ate (?), } n. [Cf. F. margraviat.] The territory or jurisdiction of a margrave.

Mar"grave (?), n. [G. markgraf, prop., lord chief justice of the march; mark bound, border, march + graf earl, count, lord chief justice; cf. Goth. gagrëfts decree: cf. D. markgraaf, F. margrave. See March border, and cf. Landgrave, Graff.] 1. Originally, a lord or keeper of the borders or marches in Germany.

2. The English equivalent of the German title of nobility, markgraf; a marquis.

Mar"gra*vine (?), n. [G. markgräfin: cf. F. margrafine.] The wife of a margrave.

Mar"gue*rite (?), n. [F., a pearl, a daisy. See Margarite.] (Bot.) The daisy (Bellis perennis). The name is often applied also to the ox-eye daisy and to the China aster. Longfellow.

Ma"ri*an (?), a. Pertaining to the Virgin Mary, or sometimes to Mary, Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII.

Of all the Marian martyrs, Mr. Philpot was the best-born gentleman.


Maid Marian. See Maidmarian in the Vocabulary.

Mar"ie (?), interj. Marry. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mar"i*et (?), n. [F. mariette, prop. dim. of Marie Mary.] (Bot.) A kind of bellflower, Companula Trachelium, once called Viola Mariana; but it is not a violet.

Ma*rig"e*nous (?), a. [L. mare the sea + -genous.] Produced in or by the sea.

Mar"i*gold (?), n. [Mary + gold.] (Bot.) A name for several plants with golden yellow blossoms, especially the Calendula officinalis (see Calendula), and the cultivated species of Tagetes.

There are several yellow-flowered plants of different genera bearing this name; as, the African or French marigold of the genus Tagetes, of which several species and many varieties are found in gardens. They are mostly strong-smelling herbs from South America and Mexico: bur marigold, of the genus Bidens; corn marigold, of the genus Chrysanthemum (C. segetum, a pest in the cornfields of Italy); fig marigold, of the genus Mesembryanthemum; marsh marigold, of the genus Caltha (C. palustris), commonly known in America as the cowslip. See Marsh Marigold.

Marigold window. (Arch.) See Rose window, under Rose.

Mar`i*ki"na (?), n. [From the native name: cf. Pg. mariquinha.] (Zoöl) A small marmoset (Midas rosalia); the silky tamarin.

||Ma*rim"ba (?), n. [Pg.] A musical istrument of percussion, consisting of bars yielding musical tones when struck. Knight.

||Mar`i*mon"da (?), n. [Sp.] (Zoöl.) A spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) of Central and South America.

Mar`i*nade" (?), n. [F.: cf. It. marinato marinade, F. mariner to preserve food for use at sea. See Marinate.] (Cookery) A brine or pickle containing wine and spices, for enriching the flavor of meat and fish.

Mar"i*nate (?), v. t. [See Marine, and cf. Marinade.] To salt or pickle, as fish, and then preserve in oil or vinegar; to prepare by the use of marinade.

Ma*rine" (?), a. [L. marinus, fr. mare the sea: cf. F. marin. See Mere a pool.] 1. Of or pertaining to the sea; having to do with the ocean, or with navigation or naval affairs; nautical; as, marine productions or bodies; marine shells; a marine engine.

2. (Geol.) Formed by the action of the currents or waves of the sea; as, marine deposits.

Marine acid (Chem.), hydrochloric acid. [Obs.] -- Marine barometer. See under Barometer. -- Marine corps, a corps formed of the officers, noncommissioned officers, privates, and musicants of marines. -- Marine engine (Mech.), a steam engine for propelling a vessel. -- Marine glue. See under Glue. -- Marine insurance, insurance against the perils of the sea, including also risks of fire, piracy, and barratry. -- Marine interest, interest at any rate agreed on for money lent upon respondentia and bottomry bonds. -- Marine law. See under Law. -- Marine league, three geographical miles. - - Marine metal, an alloy of lead, antimony, and mercury, made for sheathing ships. Mc Elrath. -- Marine soap, cocoanut oil soap; -- so called because, being quite soluble in salt water, it is much used on shipboard. -- Marine store, a store where old canvas, ropes, etc., are bought and sold; a junk shop. [Eng.]

Ma*rine", n. [F. marin a sea solider, marine naval economy, a marine picture, fr. L. marinus. See Marine, a.] 1. A solider serving on shipboard; a sea soldier; one of a body of troops trained to do duty in the navy.

2. The sum of naval affairs; naval economy; the department of navigation and sea forces; the collective shipping of a country; as, the mercantile marine.

3. A picture representing some marine subject.

Tell that to the marines, an expression of disbelief, the marines being regarded by sailors as credulous. [Colloq.]

Ma*rined" (?), a. [Cf. F. mariné.] (Her.) Having the lower part of the body like a fish. Crabb.

Mar"i*ner (?), n. [F. marinier, LL. marinarius. See Marine.] One whose occupation is to assist in navigating ships; a seaman or sailor. Chaucer.

Mariner's compass. See under Compass.

Mar"i*ner*ship, n. Seamanship. [Obs.] Udalt.

Mar`i*no*ra"ma (?), n. [NL., from L. marinus marine + Gr. &?; view.] A representation of a sea view.

Ma`ri*ol"a*ter (?), n. [See Mariolatry.] One who worships the Virgin Mary.

Ma`ri*ol"a*try (?), n. [Gr. &?; Mary + &?; worship.] The worship of the Virgin Mary.

Mar`i*o*nette" (?), n. [F. marionette, prop. a dim. of Marie Mary.] 1. A puppet moved by strings, as in a puppet show.

2. (Zoöl.) The buffel duck.

Ma`ri*otte's law` (?). (Physics.) See Boyle's law, under Law.

Ma`ri*po"sa lil`y (?). [Sp. mariposa a butterfly + E. lily. So called from the gay appearance of the blossoms.] (Bot.) One of a genus (Calochortus) of tuliplike bulbous herbs with large, and often gaycolored, blossoms. Called also butterfly lily. Most of them are natives of California.

Mar"i*put (mr"*pt), n. (Zoöl.) A species of civet; the zoril.

Mar"ish (mr"sh), n. [Cf. F. marais, LL. marascus. See Marsh.] Low, wet ground; a marsh; a fen; a bog; a moor. [Archaic] Milton. Tennyson.

Mar"ish, a. 1. Moory; fenny; boggy. [Archaic]

2. Growing in marshes. "Marish flowers." Tennyson.

Mar"i*tal (mr"*tal), a. [F., fr. L. maritalis, fr. maritus belonging to marriage, n., a husband. See Marry, v.] Of or pertaining to a husband; as, marital rights, duties, authority. "Marital affection." Ayliffe.

Mar"i*ta`ted (mr"*t`td), a. [L. maritatus married.] Having a husband; married. [Obs.]

{ Ma*rit"i*mal, Ma*rit"i*male } (m*rt"*mal), a. See Maritime. [Obs.]

Mar"i*time (mr"*tm; 277), a. [L. maritimus, fr. mare the sea: cf. F. maritime. See Mere a pool.] 1. Bordering on, or situated near, the ocean; connected with the sea by site, interest, or power; having shipping and commerce or a navy; as, maritime states. "A maritime town." Addison.

2. Of or pertaining to the ocean; marine; pertaining to navigation and naval affairs, or to shipping and commerce by sea. "Maritime service." Sir H. Wotton.

Maritime law. See Law. -- Maritime loan, a loan secured by bottomry or respodentia bonds. -- Martime nations, nations having seaports, and using the sea more or less for war or commerce.

Mar"jo*ram (mär"j*ram), n. [OE. majoran, F. marjolaine, LL. marjoraca, fr. L. amaracus, amaracum, Gr. 'ama`rakos, 'ama`rakon.] (Bot.) A genus of mintlike plants (Origanum) comprising about twenty- five species. The sweet marjoram (O. Majorana) is pecularly aromatic and fragrant, and much used in cookery. The wild marjoram of Europe and America is O. vulgare, far less fragrant than the other.

Mark (märk), n. A license of reprisals. See Marque.

Mark, n. [See 2d Marc.] 1. An old weight and coin. See Marc. "Lend me a mark." Chaucer.

2. The unit of monetary account of the German Empire, equal to 23.8 cents of United States money; the equivalent of one hundred pfennigs. Also, a silver coin of this value.

Mark, n. [OE. marke, merke, AS. mearc; akin to D. merk, MHG. marc, G. marke, Icel. mark, Dan. mærke; cf. Lith. margas party-colored. √106, 273. Cf. Remark.] 1. A visible sign or impression made or left upon anything; esp., a line, point, stamp, figure, or the like, drawn or impressed, so as to attract the attention and convey some information or intimation; a token; a trace.

The Lord set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

Gen. iv. 15.

<! p. 896 !>

2. Specifically: (a) A character or device put on an article of merchandise by the maker to show by whom it was made; a trade-mark. (b) A character (usually a cross) made as a substitute for a signature by one who can not write.

The mark of the artisan is found upon the most ancient fabrics that have come to light.


3. A fixed object serving for guidance, as of a ship, a traveler, a surveyor, etc.; as, a seamark, a landmark.

4. A trace, dot, line, imprint, or discoloration, although not regarded as a token or sign; a scratch, scar, stain, etc.; as, this pencil makes a fine mark.

I have some marks of yours upon my pate.


5. An evidence of presence, agency, or influence; a significative token; a symptom; a trace; specifically, a permanent impression of one's activity or character.

The confusion of tongues was a mark of separation.


6. That toward which a missile is directed; a thing aimed at; what one seeks to hit or reach.

France was a fairer mark to shoot at than Ireland.


Whate'er the motive, pleasure is the mark.


7. Attention, regard, or respect.

As much in mock as mark.


8. Limit or standard of action or fact; as, to be within the mark; to come up to the mark.

9. Badge or sign of honor, rank, or official station.

In the official marks invested, you
Anon do meet the Senate.


10. Preëminence; high position; as, patricians of mark; a fellow of no mark.

11. (Logic) A characteristic or essential attribute; a differential.

12. A number or other character used in registering; as, examination marks; a mark for tardiness.

13. Image; likeness; hence, those formed in one's image; children; descendants. [Obs.] "All the mark of Adam." Chaucer.

14. (Naut.) One of the bits of leather or colored bunting which are placed upon a sounding line at intervals of from two to five fathoms. The unmarked fathoms are called "deeps."

A man of mark, a conspicuous or eminent man. -- To make one's mark. (a) To sign, as a letter or other writing, by making a cross or other mark. (b) To make a distinct or lasting impression on the public mind, or on affairs; to gain distinction.

Syn. -- Impress; impression; stamp; print; trace; vestige; track; characteristic; evidence; proof; token; badge; indication; symptom.

Mark (märk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marked (märkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Marking.] [OE. marken, merken, AS. mearcian, from mearc. See Mark the sign.] 1. To put a mark upon; to affix a significant mark to; to make recognizable by a mark; as, to mark a box or bale of merchandise; to mark clothing.

2. To be a mark upon; to designate; to indicate; -- used literally and figuratively; as, this monument marks the spot where Wolfe died; his courage and energy marked him for a leader.

3. To leave a trace, scratch, scar, or other mark, upon, or any evidence of action; as, a pencil marks paper; his hobnails marked the floor.

4. To keep account of; to enumerate and register; as, to mark the points in a game of billiards or cards.

5. To notice or observe; to give attention to; to take note of; to remark; to heed; to regard. "Mark the perfect man." Ps. xxxvii. 37.

To mark out. (a) To designate, as by a mark; to select; as, the ringleaders were marked out for punishment. (b) To obliterate or cancel with a mark; as, to mark out an item in an account. -- To mark time (Mil.), to keep the time of a marching step by moving the legs alternately without advancing.

Syn. -- To note; remark; notice; observe; regard; heed; show; evince; indicate; point out; betoken; denote; characterize; stamp; imprint; impress; brand.

Mark, v. i. To take particular notice; to observe critically; to note; to remark.

Mark, I pray you, and see how this man seeketh mischief.

1 Kings xx. 7.

Mark"a*ble (?), a. Remarkable. [Obs.] Sandys.

Marked (märkt), a. Designated or distinguished by, or as by, a mark; hence; noticeable; conspicuous; as, a marked card; a marked coin; a marked instance. -- Mark"ed*ly (#), adv. J. S. Mill.

A marked man, a man who is noted by a community, or by a part of it, as, for excellence or depravity; -- usually with an unfavorable suggestion.

Mar*kee" (mär*k"), n. See Marquee.

Mark"er (?), n. One who or that which marks. Specifically: (a) One who keeps account of a game played, as of billiards. (b) A counter used in card playing and other games. (c) (Mil.) The soldier who forms the pilot of a wheeling column, or marks the direction of an alignment. (d) An attachment to a sewing machine for marking a line on the fabric by creasing it.

Mar"ket (?), n. [Akin to D. markt, OHG. markt, merkt, G. markt; all fr.L. mercatus trade, market place, fr. mercari, p. p. mercatus, to trade, traffic, merx, mercis, ware, merchandise, prob. akin to merere to deserve, gain, acquire: cf. F. marché. See Merit, and cf. Merchant, Mart.] 1. A meeting together of people, at a stated time and place, for the purpose of traffic (as in cattle, provisions, wares, etc.) by private purchase and sale, and not by auction; as, a market is held in the town every week.

He is wit's peddler; and retails his wares
At wakes, and wassails, meetings, markets, fairs.


Three women and a goose make a market.

Old Saying.

2. A public place (as an open space in a town) or a large building, where a market is held; a market place or market house; esp., a place where provisions are sold.

There is at Jerusalem by the sheep market a pool.

John v. 2.

3. An opportunity for selling anything; demand, as shown by price offered or obtainable; a town, region, or country, where the demand exists; as, to find a market for one's wares; there is no market for woolen cloths in that region; India is a market for English goods.

There is a third thing to be considered: how a market can be created for produce, or how production can be limited to the capacities of the market.

J. S. Mill.

4. Exchange, or purchase and sale; traffic; as, a dull market; a slow market.

5. The price for which a thing is sold in a market; market price. Hence: Value; worth.

What is a man
If his chief good and market of his time
Be but to sleep and feed ?


6. (Eng. Law) The privelege granted to a town of having a public market.

Market is often used adjectively, or in forming compounds of obvious meaning; as, market basket, market day, market folk, market house, marketman, market place, market price, market rate, market wagon, market woman, and the like.

Market beater, a swaggering bully; a noisy braggart. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Market bell, a bell rung to give notice that buying and selling in a market may begin. [Eng.] Shak. -- Market cross, a cross set up where a market is held. Shak. -- Market garden, a garden in which vegetables are raised for market. -- Market gardening, the raising of vegetables for market. -- Market place, an open square or place in a town where markets or public sales are held. -- Market town, a town that has the privilege of a stated public market.

Mar"ket (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Marketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Marketing.] To deal in a market; to buy or sell; to make bargains for provisions or goods.

Mar"ket, v. t. To expose for sale in a market; to traffic in; to sell in a market, and in an extended sense, to sell in any manner; as, most of the farmes have marketed their crops.

Industrious merchants meet, and market there
The world's collected wealth.


Mar"ket*a*ble (?), a. 1. Fit to be offered for sale in a market; such as may be justly and lawfully sold; as, dacayed provisions are not marketable.

2. Current in market; as, marketable value.

3. Wanted by purchasers; salable; as, furs are not marketable in that country.

Mar"ket*a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being marketable.

Mar"ket*er (?), n. One who attends a market to buy or sell; one who carries goods to market.

Mar"ket*ing, n. 1. The act of selling or of purchasing in, or as in, a market.

2. Articles in, or from, a market; supplies.

Mar"ket*stead (?), n. [Market + stead a place.] A market place. [Obs.] Drayton.

||Mark"hoor` (?), n. [Per. mr-kh&?;r snake eater.] (Zoöl.) A large wild goat (Capra megaceros), having huge flattened spiral horns. It inhabits the mountains of Northern India and Cashmere.

Mark"ing (?), n. The act of one who, or that which, marks; the mark or marks made; arrangement or disposition of marks or coloring; as, the marking of a bird's plumage.

Marking ink, indelible ink, because used in marking linen. -- Marking nut (Bot.), the nut of the Semecarpus Anacardium, an East Indian tree. The shell of the nut yields a blackish resinous juice used for marking cotton cloth, and an oil prepared from it is used for rheumatism.

Mar"kis (?), n. A marquis. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mar"kis*esse (?), n. A marchioness. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mark"man (?), n. A marksman. [Obs.] Shak.

Marks"man (?), n.; pl. Marksmen (#). [Earlier markman; mark + man.] 1. One skillful to hit a mark with a missile; one who shoots well.

2. (Law) One who makes his mark, instead of writing his name, in signing documents. Burrill.

Marks"man*ship, n. Skill of a marksman.

Marl (?), v. t. [See Marline.] (Naut.) To cover, as part of a rope, with marline, marking a pecular hitch at each turn to prevent unwinding.

Marling spike. (Naut.) See under Marline.

Marl, n. [OF. marle, F. marne, LL. margila, dim. of L. marga marl. Originally a Celtic word, according to Pliny, xvii. 7: "Quod genus terræ Galli et Britanni margam vocant." √274.] A mixed earthy substance, consisting of carbonate of lime, clay, and sand, in very variable proportions, and accordingly designated as calcareous, clayey, or sandy. See Greensand.

Marl, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marling.] [Cf. F. marner. See Marl, n.] To overspread or manure with marl; as, to marl a field.

Mar*la"ceous (?), a. Resembling marl; partaking of the qualities of marl.

Mar"lin (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American great marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa). Applied also to the red-breasted godwit (Limosa hæmatica).

Hook-billed marlin, a curlew.

Mar"line (?), n. [LG. marlien, marling, or D. marling, marlijn, fr. D. marren to tie, prob. akin to E. moor, v., and lijn line: cf.F. merlin. See Moor, v., Line.] (Naut.) A small line composed of two strands a little twisted, used for winding around ropes and cables, to prevent their being weakened by fretting.

Marline spike, Marling spike (Naut.), an iron tool tapering to a point, used to separate the strands of a rope in splicing and in marling. It has an eye in the thick end to which a lanyard is attached. See Fid. [Written also marlin spike] -- Marline-spike bird. [The name alludes to the long middle tail feathers.] (Zoöl.) (a) A tropic bird. (b) A jager, or skua gull.

Mar"line (?), v. t. [F. merliner.] (Naut.) To wind marline around; as, to marline a rope.

Marl"ite (?), n. [Cf. F. marlite. See Marl, n.] (Min.) A variety of marl.

Mar*lit"ic (?), a. Partaking of the qualites of marlite.

Marl"pit` (?), n. Apit where marl is dug.

Marl"stone` (?), n. (Geol.) A sandy calcareous straum, containing, or impregnated with, iron, and lying between the upper and lower Lias of England.

Marl"y (?), a. [Compar. Marlier (?); superl. Marliest.] Consisting or partaking of marl; resembling marl; abounding with marl.

Mar"ma*lade (?), n. [F. marmelade, Pg. marmelada, fr. marmélo a quince, fr. L. melimelum honey apple, Gr. &?; a sweet apple, an apple grafted on a quince; &?; honey + &?; apple. Cf. Mellifluous, Melon.] A preserve or confection made of the pulp of fruit, as the quince, pear, apple, orange, etc., boiled with sugar, and brought to a jamlike consistence.

Marmalade tree (Bot.), a sapotaceous tree (Lucuma mammosa) of the West Indies and Tropical America. It has large obovate leaves and an egg-shaped fruit from three to five inches long, containing a pleasant-flavored pulp and a single large seed. The fruit is called marmalade, or natural marmalade, from its consistency and flavor.

Mar"ma*let` (?), n. See Marmalade. [Obs.]

Mar"ma*tite (?), n. [Cf. F. marmatite.] (Min.) A ferruginous variety of shalerite or zinc blende, nearly black in color.

Mar"mo*lite (-m*lt), n. [Gr. maramai`rein to sparkle + -lite.] (Min.) A thin, laminated variety of serpentine, usually of a pale green color.

Mar`mo*ra"ceous (?), a. [L. marmor marble. See Marble.] Pertaining to, or like, marble.

{ Mar"mo*rate (?), Mar"mo*ra`ted (?), } a. [L. marmoratus, p. p. of marmorate to overlay with marble, fr. marmor marble.] Variegated like marble; covered or overlaid with marble. [R.]

Mar`mo*ra"tion (?), n. [L. marmoratio.] A covering or incrusting with marble; a casing of marble; a variegating so as to resemble marble. [R.]

||Mar`mo*ra`tum o"pus (?). [L. See Marmorate, and Opus.] (Arch.) A kind of hard finish for plasterwork, made of plaster of Paris and marble dust, and capable of taking a high polish.

{ Mar*mo"re*al (?), Mar*mo"re*an (?), } a. [L. marmoreus, fr. marmor marble: cf. F. marmoréen. See Marble.] Pertaining to, or resembling, marble; made of marble.

||Mar`mo*ro"sis (?), n. [NL.] (Geol.) The metamorphism of limestone, that is, its conversion into marble. Geikie.

Mar"mose` (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) A species of small opossum (Didelphus murina) ranging from Mexico to Brazil.

Mar"mo*set` (?), n. [F. marmouset a grotesque figure, an ugly little boy, prob. fr. LL. marmoretum, fr. L. marmor marble. Perhaps confused with marmot. See Marble.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of small South American monkeys of the genera Hapale and Midas, family Hapalidæ. They have long soft fur, and a hairy, nonprehensile tail. They are often kept as pets. Called also squirrel monkey.

Mar"mot (?), n. [It. marmotta, marmotto, prob. fr. L. mus montanus, or mus montis, lit., mountain mouse or rat. See Mountain, and Mouse.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any rodent of the genus Arctomys. The common European marmot (A. marmotta) is about the size of a rabbit, and inhabits the higher regions of the Alps and Pyrenees. The bobac is another European species. The common American species (A. monax) is the woodchuck.

2. Any one of several species of ground squirrels or gophers of the genus Spermophilus; also, the prairie dog.

Marmot squirrel (Zoöl.), a ground squirrel or spermophile. -- Prairie marmot. See Prairie dog.

Mar"mottes oil` (?). A fine oil obtained from the kernel of Prunus brigantiaca. It is used instead of olive or almond oil. De Colange.

Mar"mo*zet` (?), n. See Marmoset.

Ma*rone" (?), n. See Maroon, the color.

Mar"o*nite (?), n.; pl. Maronites (&?;). (Eccl. Hist.) One of a body of nominal Christians, who speak the Arabic language, and reside on Mount Lebanon and in different parts of Syria. They take their name from one Maron of the 6th century.

Ma*roon" (?), n. [Written also marroon.] [F. marron, abbrev. fr. Sp. cimarron wild, unruly, from cima the summit of a mountain; hence, negro cimarron a runaway negro that lives in the mountains.] In the West Indies and Guiana, a fugitive slave, or a free negro, living in the mountains.

Ma*roon", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marooned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marooning.] [See Maroon a fugitive slave.] To put (a person) ashore on a desolate island or coast and leave him to his fate.

Marooning party, a social excursion party that sojourns several days on the shore or in some retired place; a prolonged picnic. [Southern U. S.] Bartlett.

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Ma*roon" (m*rn"), a. [F. marron chestnut-colored, fr. marron a large French chestnut, It. marrone; cf. LGr. ma`raon. Cf. Marron.] Having the color called maroon. See 4th Maroon.

Maroon lake, lake prepared from madder, and distinguished for its transparency and the depth and durability of its color.

Ma*roon", n. 1. A brownish or dull red of any description, esp. of a scarlet cast rather than approaching crimson or purple.

2. An explosive shell. See Marron, 3.

Mar"plot` (?), n. One who, by his officious interference, mars or frustrates a design or plot.

Marque (?), n. [F. marque, in lettre de marque letter of marque, a commission with which the commandant of every armed vessel was obliged to be provided, under penalty of being considered a pirate or corsair; marque here prob. meaning, border, boundary (the letter of marque being a permission to go beyond the border), and of German origin. See March border.] (Law) A license to pass the limits of a jurisdiction, or boundary of a country, for the purpose of making reprisals.

Letters of marque, Letters of marque and reprisal, a license or extraordinary commission granted by a government to a private person to fit out a privateer or armed ship to cruise at sea and make prize of the enemy's ships and merchandise. The ship so commissioned is sometimes called a letter of marque.

Mar*quee" (?), n. [F. marquise, misunderstood as a plural; prob. orig., tent of the marchioness. See Marquis.] A large field tent; esp., one adapted to the use of an officer of high rank. [Written also markee.]

Mar"quess (?), n. [Cf. Sp. marques. See Marquis.] A marquis.

Lady marquess, a marchioness. [Obs.] Shak.

Mar"quet*ry (?), n. [F. marqueterie, from marqueter to checker, inlay, fr. marque mark, sign; of German origin. See Mark a sign.] Inlaid work; work inlaid with pieces of wood, shells, ivory, and the like, of several colors.

Mar"quis (?), n. [F. marquis, OF. markis, marchis, LL. marchensis; of German origin; cf. G. mark bound, border, march, OHG. marcha. See March border, and cf. Marchioness, Marquee, Marquess.] A nobleman in England, France, and Germany, of a rank next below that of duke. Originally, the marquis was an officer whose duty was to guard the marches or frontiers of the kingdom. The office has ceased, and the name is now a mere title conferred by patent.

Mar"quis*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. marquisat.] The seigniory, dignity, or lordship of a marquis; the territory governed by a marquis.

Mar"quis*dom (?), n. A marquisate. [Obs.] "Nobles of the marquisdom of Saluce." Holinshed.

||Mar`quise" (?), n. [F. See Marquis, and cf. Marquee.] The wife of a marquis; a marchioness.

Mar"quis*ship (?), n. A marquisate.

Mar"ram (?), n. (Bot.) A coarse grass found on sandy beaches (Ammophila arundinacea). See Beach grass, under Beach.

Mar"rer (?), n. One who mars or injures.

Mar"ri*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. mariable.] Marriageable. [R.] Coleridge.

Mar"riage (?), n. [OE. mariage, F. mariage. See Marry, v. t.] 1. The act of marrying, or the state of being married; legal union of a man and a woman for life, as husband and wife; wedlock; matrimony.

Marriage is honorable in all.

Heb. xiii. 4.

2. The marriage vow or contract. [Obs.] Chaucer.

3. A feast made on the occasion of a marriage.

The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king which made a marriage for his son.

Matt. xxii. 2.

4. Any intimate or close union.

Marriage brokage. (a) The business of bringing about marriages. (b) The payment made or demanded for the procurement of a marriage. -- Marriage favors, knots of white ribbons, or bunches of white flowers, worn at weddings. -- Marriage settlement (Law), a settlement of property in view, and in consideration, of marriage.

Syn. -- Matrimony; wedlock; wedding; nuptials. -- Marriage, Matrimony, Wedlock. Marriage is properly the act which unites the two parties, and matrimony the state into which they enter. Marriage is, however, often used for the state as well as the act. Wedlock is the old Anglo-Saxon term for matrimony.

Mar`riage*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being marriageable.

Mar"riage*a*ble (?), a. Fit for, or capable of, marriage; of an age at which marriage is allowable. -- Mar"riage*a*ble*ness, n.

Mar"ried (?), a. 1. Being in the state of matrimony; wedded; as, a married man or woman.

2. Of or pertaining to marriage; connubial; as, the married state.

Mar"ri*er (?), n. One who marries.

Mar*ron" (?), n. [See Maroon, a.]

1. A large chestnut. [Obs.] Holland.

2. A chestnut color; maroon.

3. (Pyrotechny & Mil.) A paper or pasteboard box or shell, wound about with strong twine, filled with an explosive, and ignited with a fuse, -- used to make a noise like a cannon. [Written also maroon.]

Mar*roon" (?), n. & a. Same as 1st Maroon.

Mar"rot (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The razor-billed auk. See Auk. (b) The common guillemot. (c) The puffin. [Prov. Eng.] [Written also marrott, and morrot.]

Mar"row (?), n. [OE. marou, mary, maruh, AS. mearg, mearh; akin to OS. marg, D. merg, G. Mark, OHG. marg, marag, Icel. mergr, Sw. merg, Dan. marv, Skr. majjan; cf. Skr. majj to sink, L. mergere. √274 Cf. Merge.]

1. (Anat.) The tissue which fills the cavities of most bones; the medulla. In the larger cavities it is commonly very fatty, but in the smaller cavities it is much less fatty, and red or reddish in color.

2. The essence; the best part.

It takes from our achievements . . .
The pith and marrow of our attribute.


3. [OE. maru, maro; -- perh. a different word; cf. Gael. maraon together.] One of a pair; a match; a companion; an intimate associate. [Scot.]

Chopping and changing I can not commend,
With thief or his marrow, for fear of ill end.


Marrow squash (Bot.), a name given to several varieties of squash, esp. to the Boston marrow, an ovoid fruit, pointed at both ends, and with reddish yellow flesh, and to the vegetable marrow, a variety of an ovoid form, and having a soft texture and fine grain resembling marrow. -- Spinal marrow. (Anat.) See Spinal cord, under Spinal.

Mar"row (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marrowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marrowing.] To fill with, or as with, marrow or fat; to glut.

Mar"row*bone` (?), n. A bone containing marrow; pl. ludicrously, knee bones or knees; as, to get down on one's marrowbones, i. e., to kneel.

Mar"row*fat (?), n. A rich but late variety of pea.

Mar"row*ish, a. Of the nature of, or like, marrow.

Mar"row*less, a. Destitute of marrow.

Mar"row*y (?), a. Full of marrow; pithy.

||Mar*ru"bi*um (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of bitter aromatic plants, sometimes used in medicine; hoarhound.

Mar"ry (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Married (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Marrying.] [OE. marien, F. marier, L. maritare, fr. maritus husband, fr. mas, maris, a male. See Male, and cf. Maritral.] 1. To unite in wedlock or matrimony; to perform the ceremony of joining, as a man and a woman, for life; to constitute (a man and a woman) husband and wife according to the laws or customs of the place.

Tell him that he shall marry the couple himself.


2. To join according to law, (a man) to a woman as his wife, or (a woman) to a man as her husband. See the Note to def. 4.

A woman who had been married to her twenty- fifth husband, and being now a widow, was prohibited to marry.


3. To dispose of in wedlock; to give away as wife.

Mæcenas took the liberty to tell him [Augustus] that he must either marry his daughter [Julia] to Agrippa, or take away his life.


4. To take for husband or wife. See the Note below.

We say, a man is married to or marries a woman; or, a woman is married to or marries a man. Both of these uses are equally well authorized; but given in marriage is said only of the woman.

They got him [the Duke of Monmouth] . . . to declare in writing, that the last king [Charles II.] told him he was never married to his mother.

Bp. Lloyd.

5. Figuratively, to unite in the closest and most endearing relation.

Turn, O backsliding children, saith the Lord; for I am married unto you.

Jer. iii. 14.

To marry ropes. (Naut.) (a) To place two ropes along side of each other so that they may be grasped and hauled on at the same time. (b) To join two ropes end to end so that both will pass through a block. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Mar"ry, v. i. To enter into the conjugal or connubial state; to take a husband or a wife.

I will, therefore, that the younger women marry.

1 Tim. v. 14.

Marrying man, a man disposed to marry. [Colloq.]

Mar"ry, interj. Indeed ! in truth ! -- a term of asseveration said to have been derived from the practice of swearing by the Virgin Mary. [Obs.] Shak.

Mars (?), n. [L. Mars, gen. Martis, archaic Mavors, gen. Mavortis.] 1. (Rom. Myth.) The god of war and husbandry.

2. (Astron.) One of the planets of the solar system, the fourth in order from the sun, or the next beyond the earth, having a diameter of about 4,200 miles, a period of 687 days, and a mean distance of 141,000,000 miles. It is conspicuous for the redness of its light.

3. (Alchemy) The metallic element iron, the symbol of which was the same as that of the planet Mars. [Archaic] Chaucer.

Mars brown, a bright, somewhat yellowish, brown.

Mar*sa"la (?), n. [It., fr. Marsala, in Sicyly.] A kind of wine exported from Marsala in Sicily.

||Mars*de"ni*a (?), n. [NL. From W. Marsden, an English author.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of the Milkweed family, mostly woody climbers with fragrant flowers, several species of which furnish valuable fiber, and one species (Marsdenia tinctoria) affords indigo.

{ ||Mar`sei`llais" (?), a. m. ||Mar`sei`llaise" (?), a. f. }[F.] Of or pertaining to Marseilles, in France, or to its inhabitants.

Marseillaise hymn, or The Marseillaise, the national anthem of France, popularly so called. It was composed in 1792, by Rouget de l'Isle, an officer then stationed at Strasburg. In Paris it was sung for the first time by the band of men who came from Marseilles to aid in the revolution of August 10, 1792; whence the name.

{ ||Mar`sei`llais", n. m. ||Mar`sei`llaise", n. f. }[F.] A native or inhabitant of Marseilles.

Mar*seilles" (?), n. A general term for certain kinds of fabrics, which are formed of two series of threads interlacing each other, thus forming double cloth, quilted in the loom; -- so named because first made in Marseilles, France.

Marsh (?), n. [OE. mersch, AS. mersc, fr. mere lake. See Mere pool, and cf. Marish, Morass.] A tract of soft wet land, commonly covered partially or wholly with water; a fen; a swamp; a morass. [Written also marish.]

Marsh asphodel (Bot.), a plant (Nartheeium ossifragum) with linear equitant leaves, and a raceme of small white flowers; -- called also bog asphodel. -- Marsh cinquefoil (Bot.), a plant (Potentilla palustris) having purple flowers, and found growing in marshy places; marsh five- finger. -- Marsh elder. (Bot.) (a) The guelder-rose or cranberry tree (Viburnum Opulus). (b) In the United States, a composite shrub growing in salt marshes (Iva frutescens). -- Marsh five-finger. (Bot.) See Marsh cinquefoil (above). -- Marsh gas. (Chem.) See under Gas. -- Marsh grass (Bot.), a genus (Spartina) of coarse grasses growing in marshes; - - called also cord grass. The tall S. cynosuroides is not good for hay unless cut very young. The low S. juncea is a common component of salt hay. -- Marsh harrier (Zoöl.), a European hawk or harrier (Circus æruginosus); -- called also marsh hawk, moor hawk, moor buzzard, puttock. -- Marsh hawk. (Zoöl.) (a) A hawk or harrier (Circus cyaneus), native of both America and Europe. The adults are bluish slate above, with a white rump. Called also hen harrier, and mouse hawk. (b) The marsh harrier. -- Marsh hen (Zoöl.), a rail; esp., Rallus elegans of fresh-water marshes, and R. longirostris of salt-water marshes. -- Marsh mallow (Bot.), a plant of the genus Althæa ( A. officinalis) common in marshes near the seashore, and whose root is much used in medicine as a demulcent. -- Marsh marigold. (Bot.) See in the Vocabulary. -- Marsh pennywort (Bot.), any plant of the umbelliferous genus Hydrocotyle; low herbs with roundish leaves, growing in wet places; -- called also water pennywort. -- Marsh quail (Zoöl.), the meadow lark. -- Marsh rosemary (Bot.), a plant of the genus Statice (S. Limonium), common in salt marshes. Its root is powerfully astringent, and is sometimes used in medicine. Called also sea lavender. -- Marsh samphire (Bot.), a plant (Salicornia herbacea) found along seacoasts. See Glasswort. -- Marsh St. John's-wort (Bot.), an American herb (Elodes Virginica) with small opposite leaves and flesh-colored flowers. -- Marsh tea. (Bot.). Same as Labrador tea. -- Marsh trefoil. (Bot.) Same as Buckbean. -- Marsh wren (Zoöl.), any species of small American wrens of the genus Cistothorus, and allied genera. They chiefly inhabit salt marshes.

Mar"shal (?), n. [OE. mareschal, OF. mareschal, F. maréchal, LL. mariscalcus, from OHG. marah-scalc (G. marschall); marah horse + scalc servant (akin to AS. scealc, Goth. skalks). F. maréchal signifies, a marshal, and a farrier. See Mare horse, and cf. Seneschal.]

1. Originally, an officer who had the care of horses; a groom. [Obs.]

2. An officer of high rank, charged with the arrangement of ceremonies, the conduct of operations, or the like; as, specifically: (a) One who goes before a prince to declare his coming and provide entertainment; a harbinger; a pursuivant. (b) One who regulates rank and order at a feast or any other assembly, directs the order of procession, and the like. (c) The chief officer of arms, whose duty it was, in ancient times, to regulate combats in the lists. Johnson. (d) (France) The highest military officer. In other countries of Europe a marshal is a military officer of high rank, and called field marshal. (e) (Am. Law) A ministerial officer, appointed for each judicial district of the United States, to execute the process of the courts of the United States, and perform various duties, similar to those of a sheriff. The name is also sometimes applied to certain police officers of a city.

Earl marshal of England, the eighth officer of state; an honorary title, and personal, until made hereditary in the family of the Duke of Norfolk. During a vacancy in the office of high constable, the earl marshal has jurisdiction in the court of chivalry. Brande & C. -- Earl marshal of Scotland, an officer who had command of the cavalry under the constable. This office was held by the family of Keith, but forfeited by rebellion in 1715. -- Knight marshal, or Marshal of the King's house, formerly, in England, the marshal of the king's house, who was authorized to hear and determine all pleas of the Crown, to punish faults committed within the verge, etc. His court was called the Court of Marshalsea. -- Marshal of the Queen's Bench, formerly the title of the officer who had the custody of the Queen's bench prison in Southwark. Mozley & W.

Mar"shal, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Marshaled (?) or Marshalled; p. pr. & vb. n. Marshaling or Marshalling.]

1. To dispose in order; to arrange in a suitable manner; as, to marshal troops or an army.

And marshaling the heroes of his name
As, in their order, next to light they came.


2. To direct, guide, or lead.

Thou marshalest me the way that I was going.


3. (Her.) To dispose in due order, as the different quarterings on an escutcheon, or the different crests when several belong to an achievement.

Mar"shal*er (?), n. [Written also marshaller.] One who marshals.

Mar"shal*ing, n. [Written also marshalling.]

1. The act of arranging in due order.

2. (Her.) The arrangement of an escutcheon to exhibit the alliances of the owner.

Marshaling of assets (Law), the arranging or ranking of assets in due order of administration.

Mar"shal*sea (?), n. [Marshal + OE. se a seat. See See a seat.] The court or seat of a marshal; hence, the prison in Southwark, belonging to the marshal of the king's household. [Eng.]

Court of Marshalsea, a court formerly held before the steward and marshal of the king's house to administer justice between the king's domestic servants. Blackstone.

Mar"shal*ship, n. The office of a marshal.

{ Marsh"bank`er (?), Marse"bank`er (?), } n. (Zoöl.) The menhaden.

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Marsh"i*ness (märsh"*ns), n. The state or condition of being marshy.

Marsh mar"i*gold (mr"*gld). (Bot.) A perennial plant of the genus Caltha (C. palustris), growing in wet places and bearing bright yellow flowers. In the United States it is used as a pot herb under the name of cowslip. See Cowslip.

Marsh"y (-), a. [E. Marsh.]

1. Resembling a marsh; wet; boggy; fenny.

2. Pertaining to, or produced in, marshes; as, a marshy weed. Dryden.

Mar"si*po*branch` (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Marsipobranchia.

||Mar"si*po*bran"chi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a pouch + &?; a gill.] (Zoöl.) A class of Vertebrata, lower than fishes, characterized by their purselike gill cavities, cartilaginous skeletons, absence of limbs, and a suckerlike mouth destitute of jaws. It includes the lampreys and hagfishes. See Cyclostoma, and Lamprey. Called also Marsipobranchiata, and Marsipobranchii.

Mar*su"pi*al (mär*s"p*al), a. [Cf. F. marsupial.]

1. (Zoöl.) Having a pouch for carrying the immature young; of or pertaining to the Marsupialia.

2. (Anat. & Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a marsupium; as, the marsupial bones.

Marsupial frog. (Zoöl.) See Nototrema.

Mar*su"pi*al, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Marsupialia.

||Mar*su`pi*a"li*a (-"l*), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. marsupium a pouch, bag, purse, Gr. marsy`pion, dim. of ma`rsypos, ma`rsipos.] (Zoöl.) A subclass of Mammalia, including nearly all the mammals of Australia and the adjacent islands, together with the opossums of America. They differ from ordinary mammals in having the corpus callosum very small, in being implacental, and in having their young born while very immature. The female generally carries the young for some time after birth in an external pouch, or marsupium. Called also Marsupiata.

{ Mar*su`pi*a"li*an (?), Mar*su"pi*an (?), } n. (Zoöl.) One of the Marsupialia.

Mar*su"pi*ate (?), a. (Zoöl.) Related to or resembling the marsupials; furnished with a pouch for the young, as the marsupials, and also some fishes and Crustacea.

||Mar*su"pi*on (?), n. [NL.] Same as Marsupium.

Mar"su*pite (?), n. [See Marsupial.] (Paleon.) A fossil crinoid of the genus Marsupites, resembling a purse in form.

||Mar*su"pi*um (?), n.; pl. Marsupia (#). [L., a pouch], (Anat. & Zoöl.) (a) The pouch, formed by a fold of the skin of the abdomen, in which marsupials carry their young; also, a pouch for similar use in other animals, as certain Crustacea. (b) The pecten in the eye of birds and reptiles. See Pecten.

Mart (märt), n. [Contr. fr. market.]

1. A market.

Where has commerce such a mart . . . as London ?


2. A bargain. [Obs.] Shak.

Mart, v. t. To buy or sell in, or as in, a mart. [Obs.]

To sell and mart your officer for gold
To undeservers.


Mart, v. t. To traffic. [Obs.] Shak.

Mart, n. [See Mars.] 1. The god Mars. [Obs.]

2. Battle; contest. [Obs.] Fairfax.

Mar"ta*gon (?), n. [Cf. F. & Sp. martagon, It. martagone.] (Bot.) A lily (Lilium Martagon) with purplish red flowers, found in Europe and Asia.

Mar"tel (?), v. i. [F. marteler, fr. martel, marteau, hammer, a dim. fr. L. martulus, marculus, dim. of marcus hammer. Cf. March to step.] To make a blow with, or as with, a hammer. [Obs.] Spenser.

||Mar`tel` de fer" (?). [OF., hammer of iron.] A weapon resembling a hammer, often having one side of the head pointed; -- used by horsemen in the Middle Ages to break armor. Fairholt.

Mar"te*line (?), n. [F.] A small hammer used by marble workers and sculptors.

Mar*tel"lo tow`er (?). [It. martello hammer. The name was orig. given to towers erected on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia for protection against the pirates in the time of Charles the Fifth, which prob. orig. contained an alarm bell to be struck with a hammer. See Martel.] (Fort.) A building of masonry, generally circular, usually erected on the seacoast, with a gun on the summit mounted on a traversing platform, so as to be fired in any direction.

The English borrowed the name of the tower from Corsica in 1794.

Mar"ten (mär"tn), n. (Zoöl.) A bird. See Martin.

Mar"ten, n. [From older martern, marter, martre, F. martre, marte, LL. martures (pl.), fr. L. martes; akin to AS. mearð, meard, G. marder, OHG. mardar, Icel. mörðr. Cf. Foumart.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any one of several fur-bearing carnivores of the genus Mustela, closely allied to the sable. Among the more important species are the European beech, or stone, marten (Mustela foina); the pine marten (M. martes); and the American marten, or sable (M. Americana), which some zoölogists consider only a variety of the Russian sable.

2. The fur of the marten, used for hats, muffs, etc.

Mar"tern (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Marten. [Obs.]

Mar"-text` (?), n. A blundering preacher.

Mar"tial (?), a. [F., fr. L. martialis of or belonging to Mars, the god of war. Cf. March the month.]

1. Of, pertaining to, or suited for, war; military; as, martial music; a martial appearance. "Martial equipage." Milton.

2. Practiced in, or inclined to, war; warlike; brave.

But peaceful kings, o'er martial people set,
Each other's poise and counterbalance are.


3. Belonging to war, or to an army and navy; -- opposed to civil; as, martial law; a court- martial.

4. Pertaining to, or resembling, the god, or the planet, Mars. Sir T. Browne.

5. (Old Chem. & Old Med.) Pertaining to, or containing, iron; chalybeate; as, martial preparations. [Archaic]

Martial flowers (Med.), a reddish crystalline salt of iron; the ammonio-chloride of iron. [Obs.] - - Martial law, the law administered by the military power of a government when it has superseded the civil authority in time of war, or when the civil authorities are unable to enforce the laws. It is distinguished from military law, the latter being the code of rules for the regulation of the army and navy alone, either in peace or in war.

Syn. -- Martial, Warlike. Martial refers more to war in action, its array, its attendants, etc.; as, martial music, a martial appearance, a martial array, courts-martial, etc. Warlike describes the feeling or temper which leads to war, and the adjuncts of war; as, a warlike nation, warlike indication, etc. The two words are often used without discrimination.

Mar"tial*ism (?), n. The quality of being warlike; exercises suitable for war. [Obs.]

Mar"tial*ist, n. A warrior. [Obs.] Fuller.

Mar"tial*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Martialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Martializing (?).] To render warlike; as, to martialize a people.

Mar"tial*ly, adv. In a martial manner.

Mar"tial*ness, n. The quality of being martial.

Mar"tin (?), n. (Stone Working) [Etymol. uncertain.] A perforated stone-faced runner for grinding.

Mar"tin, n. [F. martin, from the proper name Martin. Cf. Martlet.] (Zoöl.) One of several species of swallows, usually having the tail less deeply forked than the tail of the common swallows. [Written also marten.]

The American purple martin, or bee martin (Progne subis, or purpurea), and the European house, or window, martin (Hirundo, or Chelidon, urbica), are the best known species.

Bank martin. (a) The bank swallow. See under Bank. (b) The fairy martin. See under Fairy. -- Bee martin. (a) The purple martin. (b) The kingbird. -- Sand martin, the bank swallow.

Mar"ti*net` (?), n. [So called from an officer of that name in the French army under Louis XIV. Cf. Martin the bird, Martlet.] In military language, a strict disciplinarian; in general, one who lays stress on a rigid adherence to the details of discipline, or to forms and fixed methods. [Hence, the word is commonly employed in a depreciatory sense.]

Mar"ti*net`, n. [F.] (Zoöl.) The martin.

Mar`ti*ne"ta (?), n. [Cf. Sp. martinete.] (Zoöl.) A species of tinamou (Calopezus elegans), having a long slender crest.

Mar"ti*net`ism (?), n. The principles or practices of a martinet; rigid adherence to discipline, etc.

{ Mar"tin*gale (?), Mar"tin*gal (?), } n. [F. martingale; cf. It. martingala a sort of hose, martingale, Sp. martingala a greave, cuish, martingale, Sp. almártaga a kind of bridle.] 1. A strap fastened to a horse's girth, passing between his fore legs, and fastened to the bit, or now more commonly ending in two rings, through which the reins pass. It is intended to hold down the head of the horse, and prevent him from rearing.

2. (Naut.) A lower stay of rope or chain for the jib boom or flying jib boom, fastened to, or reeved through, the dolphin striker. Also, the dolphin striker itself.

3. (Gambling) The act of doubling, at each stake, that which has been lost on the preceding stake; also, the sum so risked; -- metaphorically derived from the bifurcation of the martingale of a harness. [Cant] Thackeray.

Mar"tin*mas (?), n. [St. Martin + mass religious service.] (Eccl.) The feast of St. Martin, the eleventh of November; -- often called martlemans.

Martinmas summer, a period of calm, warm weather often experienced about the time of Martinmas; Indian summer. Percy Smith.

Mar"tite (?), n. [L. Mars, Martis, the god Mars, the alchemical name of iron.] (Min.) Iron sesquioxide in isometric form, probably a pseudomorph after magnetite.

Mar"tle*mas (?), n. See Martinmas. [Obs.]

Mart"let (?), n. [F. martinet. See Martin the bird, and cf. Martinet a disciplinarian.]

1. (Zoöl.) The European house martin.

2. [Cf. F. merlette.] (Her.) A bird without beak or feet; -- generally assumed to represent a martin. As a mark of cadency it denotes the fourth son.

Mar"tyr (?), n. [AS., from L. martyr, Gr. ma`rtyr, ma`rtys, prop., a witness; cf. Skr. sm to remember, E. memory.]

1. One who, by his death, bears witness to the truth of the gospel; one who is put to death for his religion; as, Stephen was the first Christian martyr. Chaucer.

To be a martyr, signifies only to witness the truth of Christ; but the witnessing of the truth was then so generally attended with persecution, that martyrdom now signifies not only to witness, but to witness by death.


2. Hence, one who sacrifices his life, his station, or what is of great value to him, for the sake of principle, or to sustain a cause.

Then if thou fall'st, O Cromwell,
Thou fall'st a blessed martyr !


Mar"tyr (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Martyred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Martyring.] 1. To put to death for adhering to some belief, esp. Christianity; to sacrifice on account of faith or profession. Bp. Pearson.

2. To persecute; to torment; to torture. Chaucer.

The lovely Amoret, whose gentle heart
Thou martyrest with sorrow and with smart.


Racked with sciatics, martyred with the stone.


Mar"tyr*dom (?), n. [Martyr + -dom.]

1. The condition of a martyr; the death of a martyr; the suffering of death on account of adherence to the Christian faith, or to any cause. Bacon.

I came from martyrdom unto this peace.


2. Affliction; torment; torture. Chaucer.

Mar`tyr*i*za"tion (?), n. Act of martyrizing, or state of being martyrized; torture. B. Jonson.

Mar"tyr*ize (?), v. t. [Cf. F. martyriser, LL. martyrizare.] To make a martyr of. Spenser.

Mar"tyr*ly, adv. In the manner of a martyr.

Mar"tyr*o*loge (?), n. [LL. martyrologium: cf. F. martyrologe.] A martyrology. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

{ Mar`tyr*o*log"ic (?), Mar`tyr*o*log"ic*al (?), } a. Pertaining to martyrology or martyrs; registering, or registered in, a catalogue of martyrs.

Mar`tyr*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. martyrologiste.] A writer of martyrology; an historian of martyrs. T. Warton.

Mar`tyr*ol"o*gy (?), n.; pl. -gies (#). [Martyr + -logy.] A history or account of martyrs; a register of martyrs. Bp. Stillingfleet.

Mar"tyr*ship, n. Martyrdom. [R.] Fuller.

Mar"vel (?), n. [OE. mervaile, F. merveille, fr. L. mirabilia wonderful things, pl., fr. mirabilis wonderful, fr. mirari to wonder or marvel at. See Admire, Smile, and cf. Miracle.] 1. That which causes wonder; a prodigy; a miracle.

I will do marvels such as have not been done.

Ex. xxxiv. 10.

Nature's sweet marvel undefiled.


2. Wonder. [R.] "Use lessens marvel." Sir W. Scott.

Marvel of Peru. (Bot.) See Four- o'clock.

Mar"vel, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Marveled (?) or Marvelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Marveling or Marvelling.] [OE. merveilen, OF. merveillier.] To be struck with surprise, astonishment, or wonder; to wonder.

Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you.

1 john iii. 13.

Mar"vel, v. t. 1. To marvel at. [Obs.] Wyclif.

2. To cause to marvel, or be surprised; -- used impersonally. [Obs.]

But much now me marveleth.

Rich. the Redeless.

Mar"vel*ous (?), a. [OE. merveillous, OF. merveillos, F. Merveilleux. See Marvel, n.] [Written also marvellous.] 1. Exciting wonder or surprise; astonishing; wonderful.

This is the Lord's doing; it is marvelous in our eyes.

Ps. cxiii. 23.

2. Partaking of the character of miracle, or supernatural power; incredible.

The marvelous fable includes whatever is supernatural, and especially the machines of the gods.


The marvelous, that which exceeds natural power, or is preternatural; that which is wonderful; -- opposed to the probable.

Syn. -- Wonderful; astonishing; surprising; strange; improbable; incredible. -- Marvelous, Wonderful. We speak of a thing as wonderful when it awakens our surprise and admiration; as marvelous when it is so much out of the ordinary course of things as to seem nearly or quite incredible.

Mar"vel*ous*ly, adv. In a marvelous manner; wonderfully; strangely.

Mar"vel*ous*ness, n. The quality or state of being marvelous; wonderfulness; strangeness.

Mar"ver (?), n. [Prob. corrupt. fr. OE. or F. marbre marble.] (Glass Marking) A stone, or cast-iron plate, or former, on which hot glass is rolled to give it shape.

Mar"y (?), n. Marrow. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ma"ry (?), interj. See Marry. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ma"ry-bud` (?), n. (Bot.) The marigold; a blossom of the marigold. Shak.

Ma`ry*ol"a*try (?), n. Mariolatry.

Ma"ry*sole (?), n. [Mary, the proper name + sole the fish.] (Zoöl.) A large British fluke, or flounder (Rhombus megastoma); -- called also carter, and whiff.

{ Mas*ca"gnin (?), Mas*ca"gnite (?), } n. [Cf. F. mascagnin.] (Min.) Native sulphate of ammonia, found in volcanic districts; -- so named from Mascagni, who discovered it.

Mas"cle (ms"k'l), n. [OF. mascle, F. macle, L. macula spot, mesh of a net, LL. macula, macla, mascla a scale of a coat of mail. See Mail armor.] (Her.) A lozenge voided.

Mas"cled (-k'ld), a. Composed of, or covered with, lozenge-shaped scales; having lozenge-shaped divisions.

Mascled armor, armor composed of small lozenge-shaped scales of metal fastened on a foundation of leather or quilted cloth.

{ Mas"cot, Mas"cotte } (?), n. [Through French fr. Pr. mascot a little sorcerer or magician, mascotto witchcraft, sorcery.] A person who is supposed to bring good luck to the household to which he or she belongs; anything that brings good luck.

Mas"cu*late (?), v. t. [L. masculus male, masculine.] To make strong. [Obs.] Cockeram.

<! p. 899 !>

Mas"cu*line (ms"k*ln), a. [L. masculinus, fr. masculus male, manly, dim. of mas a male: cf. F. masculin. See Male masculine.] 1. Of the male sex; not female.

Thy masculine children, that is to say, thy sons.


2. Having the qualities of a man; suitable to, or characteristic of, a man; virile; not feminine or effeminate; strong; robust.

That lady, after her husband's death, held the reins with a masculine energy.


3. Belonging to males; appropriated to, or used by, males. [R.] "A masculine church." Fuller.

4. (Gram.) Having the inflections of, or construed with, words pertaining especially to male beings, as distinguished from feminine and neuter. See Gender. -- Mas"cu*line*ly, adv. -- Mas"cu*line*ness, n.

Mas`cu*lin"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being masculine; masculineness.

Mase (?), n. & v. See Maze. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mas"e*lyn (?), n. A drinking cup. See 1st Maslin, 2. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ma"ser (?), n. Same as Mazer.

Mash (?), n. A mesh. [Obs.]

Mash, n. [Akin to G. meisch, maisch, meische, maische, mash, wash, and prob. to AS. miscian to mix. See Mix.]

1. A mass of mixed ingredients reduced to a soft pulpy state by beating or pressure; a mass of anything in a soft pulpy state. Specifically (Brewing), ground or bruised malt, or meal of rye, wheat, corn, or other grain (or a mixture of malt and meal) steeped and stirred in hot water for making the wort.

2. A mixture of meal or bran and water fed to animals.

3. A mess; trouble. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Mash tun, a large tub used in making mash and wort.

Mash, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mashing.] [Akin to G. meischen, maischen, to mash, mix, and prob. to mischen, E. mix. See 2d Mash.] To convert into a mash; to reduce to a soft pulpy state by beating or pressure; to bruise; to crush; as, to mash apples in a mill, or potatoes with a pestle. Specifically (Brewing), to convert, as malt, or malt and meal, into the mash which makes wort.

Mashing tub, a tub for making the mash in breweries and distilleries; -- called also mash tun, and mash vat.

Mash"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, mashes; also (Brewing), a machine for making mash.

2. A charmer of women. [Slang] London Punch.

Mash"lin (?), n. See Maslin.

Mash"y (?), a. Produced by crushing or bruising; resembling, or consisting of, a mash.

Mask (?), n. [F. masque, LL. masca, mascha, mascus; cf. Sp. & Pg. máscara, It. maschera; all fr. Ar. maskharat buffoon, fool, pleasantry, anything ridiculous or mirthful, fr. sakhira to ridicule, to laugh at. Cf. Masque, Masquerade.] 1. A cover, or partial cover, for the face, used for disguise or protection; as, a dancer's mask; a fencer's mask; a ball player's mask.

2. That which disguises; a pretext or subterfuge.

3. A festive entertainment of dancing or other diversions, where all wear masks; a masquerade; hence, a revel; a frolic; a delusive show. Bacon.

This thought might lead me through the world's vain mask.


4. A dramatic performance, formerly in vogue, in which the actors wore masks and represented mythical or allegorical characters.

5. (Arch.) A grotesque head or face, used to adorn keystones and other prominent parts, to spout water in fountains, and the like; -- called also mascaron.

6. (Fort.) (a) In a permanent fortification, a redoubt which protects the caponiere. (b) A screen for a battery.

7. (Zoöl.) The lower lip of the larva of a dragon fly, modified so as to form a prehensile organ.

Mask house, a house for masquerades. [Obs.]

Mask, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Masked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Masking.] 1. To cover, as the face, by way of concealment or defense against injury; to conceal with a mask or visor.

They must all be masked and vizarded.


2. To disguise; to cover; to hide.

Masking the business from the common eye.


3. (Mil.) (a) To conceal; also, to intervene in the line of. (b) To cover or keep in check; as, to mask a body of troops or a fortress by a superior force, while some hostile evolution is being carried out.

Mask, v. i. 1. To take part as a masker in a masquerade. Cavendish.

2. To wear a mask; to be disguised in any way. Shak.

Masked (?), a. 1. Wearing a mask or masks; characterized by masks; concealed; hidden.

2. (Bot.) Same as Personate.

3. (Zoöl.) Having the anterior part of the head differing decidedly in color from the rest of the plumage; -- said of birds.

Masked ball, a ball in which the dancers wear masks. -- Masked battery (Mil.), a battery so placed as not to be seen by an enemy until it opens fire. H. L. Scott. -- Masked crab (Zoöl.), a European crab (Corystes cassivelaunus) with markings on the carapace somewhat resembling a human face. -- Masked pig (Zoöl.), a Japanese domestic hog (Sus pliciceps). Its face is deeply furrowed.

Mask"er (?), n. One who wears a mask; one who appears in disguise at a masquerade.

Mask"er, v. t. To confuse; to stupefy. [Obs.] Holland.

Mask"er*y (?), n. The dress or disguise of a masker; masquerade. [Obs.] Marston.

Mas"ki*nonge (?), n. The muskellunge.

Mask" shell` (?). (Zoöl.) Any spiral marine shell of the genus Persona, having a curiously twisted aperture.

Mas"lach (?), n. [Ar. maslaq: cf. F. masloc.] (Med.) An excitant containing opium, much used by the Turks. Dunglison.

Mas"lin (?), n. [OE. missellane, misceline, miscelin, meslin, fr. miscellane. See Miscellane.] 1. A mixture composed of different materials; especially: (a) A mixture of metals resembling brass. (b) A mixture of different sorts of grain, as wheat and rye. [Written also meslin, mislin, maselyn, mastlin.]

2. A vessel made of maslin, 1 (a). [Obs.]

Mead eke in a maselyn.


Mas"lin, a. Composed of different sorts; as, maslin bread, which is made of rye mixed with a little wheat. [Written also meslin, mislin, etc.]

Ma"son (?), n. [F. maçon, LL. macio, machio, mattio, mactio, marcio, macerio; of uncertain origin.]

1. One whose occupation is to build with stone or brick; also, one who prepares stone for building purposes.

2. A member of the fraternity of Freemasons. See Freemason.

Mason bee (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of solitary bees of the genus Osmia. They construct curious nests of hardened mud and sand. -- Mason moth (Zoöl.), any moth whose larva constructs an earthen cocoon under the soil. -- Mason shell (Zoöl.), a marine univalve shell of the genus Phorus; -- so called because it cements other shells and pebbles upon its own shell; a carrier shell. -- Mason wasp (Zoöl.), any wasp that constructs its nest, or brood cells, of hardened mud. The female fills the cells with insects or spiders, paralyzed by a sting, and thus provides food for its larvæ

Ma"son, v. t. To build stonework or brickwork about, under, in, over, etc.; to construct by masons; -- with a prepositional suffix; as, to mason up a well or terrace; to mason in a kettle or boiler.

Ma*son"ic (m*sn"k), a. Of or pertaining to Freemasons or to their craft or mysteries.

Ma"son*ry (?), n. [F. maçonnerie.]

1. The art or occupation of a mason.

2. The work or performance of a mason; as, good or bad masonry; skillful masonry.

3. That which is built by a mason; anything constructed of the materials used by masons, such as stone, brick, tiles, or the like. Dry masonry is applied to structures made without mortar.

4. The craft, institution, or mysteries of Freemasons; freemasonry.

Ma*soo"la boat` (?). A kind of boat used on the coast of Madras, India. The planks are sewed together with strands of coir which cross over a wadding of the same material, so that the shock on taking the beach through surf is much reduced. [Written also masula, masulah, etc.]

||Ma*so"ra (?), n. [NHeb. msrh tradition.] A Jewish critical work on the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, composed by several learned rabbis of the school of Tiberias, in the eighth and ninth centuries. [Written also Masorah, Massora, and Massorah.]

Mas"o*ret (?), n. A Masorite. [Written also Masorete, and Massorete.]

{ Mas`o*ret"ic (?), Mas`o*ret"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. massorétique.] Of or relating to the Masora, or to its authors.

Masoretic points and accents, the vowel points and accents of the Hebrew text of the Bible, of which the first mention is in the Masora.

Mas"o*rite (?), n. One of the writers of the Masora.

Masque (?), n. A mask; a masquerade.

Mas`quer*ade" (?), n. [F. mascarade, fr. Sp. mascarada, or It. mascherata. See Mask.]

1. An assembly of persons wearing masks, and amusing themselves with dancing, conversation, or other diversions.

In courtly balls and midnight masquerades.


2. A dramatic performance by actors in masks; a mask. See 1st Mask, 4. [Obs.]

3. Acting or living under false pretenses; concealment of something by a false or unreal show; pretentious show; disguise.

That masquerade of misrepresentation which invariably accompanied the political eloquence of Rome.

De Quincey.

4. A Spanish diversion on horseback.

Mas`quer*ade", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Masqueraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Masquerading.]

1. To assemble in masks; to take part in a masquerade.

2. To frolic or disport in disquise; to make a pretentious show of being what one is not.

A freak took an ass in the head, and he goes into the woods, masquerading up and down in a lion's skin.


Mas`quer*ade", v. t. To conceal with masks; to disguise. "To masquerade vice." Killingbeck.

Mas`quer*ad"er (?), n. One who masquerades; a person wearing a mask; one disguised.

Mass (?), n. [OE. masse, messe, AS. mæsse. LL. missa, from L. mittere, missum, to send, dismiss: cf. F. messe. In the ancient churches, the public services at which the catechumens were permitted to be present were called missa catechumenorum, ending with the reading of the Gospel. Then they were dismissed with these words : "Ite, missa est" [sc. ecclesia], the congregation is dismissed. After that the sacrifice proper began. At its close the same words were said to those who remained. So the word gave the name of Mass to the sacrifice in the Catholic Church. See Missile, and cf. Christmas, Lammas, Mess a dish, Missal.]

1. (R. C. Ch.) The sacrifice in the sacrament of the Eucharist, or the consecration and oblation of the host.

2. (Mus.) The portions of the Mass usually set to music, considered as a musical composition; -- namely, the Kyrie, the Gloria, the Credo, the Sanctus, and the Agnus Dei, besides sometimes an Offertory and the Benedictus.

Canon of the Mass. See Canon. -- High Mass, Mass with incense, music, the assistance of a deacon, subdeacon, etc. -- Low Mass, Mass which is said by the priest throughout, without music. -- Mass bell, the sanctus bell. See Sanctus. -- Mass book, the missal or Roman Catholic service book.

Mass (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Massed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Massing.] To celebrate Mass. [Obs.] Hooker.

Mass, n. [OE. masse, F. masse, L. massa; akin to Gr. &?; a barley cake, fr. &?; to knead. Cf. Macerate.]

1. A quantity of matter cohering together so as to make one body, or an aggregation of particles or things which collectively make one body or quantity, usually of considerable size; as, a mass of ore, metal, sand, or water.

If it were not for these principles, the bodies of the earth, planets, comets, sun, and all things in them, would grow cold and freeze, and become inactive masses.

Sir I. Newton.

A deep mass of continual sea is slower stirred
To rage.


2. (Phar.) A medicinal substance made into a cohesive, homogeneous lump, of consistency suitable for making pills; as, blue mass.

3. A large quantity; a sum.

All the mass of gold that comes into Spain.

Sir W. Raleigh.

He had spent a huge mass of treasure.

Sir J. Davies.

4. Bulk; magnitude; body; size.

This army of such mass and charge.


5. The principal part; the main body.

Night closed upon the pursuit, and aided the mass of the fugitives in their escape.

Jowett (Thucyd.).

6. (Physics) The quantity of matter which a body contains, irrespective of its bulk or volume.

Mass and weight are often used, in a general way, as interchangeable terms, since the weight of a body is proportional to its mass (under the same or equal gravitative forces), and the mass is usually ascertained from the weight. Yet the two ideas, mass and weight, are quite distinct. Mass is the quantity of matter in a body; weight is the comparative force with which it tends towards the center of the earth. A mass of sugar and a mass of lead are assumed to be equal when they show an equal weight by balancing each other in the scales.

Blue mass. See under Blue. -- Mass center (Geom.), the center of gravity of a triangle. -- Mass copper, native copper in a large mass. -- Mass meeting, a large or general assembly of people, usually a meeting having some relation to politics. -- The masses, the great body of the people, as contrasted with the higher classes; the populace.

Mass, v. t. To form or collect into a mass; to form into a collective body; to bring together into masses; to assemble.

But mass them together and they are terrible indeed.


Mas"sa*cre (?), n. [F., fr. LL. mazacrium; cf. Prov. G. metzgern, metzgen, to kill cattle, G. metzger a butcher, and LG. matsken to cut, hew, OHG. meizan to cut, Goth. máitan.] 1. The killing of a considerable number of human beings under circumstances of atrocity or cruelty, or contrary to the usages of civilized people; as, the massacre on St. Bartholomew's Day.

2. Murder. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. -- Massacre, Butchery, Carnage. Massacre denotes the promiscuous slaughter of many who can not make resistance, or much resistance. Butchery refers to cold-blooded cruelty in the killing of men as if they were brute beasts. Carnage points to slaughter as producing the heaped-up bodies of the slain.

I'll find a day to massacre them all,
And raze their faction and their family.


If thou delight to view thy heinous deeds,
Brhold this pattern of thy butcheries.


Such a scent I draw
Of carnage, prey innumerable !


Mas"sa*cre, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Massacred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Massacring (?).] [Cf. F. massacrer. See Massacre, n.] To kill in considerable numbers where much resistance can not be made; to kill with indiscriminate violence, without necessity, and contrary to the usages of nations; to butcher; to slaughter; -- limited to the killing of human beings.

If James should be pleased to massacre them all, as Maximian had massacred the Theban legion.


Mas"sa*crer (?), n. One who massacres. [R.]

Mas"sage (?), n. [F.] A rubbing or kneading of the body, especially when performed as a hygienic or remedial measure.

Mas`sa*sau"ga (?), n. (Zoöl.) The black rattlesnake (Crotalus, or Caudisona, tergemina), found in the Mississippi Valley.

{ Massé, or Massé shot (?) }, n. (Billiards) A stroke made with the cue held vertically.

Mass"er, n. A priest who celebrates Mass. [R.] Bale.

Mas"se*ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a chewer, &?; a muscle of the lower jaw used in chewing, from &?; to chew: cf. F. masséter.] (Anat.) The large muscle which raises the under jaw, and assists in mastication.

Mas`se*ter"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the masseter.

Mas"se*ter`ine (?), a. (Anat.) Masseteric.

{ ||Mas`seur" (?), n. m., ||Mas`seuse" (?), n. f.,} [F., or formed in imitation of French. See Massage.] (Med.) One who performs massage.

Mas"si*cot (?), n. [F. massicot; E. masticot is a corruption.] (Chem.) Lead protoxide, PbO, obtained as a yellow amorphous powder, the fused and crystalline form of which is called litharge; lead ocher. It is used as a pigment.

Massicot is sometimes used by painters, and also as a drier in the composition of ointments and plasters.

Mass"i*ness (?), n. [From Massy.] The state or quality of being massy; ponderousness.

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Mass"ive (?), a. [F. massif.] 1. Forming, or consisting of, a large mass; compacted; weighty; heavy; massy. "Massive armor." Dr. H. More.

2. (Min.) In mass; not necessarily without a crystalline structure, but having no regular form; as, a mineral occurs massive.

Massive rock (Geol.), a compact crystalline rock not distinctly schistose, as granite; also, with some authors, an eruptive rock.

Mass"ive*ly, adv. In a heavy mass.

Mass"ive*ness, n. The state or quality of being massive; massiness.

Mas*soo"la boat`. See Masoola boat.

Mas*so"ra (?), n. Same as Masora.

Mas"so*ret (?), n. Same as Masorite.

Mass"y (?), a. [Compar. Massier (?); superl. Massiest.] Compacted into, or consisting of, a mass; having bulk and weight or substance; ponderous; bulky and heavy; weighty; heavy; as, a massy shield; a massy rock.

Your swords are now too massy for your strengths,
And will not be uplifted.


Yawning rocks in massy fragments fly.


Mast (mst), n. [AS. mæst, fem.; akin to G. mast, and E. meat. See Meat.] The fruit of the oak and beech, or other forest trees; nuts; acorns.

Oak mast, and beech, . . . they eat.


Swine under an oak filling themselves with the mast.


Mast, n. [AS. mæst, masc.; akin to D., G., Dan., & Sw. mast, Icel. mastr, and perh. to L. malus.]

1. (Naut.) A pole, or long, strong, round piece of timber, or spar, set upright in a boat or vessel, to sustain the sails, yards, rigging, etc. A mast may also consist of several pieces of timber united by iron bands, or of a hollow pillar of iron or steel.

The tallest pine
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast
Of some great ammiral.


The most common general names of masts are foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast, each of which may be made of separate spars.

2. (Mach.) The vertical post of a derrick or crane.

Afore the mast, Before the mast. See under Afore, and Before. - - Mast coat. See under Coat. -- Mast hoop, one of a number of hoops attached to the fore edge of a boom sail, which slip on the mast as the sail is raised or lowered; also, one of the iron hoops used in making a made mast. See Made.

Mast, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Masted; p. pr. & vb. n. Masting.] To furnish with a mast or masts; to put the masts of in position; as, to mast a ship.

||Mas"tax (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; mouth, jaws.] (Zoöl.) (a) The pharynx of a rotifer. It usually contains four horny pieces. The two central ones form the incus, against which the mallei, or lateral ones, work so as to crush the food. (b) The lore of a bird.

Mast"ed (?), a. Furnished with a mast or masts; -- chiefly in composition; as, a three-masted schooner.

Mast"er (-r), n. (Naut.) A vessel having (so many) masts; -- used only in compounds; as, a two-master.

Mas"ter (ms"tr), n. [OE. maistre, maister, OF. maistre, mestre, F. maître, fr. L. magister, orig. a double comparative from the root of magnus great, akin to Gr. me`gas. Cf. Maestro, Magister, Magistrate, Magnitude, Major, Mister, Mistress, Mickle.] 1. A male person having another living being so far subject to his will, that he can, in the main, control his or its actions; -- formerly used with much more extensive application than now. (a) The employer of a servant. (b) The owner of a slave. (c) The person to whom an apprentice is articled. (d) A sovereign, prince, or feudal noble; a chief, or one exercising similar authority. (e) The head of a household. (f) The male head of a school or college. (g) A male teacher. (h) The director of a number of persons performing a ceremony or sharing a feast. (i) The owner of a docile brute, -- especially a dog or horse. (j) The controller of a familiar spirit or other supernatural being.

2. One who uses, or controls at will, anything inanimate; as, to be master of one's time. Shak.

Master of a hundred thousand drachms.


We are masters of the sea.

Jowett (Thucyd. ).

3. One who has attained great skill in the use or application of anything; as, a master of oratorical art.

Great masters of ridicule.


No care is taken to improve young men in their own language, that they may thoroughly understand and be masters of it.


4. A title given by courtesy, now commonly pronounced mster, except when given to boys; -- sometimes written Mister, but usually abbreviated to Mr.

5. A young gentleman; a lad, or small boy.

Where there are little masters and misses in a house, they are impediments to the diversions of the servants.


6. (Naut.) The commander of a merchant vessel; -- usually called captain. Also, a commissioned officer in the navy ranking next above ensign and below lieutenant; formerly, an officer on a man-of-war who had immediate charge, under the commander, of sailing the vessel.

7. A person holding an office of authority among the Freemasons, esp. the presiding officer; also, a person holding a similar office in other civic societies.

Little masters, certain German engravers of the 16th century, so called from the extreme smallness of their prints. -- Master in chancery, an officer of courts of equity, who acts as an assistant to the chancellor or judge, by inquiring into various matters referred to him, and reporting thereon to the court. -- Master of arts, one who takes the second degree at a university; also, the degree or title itself, indicated by the abbreviation M. A., or A. M. -- Master of the horse, the third great officer in the British court, having the management of the royal stables, etc. In ceremonial cavalcades he rides next to the sovereign. -- Master of the rolls, in England, an officer who has charge of the rolls and patents that pass the great seal, and of the records of the chancery, and acts as assistant judge of the court. Bouvier. Wharton. -- Past master, one who has held the office of master in a lodge of Freemasons or in a society similarly organized. -- The old masters, distinguished painters who preceded modern painters; especially, the celebrated painters of the 16th and 17th centuries. -- To be master of one's self, to have entire self-control; not to be governed by passion. -- To be one's own master, to be at liberty to act as one chooses without dictation from anybody.

Master, signifying chief, principal, masterly, superior, thoroughly skilled, etc., is often used adjectively or in compounds; as, master builder or master-builder, master chord or master-chord, master mason or master-mason, master workman or master-workman, master mechanic, master mind, master spirit, master passion, etc.

Throughout the city by the master gate.


Master joint (Geol.), a quarryman's term for the more prominent and extended joints traversing a rock mass. -- Master key, a key adapted to open several locks differing somewhat from each other; figuratively, a rule or principle of general application in solving difficulties. -- Master lode (Mining), the principal vein of ore. -- Master mariner, an experienced and skilled seaman who is certified to be competent to command a merchant vessel. -- Master sinew (Far.), a large sinew that surrounds the hough of a horse, and divides it from the bone by a hollow place, where the windgalls are usually seated. -- Master singer. See Mastersinger. -- Master stroke, a capital performance; a masterly achievement; a consummate action; as, a master stroke of policy. -- Master tap (Mech.), a tap for forming the thread in a screw cutting die. -- Master touch. (a) The touch or skill of a master. Pope. (b) Some part of a performance which exhibits very skillful work or treatment. "Some master touches of this admirable piece." Tatler. -- Master work, the most important work accomplished by a skilled person, as in architecture, literature, etc.; also, a work which shows the skill of a master; a masterpiece. -- Master workman, a man specially skilled in any art, handicraft, or trade, or who is an overseer, foreman, or employer.

Mas"ter (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mastered (?); p. pr. vb. n. Mastering.] 1. To become the master of; to subject to one's will, control, or authority; to conquer; to overpower; to subdue.

Obstinacy and willful neglects must be mastered, even though it cost blows.


2. To gain the command of, so as to understand or apply; to become an adept in; as, to master a science.

3. To own; to posses. [Obs.]

The wealth
That the world masters.


Mas"ter, v. i. To be skillful; to excel. [Obs.]

Mas"ter*dom (?), n. [Master + -dom.] Dominion; rule; command. [R.] Shak.

Mas"ter*ful (?), a. 1. Inclined to play the master; domineering; imperious; arbitrary. Dryden.

2. Having the skill or power of a master; indicating or expressing power or mastery.

His masterful, pale face.

Mrs. Browning.

Mas"ter*ful*ly, adv. In a masterful manner; imperiously.

A lawless and rebellious man who held lands masterfully and in high contempt of the royal authority.


Mas"ter*hood (?), n. The state of being a master; hence, disposition to command or hector. C. Bronté.

Mas"ter*less, a. Destitute of a master or owner; ungoverned or ungovernable. -- Mas"ter*less*ness, n.

Mas"ter*li*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being masterly; ability to control wisely or skillfully.

Mas"ter*ly, a. 1. Suitable to, or characteristic of, a master; indicating thorough knowledge or superior skill and power; showing a master's hand; as, a masterly design; a masterly performance; a masterly policy. "A wise and masterly inactivity." Sir J. Mackintosh.

2. Imperious; domineering; arbitrary.

Mas"ter*ly, adv. With the skill of a master.

Thou dost speak masterly.


Mas"ter*ous (?), a. Masterly. [Obs.] Milton.

Mas"ter*piece` (?), n. Anything done or made with extraordinary skill; a capital performance; a chef- d'œuvre; a supreme achievement.

The top and masterpiece of art.


Dissimulation was his masterpiece.


Mas"ter*ship, n. 1. The state or office of a master.

2. Mastery; dominion; superior skill; superiority.

Where noble youths for mastership should strive.


3. Chief work; masterpiece. [Obs.] Dryden.

4. An ironical title of respect.

How now, seignior Launce ! what news with your mastership ?


Mas"ter*sing`er (?), n. [A translation of G. meistersänger.] One of a class of poets which flourished in Nuremberg and some other cities of Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries. They bound themselves to observe certain arbitrary laws of rhythm.

Mas"ter*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) A tall and coarse European umbelliferous plant (Peucedanum Ostruthium, formerly Imperatoria). (b) The Astrantia major, a European umbelliferous plant with a showy colored involucre. (c) Improperly, the cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum).

Mas"ter*y (?), n.; pl. Masteries (#). [OF. maistrie.]

1. The position or authority of a master; dominion; command; supremacy; superiority.

If divided by mountains, they will fight for the mastery of the passages of the tops.

Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Superiority in war or competition; victory; triumph; preëminence.

The voice of them that shout for mastery.

Ex. xxxii. 18.

Every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things.

1 Cor. ix. 25.

O, but to have gulled him
Had been a mastery.

B. Jonson.

3. Contest for superiority. [Obs.] Holland.

4. A masterly operation; a feat. [Obs.]

I will do a maistrie ere I go.


5. Specifically, the philosopher's stone. [Obs.]

6. The act process of mastering; the state of having mastered.

He could attain to a mastery in all languages.


The learning and mastery of a tongue, being unpleasant in itself, should not be cumbered with other difficulties.


Mast"ful (?), a. [See lst Mast.] Abounding in mast; producing mast in abundance; as, the mastful forest; a mastful chestnut. Dryden.

Mast"head` (?), n. (Naut.) The top or head of a mast; the part of a mast above the hounds.

Mast"head", v. t. (Naut.) To cause to go to the masthead as a punishment. Marryat.

Mast"house` (?), n. A building in which vessels' masts are shaped, fitted, etc.

Mas"tic (?), n. [F., fr. L. mastiche, mastichum, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to chew, because of its being used in the East for chewing.] [Written also mastich.]

1. (Bot.) A low shrubby tree of the genus Pistacia (P. Lentiscus), growing upon the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean, and producing a valuable resin; -- called also, mastic tree.

2. A resin exuding from the mastic tree, and obtained by incision. The best is in yellowish white, semitransparent tears, of a faint smell, and is used as an astringent and an aromatic, also as an ingredient in varnishes.

3. A kind of cement composed of burnt clay, litharge, and linseed oil, used for plastering walls, etc.

Barbary mastic (Bot.), the Pistachia Atlantica. -- Peruvian mastic tree (Bot.), a small tree (Schinus Molle) with peppery red berries; -- called also pepper tree. -- West Indian mastic (Bot.), a lofty tree (Bursera gummifera) full of gum resin in every part.

Mas"ti*ca*ble (?), a. Capable of being masticated.

Mas`ti*ca"dor (?), n. [Cf. Sp. mastigador. See Masticate.] (Man.) A part of a bridle, the slavering bit. [Written also mastigador.]

Mas"ti*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Masticated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Masticating (?).] [L. masticatus, p. p. of masticare to chew, prob. fr. mastiche mastic. See Mastic.] To grind or crush with, or as with, the teeth and prepare for swallowing and digestion; to chew; as, to masticate food.

Mas"ti*ca`ter (?), n. One who masticates.

Mas`ti*ca"tion (?), n. [L. masticatio: cf. F. mastication.] The act or operation of masticating; chewing, as of food.

Mastication is a necessary preparation of solid aliment, without which there can be no good digestion.


Mas"ti*ca`tor (?), n. 1. One who masticates.

2. A machine for cutting meat into fine pieces for toothless people; also, a machine for cutting leather, India rubber, or similar tough substances, into fine pieces, in some processes of manufacture.

Mas"ti*ca*to*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. masticatoire.] Chewing; adapted to perform the office of chewing food.

Mas"ti*ca*to*ry, n.; pl. -ries (&?;). (Med.) A substance to be chewed to increase the saliva. Bacon.

Mas"tich (?), n. See Mastic.

Mas"ti*cin (?), n. (Chem.) A white, amorphous, tenacious substance resembling caoutchouc, and obtained as an insoluble residue of mastic.

Mas"ti*cot (?), n. (Chem.) Massicot. [Obs.]

Mas"tiff (?), n.; pl. Mastiffs (&?;). [Mastives is irregular and unusual.] [Prob. fr. Prov. E. masty, adj., large, n., a great dog, prob. fr. mast fruit, and hence, lit., fattened with mast. There is perh. confusion with OF. mestif mongrel; cf. also F. mâtin mastiff, OF. mastin.] (Zoöl.) A breed of large dogs noted for strength and courage. There are various strains, differing in form and color, and characteristic of different countries.

Mastiff bat (Zoöl.) , any bat of the genus Molossus; so called because the face somewhat resembles that of a mastiff.

Mas"ti*go*pod (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Mastigopoda.

||Mas`ti*gop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ma`stix, -igos, a whip + poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Zoöl.) The Infusoria.

Mas"ti*gure (?), n. [Gr. ma`stix, -igos, a scourge + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several large spiny-tailed lizards of the genus Uromastix. They inhabit Southern Asia and North Africa.

Mast"ing (?), n. (Naut.) The act or process of putting a mast or masts into a vessel; also, the scientific principles which determine the position of masts, and the mechanical methods of placing them.

Masting house (Naut.), a large building, with suitable mechanism overhanging the water, used for stepping and unstepping the masts of vessels.

||Mas*ti"tis (?), n. [Gr. masto`s breast + -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the breast.

Mast"less (?), a. [See lst Mast.] Bearing no mast; as, a mastless oak or beech. Dryden.

Mast"less, a. [See 2d Mast.] Having no mast; as, a mastless vessel.

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Mast"lin (mst"ln), n. See Maslin.

Mas"to*don (?), n. [Gr. masto`s the breast + 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth. So called from the conical projections upon its molar teeth.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of mammals closely allied to the elephant, but having less complex molar teeth, and often a pair of lower, as well as upper, tusks, which are incisor teeth. The species were mostly larger than elephants, and their remains occur in nearly all parts of the world in deposits ranging from Miocene to late Quaternary time.

||Mas`to*don*sau"rus (?), n. [NL., fr. E. Mastodon + Gr. say^ros a lizard.] (Paleon.) A large extinct genus of labyrinthodonts, found in the European Triassic rocks.

Mas`to*don"tic (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, a mastodon; as, mastodontic dimensions. Everett.

||Mas`to*dyn"i*a (?), Mas*tod"y*ny (&?;), n. [NL. mastodynia, fr. Gr. masto`s the breast + &?; pain.] (Med.) Pain occuring in the mamma or female breast, -- a form of neuralgia.

Mas"toid (?), a. [Gr. &?;; masto`s the breast + &?; form: cf. F. mastoïde.] (Anat.) (a) Resembling the nipple or the breast; -- applied specifically to a process of the temporal bone behind the ear. (b) Pertaining to, or in the region of, the mastoid process; mastoidal.

Mas*toid"al (?), a. Same as Mastoid.

Mas*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. masto`s the breast + -logy: cf. F. mastologie.] The natural history of Mammalia.

Mas"tress (?), n. Mistress. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mas`tur*ba"tion (?), n. [L. masturbatus, p. p. of masturbari to practice onanism: cf. F. masturbation.] Onanism; self-pollution.

Mast"y (?), a. [See lst Mast.] Full of mast; abounding in acorns, etc.

Ma*su"la boat` (?). Same as Masoola boat.

Mat (?), n. [Cf. Matte.] A name given by coppersmiths to an alloy of copper, tin, iron, etc., usually called white metal. [Written also matt.]

Mat, a. [OF. See 4th Mate.] Cast down; dejected; overthrown; slain. [Obs.]

When he saw them so piteous and so maat.


Mat, n. [AS. matt, meatt, fr. L. matta a mat made of rushes.] 1. A fabric of sedge, rushes, flags, husks, straw, hemp, or similar material, used for wiping and cleaning shoes at the door, for covering the floor of a hall or room, and for other purposes.

2. Any similar fabric for various uses, as for covering plant houses, putting beneath dishes or lamps on a table, securing rigging from friction, and the like.

3. Anything growing thickly, or closely interwoven, so as to resemble a mat in form or texture; as, a mat of weeds; a mat of hair.

4. An ornamental border made of paper, pasterboard, metal, etc., put under the glass which covers a framed picture; as, the mat of a daguerreotype.

Mat grass. (Bot.) (a) A low, tufted, European grass (Nardus stricta). (b) Same as Matweed. -- Mat rush (Bot.), a kind of rush (Scirpus lacustris) used in England for making mats.

Mat, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Matted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Matting.] 1. To cover or lay with mats. Evelyn.

2. To twist, twine, or felt together; to interweave into, or like, a mat; to entangle.

And o'er his eyebrows hung his matted hair.


Mat, v. i. To grow thick together; to become interwoven or felted together like a mat.

||Ma`ta*chin" (?), n. [Sp.] An old dance with swords and bucklers; a sword dance.

Mat"a*co (?), n. (Zoöl.) The three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutis tricinctus). See Illust. under Loricata.

{ Mat"a*dore, Mat"a*dor} (?), n. [Sp. matador, prop., a killer, fr. matar to kill, L. mactare to sacrifice, kill.] 1. The killer; the man appointed to kill the bull in bullfights.

2. (Card Playing) In the game of quadrille or omber, the three principal trumps, the ace of spades being the first, the ace of clubs the third, and the second being the deuce of a black trump or the seven of a red one.

When Lady Tricksey played a four,
You took it with a matadore.


Mat`a*gasse" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A shrike or butcher bird; -- called also mattages. [Prov. Eng.]

||Ma`ta*ma"ta (?), n. [Pg.] (Zoöl.) The bearded tortoise (Chelys fimbriata) of South American rivers.

Ma*tan"za (?), n. [Sp., slaughter, fr. matar to kill.] A place where animals are slaughtered for their hides and tallow. [Western U. S.]

Match (mch), n. [OE. macche, F. mèche, F. mèche, fr. L. myxa a lamp nozzle, Gr. my`xa mucus, nostril, a lamp nozzle. Cf. Mucus.] Anything used for catching and retaining or communicating fire, made of some substance which takes fire readily, or remains burning some time; esp., a small strip or splint of wood dipped at one end in a substance which can be easily ignited by friction, as a preparation of phosphorus or chlorate of potassium.

Match box, a box for holding matches. - - Match tub, a tub with a perforated cover for holding slow matches for firing cannon, esp. on board ship. The tub contains a little water in the bottom, for extinguishing sparks from the lighted matches. -- Quick match, threads of cotton or cotton wick soaked in a solution of gunpowder mixed with gum arabic and boiling water and afterwards strewed over with mealed powder. It burns at the rate of one yard in thirteen seconds, and is used as priming for heavy mortars, fireworks, etc. -- Slow match, slightly twisted hempen rope soaked in a solution of limewater and saltpeter or washed in a lye of water and wood ashes. It burns at the rate of four or five inches an hour, and is used for firing cannon, fireworks, etc.

Match, n. [OE. macche, AS. gemæcca; akin to gemaca, and to OS. gimako, OHG. gimah fitting, suitable, convenient, Icel. mark suitable, maki mate, Sw. make, Dan. mage; all from the root of E. make, v. See Make mate, and Make, v., and cf. Mate an associate.]

1. A person or thing equal or similar to another; one able to mate or cope with another; an equal; a mate.

Government . . . makes an innocent man, though of the lowest rank, a match for the mightiest of his fellow subjects.


2. A bringing together of two parties suited to one another, as for a union, a trial of skill or force, a contest, or the like; as, specifically: (a) A contest to try strength or skill, or to determine superiority; an emulous struggle. "Many a warlike match." Drayton.

A solemn match was made; he lost the prize.


(b) A matrimonial union; a marriage.

3. An agreement, compact, etc. "Thy hand upon that match." Shak.

Love doth seldom suffer itself to be confined by other matches than those of its own making.


4. A candidate for matrimony; one to be gained in marriage. "She . . . was looked upon as the richest match of the West." Clarendon.

5. Equality of conditions in contest or competition.

It were no match, your nail against his horn.


6. Suitable combination or bringing together; that which corresponds or harmonizes with something else; as, the carpet and curtains are a match.

7. (Founding) A perforated board, block of plaster, hardened sand, etc., in which a pattern is partly imbedded when a mold is made, for giving shape to the surfaces of separation between the parts of the mold.

Match boarding (Carp.), boards fitted together with tongue and groove, or prepared to be so fitted. -- Match game, a game arranged as a test of superiority. -- Match plane (Carp.), either of the two planes used to shape the edges of boards which are joined by grooving and tonguing. -- Match plate (Founding), a board or plate on the opposite sides of which the halves of a pattern are fastened, to facilitate molding. Knight. -- Match wheel (Mach.), a cogwheel of suitable pitch to work with another wheel; specifically, one of a pair of cogwheels of equal size.

Match, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Matched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Matching.] 1. To be a mate or match for; to be able to complete with; to rival successfully; to equal.

No settled senses of the world can match
The pleasure of that madness.


2. To furnish with its match; to bring a match, or equal, against; to show an equal competitor to; to set something in competition with, or in opposition to, as equal.

No history or antiquity can matchis policies and his conduct.


3. To oppose as equal; to contend successfully against.

Eternal might
To match with their inventions they presumed
So easy, and of his thunder made a scorn.


4. To make or procure the equal of, or that which is exactly similar to, or corresponds with; as, to match a vase or a horse; to match cloth. "Matching of patterns and colors." Swift.

5. To make equal, proportionate, or suitable; to adapt, fit, or suit (one thing to another).

Let poets match their subject to their strength.


6. To marry; to give in marriage.

A senator of Rome survived,
Would not have matched his daughter with a king.


7. To fit together, or make suitable for fitting together; specifically, to furnish with a tongue and a groove, at the edges; as, to match boards.

Matching machine, a planing machine for forming a tongue or a groove on the edge of a board.

Match, v. i. 1. To be united in marriage; to mate.

I hold it a sin to match in my kindred.


Let tigers match with hinds, and wolves with sheep.


2. To be of equal, or similar, size, figure, color, or quality; to tally; to suit; to correspond; as, these vases match.

Match"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being matched; comparable on equal conditions; adapted to being joined together; correspondent. -- Match"a*ble*ness, n.

Sir Walter Raleigh . . . is matchable with the best of the ancients.


Match"-cloth` (?), n. A coarse cloth.

Match"-coat` (?), n. A coat made of match-cloth.

Match"er (?), n. One who, or that which, matches; a matching machine. See under 3d Match.

Match"less, a. [Cf. Mateless.]

1. Having no equal; unequaled. "A matchless queen." Waller.

2. Unlike each other; unequal; unsuited. [Obs.] "Matchless ears." Spenser.

-- Match"less*ly, adv. -- Match"less*ness, n.

Match"lock` (?), n. An old form of gunlock containing a match for firing the priming; hence, a musket fired by means of a match.

Match"mak`er (?), n. 1. One who makes matches for burning or kinding.

2. One who tries to bring about marriages.

Match"mak`ing, n. 1. The act or process of making matches for kindling or burning.

2. The act or process of trying to bring about a marriage for others.

Match"mak`ing, a. Busy in making or contriving marriages; as, a matchmaking woman.

||Ma"te (?), n. [Sp.] The Paraguay tea, being the dried leaf of the Brazilian holly (Ilex Paraguensis). The infusion has a pleasant odor, with an agreeable bitter taste, and is much used for tea in South America.

Mate (?), n. [F. mat, abbrev. fr. échec et mat. See Checkmate.] (Chess) Same as Checkmate.

Mate, a. See 2d Mat. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mate, v. t. [F. mater to fatigue, enfeeble, humiliate, checkmate. See Mate checkmate.]

1. To confuse; to confound. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To checkmate.

Mate, n. [Perhaps for older make a companion; cf. also OD. maet companion, mate, D. maat. Cf. Make a companion, Match a mate.] 1. One who customarily associates with another; a companion; an associate; any object which is associated or combined with a similar object.

2. Hence, specifically, a husband or wife; and among the lower animals, one of a pair associated for propagation and the care of their young.

3. A suitable companion; a match; an equal.

Ye knew me once no mate
For you; there sitting where you durst not soar.


4. (Naut.) An officer in a merchant vessel ranking next below the captain. If there are more than one bearing the title, they are called, respectively, first mate, second mate, third mate, etc. In the navy, a subordinate officer or assistant; as, master's mate; surgeon's mate.

Mate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mated; p. pr. & vb. n. Mating.] 1. To match; to marry.

If she be mated with an equal husband.


2. To match one's self against; to oppose as equal; to compete with.

There is no passion in the mind of man so weak but it mates and masters the fear of death.


I, . . . in the way of loyalty and truth, . . .
Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey can be.


Mate, v. i. To be or become a mate or mates, especially in sexual companionship; as, some birds mate for life; this bird will not mate with that one.

Mate"less, a. [Cf. Matchless.] Having no mate.

Mat"e*lote (mt"*lt), n. [F., fr. matelot a sailor; properly, a dish such as sailors prepare.] A dish of food composed of many kinds of fish.

Ma`te*ol"o*gy (m`t*l"*j), n. [Gr. mataiologi`a; ma`taios useless, vain + lo`gos discourse: cf. F. matéologie.] A vain, unprofitable discourse or inquiry. [R.]

Ma`te*o*tech"ny (m`t**tk"n), n. [Gr. mataiotechni`a; ma`taios vain + te`chnh art, science.] Any unprofitable science. [Obs.]

||Ma"ter (?), n. [L., mother. See Mother.] See Alma mater, Dura mater, and Pia mater.

Ma*te"ri*al (?), a. [L. materialis, fr. materia stuff, matter: cf. F. matériel. See Matter, and cf. MatÉriel.]

1. Consisting of matter; not spiritual; corporeal; physical; as, material substance or bodies.

The material elements of the universe.


2. Hence: Pertaining to, or affecting, the physical nature of man, as distinguished from the mental or moral nature; relating to the bodily wants, interests, and comforts.

3. Of solid or weighty character; not insubstantial; of consequence; not be dispensed with; important.

Discourse, which was always material, never trifling.


I shall, in the account of simple ideas, set down only such as are most material to our present purpose.


4. (Logic.) Pertaining to the matter, as opposed to the form, of a thing. See Matter.

Material cause. See under Cause. -- Material evidence (Law), evidence which conduces to the proof or disproof of a relevant hypothesis. Wharton.

Syn. -- Corporeal; bodily; important; weighty; momentous; essential.

Ma*te"ri*al, n. The substance or matter of which anything is made or may be made.

Raw material, any crude, unfinished, or elementary materials that are adapted to use only by processes of skilled labor. Cotton, wool, ore, logs, etc., are raw material.

Ma*te"ri*al, v. t. To form from matter; to materialize. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ma*te"ri*al*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. matérialisme.]

1. The doctrine of materialists; materialistic views and tenets.

The irregular fears of a future state had been supplanted by the materialism of Epicurus.


2. The tendency to give undue importance to material interests; devotion to the material nature and its wants.

3. Material substances in the aggregate; matter. [R. & Obs.] A. Chalmers.

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Ma*te"ri*al*ist (m*t"r*al*st), n. [Cf. F. matérialiste.] 1. One who denies the existence of spiritual substances or agents, and maintains that spiritual phenomena, so called, are the result of some peculiar organization of matter.

2. One who holds to the existence of matter, as distinguished from the idealist, who denies it. Berkeley.

{ Ma*te`ri*al*is"tic (?), Ma*te`ri*al*is"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to materialism or materialists; of the nature of materialism.

But to me his very spiritualism seemed more materialistic than his physics.

C. Kingsley.

Ma*te`ri*al"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. matérialité.]

1. The quality or state of being material; material existence; corporeity.

2. Importance; as, the materiality of facts.

Ma*te`ri*al*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of materializing, or the state of being materialized.

Ma*te"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Materialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Materializing (?).] [Cf. F. matérialiser.] 1. To invest with material characteristics; to make perceptible to the senses; hence, to present to the mind through the medium of material objects.

Having with wonderful art and beauty materialized, if I may so call it, a scheme of abstracted notions, and clothed the most nice, refined conceptions of philosophy in sensible images.


2. To regard as matter; to consider or explain by the laws or principles which are appropriate to matter.

3. To cause to assume a character appropriate to material things; to occupy with material interests; as, to materialize thought.

4. (Spiritualism) To make visable in, or as in, a material form; -- said of spirits.

A female spirit form temporarily materialized, and not distinguishable from a human being.

Epes Sargent.

Ma*te"ri*al*ize, v. i. To appear as a material form; to take substantial shape. [Colloq.]

Ma*te"ri*al*ly, adv. 1. In the state of matter.

I do not mean that anything is separable from a body by fire that was not materially preëxistent in it.


2. In its essence; substantially.

An ill intention is certainly sufficient to spoil . . . an act in itself materially good.


3. In an important manner or degree; essentially; as, it materially concerns us to know the real motives of our actions.

Ma*te"ri*al*ness, n. The state of being material.

||Ma*te"ri*a med"i*ca (?). [L. See Matter, and Medical.] 1. Material or substance used in the composition of remedies; -- a general term for all substances used as curative agents in medicine.

2. That branch of medical science which treats of the nature and properties of all the substances that are employed for the cure of diseases.

Ma*te`ri*a"ri*an (?), n. [L. materiarius.] See Materialist. [Obs.]

{ Ma*te"ri*ate (?), Ma*te"ri*a`ted (?), } a. [L. materiatus, p. p. of materiare to build of wood.] Consisting of matter. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ma*te`ri*a"tion (?), n. [L. materiatio woodwork.] Act of forming matter. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

||Ma`té`ri`el" (?), n. [F. See Material.] That in a complex system which constitutes the materials, or instruments employed, in distinction from the personnel, or men; as, the baggage, munitions, provisions, etc., of an army; or the buildings, libraries, and apparatus of a college, in distinction from its officers.

Ma*te"ri*ous (?), a. See Material. [Obs.]

Ma*ter"nal (?), a. [F. maternel, L. maternus, fr. mater mother. See Mother.] Of or pertaining to a mother; becoming to a mother; motherly; as, maternal love; maternal tenderness.

Syn. -- See Motherly.

Ma*ter"nal*ly, adv. In a motherly manner.

Ma*ter"ni*ty (?), n. [F. maternité, LL. maternitas.] The state of being a mother; the character or relation of a mother.

Mat"fel*on (?), n. [W. madfelen.] (Bot.) The knapweed (Centaurea nigra).

Math (?), n. [AS. ; akin to mwan to mow, G. mahd math. See Mow to cut (grass).] A mowing, or that which is gathered by mowing; -- chiefly used in composition; as, an aftermath. [Obs.]

The first mowing thereof, for the king's use, is wont to be sooner than the common math.

Bp. Hall.

Math`e*mat"ic (?), a. [F. mathématique, L. mathematicus, Gr. &?; disposed to learn, belonging to learning or the sciences, especially to mathematics, fr. &?; that which is learned, learning, pl. &?; things learned, learning, science, especially mathematical science, fr. &?;, &?;, to learn; akin to E. mind. See Mind.] See Mathematical.

Math`e*mat"ic*al (?), a. [See Mathematic.] Of or pertaining to mathematics; according to mathematics; hence, theoretically precise; accurate; as, mathematical geography; mathematical instruments; mathematical exactness. -- Math`e*mat"ic*al*ly, adv.

Math`e*ma*ti"cian (?), n. [Cf. F. mathématicien.] One versed in mathematics.

Math`e*mat"ics (?), n. [F. mathématiques, pl., L. mathematica, sing., Gr. &?; (sc. &?;) science. See Mathematic, and -ics.] That science, or class of sciences, which treats of the exact relations existing between quantities or magnitudes, and of the methods by which, in accordance with these relations, quantities sought are deducible from other quantities known or supposed; the science of spatial and quantitative relations.

Mathematics embraces three departments, namely: 1. Arithmetic. 2. Geometry, including Trigonometry and Conic Sections. 3. Analysis, in which letters are used, including Algebra, Analytical Geometry, and Calculus. Each of these divisions is divided into pure or abstract, which considers magnitude or quantity abstractly, without relation to matter; and mixed or applied, which treats of magnitude as subsisting in material bodies, and is consequently interwoven with physical considerations.

Math"er (?), n. See Madder.

Math"es (?), n. [Perh. corrupted fr. L. anthemis camomile, Gr. &?; .] (Bot.) The mayweed. Cf. Maghet.

||Ma*the"sis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, from &?;, &?;, to learn.] Learning; especially, mathematics. [R.] Pope.

Math"u*rin (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) See Trinitarian.

Ma*ti"co (?), n. (Bot.) A Peruvian plant (Piper, or Artanthe, elongatum), allied to the pepper, the leaves of which are used as a styptic and astringent.

Mat"ie (?), n. (Zoöl.) A fat herring with undeveloped roe. [Written also matty.] [Eng. & Scot.]

||Mâ`tin" (?), n. [F. mâtin.] (Zoöl.) A French mastiff.

Mat"in (?), n. [F. fr. L. matutinum the morning, matutinus of the morning, Matuta the goddess of the morning. See Matutinal.] 1. Morning. [Obs.] Shak.

2. pl. [F. matines. See Etymol. above.] Morning worship or service; morning prayers or songs.

The winged choristers began
To chirp their matins.


3. Time of morning service; the first canonical hour in the Roman Catholic Church.

Mat"in, a. Of or pertaining to the morning, or to matins; used in the morning; matutinal.

Mat"in*al (?), a. Relating to the morning, or to matins; matutinal.

Mat`i*née" (?), n. [F., from matin. See Matin.] A reception, or a musical or dramatic entertainment, held in the daytime. See SoirÉe.

Ma*trass" (?), n. [F. matras; perh. so called from its long narrow neck; cf. OF. matras large arrow, L. materis, mataris, matara, a Celtic javelin, pike; of Celtic origin.] (Chem.) A round- bottomed glass flask having a long neck; a bolthead.

Mat"ress (?), n. See Matress.

Ma"tri*arch (?), n. [L. mater mother + -arch.] The mother and ruler of a family or of her descendants; a ruler by maternal right.

Ma`tri*ar"chal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a matriarch; governed by a matriarch.

Ma"tri*ar"chate (?), n. The office or jurisdiction of a matriarch; a matriarchal form of government.

Ma"trice (?), n. [Cf. F. matrice. See Matrix.] See Matrix.

Mat"ri*ci`dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to matricide.

Mat"ri*cide (?), n. [L. matricidium; mater mother + coedere to kill, slay: cf. F. matricide. See Mother, and cf. Homicide.] 1. The murder of a mother by her son or daughter.

2. [L. matricida: cf. F. matricide.] One who murders one's own mother.

Ma*tric"u*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Matriculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Matriculating.] [L. matricula a public roll or register, dim. of matrix a mother, in respect to propagation, also, a public register. See Matrix.] To enroll; to enter in a register; specifically, to enter or admit to membership in a body or society, particularly in a college or university, by enrolling the name in a register.

In discovering and matriculating the arms of commissaries from North America.

Sir W. Scott.

Ma*tric"u*late, v. i. To go though the process of admission to membership, as by examination and enrollment, in a society or college.

Ma*tric"u*late (?), a. Matriculated. Skelton. -- n. One who is matriculated. Arbuthnot.

Ma*tric`u*la"tion (?), n. The act or process of matriculating; the state of being matriculated.

Mat"ri*moine (?), n. Matrimony. [Obs.]

Mat`ri*mo"ni*al (?), a. [L. matrimonialis: cf. F. matrimonial. See Matrimony.] Of or pertaining to marriage; derived from marriage; connubial; nuptial; hymeneal; as, matrimonial rights or duties.

If he relied upon that title, he could be but a king at courtesy, and have rather a matrimonial than a regal power.


Syn. -- Connubial; conjugal; sponsal; spousal; nuptial; hymeneal.

Mat`ri*mo"ni*al*ly, adv. In a matrimonial manner.

Mat`ri*mo"ni*ous (?), a. Matrimonial. [R.] Milton.

Mat"ri*mo*ny (?), n. [OE. matrimoine, through Old French, fr. L. matrimonium, fr. mater mother. See Mother.]

1. The union of man and woman as husband and wife; the nuptial state; marriage; wedlock.

If either of you know any impediment, why ye may not be lawfully joined together in matrimony, ye do now confess it.

Book of Com. Prayer (Eng. Ed. )

2. A kind of game at cards played by several persons.

Matrimony vine (Bot.), a climbing thorny vine (Lycium barbarum) of the Potato family. Gray.

Syn. -- Marriage; wedlock. See Marriage.

Ma"trix (m"trks), n.; pl. Matrices (mt"r*sz). [L., fr. mater mother. See Mother, and cf. Matrice.]

1. (Anat.) The womb.

All that openeth the matrix is mine.

Ex. xxxiv. 19.

2. Hence, that which gives form or origin to anything; as: (a) (Mech.) The cavity in which anything is formed, and which gives it shape; a die; a mold, as for the face of a type. (b) (Min.) The earthy or stony substance in which metallic ores or crystallized minerals are found; the gangue. (c) pl. (Dyeing) The five simple colors, black, white, blue, red, and yellow, of which all the rest are composed.

3. (Biol.) The lifeless portion of tissue, either animal or vegetable, situated between the cells; the intercellular substance.

4. (Math.) A rectangular arrangement of symbols in rows and columns. The symbols may express quantities or operations.

Ma"tron (?), n. [F. matrone, L. matrona, fr. mater mother. See Mother.] 1. A wife or a widow, especially, one who has borne children; a woman of staid or motherly manners.

Your wives, your daughters,
Your matrons, and your maids.


Grave from her cradle, insomuch that she was a matron before she was a mother.


2. A housekeeper; esp., a woman who manages the domestic economy of a public instution; a head nurse in a hospital; as, the matron of a school or hospital.

Jury of matrons (Law), a jury of experienced women called to determine the question of pregnancy when set up in bar of execution, and for other cognate purposes.

Mat"ron*age (?), n. 1. The state of a matron.

2. The collective body of matrons. Burke.

Can a politician slight the feelings and convictions of the whole matronage of his country ?


Mat"ron*al (?), a. [L. matronalis.] Of or pertaining to a matron; suitable to an elderly lady or to a married woman; grave; motherly.

Ma"tron*hood (?), n. The state of being a matron.

Mat"ron*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Matronized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Matronizing (?).] 1. To make a matron of; to make matronlike.

Childbed matronizes the giddiest spirits.


2. To act the part of a matron toward; to superintend; to chaperone; as, to matronize an assembly.

Ma"tron*like` (?), a. Like a matron; sedate; grave; matronly.

Ma"tron*ly, a. 1. Advanced in years; elderly.

2. Like, or befitting, a matron; grave; sedate.

Mat`ro*nym"ic (?), n. [L. mater mother + -nymic, as in patronimic.] See Metronymic.

Ma*tross" (?), n. [D. matroos, fr. F. matelot.] (Mil.) Formerly, in the British service, a gunner or a gunner's mate; one of the soldiers in a train of artillery, who assisted the gunners in loading, firing, and sponging the guns. [Obs.]

Matt (?), n. See Matte. Knight.

Mat`ta*ges" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A shrike or butcher bird; -- written also matagasse. [Prov. Eng.]

Mat"ta*more` (?), n. [F. matamore, from Ar. mamra.] A subterranean repository for wheat.

Matte (mt), n. [F. matte; cf. F. mat, masc., matte, fem., faint, dull, dim; -- said of metals. See Mate checkmate.] 1. (Metallurgy) A partly reduced copper sulphide, obtained by alternately roasting and melting copper ore in separating the metal from associated iron ores, and called coarse metal, fine metal, etc., according to the grade of fineness. On the exterior it is dark brown or black, but on a fresh surface is yellow or bronzy in color.

2. A dead or dull finish, as in gilding where the gold leaf is not burnished, or in painting where the surface is purposely deprived of gloss.

Mat"ted (?), a. [See Matte.] Having a dull surface; unburnished; as, matted gold leaf or gilding.

Matted glass, glass ornamented with figures on a dull ground.

Mat"ted, a. [See 3d Mat.] 1. Covered with a mat or mats; as, a matted floor.

2. Tangled closely together; having its parts adhering closely together; as, matted hair.

Mat"ter (?), n. [OE. matere, F. matière, fr. L. materia; perh. akin to L. mater mother. Cf. Mother, Madeira, Material.] 1. That of which anything is composed; constituent substance; material; the material or substantial part of anything; the constituent elements of conception; that into which a notion may be analyzed; the essence; the pith; the embodiment.

He is the matter of virtue.

B. Jonson.

2. That of which the sensible universe and all existent bodies are composed; anything which has extension, occupies space, or is perceptible by the senses; body; substance.

Matter is usually divided by philosophical writers into three kinds or classes: solid, liquid, and aëriform. Solid substances are those whose parts firmly cohere and resist impression, as wood or stone. Liquids have free motion among their parts, and easily yield to impression, as water and wine. Aëriform substances are elastic fluids, called vapors and gases, as air and oxygen gas.

3. That with regard to, or about which, anything takes place or is done; the thing aimed at, treated of, or treated; subject of action, discussion, consideration, feeling, complaint, legal action, or the like; theme. "If the matter should be tried by duel." Bacon.

Son of God, Savior of men ! Thy name
Shall be the copious matter of my song.


Every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge.

Ex. xviii. 22.

4. That which one has to treat, or with which one has to do; concern; affair; business.

To help the matter, the alchemists call in many vanities out of astrology.


Some young female seems to have carried matters so far, that she is ripe for asking advice.


5. Affair worthy of account; thing of consequence; importance; significance; moment; -- chiefly in the phrases what matter ? no matter, and the like.

A prophet some, and some a poet, cry;
No matter which, so neither of them lie.


6. Inducing cause or occasion, especially of anything disagreeable or distressing; difficulty; trouble.

And this is the matter why interpreters upon that passage in Hosea will not consent it to be a true story, that the prophet took a harlot to wife.


<! p. 903 !>

7. Amount; quantity; portion; space; -- often indefinite.

Away he goes, . . . a matter of seven miles.

L' Estrange.

I have thoughts to tarry a small matter.


No small matter of British forces were commanded over sea the year before.


8. Substance excreted from living animal bodies; that which is thrown out or discharged in a tumor, boil, or abscess; pus; purulent substance.

9. (Metaph.) That which is permanent, or is supposed to be given, and in or upon which changes are effected by psychological or physical processes and relations; -- opposed to form. Mansel.

10. (Print.) Written manuscript, or anything to be set in type; copy; also, type set up and ready to be used, or which has been used, in printing.

Dead matter (Print.), type which has been used, or which is not to be used, in printing, and is ready for distribution. -- Live matter (Print.), type set up, but not yet printed from. -- Matter in bar, Matter of fact. See under Bar, and Fact. -- Matter of record, anything recorded. -- Upon the matter, or Upon the whole matter, considering the whole; taking all things into view.

Waller, with Sir William Balfour, exceeded in horse, but were, upon the whole matter, equal in foot.


Mat"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Mattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mattering.] 1. To be of importance; to import; to signify.

It matters not how they were called.


2. To form pus or matter, as an abscess; to maturate. [R.] "Each slight sore mattereth." Sir P. Sidney.

Mat"ter, v. t. To regard as important; to take account of; to care for. [Obs.]

He did not matter cold nor hunger.

H. Brooke.

Mat"ter*less, a. 1. Not being, or having, matter; as, matterless spirits. Davies (Wit's Pilgr. ).

2. Unimportant; immaterial. [Obs.]

Mat"ter-of-fact" (?), a. Adhering to facts; not turning aside from absolute realities; not fanciful or imaginative; commonplace; dry.

Mat"ter*y (?), a. 1. Generating or containing pus; purulent.

2. Full of substance or matter; important. B. Jonson.

Mat"ting (?), n. [From Mat, v. t. & i.] 1. The act of interweaving or tangling together so as to make a mat; the process of becoming matted.

2. Mats, in general, or collectively; mat work; a matlike fabric, for use in covering floors, packing articles, and the like; a kind of carpeting made of straw, etc.

3. Materials for mats.

4. An ornamental border. See 3d Mat, 4.

Mat"ting, n. [See Matte.] A dull, lusterless surface in certain of the arts, as gilding, metal work, glassmaking, etc.

Mat"tock (?), n. [AS. mattuc; cf. W. matog.] An implement for digging and grubbing. The head has two long steel blades, one like an adz and the other like a narrow ax or the point of a pickax.

'T is you must dig with mattock and with spade.


Mat`to*wac"ca (?), n. [Indian name.] (Zoöl.) An American clupeoid fish (Clupea mediocris), similar to the shad in habits and appearance, but smaller and less esteemed for food; -- called also hickory shad, tailor shad, fall herring, and shad herring.

Mat"tress (?), n. [OF. materas, F. matelas, LL. matratium; cf. Sp. & Pg. almadraque, Pr. almatrac; all from Ar. marah a place where anything is thrown, what is thrown under something, fr. araha to throw.]

1. A quilted bed; a bed stuffed with hair, moss, or other suitable material, and quilted or otherwise fastened. [Written also matress.]

2. (Hydraulic Engin.) A mass of interwoven brush, poles, etc., to protect a bank from being worn away by currents or waves.

Mat"u*rant (?), n. [L. maturans, p. pr. See Maturate.] (Med.) A medicine, or application, which promotes suppuration.

Mat"u*rate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Maturated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Maturating (?).] [L. maturatus, p. p. of maturare to make ripe, fr. maturus ripe, mature. See Mature, v. & a.] 1. To bring to ripeness or maturity; to ripen.

A tree may be maturated artificially.


2. To promote the perfect suppuration of (an abscess).

Mat"u*rate, v. i. To ripen; to become mature; specifically, to suppurate.

Mat`u*ra"tion (?), n. [L. maturatio a hastening: cf. F. maturation.] The process of bringing, or of coming, to maturity; hence, specifically, the process of suppurating perfectly; the formation of pus or matter.

Mat"u*ra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. maturatif.] Conducing to ripeness or maturity; hence, conducing to suppuration.

Mat"u*ra*tive, n. (Med.) A remedy promoting maturation; a maturant.

Ma*ture" (?), a. [Compar. Maturer (?); superl. Maturest.] [L. maturus; prob. akin to E. matin.]

1. Brought by natural process to completeness of growth and development; fitted by growth and development for any function, action, or state, appropriate to its kind; full-grown; ripe.

Now is love mature in ear.


How shall I meet, or how accost, the sage,
Unskilled in speech, nor yet mature of age ?


2. Completely worked out; fully digested or prepared; ready for action; made ready for destined application or use; perfected; as, a mature plan.

This lies glowing, . . . and is almost mature for the violent breaking out.


3. Of or pertaining to a condition of full development; as, a man of mature years.

4. Come to, or in a state of, completed suppuration.

Syn. -- Ripe; perfect; completed; prepared; digested; ready. -- Mature, Ripe. Both words describe fullness of growth. Mature brings to view the progressiveness of the process; ripe indicates the result. We speak of a thing as mature when thinking of the successive stayes through which it has passed; as ripe, when our attention is directed merely to its state. A mature judgment; mature consideration; ripe fruit; a ripe scholar.

Ma*ture" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Matured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Maturing.] [See Maturate, Mature.] To bring or hasten to maturity; to promote ripeness in; to ripen; to complete; as, to mature one's plans. Bacon.

Ma*ture", v. i. 1. To advance toward maturity; to become ripe; as, wine matures by age; the judgment matures by age and experience.

2. Hence, to become due, as a note.

Ma*ture"ly, adv. 1. In a mature manner; with ripeness; completely.

2. With caution; deliberately. Dryden.

3. Early; soon. [A Latinism, little used] Bentley.

Ma*ture"ness, n. The state or quality of being mature; maturity.

Ma*tur"er (?), n. One who brings to maturity.

Mat`u*res"cent (?), a. [L. maturescens, p. pr. of maturescere to become ripe, v. incho. from maturus. See Mature, a.] Approaching maturity.

Ma*tur"ing (?), a. Approaching maturity; as, maturing fruits; maturing notes of hand.

Ma*tu"ri*ty (?), n. [L. maturitas: cf. F. maturité.]

1. The state or quality of being mature; ripeness; full development; as, the maturity of corn or of grass; maturity of judgment; the maturity of a plan.

2. Arrival of the time fixed for payment; a becoming due; termination of the period a note, etc., has to run.

Mat`u*ti"nal (?), a. [L. matutinalis, matutinus: cf. F. matutinal. See Matin.] Of or pertaining to the morning; early.

Ma*tu"ti*na*ry (?), a. Matutinal. [R.]

Mat"u*tine (?), a. Matutinal. [R.]

Mat"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) A name of several maritime grasses, as the sea sand-reed (Ammophila arundinacea) which is used in Holland to bind the sand of the seacoast dikes (see Beach grass, under Beach); also, the Lygeum Spartum, a Mediterranean grass of similar habit.

Mat"y (?), n. [Etymology uncertain.] A native house servant in India. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

||Matz"oth (?), n. [Heb. matststh, pl. of matstsh unleavened.] A cake of unleavened bread eaten by the Jews at the feast of the Passover.

||Mau*ca"co (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) A lemur; -- applied to several species, as the White-fronted, the ruffed, and the ring-tailed lemurs.

Maud (?), n. A gray plaid; -- used by shepherds in Scotland.

Mau"dle (?), v. t. To throw onto confusion or disorder; to render maudlin. [Obs.]

Maud"lin (?), a. [From Maudlin, a contr. of Magdalen, OE. Maudeleyne, who is drawn by painters with eyes swelled and red with weeping.] 1. Tearful; easily moved to tears; exciting to tears; excessively sentimental; weak and silly. "Maudlin eyes." Dryden. "Maudlin eloquence." Roscommon. "A maudlin poetess." Pope. "Maudlin crowd." Southey.

2. Drunk, or somewhat drunk; fuddled; given to drunkenness.

Maudlin Clarence in his malmsey butt.


{ Maud"lin, Maude"line (?), } n. (Bot.) An aromatic composite herb, the costmary; also, the South European Achillea Ageratum, a kind of yarrow.

Maud"lin*ism (?), n. A maudlin state. Dickens.

Maud"lin*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) The oxeye daisy.

{ Mau"ger, Mau"gre } (m"gr), prep. [OF. maugré, malgré, F. malgré. See Mal-, Malice, and Agree.] In spite of; in opposition to; notwithstanding.

A man must needs love maugre his heed.


This mauger all the world will I keep safe.


Mau"gre, v. t. To defy. [Obs.] J. Webster.

Mau"kin (?), n. 1. See Malkin.

2. (Zoöl.) A hare. [Scot.]

Maul (?), n. [See Mall a hammer.] A heavy wooden hammer or beetle. [Written also mall.]

Maul, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mauled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mauling.] 1. To beat and bruise with a heavy stick or cudgel; to wound in a coarse manner.

Meek modern faith to murder, hack, and maul.


2. To injure greatly; to do much harm to.

It mauls not only the person misrepreseted, but him also to whom he is misrepresented.


Maule (?), n. (Bot.) The common mallow.

Maul"ing (?), n. A severe beating with a stick, cudgel, or the fist.

Maul"-stick` (?), n. [G. malerstock; maler a painter + stock stick.] A stick used by painters as a rest for the hand while working. [Written also mahl-stick.]

Mau"met (?), n. See Mawmet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Maunch (?), v. t. To munch. [Obs.]

Maunch (?), n. See Manche.

Maund (?), n. [AS. mand, mond.] A hand basket. [Obs.] Herrick.

Maund, n. [Hind, & Per. man.] An East Indian weight, varying in different localities from 25 to about 82 pounds avoirdupois.

{ Maund (?), Maund"er (?), } v. i. [Cf. F. mendier to beg, E. mendicant.] 1. To beg. [Obs.] B. Jonson. Beau. & Fl.

2. To mutter; to mumble; to grumble; to speak indistinctly or disconnectedly; to talk incoherently.

He was ever maundering by the how that he met a party of scarlet devils.

Sir W. Scott.

Maund"er, v. t. To utter in a grumbling manner; to mutter.

Maund"er, n. A beggar. [Obs.]

Maund"er*er (?), n. One who maunders.

Maun"dril (?), n. [Cf. Mandrel.] (Coal Mining) A pick with two prongs, to pry with.

Maun"dy Thurs"day (?). [OE. maunde a command, OF. mandé, L. mandatum, from mandare to command. See called from the ancient custom of washing the feet of the poor on this day, which was taken to be the fulfillment of the "new commandment," John xiii. 5, 34.] (Eccl.) The Thursday in Passion week, or next before Good Friday.

Maun"gy (?), a. Mangy. [Obs.] Skelton.

Mau*resque" (?), a. & n. See Moresque.

Maur"ist (?), n. [From Maurus, the favorite disciple of St. Benedict.] A member of the Congregation of Saint Maur, an offshoot of the Benedictines, originating in France in the early part of the seventeenth century. The Maurists have been distinguished for their interest in literature.

Mau`so*le"an (?), a. [L. Mausoleus. See Mausoleum.] Pertaining to a mausoleum; monumental.

Mau`so*le"um (?), n.; pl. E. Mausoleums (#), L. -lea (#). [L. mausoleum, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; Mausolus, king of Caria, to whom Artemisia, his widow, erected a stately monument.] A magnificent tomb, or stately sepulchral monument.

Mau"ther (?), n. [Cf. AS. mægþ a maid.] [Also spelled mawther, mother.] A girl; esp., a great, awkward girl; a wench. [Prov. Eng.]

Mauv`an"i*line (?), n. (Chem.) See Mauve aniline, under Mauve.

Mauve (mv), n. [F., mallow, L. malva. So named from the similarity of the color to that of the petals of common mallow, Malva sylvestris. See Mallow.] A color of a delicate purple, violet, or lilac.

Mauve aniline (Chem.), a dyestuff produced artificially by the oxidation of commercial aniline, and the first discovered of the so-called coal-tar, or aniline, dyes. It consists of the sulphate of mauveïne, and is a dark brown or bronze amorphous powder, which dissolves to a beatiful purple color. Called also aniline purple, violine, etc.

Mauve"ïne (?), n. (Chem.) An artificial organic base, obtained by oxidizing a mixture of aniline and toluidine, and valuable for the dyestuffs it forms. [Written also mauvine.]

Mauv"ine (?), a. Mauve- colored.

Mav"er*ick (?), n. In the southwestern part of the united States, a bullock or heifer that has not been branded, and is unclaimed or wild; -- said to be from Maverick, the name of a cattle owner in Texas who neglected to brand his cattle.

Ma"vis (m"vs), n. [F. mauvis, Arm. milvid, milfid, milc'hhouid, Corn. melhuez.] (Zoöl.) The European throstle or song thrush (Turdus musicus).

Maw (m), n. [See Mew a gull.] (Zoöl.) A gull.

Maw, n. [OE. mawe, AS. maga stomach; akin to D. maag, OHG. mago, G. magen, Icel. magi, Sw. mage, Dan. mave. √103.] 1. A stomach; the receptacle into which food is taken by swallowing; in birds, the craw; -- now used only of the lower animals, exept humorously or in contempt. Chaucer.

Bellies and maws of living creatures.


2. Appetite; inclination. [Obs.]

Unless you had more maw to do me good.

Beau. & Fl.

Fish maw. (Zoöl.) See under Fish.

Maw, n. An old game at cards. Sir A. Weldon.

Mawk (mk), n. [OE. mauk, maðek, Icel. maðkr; akin to Dan. maddik, and E. mad an earthworm. See Mad, n.]

1. A maggot. [Scot.]

2. A slattern; a mawks. [Prov. Eng.]

Maw"kin (?), n. See Malkin, and Maukin.

Mawk"ing*ly (?), adv. Slatternly. [Obs.]

Mawk"ish, a. [Orig., maggoty. See Mawk.] 1. Apt to cause satiety or loathing; nauseous; disgusting.

So sweetly mawkish', and so smoothly dull.


2. Easily disgusted; squeamish; sentimentally fastidious. J. H. Newman.

Mawk"ish*ly, adv. In a mawkish way.

Mawk"ish*ness, n. The quality or state of being mawkish. J. H. Newman.

Mawks (?), n. A slattern; a mawk. [Prov. Eng.]

Mawk"y (?), a. Maggoty. [Prov. Eng.]

Maw"met (?), n. [Contr. fr. Mahomet.] A puppet; a doll; originally, an idol, because in the Middle Ages it was generally believed that the Mohammedans worshiped images representing Mohammed. [Obs.] Wyclif. Beau. & Fl.

Maw"met*ry (?), n. The religion of Mohammed; also, idolatry. See Mawmet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Maw"mish (?), a. [Prov. E. maum soft, mellow, rotten; cf. OD. molm rotten wood, G. mulm.] Nauseous. [Obs.] L' Estrange.

Maw"seed` (?), n. [Cf. G. magsamen.] (Bot.) The seed of the opium poppy.

Maw"worm` (?), n. [Maw the belly + worm.] (Zoöl.) (a) Any intestinal worm found in the stomach, esp. the common round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides), and allied species. (b) One of the larvæ of botflies of horses; a bot.

||Max*il"la (?), n.; pl. Maxillæ (#). [L., dim. of mala jaw, jawbone.] 1. (Anat.) (a) The bone of either the upper or the under jaw. (b) The bone, or principal bone, of the upper jaw, the bone of the lower jaw being the mandible. [Now commonly used in this restricted sense.]

2. (Zoöl.) One of the lower or outer jaws of arthropods.

There are usually two pairs in Crustacea and one pair in insects. In certain insects they are not used as jaws, but may form suctorial organs. See Illust. under Lepidoptera, and Diptera.

<! p. 904 !>

{ Max"il*lar (?), Max"il*la*ry (?), } a. [L. maxillaris, fr. maxilla jawbone, jaw: cf. F. maxillaire.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining to either the upper or the lower jaw, but now usually applied to the upper jaw only. -- n. The principal maxillary bone; the maxilla.

2. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a maxilla.

Max*il"li*form (?), a. [Maxilla + -form: cf. F. maxilliforme.] Having the form, or structure, of a maxilla.

Max*il"li*ped (?), n. [Maxilla + L. pes, pedis, foot.] (Zoöl.) One of the mouth appendages of Crustacea, situated next behind the maxillæ. Crabs have three pairs, but many of the lower Crustacea have but one pair of them. Called also jawfoot, and foot jaw.

Max*il`lo-man*dib"u*lar (?), a. [Maxilla + mandibular.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the maxilla and mandible; as, the maxillo-mandibular nerve.

Max*il`lo-pal"a*tine (?), a. [Maxilla + palatine.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the maxillary and palatine regions of the skull; as, the maxillo- palatine process of the maxilla. Also used as n.

Max*il`lo*tur`bi*nal (?), a. [Maxilla + turbinal.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the maxillary and turbinal regions of the skull. -- n. The maxillo-turbinal, or inferior turbinate, bone.

Max"im (?), n. [F. maxime, L. maxima (sc. sententia), the greatest sentence, proposition, or axiom, i. e., of the greatest weight or authority, fem. fr. maximus greatest, superl. of magnus great. See Magnitude, and cf. Maximum.]

1. An established principle or proposition; a condensed proposition of important practical truth; an axiom of practical wisdom; an adage; a proverb; an aphorism.

'T is their maxim, Love is love's reward.


2. (Mus.) The longest note formerly used, equal to two longs, or four breves; a large.

Syn. -- Axiom; aphorism; apothegm; adage; proverb; saying. See Axiom.

Max`i*mil"ian (?), n. [From the proper name.] A gold coin of Bavaria, of the value of about 13s. 6d. sterling, or about three dollars and a quarter.

Max`i*mi*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of increasing to the highest degree. Bentham.

Max"i*mize (?), v. t. [L. maximus greatest.] To increase to the highest degree. Bentham.

Max"i*mum (?), n.; pl. Maxima (#). [L., neut. from maximus the greatest. See Maxim.] The greatest quantity or value attainable in a given case; or, the greatest value attained by a quantity which first increases and then begins to decrease; the highest point or degree; -- opposed to minimum.

Good legislation is the art of conducting a nation to the maximum of happiness, and the minimum of misery.

P. Colquhoun.

Maximum thermometer, a thermometer that registers the highest degree of temperature attained in a given time, or since its last adjustment.

Max"i*mum, a. Greatest in quantity or highest in degree attainable or attained; as, a maximum consumption of fuel; maximum pressure; maximum heat.

May (m), v. [imp. Might (mt)] [AS. pres. mæg I am able, pret. meahte, mihte; akin to D. mogen, G. mögen, OHG. mugan, magan, Icel. mega, Goth. magan, Russ. moche. √103. Cf. Dismay, Main strength, Might. The old imp. mought is obsolete, except as a provincial word.] An auxiliary verb qualifying the meaning of another verb, by expressing: (a) Ability, competency, or possibility; -- now oftener expressed by can.

How may a man, said he, with idle speech,
Be won to spoil the castle of his health !


For what he [the king] may do is of two kinds; what he may do as just, and what he may do as possible.


For of all sad words of tongue or pen
The saddest are these: "It might have been."


(b) Liberty; permission; allowance.

Thou mayst be no longer steward.

Luke xvi. 2.

(c) Contingency or liability; possibility or probability.

Though what he learns he speaks, and may advance
Some general maxims, or be right by chance.


(d) Modesty, courtesy, or concession, or a desire to soften a question or remark.

How old may Phillis be, you ask.


(e) Desire or wish, as in prayer, imprecation, benediction, and the like. "May you live happily." Dryden.

May be, ∧ It may be, are used as equivalent to possibly, perhaps, by chance, peradventure. See 1st Maybe.

May, n. [Cf. Icel. mær, Goth. mawi; akin to E. maiden. √103.] A maiden. [Obs.] Chaucer.

May, n. [F. Mai, L. Maius; so named in honor of the goddess Maia (Gr. &?;), daughter of Atlas and mother of Mercury by Jupiter.] 1. The fifth month of the year, containing thirty-one days. Chaucer.

2. The early part or springtime of life.

His May of youth, and bloom of lustihood.


3. (Bot.) The flowers of the hawthorn; -- so called from their time of blossoming; also, the hawthorn.

The palm and may make country houses gay.


Plumes that mocked the may.


4. The merrymaking of May Day. Tennyson.

Italian may (Bot.), a shrubby species of Spiræa (S. hypericifolia) with many clusters of small white flowers along the slender branches. -- May apple (Bot.), the fruit of an American plant (Podophyllum peltatum). Also, the plant itself (popularly called mandrake), which has two lobed leaves, and bears a single egg-shaped fruit at the forking. The root and leaves, used in medicine, are powerfully drastic. -- May beetle, May bug (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of large lamellicorn beetles that appear in the winged state in May. They belong to Melolontha, and allied genera. Called also June beetle. -- May Day, the first day of May; -- celebrated in the rustic parts of England by the crowning of a May queen with a garland, and by dancing about a May pole. -- May dew, the morning dew of the first day of May, to which magical properties were attributed. -- May flower (Bot.), a plant that flowers in May; also, its blossom. See Mayflower, in the vocabulary. -- May fly (Zoöl.), any species of Ephemera, and allied genera; -- so called because the mature flies of many species appear in May. See Ephemeral fly, under Ephemeral. -- May game, any May-day sport. -- May lady, the queen or lady of May, in old May games. -- May lily (Bot.), the lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis). -- May pole. See Maypole in the Vocabulary. -- May queen, a girl or young woman crowned queen in the sports of May Day. -- May thorn, the hawthorn.

||Ma"ya (mä"yä), n. (Hindoo Philos.) The name for the doctrine of the unreality of matter, called, in English, idealism; hence, nothingness; vanity; illusion.

May"be (?), adv. [For it may be.] Perhaps; possibly; peradventure.

Maybe the amorous count solicits her.


In a liberal and, maybe, somewhat reckless way.


May"be, a. Possible; probable, but not sure. [R.]

Then add those maybe years thou hast to live.


May"be, n. Possibility; uncertainty. [R.]

What they offer is mere maybe and shift.


May"bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The whimbrel; -- called also May fowl, May curlew, and May whaap. (b) The knot. [Southern U. S.] (c) The bobolink.

May"bloom` (?), n. (Bot.) The hawthorn.

May"bush` (?), n. (Bot.) The hawthorn.

May"duke` (?), n. [Corrupt. of Médoc, a province in France, where it is supposed to have originated.] A large dark-red cherry of excellent quality.

May"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A common American minnow (Fundulus majalis). See Minnow.

May"flow`er (?), n. (Bot.) In England, the hawthorn; in New England, the trailing arbutus (see Arbutus); also, the blossom of these plants.

May"hap (?), adv. Perhaps; peradventure. [Prov. or Dialectic]

May"hem (?), n. [The same as maim. See Maim.] (Law) The maiming of a person by depriving him of the use of any of his members which are necessary for defense or protection. See Maim.

May"ing (?), n. The celebrating of May Day. "He met her once a-Maying." Milton.

Ma`yon`naise" (?), n. [F.] A sauce compounded of raw yolks of eggs beaten up with olive oil to the consistency of a sirup, and seasoned with vinegar, pepper, salt, etc.; -- used in dressing salads, fish, etc. Also, a dish dressed with this sauce.

May"or (?), n. [OE. maire, F. maire, fr. L. major greater, higher, nobler, compar. of magnus great; cf. Sp. mayor. See Major, and cf. Merino.] The chief magistrate of a city or borough; the chief officer of a municipal corporation. In some American cities there is a city court of which the major is chief judge.

||May"or*al (?), n. [Sp., fr. mayor greater, L. major.] The conductor of a mule team; also, a head shepherd.

May"or*al*ty (?), n. The office, or the term of office, of a mayor.

May"or*ess (?), n. The wife of a mayor.

May"or*ship, n. The office of a mayor.

May"pole` (?), n. A tall pole erected in an open place and wreathed with flowers, about which the rustic May-day sports were had.

May"pop (?), n. [Perh. corrupt. fr. maracock.] (Bot.) The edible fruit of a passion flower, especially that of the North American Passiflora incarnata, an oval yellowish berry as large as a small apple.

May"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) A composite plant (Anthemis Cotula), having a strong odor; dog's fennel. It is a native of Europe, now common by the roadsides in the United States. (b) The feverfew.

{ Ma*za"ma (?), Ma*za"me (?), } n. (Zoöl.) A goatlike antelope (Haplocerus montanus) which inhabits the Rocky Mountains, frequenting the highest parts; -- called also mountain goat.

Maz"ard (?), n. [Cf. F. merise a wild cherry.] (Bot.) A kind of small black cherry.

Maz"ard, n. [Prob. fr. mazer, the head being compared to a large goblet.] The jaw; the head or skull. [Obs.] Shak.

Maz"ard, v. t., To knock on the head. [Obs.]

Maz`a*rine" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Cardinal Mazarin, prime minister of France, 1643-1661.

Mazarine Bible, the first Bible, and perhaps the first complete book, printed with movable metal types; -- printed by Gutenberg at Mentz, 1450-55; -- so called because a copy was found in the Mazarine Library, at Paris, about 1760. -- Mazarine blue, a deep blue color, named in honor of Cardinal Mazarin.

Maz`a*rine", n. Mazarine blue.

Maz"de*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Ahura-Mazda, or Ormuzd, the beneficent deity in the Zoroastrian dualistic system; hence, Zoroastrian.

Maz"de*ism (?), n. The Zoroastrian religion.

Maze (?), n. [OE. mase; cf. OE. masen to confuse, puzzle, Norweg. masast to fall into a slumber, masa to be continually busy, prate, chatter, Icel. masa to chatter, dial. Sw. masa to bask, be slow, work slowly and lazily, mas slow, lazy.] 1. A wild fancy; a confused notion. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Confusion of thought; perplexity; uncertainty; state of bewilderment.

3. A confusing and baffling network, as of paths or passages; an intricacy; a labyrinth. "Quaint mazes on the wanton green." Shak.

Or down the tempting maze of Shawford brook.


The ways of Heaven are dark and intricate,
Puzzled with mazes, and perplexed with error.


Syn. -- Labyrinth; intricacy. See Labyrinth.

Maze (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mazed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mazing.] To perplex greatly; to bewilder; to astonish and confuse; to amaze. South.

Maze, v. i. To be bewildered. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Maz"ed*ness (?), n. The condition of being mazed; confusion; astonishment. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Maze"ful (?), a. Mazy. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

Maz"er (?), n. [OE. maser, akin to OD. maser an excrescence on a maple tree, OHG. masar, G. maser spot, Icel. mösurr maple.] A large drinking bowl; -- originally made of maple. [Obs.]

Their brimful mazers to the feasting bring.


Ma"zi*ly (?), adv. In a mazy manner.

Ma"zi*ness, n. The state or quality of being mazy.

Maz`o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to mazology.

Ma*zol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in mazology or mastology.

Ma*zol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; the breast + -logy.] Same as Mastology.

{ Ma*zour"ka (?), Ma*zur"ka (?), } n. A Polish dance, or the music which accompanies it, usually in 3-4 or 3-8 measure, with a strong accent on the second beat.

Ma"zy (?), a. [From Maze.] Perplexed with turns and windings; winding; intricate; confusing; perplexing; embarrassing; as, mazy error. Milton.

To range amid the mazy thicket.


To run the ring, and trace the mazy round.


Me (?), pron. One. See Men, pron. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Me (m), pers. pron. [AS. m, dat. & acc., mec, acc. only ; akin to D. mij, G. mich, Icel. & Goth. mik, L. me, Gr. me`, 'eme`, Skr. m, mm. √187. Cf. 2d Mine.] The person speaking, regarded as an object; myself; a pronoun of the first person used as the objective and dative case of the pronoum I; as, he struck me; he gave me the money, or he gave the money to me; he got me a hat, or he got a hat for me.

In methinks, me is properly in the dative case, and the verb is impersonal, the construction being, it appears to me. In early use me was often placed before forms of the verb to be with an adjective; as, me were lief.

Me rather had my heart might frrl your love
Than my unpleased eye see your courtesy.


Meach (?), v. i. To skulk; to cower. See Mich.

Mea"cock (?), n. [Prob. fr. meek + cock.] An uxorious, effeminate, or spiritless man. [Obs.] Johnson.

Mead (md), n. [OE. mede, AS. meodo; akin to D. mede, G. met, meth, OHG. metu, mitu, Icel. mjöðr, Dan. miöd, Sw. mjöd, Russ. med', Lith. midus, W. medd, Gr. me`qy wine, Skr. madhu honey, a sweet drink, as adj., sweet. √270. Cf. Metheglin.] 1. A fermented drink made of water and honey with malt, yeast, etc.; metheglin; hydromel. Chaucer.

2. A drink composed of sirup of sarsaparilla or other flavoring extract, and water. It is sometimes charged with carbonic acid gas. [U. S.]

Mead, n. [AS. md. See Meadow.] A meadow.

A mede
All full of freshe flowers, white and reede.


To fertile vales and dewy meads
My weary, wandering steps he leads.


Mead"ow (?), n. [AS. meady; akin to md, and to G. matte; prob. also to E. mow. See Mow to cut (grass), and cf. 2d Mead.] 1. A tract of low or level land producing grass which is mown for hay; any field on which grass is grown for hay.

2. Low land covered with coarse grass or rank herbage near rives and in marshy places by the sea; as, the salt meadows near Newark Bay.

Mead"ow, a. Of or pertaining to a meadow; of the nature of a meadow; produced, growing, or living in, a meadow. "Fat meadow ground." Milton.

For many names of plants compounded with meadow, see the particular word in the Vocabulary.

Meadow beauty. (Bot.) Same as Deergrass. -- Meadow foxtail (Bot.), a valuable pasture grass (Alopecurus pratensis) resembling timothy, but with softer spikes. -- Meadow grass (Bot.), a name given to several grasses of the genus Poa, common in meadows, and of great value for nay and for pasture. See Grass. -- Meadow hay, a coarse grass, or true sedge, growing in uncultivated swamp or river meadow; -- used as fodder or bedding for cattle, packing for ice, etc. [Local, U. S.] -- Meadow hen. (Zoöl.) (a) The American bittern. See Stake-driver. (b) The American coot (Fulica). (c) The clapper rail. -- Meadow lark (Zoöl.), any species of Sturnella, a genus of American birds allied to the starlings. The common species (S. magna) has a yellow breast with a black crescent. -- Meadow mouse (Zoöl.), any mouse of the genus Arvicola, as the common American species A. riparia; -- called also field mouse, and field vole. -- Meadow mussel (Zoöl.), an American ribbed mussel (Modiola plicatula), very abundant in salt marshes. -- Meadow ore (Min.), bog-iron ore , a kind of limonite. -- Meadow parsnip. (Bot.) See under Parsnip. -- Meadow pink. (Bot.) See under Pink. -- Meadow pipit (Zoöl.), a small singing bird of the genus Anthus, as A. pratensis, of Europe. -- Meadow rue (Bot.), a delicate early plant, of the genus Thalictrum, having compound leaves and numerous white flowers. There are many species. -- Meadow saffron. (Bot.) See under Saffron. -- Meadow sage. (Bot.) See under Sage. -- Meadow saxifrage (Bot.), an umbelliferous plant of Europe (Silaus pratensis), somewhat resembling fennel. -- Meadow snipe (Zoöl.), the common or jack snipe.

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{ Mead"ow*sweet` (?), Mead"ow*wort` (?), } n. (Bot.) The name of several plants of the genus Spiræa, especially the white- or pink-flowered S. salicifolia, a low European and American shrub, and the herbaceous S. Ulmaria, which has fragrant white flowers in compound cymes.

Mead"ow*y (?), a. Of or pertaining to meadows; resembling, or consisting of, meadow.

{ Mea"ger, Mea"gre } (?), a. [OE. merge, F. maigre, L. macer; akin to D. & G. mager, Icel. magr, and prob. to Gr. makro`s long. Cf. Emaciate, Maigre.]

1. Destitue of, or having little, flesh; lean.

Meager were his looks;
Sharp misery had worn him to the bones.


2. Destitute of richness, fertility, strength, or the like; defective in quantity, or poor in quality; poor; barren; scanty in ideas; wanting strength of diction or affluence of imagery. "Meager soil." Dryden.

Of secular habits and meager religious belief.

I. Taylor.

His education had been but meager.


3. (Min.) Dry and harsh to the touch, as chalk.

Syn. -- Thin; lean; lank; gaunt; starved; hungry; poor; emaciated; scanty; barren.

{ Mea"ger, Mea"gre }, v. t. To make lean. [Obs.]

{ Mea"ger*ly, Mea"gre*ly }, adv. Poorly; thinly.

{ Mea"ger*ness, Mea"gre*ness }, n. The state or quality of being meager; leanness; scantiness; barrenness.

Mea"gre (?), n. [F. maigre.] (Zoöl.) A large European sciænoid fish (Sciæna umbra or S. aquila), having white bloodless flesh. It is valued as a food fish. [Written also maigre.]

Meak (?), n. [Cf. AS. mce sword, OS. mki, Icel. mækir.] A hook with a long handle. [Obs.] Tusser.

Meak"ing, n. [See Meak.] (Naut.) The process of picking out the oakum from the seams of a vessel which is to be recalked.

Meaking iron (Naut.), the tool with which old oakum is picked out of a vessel's seams.

Meal (ml), n. [OE. mele, AS. ml part, portion, portion of time; akin to E. meal a repast. Cf. Piecemeal.] A part; a fragment; a portion. [Obs.]

Meal, n. [OE. mel; akin to E. meal a part, and to D. maal time, meal, G. mal time, mahl meal, Icel. ml measure, time, meal, Goth. ml time, and to E. measure. See Measure.] The portion of food taken at a particular time for the satisfaction of appetite; the quantity usually taken at one time with the purpose of satisfying hunger; a repast; the act or time of eating a meal; as, the traveler has not eaten a good meal for a week; there was silence during the meal.

What strange fish
Hath made his meal on thee ?


Meal, n. [OE. mele, AS. melu, melo; akin to D. meel, G. mehl, OHG. melo, Icel. mjöl, SW. mjöl, Dan. meel, also to D. malen to grind, G. mahlen, OHG., OS., & Goth. malan, Icel. mala, W. malu, L. molere, Gr. my`lh mill, and E. mill. √108. Cf. Mill, Mold soil, Mole an animal, Immolate, Molar.]

1. Grain (esp. maize, rye, or oats) that is coarsely ground and unbolted; also, a kind of flour made from beans, pease, etc.; sometimes, any flour, esp. if coarse.

2. Any substance that is coarsely pulverized like meal, but not granulated.

Meal beetle (Zoöl.), the adult of the meal worm. See Meal worm, below. -- Meal moth (Zoöl.), a lepidopterous insect (Asopia farinalis), the larvæ of which feed upon meal, flour, etc. -- Meal worm (Zoöl.), the larva of a beetle (Tenebrio molitor) which infests granaries, bakehouses, etc., and is very injurious to flour and meal.

Meal, v. t. 1. To sprinkle with, or as with, meal. Shak.

2. To pulverize; as, mealed powder.

Meal"ies (?), n. pl. [From Mealy.] (Bot.) Maize or Indian corn; -- the common name in South Africa.

Meal"i*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being mealy.

Meal"-mouthed` (?), a. See Mealy-mouthed.

Meal"time` (?), n. The usual time of eating a meal.

Meal"y (?), a. [Compar. Mealier (?); superl. Mealiest.]

1. Having the qualities of meal; resembling meal; soft, dry, and friable; easily reduced to a condition resembling meal; as, a mealy potato.

2. Overspread with something that resembles meal; as, the mealy wings of an insect. Shak.

Mealy bug (Zoöl.), a scale insect (Coccus adonidum, and related species), covered with a white powderlike substance. It is a common pest in hothouses.

Meal"y-mouthed` (?), a. Using soft words; plausible; affectedly or timidly delicate of speech; unwilling to tell the truth in plain language. "Mealy-mouthed philanthropies." Tennyson.

She was a fool to be mealy-mouthed where nature speaks so plain.


-- Meal"y-mouth`ness (#), n.

Mean (mn), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Meant (mnt); p. pr. & vb. n. Meaning.] [OE. menen, AS. mnan to recite, tell, intend, wish; akin to OS. mnian to have in mind, mean, D. meenen, G. meinen, OHG. meinan, Icel. meina, Sw. mena, Dan. mene, and to E. mind. √104. See Mind, and cf. Moan.] 1. To have in the mind, as a purpose, intention, etc.; to intend; to purpose; to design; as, what do you mean to do ?

What mean ye by this service ?

Ex. xii. 26.

Ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good.

Gen. 1. 20.

I am not a Spaniard
To say that it is yours and not to mean it.


2. To signify; to indicate; to import; to denote.

What mean these seven ewe lambs ?

Gen. xxi. 29.

Go ye, and learn what that meaneth.

Matt. ix. 13.

Mean, v. i. To have a purpose or intention. [Rare, except in the phrase to mean well, or ill.] Shak.

Mean (mn), a. [Compar. Meaner (mn"r); superl. Meanest.] [OE. mene, AS. mne wicked; akin to mn, a., wicked, n., wickedness, OS. mn wickedness, OHG. mein, G. meineid perjury, Icel. mein harm, hurt, and perh. to AS. gemne common, general, D. gemeen, G. gemein, Goth. gamáins, and L. communis. The AS. gemne prob. influenced the meaning.]

1. Destitute of distinction or eminence; common; low; vulgar; humble. "Of mean parentage." Sir P. Sidney.

The mean man boweth down, and the great man humbleth himself.

Is. ii. 9.

2. Wanting dignity of mind; low-minded; base; destitute of honor; spiritless; as, a mean motive.

Can you imagine I so mean could prove,
To save my life by changing of my love ?


3. Of little value or account; worthy of little or no regard; contemptible; despicable.

The Roman legions and great Cæsar found
Our fathers no mean foes.

J. Philips.

4. Of poor quality; as, mean fare.

5. Penurious; stingy; close-fisted; illiberal; as, mean hospitality.

Mean is sometimes used in the formation of compounds, the sense of which is obvious without explanation; as, meanborn, mean-looking, etc.

Syn. -- Base; ignoble; abject; beggarly; wretched; degraded; degenerate; vulgar; vile; servile; menial; spiritless; groveling; slavish; dishonorable; disgraceful; shameful; despicable; contemptible; paltry; sordid. See Base.

Mean, a. [OE. mene, OF. meiien, F. moyen, fr. L. medianus that is in the middle, fr. medius; akin to E. mid. See Mid.] 1. Occupying a middle position; middle; being about midway between extremes.

Being of middle age and a mean stature.

Sir. P. Sidney.

2. Intermediate in excellence of any kind.

According to the fittest style of lofty, mean, or lowly.


3. (Math.) Average; having an intermediate value between two extremes, or between the several successive values of a variable quantity during one cycle of variation; as, mean distance; mean motion; mean solar day.

Mean distance (of a planet from the sun) (Astron.), the average of the distances throughout one revolution of the planet, equivalent to the semi-major axis of the orbit. -- Mean error (Math. Phys.), the average error of a number of observations found by taking the mean value of the positive and negative errors without regard to sign. -- Mean-square error, or Error of the mean square (Math. Phys.), the error the square of which is the mean of the squares of all the errors; -- called also, especially by European writers, mean error. -- Mean line. (Crystallog.) Same as Bisectrix. -- Mean noon, noon as determined by mean time. -- Mean proportional (between two numbers) (Math.), the square root of their product. -- Mean sun, a fictitious sun supposed to move uniformly in the equator so as to be on the meridian each day at mean noon. -- Mean time, time as measured by an equable motion, as of a perfect clock, or as reckoned on the supposition that all the days of the year are of a mean or uniform length, in contradistinction from apparent time, or that actually indicated by the sun, and from sidereal time, or that measured by the stars.

Mean, n. 1. That which is mean, or intermediate, between two extremes of place, time, or number; the middle point or place; middle rate or degree; mediocrity; medium; absence of extremes or excess; moderation; measure.

But to speak in a mean, the virtue of prosperity is temperance; the virtue of adversity is fortitude.


There is a mean in all things.


The extremes we have mentioned, between which the wellinstracted Christian holds the mean, are correlatives.

I. Taylor.

2. (Math.) A quantity having an intermediate value between several others, from which it is derived, and of which it expresses the resultant value; usually, unless otherwise specified, it is the simple average, formed by adding the quantities together and dividing by their number, which is called an arithmetical mean. A geometrical mean is the square root of the product of the quantities.

3. That through which, or by the help of which, an end is attained; something tending to an object desired; intermediate agency or measure; necessary condition or coagent; instrument.

Their virtuous conversation was a mean to work the conversion of the heathen to Christ.


You may be able, by this mean, to review your own scientific acquirements.


Philosophical doubt is not an end, but a mean.

Sir W. Hamilton.

In this sense the word is usually employed in the plural form means, and often with a singular attribute or predicate, as if a singular noun.

By this means he had them more at vantage.


What other means is left unto us.


4. pl. Hence: Resources; property, revenue, or the like, considered as the condition of easy livelihood, or an instrumentality at command for effecting any purpose; disposable force or substance.

Your means are very slender, and your waste is great.


5. (Mus.) A part, whether alto or tenor, intermediate between the soprano and base; a middle part. [Obs.]

The mean is drowned with your unruly base.


6. Meantime; meanwhile. [Obs.] Spenser.

7. A mediator; a go-between. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

He wooeth her by means and by brokage.


By all means, certainly; without fail; as, go, by all means. -- By any means, in any way; possibly; at all.

If by any means I might attain to the resurrection of the dead.

Phil. iii. ll.

-- By no means, or By no manner of means, not at all; certainly not; not in any degree.

The wine on this side of the lake is by no means so good as that on the other.


Me*an"der (?), n. [L. Maeander, orig., a river in Phrygia, proverbial for its many windings, Gr. &?;: cf. F. méandre.] 1. A winding, crooked, or involved course; as, the meanders of the veins and arteries. Sir M. Hale.

While lingering rivers in meanders glide.

Sir R. Blackmore.

2. A tortuous or intricate movement.

3. (Arch.) Fretwork. See Fret.

Me*an"der, v. t. To wind, turn, or twist; to make flexuous. Dryton.

Me*an"der, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Meandered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Meandering.] To wind or turn in a course or passage; to be intricate.

Five miles meandering with a mazy motion
Through wood and dale the sacred river ran.


Me*an"dri*an (?), a. [L. Maeandrius: cf. F. méandrien.] Winding; having many turns.

||Me`an*dri"na (?), n. [NL.: cf. F. méandrine.] (Zoöl.) A genus of corals with meandering grooves and ridges, including the brain corals.

{ Me*an"drous (?), Me*an"dry (?), } a. Winding; flexuous.

Mean"ing (?), n. 1. That which is meant or intended; intent; purpose; aim; object; as, a mischievous meaning was apparent.

If there be any good meaning towards you.


2. That which is signified, whether by act lanquage; signification; sense; import; as, the meaning of a hint.

3. Sense; power of thinking. [R.]

-- Mean"ing*less, a. -- Mean"ing*ly, adv.

Mean"ly, adv. [Mean middle.] Moderately. [Obs.]

A man meanly learned himself, but not meanly affectioned to set forward learning in others.


Mean"ly, adv. [From Mean low.] In a mean manner; unworthily; basely; poorly; ungenerously.

While the heaven-born child
All meanly wrapt in the rude manger lies.


Would you meanly thus rely
On power you know I must obey ?


We can not bear to have others think meanly of them [our kindred].

I. Watts.

Mean"ness, n. 1. The condition, or quality, of being mean; want of excellence; poorness; lowness; baseness; sordidness; stinginess.

This figure is of a later date, by the meanness of the workmanship.


2. A mean act; as, to be guilty of meanness. Goldsmith.

Mean"-spir`it*ed (?), a. Of a mean spirit; base; groveling. -- Mean"-spir`it*ed*ness, n.

Meant (?), imp. & p. p. of Mean.

{ Mean"time` (?), Mean"while` (?), } n. The intervening time; as, in the meantime (or mean time).

{ Mean"time`, Mean"while`, } adv. In the intervening time; during the interval.

Mear (?), n. A boundary. See Mere. [Obs.]

Mease (?), n. [Cf. G. mass measure.] Five hundred; as, a mease of herrings. [Prov. Eng.]

Mea"sel*ry (?), n. [OE. meselrie, OF. mesellerie. See lst Measle.] Leprosy. [Obs.] R. of Brunne.

Mea"sle (?), n. [OE. mesel, OF. mesel, LL. misellus, L. misellus unfortunate, dim. of miser. See Miser.] A leper. [Obs.] [Written also meazel, and mesel.] Wyclif (Matt. x. 8. ).

Mea"sle, n. (Zoöl.) A tapeworm larva. See 2d Measles, 4.

Mea"sled (?), a. [See 2d Measles.] Infected or spotted with measles, as pork. -- Mea"sled*ness, n.

Mea"sles (?), n. [From lst Measle.] Leprosy; also, a leper. [Obs.]

Mea"sles, n.; pl. in form, but used as singular in senses 1, 2, & 3. [D. mazelen; akin to G. masern, pl., and E. mazer, and orig. meaning, little spots. See Mazer.]

1. (Med.) A contagious febrile disorder commencing with catarrhal symptoms, and marked by the appearance on the third day of an eruption of distinct red circular spots, which coalesce in a crescentic form, are slightly raised above the surface, and after the fourth day of the eruption gradually decline; rubeola.

Measles commences with the ordinary symptoms of fever.

Am. Cyc.

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2. (Veter. Med.) A disease of cattle and swine in which the flesh is filled with the embryos of different varieties of the tapeworm.

3. A disease of trees. [Obs.]

4. pl. (Zoöl.) The larvæ of any tapeworm (Tænia) in the cysticerus stage, when contained in meat. Called also bladder worms.

Mea"sly (?), a. 1. Infected with measles.

2. (Zoöl.) Containing larval tapeworms; -- said of pork and beef.

Meas"ur*a*ble (?), a. [F. mesurable, L. mensurabilis. See Measure, and cf. Mensurable.]

1. Capable of being measured; susceptible of mensuration or computation.

2. Moderate; temperate; not excessive.

Of his diet measurable was he.


-- Meas"ur*a*ble*ness, n. -- Meas"ur*a*bly, adv.

Yet do it measurably, as it becometh Christians.


Meas"ure (mzh"r; 135), n. [OE. mesure, F. mesure, L. mensura, fr. metiri, mensus, to measure; akin to metrum poetical measure, Gr. me`tron, E. meter. Cf. Immense, Mensuration, Mete to measure.] 1. A standard of dimension; a fixed unit of quantity or extent; an extent or quantity in the fractions or multiples of which anything is estimated and stated; hence, a rule by which anything is adjusted or judged.

2. An instrument by means of which size or quantity is measured, as a graduated line, rod, vessel, or the like.

False ells and measures be brought all clean adown.

R. of Gloucester.

3. The dimensions or capacity of anything, reckoned according to some standard; size or extent, determined and stated; estimated extent; as, to take one's measure for a coat.

The measure thereof is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea.

Job xi. 9.

4. The contents of a vessel by which quantity is measured; a quantity determined by a standard; a stated or limited quantity or amount.

It is like leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal.

Luke xiii. 21.

5. Extent or degree not excessive or beyong bounds; moderation; due restraint; esp. in the phrases, in measure; with measure; without or beyond measure.

Hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure.

Is. v. 14.

6. Determined extent, not to be exceeded; limit; allotted share, as of action, influence, ability, or the like; due proportion.

Lord, make me to know mine end, and the measure of my days.

Ps. xxxix. 4.

7. The quantity determined by measuring, especially in buying and selling; as, to give good or full measure.

8. Undefined quantity; extent; degree.

There is a great measure of discretion to be used in the performance of confession.

Jer. Taylor.

9. Regulated division of movement: (a) (Dancing) A regulated movement corresponding to the time in which the accompanying music is performed; but, especially, a slow and stately dance, like the minuet. (b) (Mus.) (1) The group or grouping of beats, caused by the regular recurrence of accented beats. (2) The space between two bars. See Beat, Triple, Quadruple, Sextuple, Compound time, under Compound, a., and Figure. (c) (Poetry) The manner of ordering and combining the quantities, or long and short syllables; meter; rhythm; hence, a foot; as, a poem in iambic measure.

10. (Arith.) A number which is contained in a given number a number of times without a remainder; as in the phrases, the common measure, the greatest common measure, etc., of two or more numbers.

11. A step or definite part of a progressive course or policy; a means to an end; an act designed for the accomplishment of an object; as, political measures; prudent measures; an inefficient measure.

His majesty found what wrong measures he had taken in the conferring that trust, and lamented his error.


12. The act of measuring; measurement. Shak.

13. pl. (Geol.) Beds or strata; as, coal measures; lead measures.

Lineal, or Long, measure, measure of length; the measure of lines or distances. -- Liquid measure, the measure of liquids. -- Square measure, the measure of superficial area of surfaces in square units, as inches, feet, miles, etc. -- To have hard measure, to have harsh treatment meted out to one; to be harshly or oppressively dealt with. -- To take measures, to make preparations; to provide means. -- To take one's measure, to measure one, as for a garment; hence, to form an opinion of one's disposition, character, ability, etc. -- To tread a measure, to dance in the style so called. See 9 (a).

Say to her, we have measured many miles
To tread a measure with her on this grass.


Meas"ure, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Measured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Measuring.] [F. mesurer, L. mensurare. See Measure, n.] 1. To ascertain by use of a measuring instrument; to compute or ascertain the extent, quantity, dimensions, or capacity of, by a certain rule or standard; to take the dimensions of; hence, to estimate; to judge of; to value; to appraise.

Great are thy works, Jehovah, infinite
Thy power! what thought can measure thee?


2. To serve as the measure of; as, the thermometer measures changes of temperature.

3. To pass throught or over in journeying, as if laying off and determining the distance.

A true devoted pilgrim is not weary
To measure kingdoms with his feeble steps.


4. To adjust by a rule or standard.

To secure a contented spirit, measure your desires by your fortunes, not your fortunes by your desires.

Jer. Taylor.

5. To allot or distribute by measure; to set off or apart by measure; -- often with out or off.

With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.

Matt. vii. 2.

That portion of eternity which is called time, measured out by the sun.


To measure swords with one, to try another's skill in the use of the sword; hence, figuratively, to match one's abilities against an antagonist's.

Meas"ure (?), v. i. 1. To make a measurement or measurements.

2. To result, or turn out, on measuring; as, the grain measures well; the pieces measure unequally.

3. To be of a certain size or quantity, or to have a certain length, breadth, or thickness, or a certain capacity according to a standard measure; as, cloth measures three fourths of a yard; a tree measures three feet in diameter.

Meas"ured (?), a. Regulated or determined by a standard; hence, equal; uniform; graduated; limited; moderated; as, he walked with measured steps; he expressed himself in no measured terms. -- Meas"ured*ly, adv.

Meas"ure*less (?), a. Without measure; unlimited; immeasurable. -- Meas"ure*less*ness, n.

Syn. -- Boundless; limitless; endless; unbounded; unlimited; vast; immense; infinite; immeasurable.

Meas"ure*ment (?), n. 1. The act or result of measuring; mensuration; as, measurement is required.

2. The extent, size, capacity, amount. or quantity ascertained by measuring; as, its measurement is five acres.

Meas"ur*er (?), n. One who measures; one whose occupation or duty is to measure commondities in market.

Meas"ur*ing, a. Used in, or adapted for, ascertaining measurements, or dividing by measure.

Measuring faucet, a faucet which permits only a given quantity of liquid to pass each time it is opened, or one by means of which the liquid which passes can be measured. - - Measuring worm (Zoöl.), the larva of any geometrid moth. See Geometrid.

Meat (?), n. [OE. mete, AS. mete; akin to OS. mat, meti, D. met hashed meat, G. mettwurst sausage, OHG. maz food, Icel. matr, Sw. mat, Dan. mad, Goth. mats. Cf. Mast fruit, Mush.] 1. Food, in general; anything eaten for nourishment, either by man or beast. Hence, the edible part of anything; as, the meat of a lobster, a nut, or an egg. Chaucer.

And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, . . . to you it shall be for meat.

Gen. i. 29.

Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you.

Gen. ix. 3.

2. The flesh of animals used as food; esp., animal muscle; as, a breakfast of bread and fruit without meat.

3. Specifically, dinner; the chief meal. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Meat biscuit. See under Biscuit. -- Meat earth (Mining), vegetable mold. Raymond. -- Meat fly. (Zoöl.) See Flesh fly, under Flesh. -- Meat offering (Script.), an offering of food, esp. of a cake made of flour with salt and oil. -- To go to meat, to go to a meal. [Obs.] -- To sit at meat, to sit at the table in taking food.

Meat, v. t. To supply with food. [Obs.] Tusser.

His shield well lined, his horses meated well.


Me*a"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a meatus; resembling a meatus. Owen.

Meat"ed (?), a. 1. Fed; fattened. [Obs.] Tusser.

2. Having (such) meat; -- used chiefly in composition; as, thick-meated.

{ Meath, Meathe (?) }, n. [See Mead.] A sweet liquor; mead. [Obs.] Chaucer. Milton.

Meat"i*ness (?), n. Quality of being meaty.

Meat"less, a. Having no meat; without food.

"Leave these beggars meatless."

Sir T. More.

Me*at"o*scope (?), n. [Meatus + -scope.] (Med.) A speculum for examining a natural passage, as the urethra.

Me*at"o*tome (?), n. [Meatus + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Surg.) An instrument for cutting into the urethra so as to enlarge its orifice.

||Me*a"tus (?), n. sing. & pl.; E. pl. Meatuses (&?;). [L., a going, passage, fr. meare to go.] (Anat.) A natural passage or canal; as, the external auditory meatus. See Illust. of Ear.

Meat"y (?), a. Abounding in meat.

Meaw (?), n. The sea mew. [Obs.] Spenser.

Meaw, v. i. See Mew, to cry as a cat.

Meawl (?), v. i. See Mewl, and Miaul.

Mea"zel (?), n. See 1st Measle. [Obs.]

Meaz"ling (?), a. Falling in small drops; mistling; mizzing. [Obs.] Arbuthnot.

Me"bles (?), n. pl. See Moebles. [Obs.]

||Me*ca"te (?), n. [Sp.] A rope of hair or of maguey fiber, for tying horses, etc. [Southwestern U. S.]

Mec`ca*wee" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Mecca, in Arabia. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Mecca.

Me*chan"ic (?), n. [F. mécanique mechanics. See Mechanic, a.] 1. The art of the application of the laws of motion or force to construction. [Obs.]

2. A mechanician; an artisan; an artificer; one who practices any mechanic art; one skilled or employed in shaping and uniting materials, as wood, metal, etc., into any kind of structure, machine, or other object, requiring the use of tools, or instruments.

An art quite lost with our mechanics.

Sir T. Browne.

Me*chan"ic (m*kn"k), a. [F. mécanique, L. mechanicus, Gr. mhchaniko`s, fr. mhchanh` a machine. See Machine.] 1. Having to do with the application of the laws of motion in the art of constructing or making things; of or pertaining to mechanics; mechanical; as, the mechanic arts. "These mechanic philosophers." Ray.

Mechanic slaves,
With greasy aprons, rules, and hammers.


2. Of or pertaining to a mechanic or artificer, or to the class of artisans; hence, rude; common; vulgar.

To make a god, a hero, or a king
Descend to a mechanic dialect.


Sometimes he ply'd the strong, mechanic tool.


3. Base. [Obs.] Whitlock.

Me*chan"ic*al (?), a. [From Mechanic, a.]

1. Pertaining to, governed by, or in accordance with, mechanics, or the laws of motion; pertaining to the quantitative relations of force and matter, as distinguished from mental, vital, chemical, etc.; as, mechanical principles; a mechanical theory; mechanical deposits.

2. Of or pertaining to a machine or to machinery or tools; made or formed by a machine or with tools; as, mechanical precision; mechanical products.

We have also divers mechanical arts.


3. Done as if by a machine; uninfluenced by will or emotion; proceeding automatically, or by habit, without special intention or reflection; as, mechanical singing; mechanical verses; mechanical service.

4. Made and operated by interaction of forces without a directing intelligence; as, a mechanical universe.

5. Obtained by trial, by measurements, etc.; approximate; empirical. See the 2d Note under Geometric.

Mechanical effect, effective power; useful work exerted, as by a machine, in a definite time. -- Mechanical engineering. See the Note under Engineering. -- Mechanical maneuvers (Mil.), the application of mechanical appliances to the mounting, dismounting, and moving of artillery. Farrow. - - Mechanical philosophy, the principles of mechanics applied to the investigation of physical phenomena. -- Mechanical powers, certain simple instruments, such as the lever and its modifications (the wheel and axle and the pulley), the inclined plane with its modifications (the screw and the wedge), which convert a small force acting through a great space into a great force acting through a small space, or vice versa, and are used separately or in combination. -- Mechanical solution (Math.), a solution of a problem by any art or contrivance not strictly geometrical, as by means of the ruler and compasses, or other instruments.

Me*chan"ic*al, n. A mechanic. [Obs.] Shak.

Me*chan"ic*al*ize (?), v. t. To cause to become mechanical.

Me*chan"ic*al*ly, adv. In a mechanical manner.

Me*chan"ic*al*ness, n. The state or quality of being mechanical.

Mech`a*ni"cian (?), n. [Cf. F. mécanicien. See Mechanic.] One skilled in the theory or construction of machines; a machinist. Boyle.

Me*chan`i*co-chem"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to, connected with, or dependent upon, both mechanics and chemistry; -- said especially of those sciences which treat of such phenomena as seem to depend on the laws both of mechanics and chemistry, as electricity and magnetism.

Me*chan"ics (?), n. [Cf. F. mécanique.] That science, or branch of applied mathematics, which treats of the action of forces on bodies.

That part of mechanics which considers the action of forces in producing rest or equilibrium is called statics; that which relates to such action in producing motion is called dynamics. The term mechanics includes the action of forces on all bodies, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous. It is sometimes, however, and formerly was often, used distinctively of solid bodies only: The mechanics of liquid bodies is called also hydrostatics, or hydrodynamics, according as the laws of rest or of motion are considered. The mechanics of gaseous bodies is called also pneumatics. The mechanics of fluids in motion, with special reference to the methods of obtaining from them useful results, constitutes hydraulics.

Animal mechanics (Physiol.), that portion of physiology which has for its object the investigation of the laws of equilibrium and motion in the animal body. The most important mechanical principle is that of the lever, the bones forming the arms of the levers, the contractile muscles the power, the joints the fulcra or points of support, while the weight of the body or of the individual limbs constitutes the weight or resistance. -- Applied mechanics, the principles of abstract mechanics applied to human art; also, the practical application of the laws of matter and motion to the construction of machines and structures of all kinds.

Mech"an*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. mécanisme, L. mechanisma. See Mechanic.] 1. The arrangement or relation of the parts of a machine; the parts of a machine, taken collectively; the arrangement or relation of the parts of anything as adapted to produce an effect; as, the mechanism of a watch; the mechanism of a sewing machine; the mechanism of a seed pod.

2. Mechanical operation or action.

He acknowledges nothing besides matter and motion; so that all must be performed either by mechanism or accident.


3. (Kinematics) An ideal machine; a combination of movable bodies constituting a machine, but considered only with regard to relative movements.

Mech"an*ist, n. 1. A maker of machines; one skilled in mechanics.

2. One who regards the phenomena of nature as the effects of forces merely mechanical.

Mech"an*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mechanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mechanizing (?).] [Cf. F. méchaniser.] To cause to be mechanical. Shelley.

Mech"an*o*graph (?), n. [Gr. mhchanh` machine + -graph.] One of a number of copies of anything multiplied mechanically.

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Mech`an*o*graph`ic (mk`an**grf"k), a. 1. Treating of mechanics. [R.]

2. Written, copied, or recorded by machinery; produced by mechanography; as, a mechanographic record of changes of temperature; mechanographic prints.

Mech`an*og"ra*phist (-g"r*fst), n. An artist who, by mechanical means, multiplies copies of works of art.

Mech`an*og"ra*phy (?), n. The art of mechanically multiplying copies of a writing, or any work of art.

Mech"an*ur`gy (?), n. [Gr. mhchanh` machine + the root of &?; work.] That branch of science which treats of moving machines.

Mech"i*tar*ist (?), n. [From Mechitar, an Armenian., who founded the congregation in the early part of the eighteenth century.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church devoted to the improvement of Armenians.

Mech"lin (?), n. A kind of lace made at, or originating in, Mechlin, in Belgium.

Me*cho"a*can (?), n. A species of jalap, of very feeble properties, said to be obtained from the root of a species of Convolvulus (C. Mechoacan); -- so called from Michoacan, in Mexico, whence it is obtained.

Meck*e"li*an (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or discovered by, J. F. Meckel, a German anatomist.

Meckelian cartilage, the cartilaginous rod which forms the axis of the mandible; -- called also Meckel's cartilage.

Mec"o*nate (?), n. [Cf. F. méconate.] (Chem.) A salt of meconic acid.

Me*con"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; belonging to the poppy, fr. &?; the poppy: cf. F. méconique.] Pertaining to, or obtained from, the poppy or opium; specif. (Chem.), designating an acid related to aconitic acid, found in opium and extracted as a white crystalline substance.

Me*con"i*dine (?), n. (Chem) An alkaloid found in opium, and extracted as a yellow amorphous substance which is easily decomposed.

||Mec`o*nid"i*um (?), n. [NL., dim. of Gr. &?; a poppy. So called in allusion to the shape of the seed capsules of the poppy.] (Zoöl.) A kind of gonophore produced by hydroids of the genus Gonothyræa. It has tentacles, and otherwise resembles a free medusa, but remains attached by a pedicel.

Mec"o*nin (?), n. [Cf. F. méconine.] (Chem.) A substance regarded as an anhydride of meconinic acid, existing in opium and extracted as a white crystalline substance. Also erroneously called meconina, meconia, etc., as though it were an alkaloid.

Mec`o*nin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid which occurs in opium, and which may be obtained by oxidizing narcotine.

||Me*co"ni*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; poppy.] (Med.) (a) Opium. [Obs.] (b) The contents of the fetal intestine; hence, first excrement.

Med"al (?), n. [F. médaille, It. medaglia, fr. L. metallum metal, through (assumed) LL. metalleus made of metal. See Metal, and cf. Mail a piece of money.] A piece of metal in the form of a coin, struck with a device, and intended to preserve the remembrance of a notable event or an illustrious person, or to serve as a reward.

Med"al, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Medaled (?), or Medalled; p. pr. & vb. n. Medaling or Medalling.] To honor or reward with a medal. "Medaled by the king." Thackeray.

Med"al*et (?), n. A small medal.

Med"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. médailliste, It. medaglista.] [Written also medallist.]

1. A person that is skilled or curious in medals; a collector of medals. Addison.

2. A designer of medals. Macaulay.

3. One who has gained a medal as the reward of merit.

Me*dal"lic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a medal, or to medals. "Our medallic history." Walpole.

Me*dal"lion (?), n. [F. médaillion, It. medaglione, augm. of medaglia. See Medal.]

1. A large medal or memorial coin.

2. A circular or oval (or, sometimes, square) tablet bearing a figure or figures represented in relief.

Med"al*ur`gy (?), n. [Medal + the root of Gr. &?; work.] The art of making and striking medals and coins. [Written also medallurgy.]

Med"dle` (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Meddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Meddling (?).] [OE. medlen to mix, OF. medler, mesler, F. mêler, LL. misculare, a dim. fr. L. miscere to mix. √271. See Mix, and cf. Medley, Mellay.]

1. To mix; to mingle. [Obs.]

More to know
Did never meddle with my thoughts.


2. To interest or engage one's self; to have to do; -- in a good sense. [Obs.] Barrow.

Study to be quiet, and to meddle with your own business.


3. To interest or engage one's self unnecessarily or impertinently, to interfere or busy one's self improperly with another's affairs; specifically, to handle or distrub another's property without permission; -- often followed by with or in.

Why shouldst thou meddle to thy hurt?

2 Kings xiv. 10.

The civil lawyers . . . have meddled in a matter that belongs not to them.


To meddle and make, to intrude one's self into another person's concerns. [Archaic] Shak.

Syn. -- To interpose; interfere; intermeddle.

Med"dle, v. t. To mix; to mingle. [Obs.] Chaucer.

"Wine meddled with gall."

Wyclif (Matt. xxvii. 34).

Med"dler (?), n. One who meddles; one who interferes or busies himself with things in which he has no concern; an officious person; a busybody.

Med"dle*some (?), a. Given to meddling; apt to interpose in the affairs of others; officiously intrusive. -- Med"dle*some*ness, n.

Med"dling (?), a. Meddlesome. Macaulay.

Med"dling*ly, adv. In a meddling manner.

Mede (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Media in Asia.

Mede, n. See lst & 2d Mead, and Meed. [Obs.]

||Me"di*a (?), n., pl. of Medium.

||Me"di*a, n.; pl. Mediæ (-). [NL., fr. L. medius middle.] (Phonetics) One of the sonant mutes β, δ, γ (b, d, g), in Greek, or of their equivalents in other languages, so named as intermediate between the tenues, π, τ, κ (p, t, k), and the aspiratæ (aspirates) φ, θ, χ (ph or f, th, ch). Also called middle mute, or medial, and sometimes soft mute.

Me"di*a*cy (?), n. The state or quality of being mediate. Sir W. Hamilton.

Me`di*æ"val (?), a. [L. medius middle + aevum age. See Middle, and Age.] Of or relating to the Middle Ages; as, mediæval architecture. [Written also medieval.]

Me`di*æ"val*ism (?), n. The method or spirit of the Middle Ages; devotion to the institutions and practices of the Middle Ages; a survival from the Middle Ages. [Written also medievalism.]

Me`di*æ"val*ist, n. One who has a taste for, or is versed in, the history of the Middle Ages; one in sympathy with the spirit or forms of the Middle Ages. [Written also medievalist.]

Me`di*æ"val*ly, adv. In the manner of the Middle Ages; in accordance with mediævalism.

Me`di*æ"vals (?), n. pl. The people who lived in the Middle Ages. Ruskin.

Me"di*al (?), a. [L. medialis, fr. medius middle: cf. F. médial. See Middle.] Of or pertaining to a mean or average; mean; as, medial alligation.

Me"di*al, n. (Phonetics) See 2d Media.

||Me"di*a*lu"na (?), n. [Sp. media luna half-moon.] (Zoöl.) See Half- moon.

Me"di*an (?), a. [L. medianus, fr. medius middle. See Medial.] 1. Being in the middle; running through the middle; as, a median groove.

2. (Zoöl.) Situated in the middle; lying in a plane dividing a bilateral animal into right and left halves; -- said of unpaired organs and parts; as, median coverts.

Median line. (a) (Anat.) Any line in the mesial plane; specif., either of the lines in which the mesial plane meets the surface of the body. (b) (Geom.) The line drawn from an angle of a triangle to the middle of the opposite side; any line having the nature of a diameter. -- Median plane (Anat.), the mesial plane. -- Median point (Geom.), the point where the three median lines of a triangle mutually intersect.

Me"di*an, n. (Geom.) A median line or point.

Me"di*ant (?), n. [L. medians, p. p. of mediare to halve: cf. It. mediante, F. médiante.] (Mus.) The third above the keynote; -- so called because it divides the interval between the tonic and dominant into two thirds.

Me`di*as*ti"nal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a mediastinum.

{ Me`di*as"tine (?), ||Me`di*as*ti"num (?), } n. [NL. mediastinum, fr. L. medius middle; cf. mediastinus helper, a menial servant, LL. mediastinus equiv. to medius: cf F. médiastin.] (Anat.) A partition; a septum; specifically, the folds of the pleura (and the space included between them) which divide the thorax into a right and left cavity. The space included between these folds of the pleura, called the mediastinal space, contains the heart and gives passage to the esophagus and great blood vessels.

Me"di*ate (?), a. [L. mediatus, p. p. of mediare, v. t., to halve, v. i., to be in the middle. See Mid, and cf. Moiety.] 1. Being between the two extremes; middle; interposed; intervening; intermediate. Prior.

2. Acting by means, or by an intervening cause or instrument; not direct or immediate; acting or suffering through an intervening agent or condition.

3. Gained or effected by a medium or condition. Bacon.

An act of mediate knowledge is complex.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Me"di*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Mediated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mediating.] [LL. mediatus, p. p. of mediare to mediate. See Mediate, a.]

1. To be in the middle, or between two; to intervene. [R.]

2. To interpose between parties, as the equal friend of each, esp. for the purpose of effecting a reconciliation or agreement; as, to mediate between nations.

Me"di*ate, v. t. 1. To effect by mediation or interposition; to bring about as a mediator, instrument, or means; as, to mediate a peace.

2. To divide into two equal parts. [R.] Holder.

Me"di*ate*ly (?), adv. In a mediate manner; by a secondary cause or agent; not directly or primarily; by means; -- opposed to immediately.

God worketh all things amongst us mediately.

Sir W. Raleigh.

The king grants a manor to A, and A grants a portion of it to B. In this case. B holds his lands immediately of A, but mediately of the king.


Me"di*ate*ness, n. The state of being mediate.

Me`di*a"tion (?), n. [OE. mediacioun, F. médiation. See Mediate, a.] 1. The act of mediating; action or relation of anything interposed; action as a necessary condition, means, or instrument; interposition; intervention.

The soul [acts] by the mediation of these passions.


2. Hence, specifically, agency between parties at variance, with a view to reconcile them; entreaty for another; intercession. Bacon.

Me"di*a*tive (?), a. Pertaining to mediation; used in mediation; as, mediative efforts. Beaconsfield.

Me`di*at`i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. médiatisation.] The act of mediatizing.

Me"di*a*tize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mediatized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mediatizing.] [Cf. F. médiatiser.] To cause to act through an agent or to hold a subordinate position; to annex; -- specifically applied to the annexation during the former German empire of a smaller German state to a larger, while allowing it a nominal sovereignty, and its prince his rank.

The misfortune of being a mediatized prince.


Me"di*a`tor (?), n. [L. mediator: cf. E. médiateur.] One who mediates; especially, one who interposes between parties at variance for the purpose of reconciling them; hence, an intercessor.

For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.

1 Tim. ii. 5.

Me`di*a*to"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a mediator, or to mediation; mediatory; as, a mediatorial office. -- Me`di*a*to"ri*al*ly, adv.

My measures were . . . healing and mediatorial.


Me"di*a`tor*ship (?), n. The office or character of a mediator.

Me"di*a*to*ry (?), a. Mediatorial.

{ Me`di*a"tress (?), Me`di*a*"trix (?), } n. [L. mediatrix, f. of mediator: cf. F. médiatrice.] A female mediator.

Med"ic (?), n. [L. medica, Gr. &?; (sc. &?;) a kind of clover introduced from Media, from &?; Median.] (Bot.) A leguminous plant of the genus Medicago. The black medic is the Medicago lupulina; the purple medic, or lucern, is M. sativa.

Med"ic, a. [L. medicus.] Medical. [R.]

Med"i*ca*ble (?), a. [L. medicabilis, from medicare, medicari, to heal, fr. medicus physician. See Medical.] Capable of being medicated; admitting of being cured or healed.

Med"ic*al (?), a. [LL. medicalis, L. medicus belonging to healing, fr. mederi to heal; cf. Zend madha medical science, wisdom, Gr. &?; to learn, E. mind: cf. F. médical.]

1. Of, pertaining to, or having to do with, the art of healing disease, or the science of medicine; as, the medical profession; medical services; a medical dictionary; medical jurisprudence.

2. Containing medicine; used in medicine; medicinal; as, the medical properties of a plant.

Med"ic*al*ly, adv. In a medical manner; with reference to healing, or to the principles of the healing art.

Med"i*ca*ment (?), n. [L. medicamentum, fr. medicare, medicari, to heal: cf. F. médicament. See Medicable.] Anything used for healing diseases or wounds; a medicine; a healing application.

Med`ica*men"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to medicaments or healing applications; having the qualities of medicaments. -- Med`ica*men"tal*ly, adv.

Med"i*cas`ter (?), n. [Cf. F. médicastre. See Medical.] A quack. [R.] Whitlock.

Med"i*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Medicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Medicating (?).] [L. medicatus, p. p. of medicare, medicari. See Medicable.]

1. To tincture or impregnate with anything medicinal; to drug. "Medicated waters." Arbuthnot.

2. To treat with medicine.

Med`i*ca"tion (?), [L. medicatio: cf. F. médication.] The act or process of medicating.

Med"i*ca*tive (?), a. Medicinal; acting like a medicine.

Med`i*ce"an (?), a. Of or relating to the Medici, a noted Italian family; as, the Medicean Venus.

Medicean planets (Astron.), a name given by Galileo to the satellites of Jupiter.

Me*dic"i*na*ble (?), a. Medicinal; having the power of healing. [Obs.] Shak.

Me*dic"i*nal (?), a. [L. medicinalis: cf. F. médicinal. See Medicine.] 1. Having curative or palliative properties; used for the cure or alleviation of bodily disorders; as, medicinal tinctures, plants, or springs.

Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees
Their medicinal gum.


2. Of or pertaining to medicine; medical.

Me*dic"i*nal*ly, adv. In a medicinal manner.

Med"i*cine (?), n. [L. medicina (sc. ars), fr. medicinus medical, fr. medicus: cf. F. médecine. See Medical.] 1. The science which relates to the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease.

2. Any substance administered in the treatment of disease; a remedial agent; a remedy; physic.

By medicine, life may be prolonged.


3. A philter or love potion. [Obs.] Shak.

4. [F. médecin.] A physician. [Obs.] Shak.

Medicine bag, a charm; -- so called among the North American Indians, or in works relating to them. -- Medicine man (among the North American Indians), a person who professes to cure sickness, drive away evil spirits, and regulate the weather by the arts of magic. -- Medicine seal, a small gem or paste engraved with reversed characters, to serve as a seal. Such seals were used by Roman physicians to stamp the names of their medicines.

Med"i*cine, v. t. To give medicine to; to affect as a medicine does; to remedy; to cure. "Medicine thee to that sweet sleep." Shak.

Med`i*co-le"gal (?), a. Of or pertaining to law as affected by medical facts.

Med`i*com"mis*sure (?), n. [L. medius middle + E. commissure.] (Anat.) A large transverse commissure in the third ventricle of the brain; the middle or soft commissure. B. G. Wildex.

||Med`i*cor"nu (?), n.; pl. Medicornua (#). [NL., fr. L. medius middle + cornu horn.] (Anat.) The middle or inferior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain. B. G. Wilder.

Med"ics (?), n. Science of medicine. [Obs.]

Me*di"e*ty (?), n. [L. medietas.] The middle part; half; moiety. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

{ Me`di*e"val, Me`di*e"val*ism, Me`di*e"val*ist }. Same as Medi&?;val, Medi&?;valism, etc.

Me*di"na ep"och (?). [From Medina in New York.] (Geol.) A subdivision of the Niagara period in the American upper Silurian, characterized by the formations known as the Oneida conglomerate, and the Medina sandstone. See the Chart of Geology.

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Me*di"no (m*d"n), n. Same as Para.

Me"di*o`cral (?), a. Mediocre. [R.]

Me"di*o`cre (m"d*`kr), a. [F. médiocre, L. mediocris, fr. medius middle. See Mid.] Of a middle quality; of but a moderate or low degree of excellence; indifferent; ordinary. " A very mediocre poet." Pope.

Me"di*o`cre, n. 1. A mediocre person. [R.]

2. A young monk who was excused from performing a portion of a monk's duties. Shipley.

Me"di*o`crist (?), n. A mediocre person. [R.]

Me`di*oc"ri*ty (?), n. [F. médiocrité, L. mediocritas.]

1. The quality of being mediocre; a middle state or degree; a moderate degree or rate. "A mediocrity of success." Bacon.

2. Moderation; temperance. [Obs.] Hooker.

Me`di*o*sta*pe"di*al (?), a. [L. medius middle + E. stapedial.] (Anat.) Pertaining to that part of the columella of the ear which, in some animals, connects the stapes with the other parts of the columella. -- n. The mediostapedial part of the columella.

Me`di*ox"u*mous (?), a. [L. medioxumus middlemost.] Intermediate. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Med"i*tance (?), n. Meditation. [Obs.]

Med"i*tate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Meditated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Meditating.] [L. meditatus, p. p. of meditari to meditate; cf. Gr. &?; to learn, E. mind.] To keep the mind in a state of contemplation; to dwell on anything in thought; to think seriously; to muse; to cogitate; to reflect. Jer. Taylor.

In his law doth he meditate day and night.

Ps. i. 2.

Med"i*tate, v. t. 1. To contemplate; to keep the mind fixed upon; to study. "Blessed is the man that doth meditate good things." Ecclus. xiv. 20.

2. To purpose; to intend; to design; to plan by revolving in the mind; as, to meditate a war.

I meditate to pass the remainder of life in a state of undisturbed repose.


Syn. -- To consider; ponder; weigh; revolve; study. -- To Meditate, Contemplate, Intend. We meditate a design when we are looking out or waiting for the means of its accomplishment; we contemplate it when the means are at hand, and our decision is nearly or quite made. To intend is stronger, implying that we have decided to act when an opportunity may offer. A general meditates an attack upon the enemy; he contemplates or intends undertaking it at the earliest convenient season.

Med`i*ta"tion (?), n. [OE. meditacioun, F. méditation, fr. L. meditatio.] 1. The act of meditating; close or continued thought; the turning or revolving of a subject in the mind; serious contemplation; reflection; musing.

Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight.

Ps. xix. 14.

2. Thought; -- without regard to kind. [Obs.]

With wings as swift
As meditation or the thoughts of love.


Med"i*ta`tist, n. One who is given to meditation.

Med"i*ta*tive (?), a. [L. meditativus: cf. F. méditatif.] Disposed to meditate, or to meditation; as, a meditative man; a meditative mood. -- Med"i*ta*tive*ly, adv. -- Med"i*ta*tive*ness, n.

Med`i*ter*ra"ne*an (?), a. [L. mediterraneus; medius middle + terra land. See Mid, and Terrace.]

1. Inclosed, or nearly inclosed, with land; as, the Mediterranean Sea, between Europe and Africa.

2. Inland; remote from the ocean. [Obs.]

Cities, as well mediterranean as maritime.


3. Of or pertaining to the Mediterranean Sea; as, Mediterranean trade; a Mediterranean voyage.

Med`i*ter*ra"ne*ous (?), a. Inland. Sir T. Browne.

Me"di*um (?), n.; pl. L. Media (#), E. Mediums (#). [L. medium the middle, fr. medius middle. See Mid, and cf. Medius.] 1. That which lies in the middle, or between other things; intervening body or quantity. Hence, specifically: (a) Middle place or degree; mean.

The just medium . . . lies between pride and abjection.


(b) (Math.) See Mean. (c) (Logic) The mean or middle term of a syllogism; that by which the extremes are brought into connection.

2. A substance through which an effect is transmitted from one thing to another; as, air is the common medium of sound. Hence: The condition upon which any event or action occurs; necessary means of motion or action; that through or by which anything is accomplished, conveyed, or carried on; specifically, in animal magnetism, spiritualism, etc., a person through whom the action of another being is said to be manifested and transmitted.

Whether any other liquors, being made mediums, cause a diversity of sound from water, it may be tried.


I must bring together
All these extremes; and must remove all mediums.


3. An average. [R.]

A medium of six years of war, and six years of peace.


4. A trade name for printing and writing paper of certain sizes. See Paper.

5. (Paint.) The liquid vehicle with which dry colors are ground and prepared for application.

Circulating medium, a current medium of exchange, whether coin, bank notes, or government notes. -- Ethereal medium (Physics), the ether. -- Medium of exchange, that which is used for effecting an exchange of commodities -- money or current representatives of money.

Me"di*um, a. Having a middle position or degree; mean; intermediate; medial; as, a horse of medium size; a decoction of medium strength.

Me"di*um-sized` (?), a. Having a medium size; as, a medium-sized man.

||Me"di*us (?), n.; pl. Medii (#). [NL., fr. L. medius middle. See Medium.] (Anat.) The third or middle finger; the third digit, or that which corresponds to it.

Med"lar (?), n. [OE. medler medlar tree, OF. meslier, F. néflier, L. mespilum, mespilus, Gr. &?;, &?;. Cf. Naseberry.] A tree of the genus Mespilus (M. Germanica); also, the fruit of the tree. The fruit is something like a small apple, but has a bony endocarp. When first gathered the flesh is hard and austere, and it is not eaten until it has begun to decay.

Japan medlar (Bot.), the loquat. See Loquat. -- Neapolitan medlar (Bot.), a kind of thorn tree (Cratægus Azarolus); also, its fruit.

Med"le (?), v. t. [See Meddle.] To mix; to mingle; to meddle. [Written also medly.] [Obs.] Chaucer.

Med"ley (?), n.; pl. Medleys (#). [OE. medlee, OF. meslée, medlée, mellée, F. mêlée. See Meddle, and cf. MelÉe, Mellay.] 1. A mixture; a mingled and confused mass of ingredients, usually inharmonious; a jumble; a hodgepodge; -- often used contemptuously.

This medley of philosophy and war.


Love is a medley of endearments, jars,
Suspicions, reconcilements, wars.

W. Walsh.

2. The confusion of a hand to hand battle; a brisk, hand to hand engagement; a mêlée. [Obs.] Holland.

3. (Mus.) A composition of passages detached from several different compositions; a potpourri.

Medley is usually applied to vocal, potpourri to instrumental, compositions.

4. A cloth of mixed colors. Fuller.

Med"ley, a. 1. Mixed; of mixed material or color. [Obs.] "A medlé coat." Chaucer.

2. Mingled; confused. Dryden.

Med"ly (?), v. t. See Medle. Johnson.

||Mé`doc" (?), n. [Cf. Mayduke.] A class of claret wines, including several varieties, from the district of Médoc in the department of Gironde.

Med"re*gal (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Bonito, 3.

Med"rick (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zoöl.) A species of gull or tern. [Prov.] Lowell.

Me*dul"la (?), n. [L.] 1. Marrow; pith; hence, essence. [Obs.] Milton.

2. (Anat.) The marrow of bones; the deep or inner portion of an organ or part; as, the medulla, or medullary substance, of the kidney; specifically, the medula oblongata.

3. (Bot.) A soft tissue, occupying the center of the stem or branch of a plant; pith.

||Medulla oblongata. [L., oblong medulla] (Anat.), the posterior part of the brain connected with the spinal cord. It includes all the hindbrain except the cerebellum and pons, and from it a large part of the cranial nerves arise. It controls very largely respiration, circulation, swallowing, and other functions, and is the most vital part of the brain; -- called also bulb of the spinal cord. See Brain.

Me*dul"lar (?), a. See Medullary.

Med"ul*la*ry (?), a. [L. medullaris, fr. medulla marrow: cf. F. médullaire.] 1. (Anat.) (a) Pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling, marrow or medulla. (b) Pertaining to the medula oblongata.

2. (Bot.) Filled with spongy pith; pithy.

Medullary groove (Anat.), a groove, in the epiblast of the vertebrate blastoderm, the edges of which unite, making a tube (the medullary canal) from which the brain and spinal cord are developed. -- Medullary rays (Bot.), the rays of cellular tissue seen in a transverse section of exogenous wood, which pass from the pith to the bark. -- Medullary sheath (Anat.), the layer of white semifluid substance (myelin), between the primitive sheath and axis cylinder of a medullated nerve fiber.

Me*dul"la*ted (?), a. (Anat.) Furnished with a medulla or marrow, or with a medullary sheath; as, a medullated nerve fiber.

Me*dul"lin (?), n. [Cf. F. médulline.] (Bot. Chem.) A variety of lignin or cellulose found in the medulla, or pith, of certain plants. Cf. Lignin, and Cellulose.

||Me*du"sa (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] 1. (Class. Myth.) The Gorgon; or one of the Gorgons whose hair was changed into serpents, after which all who looked upon her were turned into stone.

2. [pl. Medusae (&?;).] (Zoöl.) Any free swimming acaleph; a jellyfish.

The larger medusæ belong to the Discophora, and are sometimes called covered-eyed medusæ; others, known as naked-eyed medusæ, belong to the Hydroidea, and are usually developed by budding from hydroids. See Discophora, Hydroidea, and Hydromedusa.

Medusa bud (Zoöl.), one of the buds of a hydroid, destined to develop into a gonophore or medusa. See Athecata, and Gonotheca. -- Medusa's head. (a) (Zoöl.) An astrophyton. (b) (Astron.) A cluster of stars in the constellation Perseus. It contains the bright star Algol.

Me*du"si*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) A medusa.

Me*du"si*form (?), a. [Medusa + -form.] (Zoöl.) Resembling a medusa in shape or structure.

Me*du"soid (?), a. [Medusa + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Like a medusa; having the fundamental structure of a medusa, but without a locomotive disk; -- said of the sessile gonophores of hydroids. -- n. A sessile gonophore. See Illust. under Gonosome.

Meech (mch), v. i. See Mich. [Obs. or Colloq.]

Meed (md), n. [OE. mede, AS. md, meord; akin to OS. mda, OHG. miata, mieta, G. miethe hire, Goth. mizd reward, Bohem. & Russ. mzda, Gr. mistho`s, Skr. mdha. √276.] 1. That which is bestowed or rendered in consideration of merit; reward; recompense.

A rosy garland was the victor's meed.


2. Merit or desert; worth.

My meed hath got me fame.


3. A gift; also, a bride. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Meed, v. t. 1. To reward; to repay. [Obs.] Waytt.

2. To deserve; to merit. [Obs.] Heywood.

Meed"ful (?), a. Worthy of meed, reward, or recompense; meritorious. "Meedful works." Wiclif.

Meed"ful*ly, adv. According to merit; suitably.

Meek (mk), a. [Compar. Meeker (-r); superl. Meekest.] [OE. mek, meoc; akin to Icel. mj&?;kr mild, soft, Sw. mjuk, Dan. myg, D. muik, Goth. mukamdei gentleness.] 1. Mild of temper; not easily provoked or orritated; patient under injuries; not vain, or haughty, or resentful; forbearing; submissive.

Now the man Moses was very meek.

Num. xii. 3.

2. Evincing mildness of temper, or patience; characterized by mildness or patience; as, a meek answer; a meek face. "Her meek prayer." Chaucer.

Syn. -- Gentle; mild; soft; yielding; pacific; unassuming; humble. See Gentle.

{ Meek, Meek"en (-'n) }, v. t. To make meek; to nurture in gentleness and humility. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Meek"ly, adv. In a meek manner. Spenser.

Meek"ness, n. The quality or state of being meek.

Meer (mr), a. Simple; unmixed. See Mere, a. [Obs.]

Meer, n. See Mere, a lake.

Meer, n. A boundary. See Mere.

||Meer"kat (mr"kt), n. [D.] (Zoöl.) A South African carnivore (Cynictis penicillata), allied to the ichneumons.

Meer"schaum (mr"shm; 277), n. [G., lit., sea foam; meer sea + schaum foam; but it perh. is a corruption of the Tartaric name myrsen. Cf. Mere a lake, and Scum.] 1. (Min.) A fine white claylike mineral, soft, and light enough when in dry masses to float in water. It is a hydrous silicate of magnesia, and is obtained chiefly in Asia Minor. It is manufacturd into tobacco pipes, cigar holders, etc. Also called sepiolite.

2. A tobacco pipe made of this mineral.

Meet (mt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Met (mt); p. pr. & vb. n. Meeting.] [OE. meten, AS. mtan, fr. mt, gemt, a meeting; akin to OS. mtian to meet, Icel. mæta, Goth. gamtjan. See Moot, v. t.] 1. To join, or come in contact with; esp., to come in contact with by approach from an opposite direction; to come upon or against, front to front, as distinguished from contact by following and overtaking.

2. To come in collision with; to confront in conflict; to encounter hostilely; as, they met the enemy and defeated them; the ship met opposing winds and currents.

3. To come into the presence of without contact; to come close to; to intercept; to come within the perception, influence, or recognition of; as, to meet a train at a junction; to meet carriages or persons in the street; to meet friends at a party; sweet sounds met the ear.

His daughter came out to meet him.

Judg. xi. 34.

4. To perceive; to come to a knowledge of; to have personal acquaintance with; to experience; to suffer; as, the eye met a horrid sight; he met his fate.

Of vice or virtue, whether blest or curst,
Which meets contempt, or which compassion first.


5. To come up to; to be even with; to equal; to match; to satisfy; to ansver; as, to meet one's expectations; the supply meets the demand.

To meet half way, literally, to go half the distance between in order to meet (one); hence, figuratively, to yield or concede half of the difference in order to effect a compromise or reconciliation with.

Meet, v. t. 1. To come together by mutual approach; esp., to come in contact, or into proximity, by approach from opposite directions; to join; to come face to face; to come in close relationship; as, we met in the street; two lines meet so as to form an angle.

O, when meet now
Such pairs in love and mutual honor joined !


2. To come together with hostile purpose; to have an encounter or conflict.

Weapons more violent, when next we meet,
May serve to better us and worse our foes.


3. To assemble together; to congregate; as, Congress meets on the first Monday of December.

They . . . appointed a day to meet together.

2. Macc. xiv. 21.

4. To come together by mutual concessions; hence, to agree; to harmonize; to unite.

To meet with. (a) To light upon; to find; to come to; -- often with the sense of unexpectedness.

We met with many things worthy of observation.


(b) To join; to unite in company. Shak. (c) To suffer unexpectedly; as, to meet with a fall; to meet with a loss. (d) To encounter; to be subjected to.

Prepare to meet with more than brutal fury
From the fierce prince.


(e) To obviate. [Obs.] Bacon.

Meet, n. An assembling together; esp., the assembling of huntsmen for the hunt; also, the persons who so assemble, and the place of meeting.

Meet, a. [OE. mete fitting, moderate, scanty, AS. mte moderate; akin to gemet fit, meet, metan to mete, and G. mässig moderate, gemäss fitting. See Mete.] Suitable; fit; proper; appropriate; qualified; convenient.

It was meet that we should make merry.

Luke xv. 32.

To be meet with, to be even with; to be equal to. [Obs.]

<! p. 909 !>

Meet (mt), adv. Meetly. [Obs.] Shak.

Meet"en (mt"'n), v. t. To render fit. [R.]

Meet"er (mt"r), n. One who meets.

Meeth (mth), n. Mead. See Meathe. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Meet"ing, n. 1. A coming together; an assembling; as, the meeting of Congress.

2. A junction, crossing, or union; as, the meeting of the roads or of two rivers.

3. A congregation; a collection of people; a convention; as, a large meeting; an harmonious meeting.

4. An assembly for worship; as, to attend meeting on Sunday; -- in England, applied distinctively and disparagingly to the worshiping assemblies of Dissenters.

Syn. -- Conference; assembly; company; convention; congregation; junction; confluence; union.

Meet"ing*house` (?), n. A house used as a place of worship; a church; -- in England, applied only to a house so used by Dissenters.

Meet"ly, adv. Fitly; suitably; properly.

Meet"ness, n. Fitness; suitableness; propriety.

{ Meg- (mg-), Meg"a (mg"- ), Meg"a*lo- (-l-) }. [Gr. me`gas, gen. mega`loy, great.] Combining forms signifying: (a) Great, extended, powerful; as, megascope, megacosm. (b) (Metric System, Elec., Mech., etc.) A million times, a million of; as, megameter, a million meters; megafarad, a million farads; megohm, a million ohms.

{ Meg`a*ce*phal"ic (mg`*s*fl"k), Meg`a*ceph"a*lous (-sf"*ls) }, a. [Mega- + Gr. kefalh` head.] (Biol.) Large headed; -- applied to animals, and to plants when they have large flower heads.

||Me*gac"e*ros (m*gs"*rs), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`gas great + ke`ras horn.] (Paleon.) The Irish elk.

Meg"a*chile (?), n. [Mega- + Gr. &?; lip.] (Zoöl.) A leaf-cutting bee of the genus Megachilus. See Leaf cutter, under Leaf.

Meg"a*cosm (?), n. [Mega- + Gr. &?; world.] See Macrocosm. Croft.

Meg`a*cou`lomb" (?), n. [Mega- + coulomb.] (Elec.) A million coulombs.

Meg"a*derm (?), n. [Mega- + Gr. &?; skin.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of Old World blood-sucking bats of the genus Megaderma.

Meg"a*dyne (?), n. [Mega- + dyne.] (Physics) One of the larger measures of force, amounting to one million dynes.

Meg"a*far`ad (?), n. [Mega- + farad.] (Elec.) One of the larger measures of electrical capacity, amounting to one million farads; a macrofarad.

Meg"a*lerg (?), n. [Megalo- + erg.] (Physics) A million ergs; a megerg.

Meg`a*le"sian (?), a. [L. Megalesius, fr. Gr. Mega`lh the Great, a surname of Cybele, the Magna Mater.] Pertaining to, or in honor of, Cybele; as, the Megalesian games at Rome.

Meg`a*leth"o*scope (?), n. [Mega- + alethoscope.] An optical apparatus in which pictures are viewed through a large lens with stereoptical effects. It is often combined with the stereoscope.

Meg"a*lith (?), n. [Mega- + - lith; cf. F. mégalithe.] A large stone; especially, a large stone used in ancient building. -- Meg`a*lith"ic (#), a.

Meg"a*lo- (?). See Meg-.

Meg"a*lo*cyte (?), n. [Megalo- + Gr. &?; a hollow vessel.] (Physiol.) A large, flattened corpuscle, twice the diameter of the ordinary red corpuscle, found in considerable numbers in the blood in profound anæmia.

Meg`a*lo*ma"ni*a (?), n. [NL., fr. megalo- + mania.] (Pathol.) A form of mental alienation in which the patient has grandiose delusions.

||Meg`a*lon"yx (?), n. [NL., from Gr. me`gas, mega`lh, great + 'o`nyx claw.] (Paleon.) An extinct quaternary mammal, of great size, allied to the sloth.

Meg`a*loph"o*nous (mg`*lf"*ns), a. [Megalo- + Gr. fwnh` voice.] Having a loud voice.

Meg`a*lop"o*lis (-lp"*ls), n. [NL., fr. Gr. megalo`polis; me`gas, mega`lh, great + po`lis city.] A chief city; a metropolis. [R.]

Meg"a*lops (mg"*lps), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`gas, - a`loy, large + 'w`ps eye.] (Zoöl.) 1. A larva, in a stage following the zoëa, in the development of most crabs. In this stage the legs and abdominal appendages have appeared, the abdomen is relatively long, and the eyes are large. Also used adjectively.

2. A large fish; the tarpum.

Meg`a*lop"sy*chy (?), n. [Megalo- + Gr. &?; soul, mind.] Greatness of soul. [Obs. & R.]

{ Meg"a*lo*saur` (?), ||Meg`a*lo*sau"rus (?), } n. [NL. megalosaurus, fr. Gr. me`gas, mega`lh, great + say^ros lizard: cf. F. mégalosaure.] (Paleon.) A gigantic carnivorous dinosaur, whose fossil remains have been found in England and elsewhere.

Me*gam"e*ter (?), n. [Mega- + -meter: cf. F. mégamètre.] (Physics) 1. An instrument for determining longitude by observation of the stars.

2. A micrometer. [R.] Knight.

{ Meg"a*me`ter, Meg"a*me`tre } (?), n. [Mega- + meter, metre, n., 2.] In the metric system, one million meters, or one thousand kilometers.

Meg`am`père" (?), n. [Mega- + ampère.] (Elec.) A million ampères.

Meg"a*phone (?), n. [Mega- + Gr. fwnh` voice.] A device to magnify sound, or direct it in a given direction in a greater volume, such as a very large funnel used as an ear trumpet or as a speaking trumpet.

||Me*gaph"y*ton (?), n. [NL., from Gr. me`gas great + fyto`n plant.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of tree ferns with large, two-ranked leaves, or fronds.

Meg"a*pode (?), n. [Mega- + Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of large-footed, gallinaceous birds of the genera Megapodius and Leipoa, inhabiting Australia and other Pacific islands. See Jungle fowl (b) under Jungle, and Leipoa.

Me*gap"o*lis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`gas great + po`lis city.] A metropolis. [Obs.] Sir T. Herbert.

{ Me*ga"ri*an (?), Me*gar"ic (?), } a. Belonging, or pertaining, to Megara, a city of ancient Greece.

Megarian, or Megaric, school, a school of philosophy established at Megara, after the death of Socrates, by his disciples, and remarkable for its logical subtlety.

Meg"a*scope (?), n. [Mega- + -scope: cf. F. mégascope.] A modification of the magic lantern, used esp. for throwing a magnified image of an opaque object on a screen, solar or artificial light being used. [archaic]

Meg"a*seme (?), a. [Mega- + Gr. &?; sing, mark: cf. F. mégasème.] (Anat.) Having the orbital index relatively large; having the orbits narrow transversely; -- opposed to microseme.

{ Me"gass" (?), Me*gasse" }, n. See Bagasse.

Meg"as*thene (?), n. [Gr. me`gas great + sthe`nos strength.] (Zoöl.) One of a group which includes the higher orders of mammals, having a large size as a typical characteristic.

Meg`as*then"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having a typically large size; belonging to the megasthenes.

Meg"a*stome (?), n. [Gr. me`gas great + sto`ma mouth.] (Zoöl.) One of a group of univalve shells, having a large aperture or mouth.

{ Meg"a*there (?), ||Meg`a*the"ri*um (?), } n. [NL. megatherium, fr. Gr. me`gas great + thyri`on beast.] (Paleon.) An extinct gigantic quaternary mammal, allied to the ant-eaters and sloths. Its remains are found in South America.

Meg`a*the"roid (?), n. [Megatherium + -oid.] (Paleon.) One of a family of extinct edentates found in America. The family includes the megatherium, the megalonyx, etc.

Meg`a*volt" (?), n. [Mega- + volt.] (Elec.) One of the larger measures of electro-motive force, amounting to one million volts.

Meg`a*we"ber (?), n. [Mega- + weber.] (Elec.) A million webers.

Meg"erg` (?), n. [Mega- + erg.] (Physics) One of the larger measures of work, amounting to one million ergs; -- called also megalerg.

{ Me*gilp" (?), Me*gilph" (?) }, n. (Paint.) A gelatinous compound of linseed oil and mastic varnish, used by artists as a vehicle for colors. [Written also magilp, and magilph.]

Meg"ohm" (?), n. [Mega- + ohm.] (Elec.) One of the larger measures of electrical resistance, amounting to one million ohms.

Me"grim (?), n. [OE. migrim, migrene, F. migraine, LL. hemigrania, L. hemicrania, hemicranium, Gr. "hmikrani`a; "hmi- half + krani`on skull. See Hemi- and Cranium, and cf. Hemicrania, Migraine.] 1. A kind of sick or nervous headache, usually periodical and confined to one side of the head.

2. A fancy; a whim; a freak; a humor; esp., in the plural, lowness of spirits.

These are his megrims, firks, and melancholies.


3. pl. (Far.) A sudden vertigo in a horse, succeeded sometimes by unconsciousness, produced by an excess of blood in the brain; a mild form of apoplexy. Youatt.

Me"grim, n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zoöl.) The British smooth sole, or scaldfish (Psetta arnoglossa).

Mei*bo"mi*an (?), a. (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or discovered by, Meibomius.

Meibomian glands, the slender sebaceous glands of the eyelids, which discharge, through minute orifices in the edges of the lids, a fatty secretion serving to lubricate the adjacent parts.

Meine (?), v. t. See Menge.

{ Mein"e, Mein"y, (&?;), } n. [OF. maisniée, maisnie. See Menial.] 1. A family, including servants, etc.; household; retinue; train. [Obs.] Chaucer. Shak.

2. Company; band; army. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mei"o*cene (?), a. (Geol.) See Miocene.

Mei"o*nite (?), n. [Gr. mei`wn smaller. So called in a allusion to the low pyramids of the crystals.] (Min.) A member of the scapolite group, occuring in glassy crystals on Monte Somma, near Naples.

||Mei*o"sis (m*"ss), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mei`wsis, fr. meioy^n to make smaller, from mei`wn. See Meionite.] (Rhet.) Diminution; a species of hyperbole, representing a thing as being less than it really is.

Mei`o*stem"o*nous (?), a. [Gr. mei`wn smaller + &?; warp, thread.] (Bot.) Having fever stamens than the parts of the corolla.

||Meis"ter*sing`er (?), n. [G.] See Mastersinger.

Mekh"i*tar*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) See Mechitarist.

Me*lac"o*nite (?), n. [Gr. me`las black + &?; dust.] (Min.) An earthy black oxide of copper, arising from the decomposition of other ores.

{ ||Me*la"da (?), ||Me*la"do (?), } n. [Sp., prop. p. p. of melar to sugar, candy, fr. L. mel honey. See Molasses.] A mixture of sugar and molasses; crude sugar as it comes from the pans without being drained.

||Me*læ"na (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`las, m., me`laina, f., black.] (Med.) A discharge from the bowels of black matter, consisting of altered blood.

Mel"ain (?), n. [See Melæna.] The dark coloring matter of the liquid of the cuttlefish.

Me*lai"no*type (?), n. See Melanotype.

Me"lam (m"lm), n. [Cf. F. mélam.] (Chem.) A white or buff-colored granular powder, C6H9N11, obtained by heating ammonium sulphocyanate.

Me*lam"ine (?), n. (Chem.) A strong nitrogenous base, C3H6N6, produced from several cyanogen compounds, and obtained as a white crystalline substance, -- formerly supposed to be produced by the decomposition of melam. Called also cyanuramide.

Mel"am*pode (?), n. [Gr. melampo`dion; of uncertain origin.] The black hellebore. [Obs.] Spenser.

{ Mel`am*py"rin (?), Mel`am*py"rite (?), } n. [NL. Melampyrum cowwheat; Gr. me`las black + pyro`s wheat.] (Chem.) The saccharine substance dulcite; -- so called because found in the leaves of cowwheat (Melampyrum). See Dulcite.

||Mel`a*næ"mi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`las, -anos, black + a"i^ma blood.] (Med.) A morbid condition in which the blood contains black pigment either floating freely or imbedded in the white blood corpuscles.

Me*lan"a*gogue (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + &?; leading, driving, &?; to lead.] (Med.) A medicine supposed to expel black bile or choler. [Obs.]

||Mel`an*cho"li*a (?), n. [L. See Melancholy.] (Med.) A kind of mental unsoundness characterized by extreme depression of spirits, ill-grounded fears, delusions, and brooding over one particular subject or train of ideas.

Mel`an*cho"li*an (?), n. A person affected with melancholy; a melancholic. [Obs.] Dr. J. Scott.

Mel"an*chol`ic (?), a. [L. melancholicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. mélancholique.] Given to melancholy; depressed; melancholy; dejected; unhappy.

Just as the melancholic eye
Sees fleets and armies in the sky.


Mel"an*chol`ic, n. [Obs.] 1. One affected with a gloomy state of mind. J. Spenser.

2. A gloomy state of mind; melancholy. Clarendon.

Mel"an*chol`i*ly (?), adv. In a melancholy manner.

Mel"an*chol`i*ness, n. The state or quality of being melancholy. Hallywell.

Mel`an*cho"li*ous (?), a. [Cf. OF. melancholieux.] Melancholy. [R.] Milton.

Mel"an*chol*ist (?), n. One affected with melancholy or dejection. [Obs.] Glanvill.

Mel"an*cho*lize (?), v. i. To become gloomy or dejected in mind. Barrow.

Mel"an*cho*lize, v. t. To make melancholy.

Mel"an*chol*y (?), n. [OE. melancolie, F. mélancolie, L. melancholia, fr. Gr. &?;; me`las, -anos, black + &?; gall, bile. See Malice, and 1st Gall.]

1. Depression of spirits; a gloomy state continuing a considerable time; deep dejection; gloominess. Shak.

2. Great and continued depression of spirits, amounting to mental unsoundness; melancholia.

3. Pensive maditation; serious thoughtfulness. [Obs.] "Hail, divinest Melancholy !" Milton.

4. Ill nature. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mel"an*chol*y, a. 1. Depressed in spirits; dejected; gloomy dismal. Shak.

2. Producing great evil and grief; causing dejection; calamitous; afflictive; as, a melancholy event.

3. Somewhat deranged in mind; having the jugment impaired. [Obs.] Bp. Reynolds.

4. Favorable to meditation; somber.

A pretty, melancholy seat, well wooded and watered.


Syn. -- Gloomy; sad; dispirited; low-spirited; downhearted; unhappy; hypochondriac; disconsolate; heavy, doleful; dismal; calamitous; afflictive.

Mel`a*ne"sian (?), a. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + &?; island. Melanesia was so called from the dark complexion of the natives.] Of or pertaining to Melanesia.

||Mé`lange" (?), n. [F. See Mell, Meddle.] A mixture; a medley.

Me*la"ni*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of a family of fresh-water pectinibranchiate mollusks, having a turret-shaped shell.

Me*lan"ic (?), a. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black.] 1. Melanotic.

2. (Ethnol.) Of or pertaining to the black-haired races. Prichard.

Me*lan"i*line (?), n. (Chem.) A complex nitrogenous hydrocarbon obtained artificially (as by the action of cyanogen chloride on aniline) as a white, crystalline substance; -- called also diphenyl guanidin.

Mel"a*nin (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black.] (Physiol.) A black pigment found in the pigment-bearing cells of the skin (particularly in the skin of the negro), in the epithelial cells of the external layer of the retina (then called fuscin), in the outer layer of the choroid, and elsewhere. It is supposed to be derived from the decomposition of hemoglobin.

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Mel"a*nism (ml"*nz'm), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black.]

1. An undue development of dark-colored pigment in the skin or its appendages; -- the opposite of albinism.

2. (Med.) A disease; black jaundice. See Melæna.

Mel`a*nis"tic (?), a. Affected with melanism; of the nature of melanism.

Mel"a*nite (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black: cf. F. mélanite.] (Min.) A black variety of garnet.

||Mel`a*noch"ro*i (?), n. pl. [NL. See Melanochroic.] (Ethnol.) A group of the human race, including the dark whites.

Mel`a*no*chro"ic (?), a. [Gr. melana`chroos; me`las, -anos, black + chroa` color.] Having a dark complexion; of or pertaining to the Melanochroi.

Mel`a*no*chro"ite (?), n. [See Melanochroic.] (Min.) A mineral of a red, or brownish or yellowish red color. It is a chromate of lead; -- called also phœnicocroite.

Mel`a*noc"o*mous (?), a. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + &?; hair.] Having very dark or black hair; black-haired. Prichard.

||Mel`a*nor*rhœ"a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`las, -anos, black + &?; to flow.] (Bot.) An East Indian genus of large trees. Melanorrhœa usitatissima is the lignum-vitæ of Pegu, and yields a valuable black varnish.

Me*lan"o*scope (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + -scope.] (Opt.) An instrument containing a combination of colored glasses such that they transmit only red light, so that objects of other colors, as green leaves, appear black when seen through it. It is used for viewing colored flames, to detect the presence of potassium, lithium, etc., by the red light which they emit.

||Mel`a*no"sis (?), [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a growing black, fr. me`las, -anos, black.] (Med.) The morbid deposition of black matter, often of a malignant character, causing pigmented tumors.

Me*lan"o*sperm (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + spe`rma seed.] (Bot.) An alga of any kind that produces blackish spores, or seed dust. The melanosperms include the rockweeds and all kinds of kelp. -- Mel`a*no*sper"mous (#), a.

Mel`a*not"ic (?), a. Melanistic.

Me*lan"o*type (?), n. [Gr. me`las, -anos, black + -type.] (Photog.) A positive picture produced with sensitized collodion on a smooth surface of black varnish, coating a thin plate of iron; also, the process of making such a picture. [Written also melainotype.]

Me*lan"ter*ite (?), n. (Min.) A hydrous sulphate of iron of a green color and vitreous luster; iron vitriol.

Mel"a*nure (?), n. [NL. melanurus, fr. Gr. me`las, -anos, black + o'ura` tail.] (Zoöl.) A small fish of the Mediterranean; a gilthead. See Gilthead (a).

Mel`a*nu"ric (?), a. [Melam + urea.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitrogenous acid obtained by decomposition of melam, or of urea, as a white crystalline powder; -- called also melanurenic acid.

Mel"a*phyre (?), n. [F., fr. Gr. me`las, -anos, black + porphyre porphyry.] (Min.) Any one of several dark-colored augitic, eruptive rocks allied to basalt.

||Me*las"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; black spot.] (Med.) A dark discoloration of the skin, usually local; as, Addison's melasma, or Addison's disease. -- Me*las"mic (#), a.

Me*las"ses (?), n. See Molasses.

Me*las"sic (?), a. [See Molasses.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained from molasses or glucose, and probably identical with saccharic acid. See Saccharic.

||Me*las"to*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`las black + sto`ma mouth.] (Bot.) A genus of evergreen tropical shrubs; -- so called from the black berries of some species, which stain the mouth.

Mel`a*sto*ma"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Belonging to the order of which Melastoma is the type.

Mel"chite (?), n. [Heb. melek king.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect, chiefly in Syria and Egypt, which acknowledges the authority of the pope, but adheres to the liturgy and ceremonies of the Eastern Church.

Mel`e*a"grine (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the genus Meleagris.

||Mel`e*a"gris (?), n. [L., the Guinea fowl.] (Zoöl.) A genus of American gallinaceous birds, including the common and the wild turkeys.

||Mê`lée" (m`l"), n. [F., fr. mêler to mix. See Meddle, Mell, and cf. Mellay.] A fight in which the combatants are mingled in one confused mass; a hand to hand conflict; an affray.

||Me*le"na (?), n. (Med.) See Melæna.

Mel"ene (?), n. [Melissic + ethylene.] (Chem.) An unsaturated hydrocarbon, C30H60, of the ethylene series, obtained from beeswax as a white, scaly, crystalline wax; -- called also melissene, and melissylene.

Mel"e*nite (?), n. [Gr. me`li honey.] An explosive of great destructive power; -- so called from its color, which resembles honey.

Mel"e*tin (?), n. (Chem.) See Quercitin.

Me*lez"i*tose` (?), n. [F. mélèze the larch + melitose.] (Chem.) A variety of sugar, isomeric with sucrose, extracted from the manna of the larch (Larix). [Written also melicitose.]

Me`li*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to a natural order (Meliacæ) of plants of which the genus Melia is the type. It includes the mahogany and the Spanish cedar.

{ Mel`i*be"an (?), Mel`i*b&?;"an }, a. [From L. Meliboeus, one of the interlocutors in Virgil's first Eclogue.] (Rhet.) Alternately responsive, as verses.

Mel"ic (?), [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; song.] Of or pertaining to song; lyric; tuneful.

Me*lic"er*ous (?), a. [L. meliceris a kind of tumor, fr. Gr. &?;; me`li honey + &?; wax.] (Med.) Consisting of or containing matter like honey; -- said of certain encysted tumors.

Mel"ic grass` (?). (Bot.) A genus of grasses (Melica) of little agricultural importance.

Mel`i*co*toon" (?), n. (Bot.) See Melocoton.

Me*lic"ra*to*ry (?), n. [Gr. meli`kraton.] A meadlike drink. [Obs.]

Mel"i*lite (ml"*lt), n. [Gr. me`li honey + -lite; cf. F. mélilithe.] (Min.) A mineral occurring in small yellow crystals, found in the lavas (melilite basalt) of Vesuvius, and elsewhere. [Written also mellilite.]

Mel"i*lot (-lt), n. [F. mélilot, L. melilotus, fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, a kind of clover containing honey; me`li honey + &?; lotus.] (Bot.) Any species of Melilotus, a genus of leguminous herbs having a vanillalike odor; sweet clover; hart's clover. The blue melilot (Melilotus cærulea) is used in Switzerland to give color and flavor to sapsago cheese.

Mel`i*lot"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, sweet clover or melilot; specifically, designating an acid of the aromatic series, obtained from melilot as a white crystalline substance.

Mel"io*rate (ml"y*rt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Meliorated (- r`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Meliorating.] [L. melioratus, p. p. of meliorare to meliorate, fr. melior better; akin to Gr. ma^llon rather, ma`la very. Cf. Ameliorate.] To make better; to improve; to ameliorate; to soften; to make more tolerable.

Nature by art we nobly meliorate.


The pure and benign light of revelation has had a meliorating influence on mankind.


Mel"io*rate, v. i. To grow better.

Mel"io*ra`ter (?), n. Same as Meliorator.

Mel`io*ra"tion (?), n. [L. melioratio.] The act or operation of meliorating, or the state of being meliorated; improvement. Bacon.

Mel"io*ra`tor (?), n. One who meliorates.

Mel"io*rism (?), n. [From L. melior better.] The doctrine that there is a tendency throughout nature toward improvement. J. Sully.

Mel*ior"i*ty (?), n. [LL. melioritas, fr. L. melior. See Meliorate.] The state or quality of being better; melioration. [Obs.] Bacon.

Me*liph"a*gan (?), a. [Gr. me`li honey + &?; to eat.] (Zoöl.) Belonging to the genus Meliphaga.

Me*liph"a*gan, n. (Zoöl.) Any bird of the genus Meliphaga and allied genera; a honey eater; -- called also meliphagidan.

Me*liph"a*gous (?), a. [See Meliphagan.] (Zool.) Eating, or feeding upon, honey.

||Me*lis"ma (?), n.; pl. Melismata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. me`lisma a song.] (Mus.) (a) A piece of melody; a song or tune, -- as opposed to recitative or musical declamation. (b) A grace or embellishment.

||Me*lis"sa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`lissa a bee, honey.] (Bot.) A genus of labiate herbs, including the balm, or bee balm (Melissa officinalis).

Me*lis"sic (?), a. [Gr. me`lissa a bee, honey.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, beeswax; specif., denoting an acid obtained by oxidation of myricin.

Me*lis"syl (?), n. [Melissic +yl.] (Chem.) See Myricyl.

Me*lis"sy*lene (?), n. [Melissic + -yl + -ene.] (Chem.) See Melene.

Mel"i*tose` (?), n. [Gr. me`li honey.] (Chem.) A variety of sugar isomeric with sucrose, extracted from cotton seeds and from the so- called Australian manna (a secretion of certain species of Eucalyptus).

Mell (?), v. i. & t. [F. mêler, OF. meller, mester. See Meddle.] To mix; to meddle. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mell, n. [See Mellifluous.] Honey. [Obs.] Warner.

Mell, n. A mill. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mel"late (?), n. [L. mel, mellis, honey. Cf. Mellitate.] (Chem.) A mellitate. [R.]

Mel"lay (?), n. A mêlée; a conflict. Tennyson.

Mel"lic (?), a. (Chem.) See Mellitic. [R.]

Mel*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. mellifer; mel, mellis, honey + ferre to bear.] Producing honey.

Mel*lif"ic (?), a. [L. mel, mellis, honey + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See - fy.] Producing honey.

Mel`li*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. mellificare to make honey: cf. F. mellification. See Mellific.] The making or production of honey.

Mel*lif"lu*ence (?), n. A flow of sweetness, or a sweet, smooth flow.

Mel*lif"lu*ent (?), a. [L. mellifluens. See Mellifluous.] Flowing as with honey; smooth; mellifluous.

Mel*lif"lu*ent*ly, adv. In a mellifluent manner.

Mel*lif"lu*ous (?), a. [L. mellifluus; mel, mellis, honey (akin to Gr. &?;, Goth. milip) + fluere to flow. See Mildew, Fluent, and cf. Marmalade.] Flowing as with honey; smooth; flowing sweetly or smoothly; as, a mellifluous voice. -- Mel*lif"lu*ous*ly, adv.

Mel*lig"e*nous (?), a. [L. mel, mellis + -genous.] Having the qualities of honey. [R.]

||Mel*li"go (?), n. [L.] Honeydew.

Mel*lil"o*quent (?), a. [L. mel, mellis honey + loquens speaking, p. pr. of loqui to speak.] Speaking sweetly or harmoniously.

Mel*liph"a*gan (?), n. See Meliphagan.

Mel*liph"a*gous (?), a. See Meliphagous.

Mel"li*tate (?), n. [Cf. F. mellitate. See Mellitic.] (Chem.) A salt of mellitic acid.

Mel"lite (?), n. [L. mel, mellis, honey: cf. F. mellite.] (Min.) A mineral of a honey color, found in brown coal, and partly the result of vegetable decomposition; honeystone. It is a mellitate of alumina.

Mel*lit"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. mellitique. See Mellite.] (Chem.) (a) Containing saccharine matter; marked by saccharine secretions; as, mellitic diabetes. (b) Pertaining to, or derived from, the mineral mellite.

Mellitic acid (Chem.), a white, crystalline, organic substance, C6(CO2H)6, occurring naturally in combination with aluminium in the mineral mellite, and produced artificially by the oxidation of coal, graphite, etc., and hence called also graphitic acid.

Mel"lone (?), n. (Chem.) A yellow powder, C6H3N9, obtained from certain sulphocyanates. It has acid properties and forms compounds called mellonides.

Mel"lon*ide (?), n. See Mellone.

Mel"low (?), a. [Compar. Mellower (?); superl. Mellowest.] [OE. melwe; cf. AS. mearu soft, D. murw, Prov. G. mollig soft, D. malsch, and E. meal flour.]

1. Soft or tender by reason of ripeness; having a tender pulp; as, a mellow apple.

2. Hence: (a) Easily worked or penetrated; not hard or rigid; as, a mellow soil. "Mellow glebe." Drayton (b) Not coarse, rough, or harsh; subdued; soft; rich; delicate; -- said of sound, color, flavor, style, etc. "The mellow horn." Wordsworth. "The mellow-tasted Burgundy." Thomson.

The tender flush whose mellow stain imbues
Heaven with all freaks of light.


3. Well matured; softened by years; genial; jovial.

May health return to mellow age.


As merry and mellow an old bachelor as ever followed a hound.

W. Irving.

4. Warmed by liquor; slightly intoxicated. Addison.

Mel"low, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mellowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mellowing.] To make mellow. Shak.

If the Weather prove frosty to mellow it [the ground], they do not plow it again till April.


The fervor of early feeling is tempered and mellowed by the ripeness of age.

J. C. Shairp.

Mel"low, v. i. To become mellow; as, ripe fruit soon mellows. "Prosperity begins to mellow." Shak.

Mel"low*ly, adv. In a mellow manner.

Mel"low*ness, n. Quality or state of being mellow.

Mel"low*y (?), a. Soft; unctuous. Drayton.

||Mel*lu"co (?), n. (Bot.) A climbing plant (Ullucus officinalis) of the Andes, having tuberous roots which are used as a substitute for potatoes.

Mel"ne (?), n. A mill. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{ Mel`o*co*ton", Mel`o*co*toon" } (?), n. [Sp. melocoton a kind of peach tree and its fruit, L. malum cotonium, or cotonea, or Cydonia, a quince, or quince tree, lit., apple of Cydonia, Gr. &?; &?;. See Quince.] (Bot.) (a) A quince. (b) A kind of peach having one side deep red, and the flesh yellow. [Written also malacatoon, malacotune.]

Me*lo"de*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; musical. See Melody, and cf. Odeon.]

1. (Mus.) A kind of small reed organ; -- a portable form of the seraphine.

2. A music hall.

Me*lod"ic (?), a. [L. melodicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. mélodique.] Of the nature of melody; relating to, containing, or made up of, melody; melodious.

Me*lod"ics (?), n. The department of musical science which treats of the pitch of tones, and of the laws of melody.

Me*lo"di*o*graph (?), n. [Melody + -graph.] A contrivance for preserving a record of music, by recording the action of the keys of a musical instrument when played upon.

Me*lo"di*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. mélodieux. See Melody.] Containing, or producing, melody; musical; agreeable to the ear by a sweet succession of sounds; as, a melodious voice. "A melodious voice." "A melodious undertone." Longfellow. -- Me*lo"di*ous*ly, adv. -- Me*lo"di*ous*ness, n.

Mel"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. mélodiste.] A composer or singer of melodies.

Mel"o*dize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Melodized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Melodizing (?).] To make melodious; to form into, or set to, melody.

Mel"o*dize, v. i. To make melody; to compose melodies; to harmonize.

Mel`o*dra"ma (?), n. [F. mélodrame, fr. Gr. me`los song + dra^ma drama.] Formerly, a kind of drama having a musical accompaniment to intensify the effect of certain scenes. Now, a drama abounding in romantic sentiment and agonizing situations, with a musical accompaniment only in parts which are especially thrilling or pathetic. In opera, a passage in which the orchestra plays a somewhat descriptive accompaniment, while the actor speaks; as, the melodrama in the gravedigging scene of Beethoven's "Fidelio".

Mel`o*dra*mat"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. mélodramatique.] Of or pertaining to melodrama; like or suitable to a melodrama; unnatural in situation or action. -- Mel`o*dra*mat"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

Mel`o*dram"a*tist (?), n. One who acts in, or writes, melodramas.

Mel"o*drame (?), n. [F.] Melodrama.

Mel"o*dy (?), n.; pl. Melodies (#). [OE. melodie, F. mélodie, L. melodia, fr. Gr. &?; a singing, choral song, fr. &?; musical, melodious; me`los song, tune + &?; song. See Ode.]

1. A sweet or agreeable succession of sounds.

Lulled with sound of sweetest melody.


2. (Mus.) A rhythmical succession of single tones, ranging for the most part within a given key, and so related together as to form a musical whole, having the unity of what is technically called a musical thought, at once pleasing to the ear and characteristic in expression.

Melody consists in a succession of single tones; harmony is a consonance or agreement of tones, also a succession of consonant musical combinations or chords.

3. The air or tune of a musical piece.

Syn. -- See Harmony.

||Mel"o*e (?), [ NL., fr. Gr. &?; to probe a wound.] (Zoöl.) A genus of beetles without wings, but having short oval elytra; the oil beetles. These beetles are sometimes used instead of cantharides for raising blisters. See Oil beetle, under Oil.

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Mel"o*graph (ml"*grf), n. [Gr. me`los a song + -graph : cf. F. mélographe.] Same as Melodiograph.

Mel`o*lon*thid"i*an (?), n. [Gr. &?; the cockchafer.] (Zoöl.) A beetle of the genus Melolontha, and allied genera. See May beetle, under May.

Mel"on (ml"n), n. [F., fr. L. melo, for melopepo an apple-shaped melon, Gr. &?; ; mh^lon apple + &?; a species of large melon; cf. L. malum apple. Cf. Marmalade.]

1. (Bot.) The juicy fruit of certain cucurbitaceous plants, as the muskmelon, watermelon, and citron melon; also, the plant that produces the fruit.

2. (Zoöl.) A large, ornamental, marine, univalve shell of the genus Melo.

Melon beetle (Zoöl.), a small leaf beetle (Diabrotiea vittata), which damages the leaves of melon vines. -- Melon cactus, Melon thistle. (a) (Bot.) A genus of cactaceous plants (Melocactus) having a fleshy and usually globose stem with the surface divided into spiny longitudinal ridges, and bearing at the top a prickly and woolly crown in which the small pink flowers are half concealed. M. communis, from the West Indies, is often cultivated, and sometimes called Turk's cap. (b) The related genus Mamillaria, in which the stem is tubercled rather than ribbed, and the flowers sometimes large. See Illust. under Cactus.

Mel`o*pi*a"no (?), n. [Gr. me`los song + E. piano.] A piano having a mechanical attachment which enables the player to prolong the notes at will.

Mel`o*plas"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to meloplasty, or the artificial formation of a new cheek.

Mel"o*plas`ty (ml"*pls`t), n. [Gr. mh^lon an apple, a cheek + - plasty: cf. F. méloplastie.] (Surg.) The process of restoring a cheek which has been destroyed wholly or in part.

||Mel`o*pœ"ia (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; me`los song + poiei^n to make.] (Mus.) The art of forming melody; melody; -- now often used for a melodic passage, rather than a complete melody.

Mel"o*type (?), n. (Photog.) A picture produced by a process in which development after exposure may be deferred indefinitely, so as to permit transportation of exposed plates; also, the process itself.

Mel*pom"e*ne (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, lit., the songstress, fr. &?;, &?;, to sing.]

1. (Class. Myth.) The Muse of tragedy.

2. (Astron.) The eighteenth asteroid.

Mel"rose (?), n. Honey of roses.

Melt (mlt), n. (Zoöl.) See 2d Milt.

Melt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Melted (obs.) p. p. Molten (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Melting.] [AS. meltan; akin to Gr. me`ldein, E. malt, and prob. to E. smelt, v. √108. Cf. Smelt, v., Malt, Milt the spleen.] 1. To reduce from a solid to a liquid state, as by heat; to liquefy; as, to melt wax, tallow, or lead; to melt ice or snow.

2. Hence: To soften, as by a warming or kindly influence; to relax; to render gentle or susceptible to mild influences; sometimes, in a bad sense, to take away the firmness of; to weaken.

Thou would'st have . . . melted down thy youth.


For pity melts the mind to love.


Syn. -- To liquefy; fuse; thaw; mollify; soften.

Melt, v. i. 1. To be changed from a solid to a liquid state under the influence of heat; as, butter and wax melt at moderate temperatures.

2. To dissolve; as, sugar melts in the mouth.

3. Hence: To be softened; to become tender, mild, or gentle; also, to be weakened or subdued, as by fear.

My soul melteth for heaviness.

Ps. cxix. 28.

Melting with tenderness and kind compassion.


4. To lose distinct form or outline; to blend.

The soft, green, rounded hills, with their flowing outlines, overlapping and melting into each other.

J. C. Shairp.

5. To disappear by being dispersed or dissipated; as, the fog melts away. Shak.

Melt"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being melted.

Melt"er (-r), n. One who, or that which, melts.

Melt"ing, n. Liquefaction; the act of causing (something) to melt, or the process of becoming melted.

Melting point (Chem.), the degree of temperature at which a solid substance melts or fuses; as, the melting point of ice is 0° Centigrade or 32° Fahr., that of urea is 132° Centigrade. -- Melting pot, a vessel in which anything is melted; a crucible.

Melt"ing a. Causing to melt; becoming melted; -- used literally or figuratively; as, a melting heat; a melting appeal; a melting mood. -- Melt"ing*ly, adv.

Mel"ton (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A kind of stout woolen cloth with unfinished face and without raised nap. A commoner variety has a cotton warp.

Mem"ber (?), v. t. [See Remember.] To remember; to cause to remember; to mention. [Obs.]

Mem"ber, n. [OE. membre, F. membre, fr. L. membrum; cf. Goth. mimz flesh, Skr. mamsa.]

1. (Anat.) A part of an animal capable of performing a distinct office; an organ; a limb.

We have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office.

Rom. xii. 4.

2. Hence, a part of a whole; an independent constituent of a body; as: (a) A part of a discourse or of a period or sentence; a clause; a part of a verse. (b) (Math.) Either of the two parts of an algebraic equation, connected by the sign of equality. (c) (Engin.) Any essential part, as a post, tie rod, strut, etc., of a framed structure, as a bridge truss. (d) (Arch.) Any part of a building, whether constructional, as a pier, column, lintel, or the like, or decorative, as a molding, or group of moldings. (e) One of the persons composing a society, community, or the like; an individual forming part of an association; as, a member of the society of Friends.

Compression member, Tension member (Engin.), a member, as a rod, brace, etc., which is subjected to compression or tension, respectively.

Mem"bered (?), a. 1. Having limbs; -- chiefly used in composition.

2. (Her.) Having legs of a different tincture from that of the body; -- said of a bird in heraldic representations.

Mem"ber*ship, n. 1. The state of being a member.

2. The collective body of members, as of a society.

Mem"bral (?), a. (Anat.) Relating to a member.

Mem`bra*na"ceous (?), a. [L. membranaceus.]

1. Same as Membranous. Arbuthnot.

2. (Bot.) Thin and rather soft or pliable, as the leaves of the rose, peach tree, and aspen poplar.

Mem"brane (?), n. [F., fr. L. membrana the skin that covers the separate members of the body, fr. L. membrum. See Member.] (Anat.) A thin layer or fold of tissue, usually supported by a fibrous network, serving to cover or line some part or organ, and often secreting or absorbing certain fluids.

The term is also often applied to the thin, expanded parts, of various texture, both in animals and vegetables.

Adventitious membrane, a membrane connecting parts not usually connected, or of a different texture from the ordinary connection; as, the membrane of a cicatrix. -- Jacob's membrane. See under Retina. -- Mucous membranes (Anat.), the membranes lining passages and cavities which communicate with the exterior, as well as ducts and receptacles of secretion, and habitually secreting mucus. -- Schneiderian membrane. (Anat.) See Schneiderian. -- Serous membranes (Anat.) , the membranes, like the peritoneum and pleura, which line, or lie in, cavities having no obvious outlet, and secrete a serous fluid.

Mem*bra"ne*ous (?), a. [L. membraneus of parchment.] See Membranous.

Mem`bra*nif"er*ous (?), a. [Membrane + -ferous.] Having or producing membranes.

Mem*bra"ni*form (?), a. [Membrane + -form: cf. F. membraniforme.] Having the form of a membrane or of parchment.

Mem`bra*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Membrane + -logy.] The science which treats of membranes.

Mem"bra*nous (?), a. [Cf. F. membraneux.]

1. Pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling, membrane; as, a membranous covering or lining.

2. (Bot.) Membranaceous.

Membranous croup (Med.), true croup. See Croup.

Me*men"to (?), n.; pl. Mementos (#). [L., remember, be mindful, imper. of meminisse to remember. See Mention.] A hint, suggestion, token, or memorial, to awaken memory; that which reminds or recalls to memory; a souvenir.

Seasonable mementos may be useful.


||Me*min"na (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small deerlet, or chevrotain, of India.

Mem"non (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;, lit., the Steadfast, Resolute, the son of Tithonus and Aurora, and king of the Ethiopians, killed by Achilles.] (Antiq.) A celebrated Egyptian statue near Thebes, said to have the property of emitting a harplike sound at sunrise.

{ Mem"oir (?), or pl. Mem"oirs (?) }, n. [F. mémoire, m., memorandum, fr. mémoire, f., memory, L. memoria. See Memory.] 1. A memorial account; a history composed from personal experience and memory; an account of transactions or events (usually written in familiar style) as they are remembered by the writer. See History, 2.

2. A memorial of any individual; a biography; often, a biography written without special regard to method and completeness.

3. An account of something deemed noteworthy; an essay; a record of investigations of any subject; the journals and proceedings of a society.

Mem"oir*ist, n. A writer of memoirs.

||Mem`o*ra*bil"i*a (?), n. pl. [L., fr. memorabilis memorable. See Memorable.] Things remarkable and worthy of remembrance or record; also, the record of them.

Mem`o*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being memorable.

Mem"o*ra*ble (?), a. [L. memorabilis, fr. memorare to bring to remembrance, fr. memor mindful, remembering. See Memory, and cf. Memorabilia.] Worthy to be remembered; very important or remarkable. -- Mem"o*ra*ble*ness, n. -- Mem"o*ra*bly, adv.

Surviving fame to gain,
Buy tombs, by books, by memorable deeds.

Sir J. Davies.

Mem`o*ran"dum (?), n.; pl. E. Memorandums, L. Memoranda (#). [L., something to be remembered, neut. of memorandus, fut. pass. p. of memorare. See Memorable.]

1. A record of something which it is desired to remember; a note to help the memory.

I . . . entered a memorandum in my pocketbook.


I wish you would, as opportunity offers, make memorandums of the regulations of the academies.

Sir J. Reynolds.

2. (Law) A brief or informal note in writing of some transaction, or an outline of an intended instrument; an instrument drawn up in a brief and compendious form.

Memorandum check, a check given as an acknowledgment of indebtedness, but with the understanding that it will not be presented at bank unless the maker fails to take it up on the day the debt becomes due. It usually has Mem. written on its face.

Mem"o*rate (?), v. t. [L. memoratus, p. p. of memorare. See Memorable.] To commemorate. [Obs.]

Mem"o*ra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. mémoratif.] Commemorative. [Obs.] Hammond.

||Me*mo"ri*a (?), n. [L.] Memory.

Memoria technica, technical memory; a contrivance for aiding the memory.

Me*mo"ri*al (?), a. [F. mémorial, L. memorialis, fr. memoria. See Memory.]

1. Serving to preserve remembrance; commemorative; as, a memorial building.

There high in air, memorial of my name,
Fix the smooth oar, and bid me live to fame.


2. Contained in memory; as, a memorial possession.

3. Mnemonic; assisting the memory.

This succession of Aspirate, Soft, and Hard, may be expressed by the memorial word ASH.


Memorial Day. Same as Decoration Day. [U.S.]

Me*mo"ri*al, n. [Cf. F. mémorial.]

1. Anything intended to preserve the memory of a person or event; something which serves to keep something else in remembrance; a monument. Macaulay.

Churches have names; some as memorials of peace, some of wisdom, some in memory of the Trinity itself.


2. A memorandum; a record. [Obs. or R.] Hayward.

3. A written representation of facts, addressed to the government, or to some branch of it, or to a society, etc., -- often accompanied with a petition.

4. Memory; remembrance. [Obs.]

Precious is the memorial of the just.


5. (Diplomacy) A species of informal state paper, much used in negotiation.

Me*mo"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. mémorialiste.] One who writes or signs a memorial.

Me*mo"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Memorialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Memorializing (?).] To address or petition by a memorial; to present a memorial to; as, to memorialize the legislature. T. Hook.

Me*mo"ri*al*i`zer (?), n. One who petitions by a memorial. T. Hook.

Mem"o*rist (?), n. [See Memorize.] One who, or that which, causes to be remembered. [Obs.]

||Me*mor"i*ter (?), adv. [L., fr. memor mindful. See Memorable.] By, or from, memory.

Mem"o*rize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Memorized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Memorizing (?).] [See Memory.]

1. To cause to be remembered ; hence, to record. [Obs.]

They neglect to memorize their conquest.


They meant to . . . memorize another Golgotha.


2. To commit to memory; to learn by heart.

Mem"o*ry (?), n.; pl. Memories (#). [OE. memorie, OF. memoire, memorie, F. mémoire, L. memoria, fr. memor mindful; cf. mora delay. Cf. Demur, Martyr, Memoir, Remember.]

1. The faculty of the mind by which it retains the knowledge of previous thoughts, impressions, or events.

Memory is the purveyor of reason.


2. The reach and positiveness with which a person can remember; the strength and trustworthiness of one's power to reach and represent or to recall the past; as, his memory was never wrong.

3. The actual and distinct retention and recognition of past ideas in the mind; remembrance; as, in memory of youth; memories of foreign lands.

4. The time within which past events can be or are remembered; as, within the memory of man.

And what, before thy memory, was done
From the begining.


5. Something, or an aggregate of things, remembered; hence, character, conduct, etc., as preserved in remembrance, history, or tradition; posthumous fame; as, the war became only a memory.

The memory of the just is blessed.

Prov. x. 7.

That ever-living man of memory, Henry the Fifth.


The Nonconformists . . . have, as a body, always venerated her [Elizabeth's] memory.


6. A memorial. [Obs.]

These weeds are memories of those worser hours.


Syn. -- Memory, Remembrance, Recollection, Reminiscence. Memory is the generic term, denoting the power by which we reproduce past impressions. Remembrance is an exercise of that power when things occur spontaneously to our thoughts. In recollection we make a distinct effort to collect again, or call back, what we know has been formerly in the mind. Reminiscence is intermediate between remembrance and recollection, being a conscious process of recalling past occurrences, but without that full and varied reference to particular things which characterizes recollection. "When an idea again recurs without the operation of the like object on the external sensory, it is remembrance; if it be sought after by the mind, and with pain and endeavor found, and brought again into view, it is recollection." Locke.

To draw to memory, to put on record; to record. [Obs.] Chaucer. Gower.

Mem"phi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the ancient city of Memphis in Egypt; hence, Egyptian; as, Memphian darkness.

Men (?), n., pl. of Man.

Men, pron. [OE. me, men. "Not the plural of man, but a weakened form of the word man itself." Skeat.] A man; one; -- used with a verb in the singular, and corresponding to the present indefinite one or they. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Men moot give silver to the poure friars.


A privy thief, men clepeth death.


Me*nac"can*ite (?), n. [From Menaccan, in Cornwall, where it was first found.] (Min.) An iron-black or steel-gray mineral, consisting chiefly of the oxides of iron and titanium. It is commonly massive, but occurs also in rhombohedral crystals. Called also titanic iron ore, and ilmenite.

Men"ace (mn"s; 48), n. [F., fr. L. minaciae threats, menaces, fr. minax, - acis, projecting, threatening, minae projecting points or pinnacles, threats. Cf. Amenable, Demean, Imminent, Minatory.] The show of an intention to inflict evil; a threat or threatening; indication of a probable evil or catastrophe to come.

His (the pope's) commands, his rebukes, his menaces.


The dark menace of the distant war.


<! p. 912 !>

Men"ace (mn"s; 48), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Menaced (st); p. pr. & vb. n. Menacing (?).] [OF. menacier, F. menacer. See Menace, n.] 1. To express or show an intention to inflict, or to hold out a prospect of inflicting, evil or injury upon; to threaten; -- usually followed by with before the harm threatened; as, to menace a country with war.

My master . . . did menace me with death.


2. To threaten, as an evil to be inflicted.

By oath he menaced
Revenge upon the cardinal.


Men"ace, v. i. To act in threatening manner; to wear a threatening aspect.

Who ever knew the heavens menace so?


Men"a*cer (?), n. One who menaces.

Men"a*cing*ly, adv. In a threatening manner.

||Mé`nage" (?), n. See Manage.

||Mé`nage" (?), n. [See Menagerie.] A collection of animals; a menagerie. [Obs.] Addison.

Men*ag"er*ie (?), n. [F. ménagerie, fr. ménager to keep house, ménage household. See Menial, Mansion.] 1. A piace where animals are kept and trained.

2. A collection of wild or exotic animals, kept for exhibition.

Men"a*gogue (?), n. [F. ménagogue, fr. Gr. mh`n month + &?; leading.] (Med.) Emmenagogue.

||Me*na"ion (?), n.; pl. Menaia (-yå). [NL., from Gr. &?; monthly.] (Eccl.) A work of twelve volumes, each containing the offices in the Greek Church for a month; also, each volume of the same. Shipley.

{ Men"ald (?), Men"ild (?), } a. Covered with spots; speckled; variegated. [Obs.]

Mend (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mended; p. pr. & vb. n. Mending.] [Abbrev. fr. amend. See Amend.]

1. To repair, as anything that is torn, broken, defaced, decayed, or the like; to restore from partial decay, injury, or defacement; to patch up; to put in shape or order again; to re-create; as, to mend a garment or a machine.

2. To alter for the better; to set right; to reform; hence, to quicken; as, to mend one's manners or pace.

The best service they could do the state was to mend the lives of the persons who composed it.

Sir W. Temple.

3. To help, to advance, to further; to add to.

Though in some lands the grass is but short, yet it mends garden herbs and fruit.


You mend the jewel by the wearing it.


Syn. -- To improve; help; better; emend; amend; correct; rectify; reform.

Mend, v. i. To grow better; to advance to a better state; to become improved. Shak.

Mend"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being mended.

Men*da"cious (?), a. [L. mendax, -acis, lying, cf. mentiri to lie.] 1. Given to deception or falsehood; lying; as, a mendacious person.

2. False; counterfeit; containing falsehood; as, a mendacious statement.

-- Men*da"cious*ly, adv. -- Men*da"cious*ness, n.

Men*dac"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Mendacities (#). [L. mendacitas.] 1. The quality or state of being mendacious; a habit of lying. Macaulay.

2. A falsehood; a lie. Sir T. Browne.

Syn. -- Lying; deceit; untruth; falsehood.

Mend"er (?), n. One who mends or repairs.

Men"di*ant (?), n. See Mendinant. [Obs.]

Men"di*can*cy (?), n. The condition of being mendicant; beggary; begging. Burke.

Men"di*cant (?), a. [L. mendicans, -antis, p. pr. of mendicare to beg, fr. mendicus beggar, indigent.] Practicing beggary; begging; living on alms; as, mendicant friars.

Mendicant orders (R. C. Ch.), certain monastic orders which are forbidden to acquire landed property and are required to be supported by alms, esp. the Franciscans, the Dominicans, the Carmelites, and the Augustinians.

Men"di*cant, n. A beggar; esp., one who makes a business of begging; specifically, a begging friar.

Men"di*cate (?), v. t.& i. [L. mendicatus, p. p. of mendicare to beg.] To beg. [R.] Johnson.

Men`di*ca"tion (?), n. The act or practice of begging; beggary; mendicancy. Sir T. Browne.

Men*dic"i*ty (?), n. [L. mendicitas: cf. F. mendicité. See Mendicant.] The practice of begging; the life of a beggar; mendicancy. Rom. of R.

Men"di*nant (?), n. A mendicant or begging friar. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mend"ment (?), n. Amendment. [Obs.]

Men"dole (mn"dl), n. [Cf. F. mendol, mendole.] (Zoöl.) The cackerel.

Men"dre*gal (?), n. (Zoöl.) Medregal.

Mends (mndz), n. See Amends. [Obs.] Shak.

Menge (mnj), v. i. [imp. Mente, Meinte; p. p. Ment, Meint.] [See Mingle.] To mix. [Obs.] Spenser.

Men*ha"den (?), n. (Zoöl.) An American marine fish of the Herring family (Brevoortia tyrannus), chiefly valuable for its oil and as a component of fertilizers; -- called also mossbunker, bony fish, chebog, pogy, hardhead, whitefish, etc.

Men"hir (?), n. [F. Armor. men stone + hir high.] A large stone set upright in olden times as a memorial or monument. Many, of unknown date, are found in Brittany and throughout Northern Europe.

Men"ial (?), a. [OE. meneal, fr. meine, maine, household, OF. maisniée, maisnie, LL. mansionaticum. See Mansion, and cf. Meine, n., Meiny.]

1. Belonging to a retinue or train of servants; performing servile office; serving.

Two menial dogs before their master pressed.


2. Pertaining to servants, esp. domestic servants; servile; low; mean. " Menial offices." Swift.

Men"ial, n. 1. A domestic servant or retainer, esp. one of humble rank; one employed in low or servile offices.

2. A person of a servile character or disposition.

Mé`nière's" dis*ease" (?). (Med.) A disease characterized by deafness and vertigo, resulting in incoördination of movement. It is supposed to depend upon a morbid condition of the semicircular canals of the internal ear. Named after Ménière, a French physician.

Men"i*lite (?), n. [F. ménilite; -- so called because it is found at Ménilmontant, near Paris.] (Min.) See Opal.

Me*nin"ge*al (m*nn"j*al), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the meninges.

Me*nin"ges (-jz), n. pl.; sing. Meninx (&?;). [NL., fr. Gr. mh^nigx, -iggos, a membrane.] (Anat.) The three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord; the pia mater, dura mater, and arachnoid membrane.

Men`in*gi"tis (?), n. [NL. See Meninges, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord.

Cerebro-spinal meningitis. See under Cerebro-spinal.

Me*nis"cal (?), a. Pertaining to, or having the form of, a meniscus.

Me*nis"coid (?), a. [Meniscus + -oid.] Concavo-convex, like a meniscus.

me*nis"cus (?), n.; pl. L. menisci (-s), E. Meniscuses (#). [NL., from Gr. mhni`skos, dim. of mh`nh the moon.] 1. A crescent.

2. (Opt.) A lens convex on one side and concave on the other.

3. (Anat.) An interarticular synovial cartilage or membrane; esp., one of the intervertebral synovial disks in some parts of the vertebral column of birds.

Converging meniscus, Diverging meniscus. See Lens.

Men`i*sper*ma"ceous (?), a. [Gr. mh`nh the moon + spe`rma seed.] (Bot.) Pertaining to a natural order (Menispermaceæ) of climbing plants of which moonseed (Menispermum) is the type.

Men`i*sper"mic (&?;), a. Pertaining to, or obtained from, moonseed (Menispermum), or other plants of the same family, as the Anamirta Cocculus.

Men`i*sper"mine (?), n. [Cf. F. ménispermine.] (Chem.) An alkaloid distinct from picrotoxin and obtained from the cocculus indicus (the fruit of Anamirta Cocculus, formerly Menispermum Cocculus) as a white, crystalline, tasteless powder; -- called also menispermina.

Men"i*ver (?), n. [OF. menuver, menuveir, menuvair, a grayish fur; menu small + vair a kind of fur. See Minute, a., and Vair.] Same as Miniver.

{ Men"non*ist (?), Men"non*ite (?), } n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a small denomination of Christians, so called from Menno Simons of Friesland, their founder. They believe that the New Testament is the only rule of faith, that there is no original sin, that infants should not be baptized, and that Christians ought not to take oath, hold office, or render military service.

{ Men"o*branch (?), ||Men`o*bran"chus (?), } n. [NL. menobranchus, fr. Gr. &?; to remain + &?; a gill.] (Zoöl.) A large aquatic American salamander of the genus Necturus, having permanent external gills.

{ ||Men`o*lo"gi*um (?), Me*nol"o*gy (?), } n.; pl. L. Menologia (#), E. Menologies (#). [NL. menologium, fr. Gr. mh`n month + lo`gos discourse : cf. F. ménologe.] 1. A register of months. Bp. Stillingfleet.

2. (Gr. Church) A brief calendar of the lives of the saints for each day in the year, or a simple remembrance of those whose lives are not written.

Men"o*pause (?), n. [Gr. mh`n month + &?; to cause to cease. See Menses.] (Med.) The period of natural cessation of menstruation. See Change of life, under Change.

{ ||Men`o*po"ma (?), Men"o*pome (?), } n. [NL. menopoma, fr. Gr. &?; to remain + &?; lid.] (Zoöl.) The hellbender.

||Men`or*rha"gi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mh`n month + &?; to break.] (Med.) (a) Profuse menstruation. (b) Any profuse bleeding from the uterus; Metrorrhagia.

||Me*nos"ta*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mh`n month + 'istan`nai to stop.] (Med.) Stoppage of the menses.

Men`os*ta"tion (?), n. (Med.) Same as Menostasis.

Men"ow (?), n. (Zoöl.) A minnow.

Men"-pleas`er (?), n. One whose motive is to please men or the world, rather than God. Eph. vi. 6.

Men"sal (?), a. [L. mensalis, fr. mensa table.] Belonging to the table; transacted at table; as, mensal conversation.

Men"sal (?), a. [L. mensis month.] Occurring once in a month; monthly.

Mense (?), n. [OE. menske, AS. mennisc human, man. See Man.] Manliness; dignity; comeliness; civility. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] -- Mense"ful (#), a. -- Mense"less, a.

Mense, v. t. To grace. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

||Men"ses (?), n. pl. [L. mensis month, pl. menses months, and the monthly courses of women. Cf. Month.] (Med.) The catamenial or menstrual discharge, a periodic flow of blood or bloody fluid from the uterus or female generative organs.

Men"stru*al (?), a. [L. menstrualis: cf. F. menstruel. See Menstruous.] 1. Recurring once a month; monthly; gone through in a month; as, the menstrual revolution of the moon; pertaining to monthly changes; as, the menstrual equation of the sun's place.

2. Of or pertaining to the menses; as, menstrual discharges; the menstrual period.

3. Of or pertaining to a menstruum. Bacon.

Men"stru*ant (?), a. [L. menstruans, p. pr. of menstruare to have a monthly term, fr. menstruus. See Menstruous.] Subject to monthly flowing or menses.

Men"stru*ate (?), a. Menstruous. [Obs.]

Men"stru*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Menstruated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Menstruating (?).] To discharge the menses; to have the catamenial flow.

Men`stru*a"tion (?), n. The discharge of the menses; also, the state or the period of menstruating.

Men"strue (?), n. [Cf. F. menstrues. See Menstruous.] The menstrual flux; menses. [Obs.]

Men"stru*ous (?), a. [L. menstruus, fr. mensis month. Cf. Menstruum.] 1. Having the monthly flow or discharge; menstruating.

2. Of or pertaining to the monthly flow; catamenial.

Men"stru*um (?), n.; pl. E. Menstruums (#), L. Menstrua (#). [L. menstruus. See Menstruous.] Any substance which dissolves a solid body; a solvent.

The proper menstruum to dissolve metal.


All liquors are called menstruums which are used as dissolvents, or to extract the virtues of ingredients by infusion or decoction.


The use is supposed to have originated in some notion of the old chemists about the influence of the moon in the preparation of dissolvents. Johnson.

Men`su*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. mensurabilité.] The quality of being mensurable.

Men"su*ra*ble (?), a. [L. mensurabilis, fr. mensurare to measure, fr. mensura measure: cf. F. mensurable. See Measurable, Measure.] Capable of being measured; measurable.

Men"su*ra*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being mensurable; measurableness.

Men"su*ral (?), a. [L. mensuralis.] Of or pertaining to measure.

Men"su*rate (?), v. t. [L. mensuratus, p. p. of mensurare. See Measure, v.] To measure. [Obs.]

Men`su*ra"tion (?), n. [L. mensuratio : cf. F. mensuration.] 1. The act, process, or art, of measuring.

2. That branch of applied geometry which gives rules for finding the length of lines, the areas of surfaces, or the volumes of solids, from certain simple data of lines and angles.

-ment (?), [F. -ment, L. -mentum.] A suffix denoting that which does a thing; an act or process; the result of an act or process; state or condition; as, aliment, that which nourishes, ornament, increment; fragment, piece broken, segment; abridgment, act of abridging, imprisonment, movement, adjournment; amazement, state of being amazed, astonishment.

Ment (?), p. p. of Menge.

||Men"ta*gra (?), n. [NL., fr. L. mentum chin + Gr. &?; a catching.] (Med.) Sycosis.

Men"tal (?), a. [L. mentum the chin.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the chin; genian; as, the mental nerve; the mental region.

Men"tal, n. (Zoöl.) A plate or scale covering the mentum or chin of a fish or reptile.

Men"tal, a. [F., fr. L. mentalis, fr. mens, mentis, the mind; akin to E. mind. See Mind.] Of or pertaining to the mind; intellectual; as, mental faculties; mental operations, conditions, or exercise.

What a mental power
This eye shoots forth!


Mental alienation, insanity. -- Mental arithmetic, the art or practice of solving arithmetical problems by mental processes, unassisted by written figures.

Men*tal"i*ty (?), n. Quality or state of mind. "The same hard mentality." Emerson.

Men"tal*ly (?), adv. In the mind; in thought or meditation; intellectually; in idea.

||Men"tha (?), n. [L. See Mint the plant.] (Bot.) A widely distributed genus of fragrant herbs, including the peppermint, spearmint, etc. The plants have small flowers, usually arranged in dense axillary clusters.

Men"thene (?), n. [Menthol + terpene.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid hydrocarbon resembling oil of turpentine, obtained by dehydrating menthol. It has an agreeable odor and a cooling taste.

Men"thol (?), n. [Mentha + - ol.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline, aromatic substance resembling camphor, extracted from oil of peppermint (Mentha); -- called also mint camphor or peppermint camphor.

Men"thyl (?), n. [Mentha + - yl.] (Chem.) A compound radical forming the base of menthol.

Men`ti*cul"tur*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to mental culture; serving to improve or strengthen the mind. [R.]

Men"tion (?), n. [OE. mencioun, F. mention, L. mentio, from the root of meminisse to remember. See Mind.] A speaking or notice of anything, -- usually in a brief or cursory manner. Used especially in the phrase to make mention of.

I will make mention of thy righteousness.

Ps. lxxi. 16.

And sleep in dull, cold marble, where no mention
Of me more must be heard of.


<! p. 913 !>

Men"tion (mn"shn), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mentioned (- shnd); p. pr. & vb. n. Mentioning.] [Cf. F. mentionner.] To make mention of; to speak briefly of; to name.

I will mention the loving-kindnesses of the Lord.

Is. lxiii. 7.

Men"tion*a*ble (?), a. Fit to be mentioned.

Men`to*meck*e"li*an (?), a. [1st mental + Meckelian.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the chin and lower jaw. -- n. The bone or cartilage forming the anterior extremity of the lower jaw in some adult animals and the young of others.

Men"tor (?), n. [From Mentor, the counselor of Telemachus, Gr. Me`ntwr, prop., counselor. Cf. Monitor.] A wise and faithful counselor or monitor.

Men*to"ri*al (?), a. [From Mentor.] Containing advice or admonition.

||Men"tum (?), n. [L., chin.] (Zoöl.) The front median plate of the labium in insects. See Labium.

||Me*nu" (?), n. [F., slender, thin, minute. See 4th Minute.] The details of a banquet; a bill of fare.

Me"nuse (?), v. i. See Amenuse. [Obs.]

Me*ow" (?), v. i. & n. See 6th and 7th Mew.

Meph`is*to*phe"li*an (? or ?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, the devil Mephistopheles, "a crafty, scoffing, relentless fiend;" devilish; crafty.

{ Me*phit"ic (?), Me*phit"ic*al (?), } a. [L. mephiticus, fr. mephitis mephitis: cf. F. méphitique.] 1. Tending to destroy life; poisonous; noxious; as, mephitic exhalations; mephitic regions.

2. Offensive to the smell; as, mephitic odors.

Mephitic air (Chem.), carbon dioxide; -- so called because of its deadly suffocating power. See Carbonic acid, under Carbonic.

||Me*phi"tis (?), n. [L. mephitis : cf. F. méphitis.] 1. Noxious, pestilential, or foul exhalations from decomposing substances, filth, or other source.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of mammals, including the skunks.

Meph"i*tism (?), n. Same as Mephitis, 1.

Me*ra"cious (?), a. [L. meracus, fr. merus pure, inmixed.] Being without mixture or adulteration; hence, strong; racy. [Obs.]

Mer"ca*ble (?), a. [L. mercabilis, fr. mercari to trade, traffic, buy. See Merchant.] Capable of being bought or sold. [Obs.]

Mer"can*tile (?; 277), a. [F. mercantile, It. mercantile, fr. L. mercans, - antis, p. pr. of mercari to traffic. See Merchant.] Of or pertaining to merchants, or the business of merchants; having to do with trade, or the buying and selling of commodities; commercial.

The expedition of the Argonauts was partly mercantile, partly military.


Mercantile agency, an agency for procuring information of the standing and credit of merchants in different parts of the country, for the use of dealers who sell to them. - - Mercantile marine, the persons and vessels employed in commerce, taken collectively. -- Mercantile paper, the notes or acceptances given by merchants for goods bought, or received on consignment; drafts on merchants for goods sold or consigned. McElrath.

Syn. -- Mercantile, Commercial. Commercial is the wider term, being sometimes used to embrace mercantile. In their stricter use, commercial relates to the shipping, freighting, forwarding, and other business connected with the commerce of a country (whether external or internal), that is, the exchange of commodities; while mercantile applies to the sale of merchandise and goods when brought to market. As the two employments are to some extent intermingled, the two words are often interchanged.

Mer*cap"tal (?), n. [Mercaptan + aldehyde.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of compounds of mercaptans with aldehydes.

Mer*cap"tan (?), n. [F., fr. NL. mercurius mercury + L. captans, p. pr. of captare to seize, v. intens. fr. capere.] (Chem.) Any one of series of compounds, hydrosulphides of alcohol radicals, in composition resembling the alcohols, but containing sulphur in place of oxygen, and hence called also the sulphur alcohols. In general, they are colorless liquids having a strong, repulsive, garlic odor. The name is specifically applied to ethyl mercaptan, C2H5SH. So called from its avidity for mercury, and other metals.

Mer*cap"tide (? or ?), n. (Chem.) A compound of mercaptan formed by replacing its sulphur hydrogen by a metal; as, potassium mercaptide, C2H5SK.

Mer"cat (?), n. [L. mercatus : cf. It. mercato. See Market.] Market; trade. [Obs.] Bp. Sprat.

Mer`ca*tan"te (?; It. ?), n. [It. See Merchant.] A foreign trader. [Obs.] Shak.

Mer*ca"tor's chart" (?). See under Chart, and see Mercator's projection, under Projection.

Mer"ca*ture (?; 135), n. [L. mercatura commerce.] Commerce; traffic; trade. [Obs.]

Merce (?), v. t. [See Amerce.] To subject to fine or amercement; to mulct; to amerce. [Obs.]

||Mer`ce*na"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Mercenary.] (Zoöl.) The quahog.

Mer`ce*na"ri*an (-an), n. A mercenary. [Obs.]

Mer"ce*na`ri*ly (?), adv. In a mercenary manner.

Mer"ce*na*ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being mercenary; venality. Boyle.

Mer"ce*na*ry (?), a. [OE. mercenarie, F. mercenaire, fr. L. mercenarius, fr. merces wages, reward. See Mercy.] 1. Acting for reward; serving for pay; paid; hired; hireling; venal; as, mercenary soldiers.

2. Hence: Moved by considerations of pay or profit; greedy of gain; sordid; selfish. Shak.

For God forbid I should my papers blot
With mercenary lines, with servile pen.


Syn. -- See Venal.

Mer"ce*na*ry (?), n.; pl. Mercenaries (&?;). One who is hired; a hireling; especially, a soldier hired into foreign service. Milman.

Mer"cer (?), n. [F. mercier, fr. L. merx, mercis, wares, merchandise. See Merchant.] Originally, a dealer in any kind of goods or wares; now restricted to a dealer in textile fabrics, as silks or woolens. [Eng.]

Mer"cer*ship, n. The business of a mercer.

Mer"cer*y (?), n. [F. mercerie.] The trade of mercers; the goods in which a mercer deals.

Mer"chand (?), v. i. [F. marchander. See Merchant.] To traffic. [Obs.] Bacon.

Mer"chan*di`sa*ble (?), a. Such as can be used or transferred as merchandise.

Mer"chan*dise (?), n. [F. marchandise, OF. marcheandise.] 1. The objects of commerce; whatever is usually bought or sold in trade, or market, or by merchants; wares; goods; commodities. Spenser.

2. The act or business of trading; trade; traffic.

Mer"chan*dise, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Merchandised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Merchandising (?).] To trade; to carry on commerce. Bacon.

Mer"chan*dise, v. t. To make merchandise of; to buy and sell. "Love is merchandised." Shak.

Mer"chan*di`ser (?), n. A trader. Bunyan.

Mer"chand*ry (?), n. [See Merchant.] Trade; commerce. [Obs.] Bp. Sanderson.

Mer"chant (?), n. [OE. marchant, OF. marcheant, F. marchand, fr. LL. mercatans, -antis, p. pr. of mercatare to negotiate, L. mercari to traffic, fr. merx, mercis, wares. See Market, Merit, and cf. Commerce.] 1. One who traffics on a large scale, especially with foreign countries; a trafficker; a trader.

Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad.


2. A trading vessel; a merchantman. [Obs.] Shak.

3. One who keeps a store or shop for the sale of goods; a shopkeeper. [U. S. & Scot.]

Mer"chant, a. Of, pertaining to, or employed in, trade or merchandise; as, the merchant service.

Merchant bar, Merchant iron or steel, certain common sizes of wrought iron and steel bars. -- Merchant service, the mercantile marine of a country. Am. Cyc. -- Merchant ship, a ship employed in commerce. -- Merchant tailor, a tailor who keeps and sells materials for the garments which he makes.

Mer"chant, v. i. To be a merchant; to trade. [Obs.]

Mer"chant*a*ble (?), a. Fit for market; such as is usually sold in market, or such as will bring the ordinary price; as, merchantable wheat; sometimes, a technical designation for a particular kind or class.

Mer"chant*ly, a. Merchantlike; suitable to the character or business of a merchant. [Obs.] Gauden.

Mer"chant*man (?), n.; pl. Merchantmen (&?;).

1. A merchant. [Obs.] Matt. xiii. 45.

2. A trading vessel; a ship employed in the transportation of goods, as, distinguished from a man-of- war.

Mer"chant*ry (?), n. 1. The body of merchants taken collectively; as, the merchantry of a country.

2. The business of a merchant; merchandise. Walpole.

Mer"ci*a*ble (?), a. [OF.] Merciful. [Obs.]

Mer"ci*ful (?), a. [Mercy + - ful.] 1. Full of mercy; having or exercising mercy; disposed to pity and spare offenders; unwilling to punish.

The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious.

Ex. xxxiv. 6.

Be merciful, great duke, to men of mold.


2. Unwilling to give pain; compassionate.

A merciful man will be merciful to his beast.

Old Proverb.

Syn. -- Compassionate; tender; humane; gracious; kind; mild; clement; benignant.

-- Mer"ci*ful*ly, adv. -- Mer"ci*ful*ness, n.

Mer"ci*fy (?), v. t. To pity. [Obs.] Spenser.

Mer"ci*less, a. Destitute of mercy; cruel; unsparing; -- said of animate beings, and also, figuratively, of things; as, a merciless tyrant; merciless waves.

The foe is merciless, and will not pity.


Syn. -- Cruel; unmerciful; remorseless; ruthless; pitiless; barbarous; savage.

-- Mer"ci*less*ly, adv. -- Mer"ci*less*ness, n.

Mer`cur*am*mo"ni*um (?), n. [Mercuric + ammonium.] (Chem.) A radical regarded as derived from ammonium by the substitution of mercury for a portion of the hydrogen.

Mer*cu"ri*al (?), a. [L. mercurialis, fr. Mercurius Mercury: cf. F. mercuriel.] 1. Having the qualities fabled to belong to the god Mercury; swift; active; sprightly; fickle; volatile; changeable; as, a mercurial youth; a mercurial temperament.

A mercurial man
Who fluttered over all things like a fan.


2. Having the form or image of Mercury; -- applied to ancient guideposts. [Obs.] Chillingworth.

3. Of or pertaining to Mercury as the god of trade; hence, money-making; crafty.

The mercurial wand of commerce.

J. Q. Adams.

4. Of or pertaining to, or containing, mercury; as, mercurial preparations, barometer. See Mercury, 2.

5. (Med.) Caused by the use of mercury; as, mercurial sore mouth.

Mer*cu"ri*al, n. 1. A person having mercurial qualities. Bacon.

2. (Med.) A preparation containing mercury.

Mer*cu"ri*al*ist, n. 1. One under the influence of Mercury; one resembling Mercury in character.

2. (Med.) A physician who uses much mercury, in any of its forms, in his practice.

Mer*cu"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mercurialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mercurializing (?).] 1. (Med.) To affect with mercury.

2. (Photography) To treat with mercury; to expose to the vapor of mercury.

Mer*cu"ri*al*ize, v. i. To be sprightly, fantastic, or capricious. [Obs.]

Mer*cu"ri*al*ly, adv. In a mercurial manner.

Mer*cu"ric (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, mercury; containing mercury; -- said of those compounds of mercury into which this element enters in its lowest proportion.

Mercuric chloride, corrosive sublimate. See Corrosive.

Mer*cu`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. mercurification. See Mercurify.] 1. (Metal.) The process or operation of obtaining the mercury, in its fluid form, from mercuric minerals.

2. (Chem.) The act or process of compounding, or the state of being compounded, with mercury. [R.]

Mer*cu"ri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mercurified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mercurifying (?).] [Mercury + -fy.] 1. To obtain mercury from, as mercuric minerals, which may be done by any application of intense heat that expels the mercury in fumes, which are afterward condensed. [R.]

2. To combine or mingle mercury with; to impregnate with mercury; to mercurialize. [R.]

Mer"cu*rism (?), n. A communication of news; an announcement. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Mer*cu"rous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, mercury; containing mercury; -- said of those compounds of mercury in which it is present in its highest proportion.

Mercurous chloride. (Chem.) See Calomel.

Mer"cu*ry (?), n. [L. Mercurius; akin to merx wares.] 1. (Rom. Myth.) A Latin god of commerce and gain; -- treated by the poets as identical with the Greek Hermes, messenger of the gods, conductor of souls to the lower world, and god of eloquence.

2. (Chem.) A metallic element mostly obtained by reduction from cinnabar, one of its ores. It is a heavy, opaque, glistening liquid (commonly called quicksilver), and is used in barometers, thermometers, etc. Specific gravity 13.6. Symbol Hg (Hydrargyrum). Atomic weight 199.8. Mercury has a molecule which consists of only one atom. It was named by the alchemists after the god Mercury, and designated by his symbol, .

Mercury forms alloys, called amalgams, with many metals, and is thus used in applying tin foil to the backs of mirrors, and in extracting gold and silver from their ores. It is poisonous, and is used in medicine in the free state as in blue pill, and in its compounds as calomel, corrosive sublimate, etc. It is the only metal which is liquid at ordinary temperatures, and it solidifies at about -39° Centigrade to a soft, malleable, ductile metal.

3. (Astron.) One of the planets of the solar system, being the one nearest the sun, from which its mean distance is about 36,000,000 miles. Its period is 88 days, and its diameter 3,000 miles.

4. A carrier of tidings; a newsboy; a messenger; hence, also, a newspaper. Sir J. Stephen. "The monthly Mercuries." Macaulay.

5. Sprightly or mercurial quality; spirit; mutability; fickleness. [Obs.]

He was so full of mercury that he could not fix long in any friendship, or to any design.

Bp. Burnet.

6. (Bot.) A plant (Mercurialis annua), of the Spurge family, the leaves of which are sometimes used for spinach, in Europe.

The name is also applied, in the United States, to certain climbing plants, some of which are poisonous to the skin, esp. to the Rhus Toxicodendron, or poison ivy.

Dog's mercury (Bot.), Mercurialis perennis, a perennial plant differing from M. annua by having the leaves sessile. -- English mercury (Bot.), a kind of goosefoot formerly used as a pot herb; - - called Good King Henry. -- Horn mercury (Min.), a mineral chloride of mercury, having a semitranslucent, hornlike appearance.

Mer"cu*ry, v. t. To wash with a preparation of mercury. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Mer"cy (?), n.; pl. Mercies (#). [OE. merci, F. merci, L. merces, mercedis, hire, pay, reward, LL., equiv. to misericordia pity, mercy. L. merces is prob. akin to merere to deserve, acquire. See Merit, and cf. Amerce.] 1. Forbearance to inflict harm under circumstances of provocation, when one has the power to inflict it; compassionate treatment of an offender or adversary; clemency.

Examples of justice must be made for terror to some; examples of mercy for comfort to others.


2. Compassionate treatment of the unfortunate and helpless; sometimes, favor, beneficence. Luke x. 37.

3. Disposition to exercise compassion or favor; pity; compassion; willingness to spare or to help.

In whom mercy lacketh and is not founden.

Sir T. Elyot.

4. A blessing regarded as a manifestation of compassion or favor.

The Father of mercies and the God of all comfort.

2 Cor. i. 3.

Mercy seat (Bib.), the golden cover or lid of the Ark of the Covenant. See Ark, 2. -- Sisters of Mercy (R. C. Ch.),a religious order founded in Dublin in the year 1827. Communities of the same name have since been established in various American cities. The duties of those belonging to the order are, to attend lying-in hospitals, to superintend the education of girls, and protect decent women out of employment, to visit prisoners and the sick, and to attend persons condemned to death. -- To be at the mercy of, to be wholly in the power of.

Syn. -- See Grace.

Merd (?), n. [F. merde, L. merda.] Ordure; dung. [Obs.] Burton.

-mere (?). [Gr. &?; part.] A combining form meaning part, portion; as, blastomere, epimere.

Mere (mr), n. [Written also mar.] [OE. mere, AS. mere mere, sea; akin to D. meer lake, OS. meri sea, OHG. meri, mari, G. meer, Icel. marr, Goth. marei, Russ. more, W. mor, Ir. & Gael. muir, L. mare, and perh. to L. mori to die, and meaning originally, that which is dead, a waste. Cf. Mortal, Marine, Marsh, Mermaid, Moor.] A pool or lake. Drayton. Tennyson.

Mere, n. [Written also meer and mear.] [AS. gemre. √269.] A boundary. Bacon.

<! p. 914 !>

Mere (?), v. t. To divide, limit, or bound. [Obs.]

Which meared her rule with Africa.


Mere, n. A mare. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mere (?), a. [Superl. Merest. The comparative is rarely or never used.] [L. merus.] 1. Unmixed; pure; entire; absolute; unqualified.

Then entered they the mere, main sea.


The sorrows of this world would be mere and unmixed.

Jer. Taylor.

2. Only this, and nothing else; such, and no more; simple; bare; as, a mere boy; a mere form.

From mere success nothing can be concluded in favor of any nation.


Mere"ly, adv. 1. Purely; unmixedly; absolutely.

Ulysses was to force forth his access,
Though merely naked.


2. Not otherwise than; simply; barely; only.

Prize not your life for other ends
Than merely to oblige your friends.


Syn. -- Solely; simply; purely; barely; scarcely.

||Me*ren"chy*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a part + -enchyma, as in parenchyma.] (Bot.) Tissue composed of spheroidal cells.

Meres"man (?), n. An officer who ascertains meres or boundaries. [Eng.]

Mere"stead (?), n. [Mere boundary + stead place.] The land within the boundaries of a farm; a farmstead or farm. [Archaic.] Longfellow.

Mere"stone` (?), n. A stone designating a limit or boundary; a landmark. Bacon.

Mer`e*tri"cious (?), a. [L. meretricius, from meretrix, -icis, a prostitute, lit., one who earns money, i. e., by prostitution, fr. merere to earn, gain. See Merit.] 1. Of or pertaining to prostitutes; having to do with harlots; lustful; as, meretricious traffic.

2. Resembling the arts of a harlot; alluring by false show; gaudily and deceitfully ornamental; tawdry; as, meretricious dress or ornaments.

-- Mer`e*tri"cious*ly, adv. -- Mer`e*tri"cious*ness, n.

Mer*gan"ser (?), n. [Sp. mergánsar, fr. mergo a diver (L. mergus, fr. mergere to dip, dive) + ánsar goose, L. anser.] (Zoöl.) Any bird of the genus Merganser, and allied genera. They are allied to the ducks, but have a sharply serrated bill.

The red-breasted merganser (Merganser serrator) inhabits both hemispheres. It is called also sawbill, harle, and sheldrake. The American merganser (M. Americanus.) and the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) are well-known species. -- White merganser, the smew or white nun.

Merge (mrj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Merged (mrjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Merging (mr"jng).] [L. mergere, mersum. Cf. Emerge, Immerse, Marrow.] To cause to be swallowed up; to immerse; to sink; to absorb.

To merge all natural . . . sentiment in inordinate vanity.


Whig and Tory were merged and swallowed up in the transcendent duties of patriots.

De Quincey.

Merge, v. i. To be sunk, swallowed up, or lost.

Native irresolution had merged in stronger motives.

I. Taylor.

Mer"ger (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, merges.

2. (Law) An absorption of one estate, or one contract, in another, or of a minor offense in a greater.

Mer"i*carp (?), n. [Gr. me`ros a part + karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) One carpel of an umbelliferous fruit. See Cremocarp.

Mer"ide (? or ?), n. [Gr. &?; a part.] (Biol.) A permanent colony of cells or plastids which may remain isolated, like Rotifer, or may multiply by gemmation to form higher aggregates, termed zoides. Perrier.

Me*rid"i*an (?), a. [F. méridien, L. meridianus pertaining to noon, fr. meridies noon, midday, for older medidies; medius mid, middle + dies day. See Mid, and Diurnal.] 1. Being at, or pertaining to, midday; belonging to, or passing through, the highest point attained by the sun in his diurnal course. "Meridian hour." Milton.

Tables . . . to find the altitude meridian.


2. Pertaining to the highest point or culmination; as, meridian splendor.

Me*rid"i*an, n. [F. méridien. See Meridian, a.]

1. Midday; noon.

2. Hence: The highest point, as of success, prosperity, or the like; culmination.

I have touched the highest point of all my greatness,
And from that full meridian of my glory
I haste now to my setting.


3. (Astron.) A great circle of the sphere passing through the poles of the heavens and the zenith of a given place. It is crossed by the sun at midday.

4. (Geog.) A great circle on the surface of the earth, passing through the poles and any given place; also, the half of such a circle included between the poles.

The planes of the geographical and astronomical meridians coincide. Meridians, on a map or globe, are lines drawn at certain intervals due north and south, or in the direction of the poles.

Calculated for, or fitted to, or adapted to, the meridian of, suited to the local circumstances, capabilities, or special requirements of.

All other knowledge merely serves the concerns of this life, and is fitted to the meridian thereof.

Sir M. Hale.

-- First meridian, the meridian from which longitudes are reckoned. The meridian of Greenwich is the one commonly employed in calculations of longitude by geographers, and in actual practice, although in various countries other and different meridians, chiefly those which pass through the capitals of the countries, are occasionally used; as, in France, the meridian of Paris; in the United States, the meridian of Washington, etc. -- Guide meridian (Public Land Survey), a line, marked by monuments, running North and South through a section of country between other more carefully established meridians called principal meridians, used for reference in surveying. [U.S.] -- Magnetic meridian, a great circle, passing through the zenith and coinciding in direction with the magnetic needle, or a line on the earth's surface having the same direction. -- Meridian circle (Astron.), an instrument consisting of a telescope attached to a large graduated circle and so mounted that the telescope revolves like the transit instrument in a meridian plane. By it the right ascension and the declination of a star may be measured in a single observation. -- Meridian instrument (Astron.), any astronomical instrument having a telescope that rotates in a meridian plane. -- Meridian of a globe, or Brass meridian, a graduated circular ring of brass, in which the artificial globe is suspended and revolves.

Me*rid"i*o*nal (?), a. [F. méridional, L. meridionalis, fr. meridies midday. See Meridian.]

1. Of or pertaining to the meridian.

2. Having a southern aspect; southern; southerly.

Offices that require heat . . . should be meridional.

Sir H. Wotton.

Meridional distance, the distance or departure from the meridian; the easting or westing. -- Meridional parts, parts of the meridian in Mercator's projection, corresponding to each minute of latitude from the equator up to 70 or 80 degrees; tabulated numbers representing these parts used in projecting charts, and in solving cases in Mercator's sailing.

Me*rid`i*o*nal"i*ty (?), n. 1. The state of being in the meridian.

2. Position in the south; aspect toward the south.

Me*rid"i*o*nal*ly (?), adv. In the direction of the meridian.

Mer"ils (?), n. [F. mérelle, marelle, marelles, LL. marella, marrella. Cf. Morris the game.] A boy's play, called also fivepenny morris. See Morris.

||Me`ringue" (F. m`rN"g'; E. m*rng"), n. [F.] A delicate pastry made of powdered sugar and the whites of eggs whipped up, -- with jam or cream added.

Me*ri"no (?), a. [Sp. merino moving from pasture to pasture, fr. merino a royal judge and superintendent or inspector of sheep walks, LL. merinus, fr. majorinus, i. e., major vill&?;, fr. L. major greater. See Major. Merino sheep are driven at certain seasons from one part of Spain to another, in large flocks, for pasturage.] 1. Of or pertaining to a variety of sheep with very fine wool, originally bred in Spain.

2. Made of the wool of the merino sheep.

Me*ri"no, n.; pl. Merinos (#). [Sp.] 1. (Zoöl.) A breed of sheep originally from Spain, noted for the fineness of its wool.

2. A fine fabric of merino wool.

Mer`is*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; division, fr. &?; part.] (Biol.) Dividing into cells or segments; characterized by separation into two or more parts or sections by the formation of internal partitions; as, merismatic growth, where one cell divides into many.

Mer"i*stem (?), n. [Gr. &?; divisible.] (Bot.) A tissue of growing cells, or cells capable of further division.

Mer"it (?), n. [F. mérite, L. meritum, fr. merere, mereri, to deserve, merit; prob. originally, to get a share; akin to Gr. &?; part, &?; fate, doom, &?; to receive as one's portion. Cf. Market, Merchant, Mercer, Mercy.] 1. The quality or state of deserving well or ill; desert.

Here may men see how sin hath his merit.


Be it known, that we, the greatest, are misthought
For things that others do; and when we fall,
We answer other's merits in our name.


2. Esp. in a good sense: The quality or state of deserving well; worth; excellence.

Reputation is . . . oft got without merit, and lost without deserving.


To him the wit of Greece and Rome was known,
And every author's merit, but his own.


3. Reward deserved; any mark or token of excellence or approbation; as, his teacher gave him ten merits.

Those laurel groves, the merits of thy youth.


Mer"it, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Merited; p. pr. & vb. n. Meriting.] [F. mériter, L. meritare, v. intens. fr. merere. See Merit, n.] 1. To earn by service or performance; to have a right to claim as reward; to deserve; sometimes, to deserve in a bad sense; as, to merit punishment. "This kindness merits thanks." Shak.

2. To reward. [R. & Obs.] Chapman.

Mer"it, v. i. To acquire desert; to gain value; to receive benefit; to profit. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Mer"it*a*ble (?), a. Deserving of reward. [R.]

Mer"it*ed*ly, adv. By merit; deservedly.

{ Mer"i*thal (?), ||Mer`i*thal"lus (?), } n. [NL. merithallus, fr. Gr. &?;, or &?;, a part + &?; a young shoot.] (Bot.) Same as Internode.

Mer"it*mon`ger (?), n. One who depends on merit for salvation. [Obs.] Milner.

Mer`i*to"ri*ous (?), a. [L. meritorius that brings in money.] Possessing merit; deserving of reward or honor; worthy of recompense; valuable.

And meritorious shall that hand be called,
Canonized, and worshiped as a saint.


-- Mer`i*to"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Mer`i*to"ri*ous*ness, n.

Mer"i*to*ry (?), a. Meritorious. [Obs.]

Mer"i*tot (?), n. A play of children, in swinging on ropes, or the like, till they are dizzy.

Merk (?), n. [See Marc.] An old Scotch silver coin; a mark or marc. [Scot.]

Merk, n. A mark; a sign. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Merke (?), a. Murky. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Mer"kin (?), n. Originally, a wig; afterwards, a mop for cleaning cannon.

{ Merl (?), Merle, } n. [F. merle, L. merula, merulus. Cf. Ousel.] (Zoöl.) The European blackbird. See Blackbird. Drayton.

Mer"lin (?), n. [OE. merlion, F. émerillon ; cf. OHG. smirl, G. schmerl ; prob. fr. L. merula blackbird. Cf. Merle.] (Zoöl.) A small European falcon (Falco lithofalco, or F. æsalon).

Mer"ling (?), n. (Zoöl.) The European whiting.

Mer"lon (?), n. [F., perh. fr. L. moerus, for murus a wall, through (assumed) dim. moerulus.] (Fort.) One of the solid parts of a battlemented parapet; a battlement. See Illust. of Battlement.

Mer"luce (?), n. [F. merluche, merlus.] (Zoöl.) The European hake; -- called also herring hake and sea pike.

Mer"maid (?), n. [AS. mere lake, sea. See Mere lake, and maid.] A fabled marine creature, typically represented as having the upper part like that of a woman, and the lower like a fish; a sea nymph, sea woman, or woman fish.

Chaucer uses this word as equivalent to the siren of the ancients.

Mermaid fish (Zoöl.) the angel fish (Squatina). -- Mermaid's glove (Zoöl.), a British branched sponge somewhat resembling a glove. -- Mermaid's head (Zoöl.), a European spatangoid sea urchin (Echinocardium cordatum) having some resemblance to a skull. -- Mermaid weed (Bot.), an aquatic herb with dentate or pectinate leaves (Proserpinaca palustris and P. pectinacea).

Mer"man (?), n.; pl. Mermen (&?;). The male corresponding to mermaid; a sea man, or man fish.

Mer"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. &?; part + -blast.] (Biol.) An ovum, as that of a mammal, only partially composed of germinal matter, that is, consisting of both a germinal portion and an albuminous or nutritive one; -- opposed to holoblast.

Mer`o*blas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Consisting only in part of germinal matter; characterized by partial segmentation only; as, meroblastic ova, in which a portion of the yolk only undergoes fission; meroblastic segmentation; -- opposed to holoblastic.

Me"ro*cele (?), n. [Gr. &?; thigh + &?; tumor.] (Med.) Hernia in the thigh; femoral hernia .

Mer`o*is"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; part + &?; an egg.] (Zoöl.) Applied to the ovaries of insects when they secrete vitelligenous cells, as well as ova.

Me*rop"i*dan (?), n. [L. merops a bee-eating bird, Gr. me`rops.] (Zoöl.) One of a family of birds (Meropidæ), including the bee-eaters.

Me*rop"o*dite (?), n. [Gr. &?; thigh + poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Zoöl.) The fourth joint of a typical appendage of Crustacea.

Mer*or`gan*i*za"tion (?), n. [Gr. &?; part + E. organization.] Organization in part. [R.]

||Me"ros (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; part.] (Arch.) The plain surface between the channels of a triglyph. [Written also merus.] Weale.

||Me"ros, n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; the thigh.] (Anat.) The proximal segment of the hind limb; the thigh.

Mer"o*some (?), n. [Gr. &?; part + - some body.] (Zoöl.) One of the serial segments, or metameres, of which the bodies of vertebrate and articulate animals are composed.

||Mer`o*stom"a*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; thigh + &?;, -&?;, mouth.] (Zoöl.) A class of Arthropoda, allied to the Crustacea. It includes the trilobites, Eurypteroidea, and Limuloidea. All are extinct except the horseshoe crabs of the last group. See Limulus.

||Mé`rou" (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) See Jack, 8 (c).

Mer`o*vin"gi*an (?), a. [From Merovaeus, the Latin name of a king of the Franks.] Of or pertaining to the first Frankish dynasty in Gaul or France. -- n. One of the kings of this dynasty.

Mer"ri*ly (?), adv. [From Merry.] In a merry manner; with mirth; with gayety and laughter; jovially. See Mirth, and Merry.

Merrily sing, and sport, and play.


Mer"ri*make` (?), n. See Merrymake, n.

Mer"ri*make`, v. i. See Merrymake, v. Gay.

Mer"ri*ment (?), n. Gayety, with laughter; mirth; frolic. "Follies and light merriment." Spenser.

Methought it was the sound
Of riot and ill-managed merriment.


Mer"ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being merry; merriment; mirth; gayety, with laughter.

Mer"ry (?), a. [Compar. Merrier (?); superl. Merriest.] [OE. merie, mirie, murie, merry, pleasant, AS. merge, myrige, pleasant; cf. murge, adv.; prob. akin to OHG. murg, short, Goth. gamaúrgjan to shorten; cf. L. murcus a coward, who cuts off his thumb to escape military service; the Anglo-Saxon and English meanings coming from the idea of making the time seem short. Cf. Mirth.] 1. Laughingly gay; overflowing with good humor and good spirits; jovial; inclined to laughter or play ; sportive.

They drank, and were merry with him.

Gen. xliii. 34.

I am never merry when I hear sweet music.


<! p. 915 !>

2. Cheerful; joyous; not sad; happy.

Is any merry? let him sing psalms.

Jas. v. 13.

3. Causing laughter, mirth, gladness, or delight; as, a merry jest. "Merry wind and weather." Spenser.

Merry dancers. See under Dancer. -- Merry men, followers; retainers. [Obs.]

His merie men commanded he
To make him bothe game and glee.


-- To make merry, to be jovial; to indulge in hilarity; to feast with mirth. Judg. ix. 27.

Syn. -- Cheerful; blithe; lively; sprightly; vivacious; gleeful; joyous; mirthful; jocund; sportive; hilarious.

Mer"ry (mr"r), n. (Bot.) A kind of wild red cherry.

Mer"ry-an"drew (-n"dr), n. One whose business is to make sport for others; a buffoon; a zany; especially, one who attends a mountebank or quack doctor.

This term is said to have originated from one Andrew Borde, an English physician of the 16th century, who gained patients by facetious speeches to the multitude.

Mer"ry-go`-round" (?), n. Any revolving contrivance for affording amusement; esp., a ring of flying hobbyhorses.

Mer"ry*make` (?), n. Mirth; frolic; a meeting for mirth; a festival. [Written also merrimake.]

Mer"ry*make`, v. i. To make merry; to be jolly; to feast. [Written also merrimake.]

Mer"ry*mak`er (?), n. One who makes merriment or indulges in conviviality; a jovial comrade.

Mer"ry*mak`ing (?), a. Making or producing mirth; convivial; jolly.

Mer"ry*mak`ing, n. The act of making merry; conviviality; merriment; jollity. Wordsworth.

Mer"ry*meet`ing (?), n. A meeting for mirth.

Mer"ry*thought` (?), n. The forked bone of a fowl's breast; -- called also wishbone. See Furculum.

It is a sportive custom for two persons to break this bone by pulling the ends apart to see who will get the longer piece, the securing of which is regarded as a lucky omen, signifying that the person holding it will obtain the gratification of some secret wish.

Mer"sion (?), n. [L. mersio. See Merge.] Immersion. [R.] Barrow.

Me*ru"li*dan (?), n. [L. merula, merulus, blackbird. See Merle.] (Zoöl.) A bird of the Thrush family.

||Me"rus (?), n. [NL.] (Arch.) See Meros.

Mer"vaille` (?), n. Marvel. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mes- (?). See Meso-.

||Me"sa (?), &?;. [Sp.] A high tableland; a plateau on a hill. [Southwestern U.S.] Bartlett.

Mes*ac"o*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of mesaconic acid.

Mes`a*con"ic (?), a. [Mes- + -aconic, as in citraconic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, one of several isomeric acids obtained from citric acid.

Mes"ad (?), adv. Same as Mesiad.

Mes"al (?), a. Same as Mesial.

||Mé`sal`li`ance" (?), n. [F.] A marriage with a person of inferior social position; a misalliance.

Mes"al*ly (ms"al*l), adv. Same as Mesially.

Mes`a*mœ"boid (ms`*m"boid), n. [Mes- + amœboid.] (Biol.) One of a class of independent, isolated cells found in the mesoderm, while the germ layers are undergoing differentiation.

Mes`a*ra"ic (?), a. [Gr. mesa`raion mesentery; me`sos middle + 'araia` flank.] (Anat.) Mesenteric.

Mes`a*ti*ce*phal"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; midmost + E. cephalic.] (Anat.) Having the ratio of the length to the breadth of the cranium a medium one; neither brachycephalic nor dolichocephalic.

Mes`a*ti*ceph"a*lous (?), a. (Anat.) Mesaticephalic.

||Mes*cal" (?), n. [Sp.] A distilled liquor prepared in Mexico from a species of agave. See Agave.

||Mes`dames" (F. ?, E. ?), n., pl. of Madame and Madam.

Me*seems" (?), v. impers. [imp. Meseemed (?).] It seems to me. [Poetic]

Me"sel (?), n. [See Measle.] A leper. [Obs.]

Me"sel*ry (?), n. Leprosy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Me*sem`bry*an"the*mum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. meshmbri`a midday + 'a`nqos flower.] (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous or suffruticose plants, chiefly natives of South Africa. The leaves are opposite, thick, and f&?;eshy. The flowers usually open about midday, whence the name.

Mes`en*ce*phal"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mesencephalon or midbrain.

||Mes`en*ceph"a*lon (?), n. [NL. See Meso- and Encephalon.] (Anat.) The middle segment of the brain; the midbrain. Sometimes abbreviated to mesen. See Brain.

||Mes*en"chy*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + -enchyma, as in E. parenchyma.] (Biol.) The part of the mesoblast which gives rise to the connective tissues and blood.

Mes`en*ter"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. mésentérique.] (Anat.) Pertaining to a mesentery; mesaraic.

||Mes*en"te*ron (?), n. [NL. See Meso-, and Enteron.] (Anat.) All that part of the alimentary canal which is developed from the primitive enteron and is lined with hypoblast. It is distinguished from the stomodæum, a part at the anterior end of the canal, including the cavity of the mouth, and the proctodæum, a part at the posterior end, which are formed by invagination and are lined with epiblast.

Mes"en*ter*y (?; 277), n. [Gr. mesente`rion, me`sos + 'e`nteron intestine: cf. F. mésentère.]

1. (Anat.) The membranes, or one of the membranes (consisting of a fold of the peritoneum and inclosed tissues), which connect the intestines and their appendages with the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity. The mesentery proper is connected with the jejunum and ilium, the other mesenteries being called mesocæcum, mesocolon, mesorectum, etc.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the vertical muscular radiating partitions which divide the body cavity of Anthozoa into chambers.

Mes`e*ra"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Mesaraic.

Mes*eth"moid (?), a. [Mes- + ethmoid.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the middle of the ethmoid region or ethmoid bone. -- n. (Anat.) The median vertical plate, or median element, of the ethmoid bone.

Mesh (msh), n. [AS. masc, max, mæscre; akin to D. maas, masche, OHG. masca, Icel. möskvi; cf. Lith. mazgas a knot, megsti to weave nets, to knot.] 1. The opening or space inclosed by the threads of a net between knot and knot, or the threads inclosing such a space; network; a net.

A golden mesh to entrap the hearts of men.


2. (Gearing) The engagement of the teeth of wheels, or of a wheel and rack.

Mesh stick, a stick on which the mesh is formed in netting.

Mesh, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Meshed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Meshing.] To catch in a mesh. Surrey.

Mesh, v. i. (Gearing) To engage with each other, as the teeth of wheels.

Meshed (?), a. Mashed; brewed. [Obs.] Shak.

Mesh"y (?), a. Formed with meshes; netted.

Mes"i*ad (?), adv. [Gr. me`sos middle + L. ad to.] (Anat.) Toward, or on the side toward, the mesial plane; mesially; -- opposed to laterad.

Me"sial (?; 277), a. [Gr. me`sos middle.] (Anat.) Middle; median; in, or in the region of, the mesial plane; internal; -- opposed to lateral.

Mesial plane. (Anat.) See Meson.

Me"sial*ly, adv. (Anat.) In, near, or toward, the mesial plane; mesiad.

Mes"i*tyl (?), n. (Chem.) A hypothetical radical formerly supposed to exist in mesityl oxide.

Mesityl oxide (Chem.), a volatile liquid having the odor of peppermint, obtained by certain dehydrating agents from acetone; -- formerly called also dumasin.

Me*sit"y*le*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of mesitylenic acid.

Me*sit"y*lene (?), n. (Chem.) A colorless, fragrant liquid, C6H3(CH3)3, of the benzene series of hydrocarbons, obtained by distilling acetone with sulphuric acid. -- Me*sit`y*len"ic (#), a.

Me*sit"y*lol (?), n. [Mesitylene + -ol.] (Chem.) A crystalline substance obtained from mesitylene.

Mes"lin (? or ?), n. See Maslin.

Mes`mer*ee" (?), n. A person subjected to mesmeric influence; one who is mesmerized. [R.]

{ Mes*mer"ic (?), Mes*mer"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. mesmérique.] Of, pertaining to, or induced by, mesmerism; as, mesmeric sleep.

Mes"mer*ism (?), n. [From Mesmer, who first brought it into notice at Vienna, about 1775: cf. F. mesmérisme.] The art of inducing an extraordinary or abnormal state of the nervous system, in which the actor claims to control the actions, and communicate directly with the mind, of the recipient. See Animal magnetism, under Magnetism.

Mes"mer*ist, n. One who practices, or believes in, mesmerism.

Mes`mer*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of mesmerizing; the state of being mesmerized.

Mes"mer*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mesmerized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mesmerizing (?).] To bring into a state of mesmeric sleep.

Mes"mer*i`zer (?), n. One who mesmerizes.

Mesne (?), a. [Cf. Mean intermediate.] (Law) Middle; intervening; as, a mesne lord, that is, a lord who holds land of a superior, but grants a part of it to another person, in which case he is a tenant to the superior, but lord or superior to the second grantee, and hence is called the mesne lord.

Mesne process, intermediate process; process intervening between the beginning and end of a suit, sometimes understood to be the whole process preceding the execution. Blackstone. Burrill. -- Mesne profits, profits of premises during the time the owner has been wrongfully kept out of the possession of his estate. Burrill.

{ Mes"o- (?), Mes- (?) }. [Gr. me`sos in the middle.] A combining form denoting in the middle, intermediate; specif. (Chem.), denoting a type of hydrocarbons which are regarded as methenyl derivatives. Also used adjectively.

||Mes`o*a"ri*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr. me`sos middle + 'w,a`rion, dim. of 'w,o`n an egg.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum which suspends the ovary from the dorsal wall of the body cavity.

Mes"o*blast (?), n. [Meso- + -blast.] (Biol.) (a) The mesoderm. (b) The cell nucleus; mesoplast.

Mes`o*blas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Relating to the mesoblast; as, the mesoblastic layer.

Mes`o*bran"chi*al (?), a. [Meso- + branchial.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a region of the carapace of a crab covering the middle branchial region.

||Mes`o*bron"chi*um (?), n.; pl. Mesobronchia (#). [NL. See Meso-, and Bronchia.] (Anat.) The main bronchus of each lung.

||Mes`o*cæ"cum (?), n. (Anat.) [NL. See Meso-, and Cæcum.] The fold of peritoneum attached to the cæcum. -- Mes`o*cæ"cal (#), a.

Mes"o*carp (?), n. [Meso- + Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) The middle layer of a pericarp which consists of three distinct or dissimilar layers. Gray.

Mes`o*ce*phal"ic (?), a. [Meso- + cephalic.] (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to, or in the region of, the middle of the head; as, the mesocephalic flexure. (b) Having the cranial cavity of medium capacity; neither megacephalic nor microcephalic. (c) Having the ratio of the length to the breadth of the cranium a medium one; mesaticephalic.

||Mes`o*ceph"a*lon (?), n. [NL. See Meso-, and Cephalon.] (Anat.) The pons Varolii.

Mes`o*ceph"a*lous (?), a. (Anat.) Mesocephalic.

{ Mes`o*cœ"le (?), ||Mes`o*cœ"li*a (?), } n. [NL. mesocoelia. See Meso-, and Cœlia.] (Anat.) The cavity of the mesencephalon; the iter.

Mes`o*co"lon (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; me`sos middle + &?; the colon : cf. F. mésocôlon.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum, or mesentery, attached to the colon. -- Mes`o*col"ic (#), a.

Mes`o*cor"a*coid (?), n. [Meso- + coracoid.] (Anat.) A process from the middle of the coracoid in some animals.

{ Mes`o*cu*ne"i*form (?), Mes`o*cu"ni*form (?), } n. [Meso- + cuneiform, cuniform.] (Anat.) One of the bones of the tarsus. See 2d Cuneiform.

Mes"o*derm (?), n. [Meso- + Gr. de`rma skin.] (Biol.) (a) The layer of the blastoderm, between the ectoderm and endoderm; mesoblast. See Illust. of Blastoderm and Ectoderm. (b) The middle body layer in some invertebrates. (c) The middle layer of tissue in some vegetable structures.

Mes`o*der"mal (?), a. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the mesoderm; as, mesodermal tissues.

Mes`o*der"mic (?), a. Same as Mesodermal.

Mes"o*dont (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth.] (Anat.) Having teeth of moderate size.

||Mes`o*gas"ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; belly.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum connecting the stomach with the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity; the mesogastrium.

Mes`o*gas"tric (?), a. [Meso- + gastric.]

1. (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to the middle region of the abdomen, or of the stomach. (b) Of or pertaining to the mesogaster.

2. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the middle gastric lobe of the carapace of a crab.

||Mes`o*gas"tri*um (?), n. [NL. See Mesogaster.] (Anat.) (a) The umbilical region. (b) The mesogaster.

||Mes`o*glœ"a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; a glutinous substance.] (Zoöl.) A thin gelatinous tissue separating the ectoderm and endoderm in certain cœlenterates. -- Mes`o*glœ"al (#), a.

Me*sog"na*thous (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. gna`qos jaw.] (Anat.) Having the jaws slightly projecting; between prognathous and orthognathous. See Gnathic index, under Gnathic.

||Mes`o*he"par (?), n. [NL. See Meso-, and Hepar.] (Anat.) A fold of the peritoneum connecting the liver with the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity.

||Mes`o*hip"pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; a horse.] (Paleon.) An extinct mammal of the Horse family, but not larger than a sheep, and having three toes on each foot.

Mes"o*labe (?), n. [L. mesolabium, Gr. &?;; me`sos middle + &?; to take.] An instrument of the ancients for finding two mean proportionals between two given lines, required in solving the problem of the duplication of the cube. Brande & C.

Mes"ole (?), n. [Gr. me`sos middle.] (Min.) Same as Thomsonite.

Mes"o*lite (?; 277), n. [Meso- + -lite.] (Min.) A zeolitic mineral, grayish white or yellowish, occuring in delicate groups of crystals, also fibrous massive. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina, lime, and soda.

Mes`o*log"a*rithm (?), n. [Meso- + logarithm : cf. F. mésologarithme.] (Math.) A logarithm of the cosine or cotangent. [Obs.] Kepler. Hutton.

||Mes`o*me"tri*um (?), n. [NL. See Meso-, and Metrium.] (Anat.) The fold of the peritoneum supporting the oviduct.

Mes`o*my*o"di*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) A bird having a mesomyodous larynx.

Mes`o*my"o*dous (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. &?;, &?;, a muscle.] (Zoöl.) Having the intrinsic muscles of the larynx attached to the middle of the semirings.

||Mes"on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`son middle, neut. of me`sos, a., middle.] (Anat.) The mesial plane dividing the body of an animal into similar right and left halves. The line in which it meets the dorsal surface has been called the dorsimeson, and the corresponding ventral edge the ventrimeson. B. G. Wilder.

Mes`o*na"sal (?), a. [Meso- + nasal.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the middle portion of the nasal region.

Mes`o*neph"ric (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mesonephros; as, the mesonephric, or Wolffian, duct.

||Mes`o*neph"ros (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + nefro`s kidney.] (Anat.) The middle one of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in most vertebrates; the Wolffian body.

||Mes`o*no"tum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + nw^ton the back.] (Zoöl.) The dorsal portion of the mesothorax of insects.

||Mes`o*phlœ"um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + floio`s bark.] (Bot.) The middle bark of a tree; the green layer of bark, usually soon covered by the outer or corky layer, and obliterated.

||Me*soph"ry*on (?), n. [NL., from Gr. meso`fryon.] (Anat.) See Glabella.

||Mes`o*phyl"lum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + fy`llon leaf.] (Bot.) The parenchyma of a leaf between the skin of the two surfaces. Gray.

Mes"o*plast (?), n. [Meso- + -plast.] (Biol.) The nucleus of a cell; mesoblast. Agassiz.

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Mes`o*po"di*al (ms`*p"d*al), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mesopodialia or to the parts of the limbs to which they belong.

||Mes`o*po`di*a"le (?), n.; pl. Mesopodialia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?;, dim. of poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Anat.) One of the bones of either the carpus or tarsus.

||Mes`o*po"di*um (?), n. [NL. See Mesopodiale.] (Zoöl.) The middle portion of the foot in the Gastropoda and Pteropoda.

||Me*sop`te*ryg"i*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; a fin.] (Anat.) The middle one of the three principal basal cartilages in the fins of fishes. -- ||Me*sop`ter*yg"i*al (#), a.

||Me*sor"chi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; a testicle.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum which attaches the testis to the dorsal wall of the body cavity or scrotal sac.

||Mes`o*rec"tum (?), n. [Meso- + rectum.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum, or mesentery, attached to the rectum. -- Mes`o*rec"tal (#), a.

Mes"o*rhine (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. &?;, &?;, the nose.] (Anat.) Having the nose of medium width; between leptorhine and platyrhine.

||Mes`o*sau"ri*a (?), n. Same as Mosasauria.

||Mes`o*scap"u*la (?), n. [Meso- + scapula.] (Anat.) A process from the middle of the scapula in some animals; the spine of the scapula.

Mes`o*scap"u*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mesoscapula.

||Mes`o*scu"tum (?), n. [Meso- + scutum.] (Zoöl.) The scutum or dorsal plate of the middle thoracic segment of an insect. See Illust. of Butterfly.

Mes"o*seme (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. &?; sign, mark; cf. F. mésosème.] (Anat.) Having a medium orbital index; having orbits neither broad nor narrow; between megaseme and microseme.

Mes`o*sid"er*ite (?), n. [Meso- + siderite.] (Min.) See the Note under Meteorite.

Mes"o*sperm (?), n. [Meso- + Gr. &?; seed: cf. F. mésosperme.] (Bot.) A membrane of a seed. See Secundine.

Mes"o*state (?), n. [Meso- + Gr. &?; to make to stand.] (Physiol.) A product of metabolic action.

Every mesostate is either an anastate or katastate, according as it is formed by an anabolic or katabolic process. See Metabolism.

Mes`o*ster"nal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the mesosternum.

||Mes`o*ster"num (?), n. [Meso- + sternum.]

1. (Anat.) The middle portion, or body, of the sternum.

2. (Zoöl.) The ventral piece of the middle segment of the thorax in insects.

Mes`o*tar*tar"ic (?), a. [Meso- + tartaric.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid called also inactive tartaric acid.

||Mes`o*the"ca (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; box.] (Zoöl.) The middle layer of the gonophore in the Hydrozoa.

||Mes`o*the"li*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + E. epithelium.] (Biol.) Epithelial mesoderm; a layer of cuboidal epithelium cells, formed from a portion of the mesoderm during the differetiation of the germ layers. It constitutes the boundary of the cœlum.

Mes`o*tho*rac"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the mesothorax.

Mes`o*tho"rax (?), n. [Meso- + thorax: cf. F. mésothorax.] (Zoöl.) The middle segment of the thorax in insects. See Illust. of Coleoptera.

Mes"o*tro`chal (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. &?; anything round, a hoop.] (Zoöl.) Having the middle of the body surrounded by bands of cilia; -- said of the larvæ of certain marine annelids.

Mes"o*type (?), n. [Meso- + - type: cf. F. mésotype.] (Min.) An old term covering natrolite or soda mesolite, scolecite or lime mesotype, and mesolite or lime-soda mesotype.

||Mes`o*va"ri*um (?), n. [NL. See Meso-, and Ovary.] (Anat.) The fold of peritoneum connecting the ovary with the wall of the abdominal cavity.

Mes*ox"a*late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of mesoxalic acid.

Mes`ox*al"ic (?), a. [Mes- + oxalic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid, CH2O2(CO2H)2, obtained from amido malonic acid.

||Mes`o*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Mesozoic.] (Zoöl.) A group of very lowly organized, wormlike parasites, including the Dicyemata. They are found in cephalopods. See Dicyemata.

Mes`o*zo"ic (?), a. [Meso- + Gr. &?; life, fr. &?; to live.] (Geol.) Belonging, or relating, to the secondary or reptilian age, or the era between the Paleozoic and Cenozoic. See Chart of Geology.

Mes`o*zo"ic, n. The Mesozoic age or formation.

Mes*prise" (?), n. [OF. mespris, F. mépris. See Misprize.] 1. Contempt; scorn. [Obs.]

2. [Perh. for F. méprise mistake. Cf. Misprision.] Misadventure; ill-success. [Obs.] Spenser.

{ Mes*qui"te (ms*k"t), Mes*quit" (ms*kt") }, n. [Sp. mezquite; said to be a Mexican Indian word.] (Bot.) A name for two trees of the southwestern part of North America, the honey mesquite, and screw-pod mesquite.

Honey mesquite. See Algaroba (b). -- Screw-pod mesquite, a smaller tree (Prosopis pubescens), having spiral pods used as fodder and sometimes as food by the Indians. -- Mesquite grass, a rich native grass in Western Texas (Bouteloua oligostachya, and other species); -- so called from its growing in company with the mesquite tree; -- called also muskit grass, grama grass.

Mess (?), n. Mass; church service. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mess (?), n. [OE. mes, OF. mets, LL. missum, p. p. of mittere to put, place (e. g., on the table), L. mittere to send. See Mission, and cf. Mass religious service.] 1. A quantity of food set on a table at one time; provision of food for a person or party for one meal; as, a mess of pottage; also, the food given to a beast at one time.

At their savory dinner set
Of herbs and other country messes.


2. A number of persons who eat together, and for whom food is prepared in common; especially, persons in the military or naval service who eat at the same table; as, the wardroom mess. Shak.

3. A set of four; -- from the old practice of dividing companies into sets of four at dinner. [Obs.] Latimer.

4. The milk given by a cow at one milking. [U.S.]

5. [Perh. corrupt. fr. OE. mesh for mash: cf. muss.] A disagreeable mixture or confusion of things; hence, a situation resulting from blundering or from misunderstanding; as, he made a mess of it. [Colloq.]

Mess (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Messed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Messing.] To take meals with a mess; to belong to a mess; to eat (with others); as, I mess with the wardroom officers. Marryat.

Mess, v. t. To supply with a mess.

Mes"sage (?; 48), n. [F., fr. LL. missaticum, fr. L. mittere, missum, to send. See Mission, and cf. Messenger.] 1. Any notice, word, or communication, written or verbal, sent from one person to another.

Ehud said, I have a message from God unto thee.

Judg. iii. 20.

2. Hence, specifically, an official communication, not made in person, but delivered by a messenger; as, the President's message.

Message shell. See Shell.

Mes"sage, v. t. To bear as a message. [Obs.]

Mes"sage, n. [OE., fr. OF. message, fr. LL. missaticus. See 1st Message.] A messenger. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mes"sa*ger (?), n. [OE.] A messenger. [Obs.]

Mes"sen*ger (?), n. [OE. messager, OF. messagier, F. messager. See Message.] 1. One who bears a message; the bearer of a verbal or written communication, notice, or invitation, from one person to another, or to a public body; specifically, an office servant who bears messages.

2. One who, or that which, foreshows, or foretells.

Yon gray lines
That fret the clouds are messengers of day.


3. (Naut.) A hawser passed round the capstan, and having its two ends lashed together to form an endless rope or chain; -- formerly used for heaving in the cable.

4. (Law) A person appointed to perform certain ministerial duties under bankrupt and insolvent laws, such as to take charge of the estate of the bankrupt or insolvent. Bouvier. Tomlins.

Syn. -- Carrier; intelligencer; courier; harbinger; forerunner; precursor; herald.

Messenger bird, the secretary bird, from its swiftness.

Mes"set (?), n. A dog. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Mes*si"ad (?), n. A German epic poem on the Messiah, by Klopstock.

Mes*si"ah (?), n. [Heb. mshakh anointed, fr. mshakh to anoint. Cf. Messias.] The expected king and deliverer of the Hebrews; the Savior; Christ.

And told them the Messiah now was born.


Mes*si"ah*ship, n. The state or office of the Messiah.

Mes`si*an"ic (?), a. Of or relating to the Messiah; as, the Messianic office or character.

Mes*si"as (?), n. [LL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Messiah.] The Messiah.

I know that Messias cometh, which is called Christ.

John iv. 25.

||Mes`si`dor" (F. ?; E. ?), n. [F., fr. L. messis harvest.] The tenth month of the French republican calendar dating from September 22, 1792. It began June 19, and ended July 18. See VendÉmiaire.

Mes"sieurs (?; F. ?; 277), n. pl. [F.; pl. of monsieur.] Sirs; gentlemen; -- abbreviated to Messrs., which is used as the plural of Mr.

Mes`si*nese" (? or ?), a. Of or pertaining to Messina, or its inhabitans.

Mess"mate` (?), n. An associate in a mess.

Mes"suage (?; 48), n. [Cf. OF. mesuage, masnage, LL. messuagium, mansionaticum, fr. L. mansio, -onis, a staying, remaining, dwelling, fr. manere, mansum, to stay, remain, E. mansion, manse.] (Law) A dwelling house, with the adjacent buildings and curtilage, and the adjoining lands appropriated to the use of the household. Cowell. Bouvier.

They wedded her to sixty thousand pounds,
To lands in Kent, and messuages in York.


Mest (?), a. Most. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mes*tee" (?), n. [See Mestizo.] The offspring of a white person and a quadroon; -- so called in the West Indies. [Written also mustee.]

Mes"ter (?), n. [Obs.] See Mister, a trade.

Mes*ti"no (?), n.; pl. Mestinos (&?;). See Mestizo.

Mes*ti"zo (?), n.; pl. Mestizos (#). [Sp. mestizo; akin to OF. mestis, F. métis; all fr. (assumed) LL. mixtitius, fr. L. mixtus mixed, p. p. of miscere to mix. See Mix, and cf. Mestee, MÉtif, MÉtis, Mustee.] The offspring of an Indian or a negro and a European or person of European stock. [Spanish America]

Mestizo wool, wool imported from South America, and produced by mixed breeds of sheep.

Mest"ling (?), n. A kind of brass. See Maslin. [Obs.]

||Me*sym"ni*cum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`sos middle + &?; a festive song. See Hymn.] (Anc. Poetry) A repetition at the end of a stanza.

Met (?), imp. & p. p. of Meet.

Met, obs. imp. & p. p. of Mete, to measure. Chapman.

Met, obs. p. p. of Mete, to dream. Chaucer.

{ Met"a- (?), Met- (?) }. [Gr. meta` between, with, after; akin to AS. mid with, G. mit, Goth. miþ, E. mid, in midwife.] 1. A prefix meaning between, with, after, behind, over, about, reversely; as, metachronism, the error of placing after the correct time; metaphor, lit., a carrying over; metathesis, a placing reversely.

2. (Chem.) A prefix denoting: (a) Other; duplicate, corresponding to; resembling; hence, metameric; as, meta-arabinic, metaldehyde. (b) (Organic Chem.) That two replacing radicals, in the benzene nucleus, occupy the relative positions of 1 and 3, 2 and 4, 3 and 5, 4 and 6, 5 and 1, or 6 and 2; as, metacresol, etc. See Ortho-, and Para-. (c) (Inorganic Chem.) Having less than the highest number of hydroxyl groups; - - said of acids; as, metaphosphoric acid. Also used adjectively.

Me*tab"a*sis (?), n.; pl. Metabases (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to pass over; &?; beyond, over + &?; to go.] 1. (Rhet.) A transition from one subject to another.

2. (Med.) Same as Metabola.

{ ||Me*tab"o*la (?), ||Me*tab"o*le (?), } n. [NL., from Gr. &?; change; &?; beyond + &?; to throw.] (Med.) A change or mutation; a change of disease, symptoms, or treatment.

{ ||Me*tab"o*la (?), ||Met`a*bo"li*a (?), } n. pl. [NL. See 1st Metabola.] (Zoöl.) A comprehensive group of insects, including those that undegro a metamorphosis.

Met`a*bo"li*an (?), n. [See Metabola.] (Zoöl.) An insect which undergoes a metamorphosis.

Met`a*bol"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;. See Metabola.] 1. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to metamorphosis; pertaining to, or involving, change.

2. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to metabolism; as, metabolic activity; metabolic force.

||Met`a*bol"i*sis (?), n. [NL.] Metabolism. [R.]

Me*tab"o*lism (?), n. (Physiol.) The act or process, by which living tissues or cells take up and convert into their own proper substance the nutritive material brought to them by the blood, or by which they transform their cell protoplasm into simpler substances, which are fitted either for excretion or for some special purpose, as in the manufacture of the digestive ferments. Hence, metabolism may be either constructive (anabolism), or destructive (katabolism).

Me*tab"o*lite (?), n. (Physiol Chem.) A product of metabolism; a substance produced by metabolic action, as urea.

Me*tab"o*lize (?), v. t. & i. (Physiol.) To change by a metabolic process. See Metabolism.

Met`a*bran"chi*al (?), a. [Meta- + branchial.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the lobe of the carapace of crabs covering the posterior branchiæ.

Met`a*car"pal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the metacarpus. -- n. A metacarpal bone.

Met`a*car"pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; beyond, between + &?; the wrist.] (Anat.) That part of the skeleton of the hand or forefoot between the carpus and phalanges. In man it consists of five bones. See Illust. of Artiodactyla.

{ Met`a*cen"ter (?) or -tre }, n. [Pref. meta- + center.] (Hydrostatics) The point of intersection of a vertical line through the center of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating body which is tipped through a small angle from its position of equilibrium, and the inclined line which was vertical through the center of gravity of the body when in equilibrium.

When the metacenter is above the center of gravity, the position of the body is stable; when below it, unstable.

Me*tac"e*tone (?), n. [Pref. met- + acetone.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid of an agreeable odor, C6H10O, obtained by distilling a mixture of sugar and lime; -- so called because formerly regarded as a polymeric modification of acetone.

Met`a*chlo"ral (?), n. [Pref. meta- + chloral.] (Chem.) A white, amorphous, insoluble substance regarded as a polymeric variety of chloral.

Me*tach"ro*nism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, after the time, happening afterward; &?; beyond + &?; time: cf. F. métachronisme.] An error committed in chronology by placing an event after its real time.

||Met`a*chro"sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; beyond + &?; a coloring.] (Biol.) The power of changing color at will by the expansion of special pigment cells, under nerve influence, as seen in many reptiles, fishes, etc. Cope.

Met`a*cin"na*bar*ite (?), n. [Pref. meta- + cinnabar.] (Min.) Sulphide of mercury in isometric form and black in color.

Met"a*cism (?), n. [L. metacismus, Gr. &?; fondness for the letter &?;.] A defect in pronouncing the letter m, or a too frequent use of it.

Met`a*cro"le*in (?), n. [Pref. met- + acrolein.] (Chem.) A polymeric modification of acrolein obtained by heating it with caustic potash. It is a crystalline substance having an aromatic odor.

||Met`a*cro"mi*on (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) A process projecting backward and downward from the acromion of the scapula of some mammals.

Met`a*dis*coid"al (?), a. [Meta- + discoidal.] (Anat.) Discoidal by derivation; -- applied especially to the placenta of man and apes, because it is supposed to have been derived from a diffused placenta.

Met`a*gas"tric (?), a. [Pref. meta- + gastric.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the two posterior gastric lobes of the carapace of crabs.

Met"age (?; 48), n. [From Mete, v.] 1. Measurement, especially of coal. De Foe.

2. Charge for, or price of, measuring. Simmonds.

Met`a*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Pref. meta- + genesis.] 1. (Biol.) The change of form which one animal species undergoes in a series of successively produced individuals, extending from the one developed from the ovum to the final perfected individual. Hence, metagenesis involves the production of sexual individuals by nonsexual means, either directly or through intervening sexless generations. Opposed to monogenesis. See Alternate generation, under Generation.

2. (Biol.) Alternation of sexual and asexual or gemmiparous generations; -- in distinction from heterogamy.

<! p. 917 !>

Met`a*ge*net"ic (mt`*j*nt"k), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to metagenesis.

Met`a*gen"ic (-jn"k), a. (Biol.) Metagenetic.

Me*tag"na*thous (?), a. [Pref. meta- + Gr. gna`qos the jaw.] (Zoöl.) Cross-billed; -- said of certain birds, as the crossbill.

Met`a*gram"ma*tism (?), n. Anagrammatism.

Met`a*graph"ic (?), a. By or pertaining to metagraphy.

Me*tag"ra*phy (?), n. [Pref. meta- + -graphy.] The art or act of rendering the letters of the alphabet of one language into the possible equivalents of another; transliteration. Stormonth.

Met"al (? or ?; 277), n. [F. métal, L. metallum metal, mine, Gr. &?; mine; cf. Gr. &?; to search after. Cf. Mettle, Medal.] 1. (Chem.) An elementary substance, as sodium, calcium, or copper, whose oxide or hydroxide has basic rather than acid properties, as contrasted with the nonmetals, or metalloids. No sharp line can be drawn between the metals and nonmetals, and certain elements partake of both acid and basic qualities, as chromium, manganese, bismuth, etc.

Popularly, the name is applied to certain hard, fusible metals, as gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, zinc, nickel, etc., and also to the mixed metals, or metallic alloys, as brass, bronze, steel, bell metal, etc.

2. Ore from which a metal is derived; -- so called by miners. Raymond.

3. A mine from which ores are taken. [Obs.]

Slaves . . . and persons condemned to metals.

Jer. Taylor.

4. The substance of which anything is made; material; hence, constitutional disposition; character; temper.

Not till God make men of some other metal than earth.


5. Courage; spirit; mettle. See Mettle. Shak.

The allusion is to the temper of the metal of a sword blade. Skeat.

6. The broken stone used in macadamizing roads and ballasting railroads.

7. The effective power or caliber of guns carried by a vessel of war.

8. Glass in a state of fusion. Knight.

9. pl. The rails of a railroad. [Eng.]

Base metal (Chem.), any one of the metals, as iron, lead, etc., which are readily tarnished or oxidized, in contrast with the noble metals. In general, a metal of small value, as compared with gold or silver. -- Fusible metal (Metal.), a very fusible alloy, usually consisting of bismuth with lead, tin, or cadmium. -- Heavy metals (Chem.), the metallic elements not included in the groups of the alkalies, alkaline earths, or the earths; specifically, the heavy metals, as gold, mercury, platinum, lead, silver, etc. -- Light metals (Chem.), the metallic elements of the alkali and alkaline earth groups, as sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, etc.; also, sometimes, the metals of the earths, as aluminium. -- Muntz metal, an alloy for sheathing and other purposes, consisting of about sixty per cent of copper, and forty of zinc. Sometimes a little lead is added. It is named from the inventor. -- Prince's metal (Old Chem.), an alloy resembling brass, consisting of three parts of copper to one of zinc; -- also called Prince Rupert's metal.

Met"al, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Metaled (? or ?) or Metalled; p. pr. & vb. n. Metaling or Metalling.] To cover with metal; as, to metal a ship's bottom; to metal a road.

Met`al*am*mo"ni*um (?), n. [Metal + ammonium.] (Chem.) A hypothetical radical derived from ammonium by the substitution of metallic atoms in place of hydrogen.

Met`al*bu"min (?), n. [Pref. met- + albumin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A form of albumin found in ascitic and certain serous fluids. It is sometimes regarded as a mixture of albumin and mucin.

Me*tal"de*hyde (?), n. [Pref. met- + aldehyde.] (Chem.) A white crystalline substance isomeric with, and obtained from, acetic aldehyde by polymerization, and reconvertible into the same.

||Met`a*lep"sis (?), n.; pl. Metalepses (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?; participation, alteration, fr. &?; to partake, to take in exchange; &?; beyond + &?; to take.] (Rhet.) The continuation of a trope in one word through a succession of significations, or the union of two or more tropes of a different kind in one word.

Met"a*lep`sy (?), n. (Chem.) Exchange; replacement; substitution; metathesis. [R.]

Met`a*lep"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;] 1. Of or pertaining to a metalepsis.

2. Transverse; as, the metaleptic motion of a muscle.

3. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, concerned in, or occurring by, metalepsy.

Met`a*lep"tic*al (?), a. Metaleptic. -- Met`a*lep"tic*al*ly, adv.

Me*tal"lic (?), a. [L. metallicus, fr. metallum: cf. F. métallique. See Metal.] 1. Of or pertaining to a metal; of the nature of metal; resembling metal; as, a metallic appearance; a metallic alloy.

2. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or characterized by, the essential and implied properties of a metal, as contrasted with a nonmetal or metalloid; basic; antacid; positive.

Metallic iron, iron in the state of the metal, as distinquished from its ores, as magnetic iron. -- Metallic paper, paper covered with a thin solution of lime, whiting, and size. When written upon with a pewter or brass pencil, the lines can hardly be effaced. -- Metallic tinking (Med.), a sound heard in the chest, when a cavity communicating with the air passages contains both air and liquid.

Me*tal"lic*al (?), a. See Metallic. [Obs.]

Me*tal"lic*ly (?), adv. In a metallic manner; by metallic means.

Me*tal`li*fac"ture (?; 135), n. [L. metallum metal + facere, factum, to make.] The production and working or manufacture of metals. [R.] R. Park.

Met`al*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. metallifer; metallum metal + ferre to bear: cf. F. métallifère.] Producing metals; yielding metals.

Me*tal"li*form (?), a. [L. metallum metal + -form: cf. F. métalliforme.] Having the form or structure of a metal.

Met"al*line (?), a. [Cf. F. métallin.] (Chem.) (a) Pertaining to, or resembling, a metal; metallic; as, metalline properties. (b) Impregnated with metallic salts; chalybeate; as, metalline water. [R.]

Met"al*line (? or ?), n. (Chem.) A substance of variable composition, but resembling a soft, dark-colored metal, used in the bearings of machines for obviating friction, and as a substitute for lubricants.

Met"al*list (?), n. A worker in metals, or one skilled in metals.

Met`al*li*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. métallisation.] The act or process of metallizing. [R.]

Met"al*lize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Metallized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Metallizing (?).] [Cf. F. métalliser.] To impart metallic properties to; to impregnate with a metal. [R.]

Me*tal"lo*chrome (?), n. [See Metallochromy.] A coloring produced by the deposition of some metallic compound; specifically, the prismatic tints produced by depositing a film of peroxide of lead on polished steel by electricity.

Me*tal"lo*chro`my (?), n. [L. metallum metal + Gr. &?; color.] The art or process of coloring metals.

Me*tal"lo*graph (?), n. [L. metallum metal + -graph.] A print made by metallography.

Me*tal`lo*graph"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or by means of, metallography.

Met`al*log"ra*phist (?), n. One who writes on the subject of metals.

Met`al*log"ra*phy (?), n. [L. metallum metal + -graphy: cf. F. métallographie.] 1. The science or art of metals and metal working; also, a treatise on metals.

2. A method of transferring impressions of the grain of wood to metallic surfaces by chemical action. Knight.

3. A substitute for lithography, in which metallic plates are used instead of stone. Knight.

Met"al*loid (?), n. [L. metallum metal + -oid: cf. F. métalloïde.] (a) Formerly, the metallic base of a fixed alkali, or alkaline earth; -- applied by Sir H. Davy to sodium, potassium, and some other metallic substances whose metallic character was supposed to be not well defined. (b) Now, one of several elementary substances which in the free state are unlike metals, and whose compounds possess or produce acid, rather than basic, properties; a nonmetal; as, boron, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, chlorine, bromine, etc., are metalloids.

Met"al*loid, a. 1. Having the appearance of a metal.

2. (Chem.) Having the properties of a nonmetal; nonmetallic; acid; negative.

Met`al*loid"al (?), a. Metalloid.

Met`al*lor*gan"ic (?), a. Metalorganic.

Me*tal`lo*ther"a*py (?), n. [L. metallum metal + E. therapy.] (Med.) Treatment of disease by applying metallic plates to the surface of the body.

{ Met`al*lur"gic (?), Met`al*lur"gic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. métallurgique.] Of or pertaining to metallurgy.

Met"al*lur`gist (?), n. [Cf. F. métallurgiste.] One who works in metals, or prepares them for use; one who is skilled in metallurgy.

Met"al*lur`gy (?), n. [F. métallurgie, fr. L. metallum metal, Gr. &?; a mine + the root of &?; work. See Metal, and Work.] The art of working metals, comprehending the whole process of separating them from other matters in the ore, smelting, refining, and parting them; sometimes, in a narrower sense, only the process of extracting metals from their ores.

Met"al*man (?), n.; pl. Metalmen (&?;). A worker in metals.

Met`a*log"ic*al (?), a. Beyond the scope or province of logic.

Met`al*or*gan"ic (?), a. [Metal, L. metallum + E. organic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or denoting, any one of a series of compounds of certain metallic elements with organic radicals; as, zinc methyl, sodium ethyl, etc. [Written also metallorganic.]

Met"a*mer (?), n. [See Metamere.] (Chem.) Any one of several metameric forms of the same substance, or of different substances having the same composition; as, xylene has three metamers, viz., orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene.

Met"a*mere (?), n. [Pref. meta- + -mere.] (Biol.) One of successive or homodynamous parts in animals and plants; one of a series of similar parts that follow one another in a vertebrate or articulate animal, as in an earthworm; a segment; a somite. See Illust. of Loeven's larva.

Met`a*mer"ic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + Gr. &?; part.] 1. (Chem.) Having the same elements united in the same proportion by weight, and with the same molecular weight, but possessing a different structure and different properties; as, methyl ether and ethyl alcohol are metameric compounds. See Isomeric.

The existence of metameric compounds is due to the different arrangement of the same constituents in the molecule.

2. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to a metamere or its formation; as, metameric segmentation.

Met`a*mer"ic*al*ly, adv. In a metameric manner.

Me*tam"er*ism (?), n. 1. (Biol.) The symmetry of a metameric structure; serial symmetry; the state of being made up of metameres.

2. (Chem.) The state or quality of being metameric; also, the relation or condition of metameric compounds.

Met`a*mor"phic (?), a. [See Metamorphosis.] 1. Subject to change; changeable; variable.

2. Causing a change of structure.

3. (Geol.) Pertaining to, produced by, or exhibiting, certain changes which minerals or rocks may have undergone since their original deposition; -- especially applied to the recrystallization which sedimentary rocks have undergone through the influence of heat and pressure, after which they are called metamorphic rocks.

Met`a*mor"phism (?), n. (Geol.) The state or quality of being metamorphic; the process by which the material of rock masses has been more or less recrystallized by heat, pressure, etc., as in the change of sedimentary limestone to marble. Murchison.

Met`a*mor"phist (?), n. (Eccl.) One who believes that the body of Christ was merged into the Deity when he ascended.

Met`a*mor"phize (?), v. t. To metamorphose.

Met`a*mor"phose (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Metamorphosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Metamorphosing.] [Cf. F. métamorphoser.] To change into a different form; to transform; to transmute.

And earth was metamorphosed into man.


Met`a*mor"phose (?), n. [Cf. F. métamorphose. See Metamorphosis.] Same as Metamorphosis.

Met`a*mor"pho*ser (?), n. One who metamorphoses. [R.] Gascoigne.

Met`a*mor"pho*sic (?), a. Changing the form; transforming. [R.] Pownall.

Met`a*mor"pho*sis (?), n.; pl. Metamorphoses (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to be transformed; meta` beyond, over + morfh` form.]

1. Change of form, or structure; transformation.

2. (Biol.) A change in the form or function of a living organism, by a natural process of growth or development; as, the metamorphosis of the yolk into the embryo, of a tadpole into a frog, or of a bud into a blossom. Especially, that form of sexual reproduction in which an embryo undergoes a series of marked changes of external form, as the chrysalis stage, pupa stage, etc., in insects. In these intermediate stages sexual reproduction is usually impossible, but they ultimately pass into final and sexually developed forms, from the union of which organisms are produced which pass through the same cycle of changes. See Transformation.

3. (Physiol.) The change of material of one kind into another through the agency of the living organism; metabolism.

Vegetable metamorphosis (Bot.), the doctrine that flowers are homologous with leaf buds, and that the floral organs are transformed leaves.

||Met`a*nau"pli*us (?), n. [NL. See Meta-, and Nauplius.] (Zoöl.) A larval crustacean in a stage following the nauplius, and having about seven pairs of appendages.

Met`a*ne*phrit"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the metanephros.

||Met`a*neph"ros (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; behind + &?; kidney.] (Anat.) The most posterior of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in many vertebrates.

||Met`a*no"tum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; behind + &?; back.] (Zoöl.) The dorsal portion of the metaphorax of insects.

Met`an*ti*mo"nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metantimonic acid.

Met`an*ti*mon"ic (?), a. [Pref. met- + antimonic.] (Chem.) (a) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid (formerly called antimonic acid) analogous to metaphosphoric acid, and obtained as a white amorphous insoluble substance, (HSbO3). (b) Formerly, designating an acid, which is now properly called pyroantimonic acid, and analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Met`a*pec"tic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + pectic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a supposed acid obtained from pectin.

Met`a*pec"tin (?), n. (Chem.) A substance obtained from, and resembling, pectin, and occurring in overripe fruits.

Met`a*pep"tone (?), n. [Pref. meta- + peptone.] (Physiol. Chem.) An intermediate product formed in the gastric digestion of albuminous matter.

Met"a*phor (mt"*fr), n. [F. métaphore, L. metaphora, fr. Gr. metafora`, fr. metafe`rein to carry over, transfer; meta` beyond, over + fe`rein to bring, bear.] (Rhet.) The transference of the relation between one set of objects to another set for the purpose of brief explanation; a compressed simile; e. g., the ship plows the sea. Abbott & Seeley. "All the world's a stage." Shak.

The statement, "that man is a fox," is a metaphor; but "that man is like a fox," is a simile, similitude, or comparison.

{ Met`a*phor"ic (?), Met`a*phor"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. métaphorique.] Of or pertaining to metaphor; comprising a metaphor; not literal; figurative; tropical; as, a metaphorical expression; a metaphorical sense. -- Met`a*phor"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Met`a*phor"ic*al*ness, n.

Met"a*phor*ist (?), n. One who makes metaphors.

Met`a*phos"phate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metaphosphoric acid.

Met`a*phos*phor"ic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + phosphoric.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a monobasic acid, HPO3, analogous to nitric acid, and, by heating phosphoric acid, obtained as a crystalline substance, commonly called glacial phosphoric acid.

Met"a*phrase (mt"*frz), n. [Gr. meta`frasis, from metafra`zein to paraphrase; meta` beyond, over + fra`zein to speak: cf. F. métaphrase.] 1. A verbal translation; a version or translation from one language into another, word for word; -- opposed to paraphrase. Dryden.

2. An answering phrase; repartee. Mrs. Browning.

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Met"a*phrased (mt"*frzd), a. Translated literally.

Me*taph"ra*sis (m*tf"r*ss), n. [NL. See Metaphrase.] Metaphrase.

Met"a*phrast (?), n. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. métaphraste.] A literal translator.

{ Met`a*phras"tic (?), Met`a*phras"tic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;.] Close, or literal.

Met`a*phys"ic (?), n. [Cf. F. métaphysique.] See Metaphysics.

Met`a*phys"ic, a. Metaphysical.

Met`a*phys"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. métaphysique. See Metaphysics.] 1. Of or pertaining to metaphysics.

2. According to rules or principles of metaphysics; as, metaphysical reasoning.

3. Preternatural or supernatural. [Obs.]

The golden round
Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem
To have thee crowned withal.


Met`a*phys"ic*al*ly, adv. In the manner of metaphysical science, or of a metaphysician. South.

Met`a*phy*si"cian (?), n. [Cf. F. métaphysicien.] One who is versed in metaphysics.

Met`a*phys"ics (?), n. [Gr. &?; &?; &?; after those things which relate to external nature, after physics, fr. &?; beyond, after + &?; relating to external nature, natural, physical, fr. &?; nature: cf. F. métaphysique. See Physics. The term was first used by the followers of Aristotle as a name for that part of his writings which came after, or followed, the part which treated of physics.] 1. The science of real as distinguished from phenomenal being; ontology; also, the science of being, with reference to its abstract and universal conditions, as distinguished from the science of determined or concrete being; the science of the conceptions and relations which are necessarily implied as true of every kind of being; philosophy in general; first principles, or the science of first principles.

Metaphysics is distinguished as general and special. General metaphysics is the science of all being as being. Special metaphysics is the science of one kind of being; as, the metaphysics of chemistry, of morals, or of politics. According to Kant, a systematic exposition of those notions and truths, the knowledge of which is altogether independent of experience, would constitute the science of metaphysics.

Commonly, in the schools, called metaphysics, as being part of the philosophy of Aristotle, which hath that for title; but it is in another sense: for there it signifieth as much as "books written or placed after his natural philosophy." But the schools take them for "books of supernatural philosophy;" for the word metaphysic will bear both these senses.


Now the science conversant about all such inferences of unknown being from its known manifestations, is called ontology, or metaphysics proper.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Metaphysics are [is] the science which determines what can and what can not be known of being, and the laws of being, a priori.


2. Hence: The scientific knowledge of mental phenomena; mental philosophy; psychology.

Metaphysics, in whatever latitude the term be taken, is a science or complement of sciences exclusively occupied with mind.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Whether, after all,
A larger metaphysics might not help
Our physics.

Mrs. Browning.

||Me*taph"y*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; after + &?; nature.] Change of form; transformation.

Met"a*plasm (?), n. [L. metaplasmus, Gr. &?;; &?; beyond, over + &?; to mold: cf. F. métaplasme.] (Gram.) A change in the letters or syllables of a word.

Met"a*plast (?), n. [See Metaplasm.] (Gram.) A word having more than one form of the root.

Met"a*pode (?), n. [NL. metapodium, from Gr. &?; behind + &?;, dim. of poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Zoöl.) The posterior division of the foot in the Gastropoda and Pteropoda.

Met`a*po"di*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the metapodialia, or to the parts of the limbs to which they belong.

||Met`a*po`di*a"le (?), n.; pl. Metapodialia (#). [NL. See Metapode.] (Anat.) One of the bones of either the metacarpus or metatarsus.

||Met`a*po"di*um (?), n.; pl. Metapodia (#). [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Metapode.

||Met`a*poph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Metapophyses (#). [NL. See Meta-, and Apophysis.] (Anat.) A tubercle projecting from the anterior articular processes of some vertebræ; a mammillary process.

||Me*tap`te*ryg"i*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; after + &?; fin.] (Anat.) The posterior of the three principal basal cartilages in the fins of fishes. -- Me*tap`ter*yg"i*al (#), a.

Met`a*sil"i*cate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metasilicic acid.

Met`a*si*lic"ic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + silicic.] (Chem.) Designating an acid derived from silicic acid by the removal of water; of or pertaining to such an acid.

The salts of metasilicic acid are often called bisilicates, in mineralogy, as Wollastonite (CaSiO3).

Metasilicic acid (Chem.), a gelatinous substance, or white amorphous powder, analogous to carbonic acid, and forming many stable salts.

Met`a*so"ma*tism (?), n. [Pref. meta- + Gr. &?;, &?;, body.] (Geol.) An alteration in a mineral or rock mass when involving a chemical change of the substance, as of chrysolite to serpentine; -- opposed to ordinary metamorphism, as implying simply a recrystallization. -- Met`a*so*mat"ic (#), a.

Met"a*some (?), n. [Pref. meta- + -some body.] (Zoöl.) One of the component segments of the body of an animal.

Met`a*stan"nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metastannic acid.

Met`a*stan"nic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a compound of tin (metastannic acid), obtained, as an isomeric modification of stannic acid, in the form of a white amorphous substance.

Me*tas"ta*sis (?), n.; pl. Metastases (#). [L., transition, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to place in another way; &?; after + &?; to place.]

1. (Theol.) A spiritual change, as during baptism.

2. (Med.) A change in the location of a disease, as from one part to another. Dunglison.

3. (Physiol.) The act or process by which matter is taken up by cells or tissues and is transformed into other matter; in plants, the act or process by which are produced all of those chemical changes in the constituents of the plant which are not accompanied by a production of organic matter; metabolism.

Met`a*stat"ic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or caused by, metastasis; as, a metastatic abscess; the metastatic processes of growth.

Met`a*ster"nal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the metasternum.

||Met`a*ster"num (?), n. [Pref. meta- + sternum.] 1. (Anat.) The most posterior element of the sternum; the ensiform process; xiphisternum.

2. (Zoöl.) The ventral plate of the third or last segment of the thorax of insects.

{ ||Me*tas"to*ma (?), Met"a*stome (?), } n. [NL. metastoma, from Gr. meta` behind + sto`ma mouth.] (Zoöl.) A median elevation behind the mouth in the arthropods.

Met`a*tar"sal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the metatarsus. -- n. A metatarsal bone.

Met"a*tarse (?), n. (Anat.) Metatarsus.

Met`a*tar"sus (?), n.; pl. Metatarsi (#). [NL. See Meta-, and Tarsus.] (Anat.) That part of the skeleton of the hind or lower limb between the tarsus and phalanges; metatarse. It consists, in the human foot, of five bones. See Illustration in Appendix.

Me*tath"e*sis (?), n.; pl. Metatheses (&?;). [L., fr. Gr. meta`thesis, fr. metatithe`nai to place differently, to transpose; meta` beyond, over + tithe`nai to place, set. See Thesis.] 1. (Gram.) Transposition, as of the letters or syllables of a word; as, pistris for pristis; meagre for meager.

2. (Med.) A mere change in place of a morbid substance, without removal from the body.

3. (Chem.) The act, process, or result of exchange, substitution, or replacement of atoms and radicals; thus, by metathesis an acid gives up all or part of its hydrogen, takes on an equivalent amount of a metal or base, and forms a salt.

{ Met`a*thet"ic (?), Met`a*thet"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to metathesis.

Met`a*tho*rac"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the metathorax.

Met`a*tho"rax (?), n. [NL.: cf. F. métathorax. See Meta-, and Thorax.] (Zoöl.) The last or posterior segment of the thorax in insects. See Illust. of Coleoptera.

Met`a*ti*tan"ic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + titanic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid of titanium analogous to metasilicic acid.

Met`a*tung"state (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metatungstic acid.

Met`a*tung"stic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + tungstic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid known only in its salts (the metatungstates) and properly called polytungstic, or pyrotungstic, acid.

Met`a*van"a*date (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of metavanadic acid.

Met`a*va*nad"ic (?), a. [Pref. meta- + vanadic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a vanadic acid analogous to metaphosphoric acid.

Met`a*xy"lene (?), n. [Pref. meta- + xylene.] (Chem.) That variety of xylene, or dimethyl benzene, in which the two methyl groups occupy the meta position with reference to each other. It is a colorless inflammable liquid.

||Mé`ta`yage" (?), n. [F. See Métayer.] A system of farming on halves. [France & Italy]

||Mé`ta`yer" (F. ?; E. ?), n. [F., fr. LL. medietarius, fr. L. medius middle, half. See Mid, a.] One who cultivates land for a share (usually one half) of its yield, receiving stock, tools, and seed from the landlord. [France & Italy] Milman.

||Met`a*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; after + zo^,on an animal.] (Zoöl.) Those animals in which the protoplasmic mass, constituting the egg, is converted into a multitude of cells, which are metamorphosed into the tissues of the body. A central cavity is commonly developed, and the cells around it are at first arranged in two layers, -- the ectoderm and endoderm. The group comprises nearly all animals except the Protozoa.

Met`a*zo"an (?), n.; pl. Metazoans (&?;). (Zoöl.) One of the Metazoa.

Met`a*zo"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Metazoa.

||Met`a*zo"ön (?), n. [NL.] (Zoöl.) One of the Metazoa.

Mete (?), n. Meat. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mete, v. t. & i. To meet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mete, v. i. & t. [imp. Mette (?); p. p. Met.] [AS. m&?;tan.] To dream; also impersonally; as, me mette, I dreamed. [Obs.] "I mette of him all night." Chaucer.

Mete (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Meted; p. pr. & vb. n. Meting.] [AS. metan; akin to D. meten, G. messen, OHG. mezzan, Icel. meta, Sw. mäta, Goth. mitan, L. modus measure, moderation, modius a corn measure, Gr. &?; to rule, &?; a corn measure, and ultimately from the same root as E. measure, L. metiri to measure; cf. Skr. m to measure. √99. Cf. Measure, Meet, a., Mode.] To find the quantity, dimensions, or capacity of, by any rule or standard; to measure.

Mete (?), v. i. To measure. [Obs.] Mark iv. 24.

Mete, n. [AS. met. See Mete to measure.] Measure; limit; boundary; -- used chiefly in the plural, and in the phrase metes and bounds.

Mete"corn` (?), n. A quantity of corn formerly given by the lord to his customary tenants, as an encouragement to, or reward for, labor and faithful service.

Mete"ly, a. According to measure or proportion; proportionable; proportionate. [Obs.]

{ Met`em*pir"ic (?), Met`em*pir"ic*al (?), } a. [Pref. met- + empiric, - ical.] (Metaph.) Related, or belonging, to the objects of knowledge within the province of metempirics.

If then the empirical designates the province we include within the range of science, the province we exclude may be fitly styled the metempirical.

G. H. Lewes.

Met*em*pir"i*cism (?), n. The science that is concerned with metempirics.

Met`em*pir"ics (?), n. The concepts and relations which are conceived as beyond, and yet as related to, the knowledge gained by experience.

Me*temp"sy*chose (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Metempsychosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Metempsychosing (?).] [See Metempsychosis.] To translate or transfer, as the soul, from one body to another. [R.] Peacham.

Me*temp`sy*cho"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; beyond, over + &?; to animate; &?; in + &?; soul. See Psychology.] The passage of the soul, as an immortal essence, at the death of the animal body it had inhabited, into another living body, whether of a brute or a human being; transmigration of souls. Sir T. Browne.

Met`emp*to"sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; beyond, after + &?; a falling upon, fr. &?; to fall in or upon; &?; in + &?; to fall.] (Chron.) The suppression of a day in the calendar to prevent the date of the new moon being set a day too late, or the suppression of the bissextile day once in 134 years. The opposite to this is the proemptosis, or the addition of a day every 330 years, and another every 2,400 years.

Met`en*ceph"a*lon (?), n. [Met- + encephalon.] (Anat.) The posterior part of the brain, including the medulla; the afterbrain. Sometimes abbreviated to meten.

||Met`en*so`ma*to"sis (?), n. [L., a change of body (by the soul), fr. Gr. &?;.] (Biol.) The assimilation by one body or organism of the elements of another.

Me"te*or (?), n. [F. météore, Gr. &?;, pl. &?; things in the air, fr. &?; high in air, raised off the ground; &?; beyond + &?;, &?;, a suspension or hovering in the air, fr. &?; to lift, raise up.]

1. Any phenomenon or appearance in the atmosphere, as clouds, rain, hail, snow, etc.

Hail, an ordinary meteor.

Bp. Hall.

2. Specif.: A transient luminous body or appearance seen in the atmosphere, or in a more elevated region.

The vaulty top of heaven
Figured quite o'er with burning meteors.


The term is especially applied to fireballs, and the masses of stone or other substances which sometimes fall to the earth; also to shooting stars and to ignes fatui. Meteors are often classed as: aerial meteors, winds, tornadoes, etc.; aqueous meteors, rain, hail, snow, dew, etc.; luminous meteors, rainbows, halos, etc.; and igneous meteors, lightning, shooting stars, and the like.

Me`te*or"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. météorique.] 1. Of or pertaining to a meteor, or to meteors; atmospheric, as, meteoric phenomena; meteoric stones.

2. Influenced by the weather; as, meteoric conditions.

3. Flashing; brilliant; transient; like a meteor; as, meteoric fame. "Meteoric politician." Craik.

Meteoric iron, Meteoric stone. (Min.) See Meteorite. -- Meteoric paper, a substance of confervoid origin found floating in the air, and resembling bits of coarse paper; -- so called because formerly supposed to fall from meteors. -- Meteoric showers, periodical exhibitions of shooting stars, occuring about the 9th or 10th of August and 13th of November, more rarely in April and December, and also at some other periods.

Me`te*or"ic*al (?), a. Meteoric.

Me"te*or*ism (?), n. (Med.) Flatulent distention of the abdomen; tympanites.

Me"te*or*ite (?), n. [Cf. F. météorite.] (Min.) A mass of stone or iron which has fallen to the earth from space; an aërolite.

Meteorites usually show a pitted surface with a fused crust, caused by the heat developed in their rapid passage through the earth's atmosphere. A meteorite may consist: 1. Of metallic iron, alloyed with a small percentage of nickel (meteoric iron, holosiderite). When etched this usually exhibits peculiar crystalline figures, called Widmanstätten figures. 2. Of a cellular mass of iron with imbedded silicates (mesosiderite or siderolite). 3. Of a stony mass of silicates with little iron (meteoric stone, sporadosiderite). 4. Of a mass without iron (asiderite).

Me"te*or*ize (?), v. i. [Gr. &?; to raise to a height.] To ascend in vapors; to take the form of a meteor. Evelyn.

Me`te*or"o*graph (?), n. [Meteor + -graph.] An instrument which registers meteorologic phases or conditions.

Me`te*or`o*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to meteorography.

Me`te*or*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Meteor + -graphy.] The registration of meteorological phenomena.

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Me"te*or*oid (m"t*r*oid), n. [Meteor + -oid.] (Astron.) A small body moving through space, or revolving about the sun, which on entering the earth's atmosphere would be deflagrated and appear as a meteor.

These bodies [small, solid bodies] before they come into the air, I call meteoroids.

H. A. Newton.

Me`te*or*oid"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a meteoroid or to meteoroids.

Me`te*or"o*lite (?; 277), n. [Meteor + -lite : cf. F. météorolithe.] A meteoric stone; an aërolite; a meteorite.

{ Me`te*or`o*log"ic (?), Me`te*or`o*log"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. météorologique.] Of or pertaining to the atmosphere and its phenomena, or to meteorology.

Meteorological table, Meteorological register, a table or register exhibiting the state of the air and its temperature, weight, dryness, moisture, motion, etc.

Me`te*or*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. météorologiste.] A person skilled in meteorology.

Me`te*or*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; + lo`gos discourse: cf. F. météorologie. See Meteor.] The science which treats of the atmosphere and its phenomena, particularly of its variations of heat and moisture, of its winds, storms, etc.

Me`te*or"o*man`cy (?), n. [Meteor + -mancy : cf. F. météoromancie.] A species of divination by meteors, chiefly by thunder and lightning, which was held in high estimation by the Romans.

Me`te*or*om"e*ter (?), n. [Meteor + -meter.] An apparatus which transmits automatically to a central station atmospheric changes as marked by the anemometer, barometer, thermometer, etc.

Me`te*or"o*scope (?; 277), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; observing the heavenly bodies; &?; + &?; to view: cf. F. météoroscope. See Meteor.] (Astron.) (a) An astrolabe; a planisphere. [Obs.] (b) An instrument for measuring the position, length, and direction, of the apparent path of a shooting star.

Me*te"o*rous (? or ?), a. [See Meteor.] Of the nature or appearance of a meteor.

-me"ter (?). [L. metrum measure, or the allied Gr. &?;. See Meter rhythm.] A suffix denoting that by which anything is measured; as, barometer, chronometer, dynamometer.

Me"ter (?), n. [From Mete to measure.] 1. One who, or that which, metes or measures. See Coal-meter.

2. An instrument for measuring, and usually for recording automatically, the quantity measured.

Dry meter, a gas meter having measuring chambers, with flexible walls, which expand and contract like bellows and measure the gas by filling and emptying. -- Wet meter, a gas meter in which the revolution of a chambered drum in water measures the gas passing through it.

Me"ter, n. A line above or below a hanging net, to which the net is attached in order to strengthen it.

{ Me"ter, Me"tre } (?), n. [OE. metre, F. mètre, L. metrum, fr. Gr. &?;; akin to Skr. m to measure. See Mete to measure.] 1. Rhythmical arrangement of syllables or words into verses, stanzas, strophes, etc.; poetical measure, depending on number, quantity, and accent of syllables; rhythm; measure; verse; also, any specific rhythmical arrangements; as, the Horatian meters; a dactylic meter.

The only strict antithesis to prose is meter.


2. A poem. [Obs.] Robynson (More's Utopia).

3. A measure of length, equal to 39.37 English inches, the standard of linear measure in the metric system of weights and measures. It was intended to be, and is very nearly, the ten millionth part of the distance from the equator to the north pole, as ascertained by actual measurement of an arc of a meridian. See Metric system, under Metric.

Common meter (Hymnol.), four iambic verses, or lines, making a stanza, the first and third having each four feet, and the second and fourth each three feet; -- usually indicated by the initials C.M. -- Long meter (Hymnol.), iambic verses or lines of four feet each, four verses usually making a stanza; -- commonly indicated by the initials L. M. -- Short meter (Hymnol.), iambic verses or lines, the first, second, and fourth having each three feet, and the third four feet. The stanza usually consists of four lines, but is sometimes doubled. Short meter is indicated by the initials S. M.

Me"ter*age (?), n. [See 1st Meter.] The act of measuring, or the cost of measuring.

Me"ter*gram` (?), n. (Mech.) A measure of energy or work done; the power exerted in raising one gram through the distance of one meter against gravitation.

Mete"wand` (?), n. [Mete to measure + wand.] A measuring rod. Ascham.

Mete"yard` (?), n. [AS. metgeard. See Mete to measure, and Yard stick.] A yard, staff, or rod, used as a measure. [Obs.] Shak.

Meth (?), n. See Meathe. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Met`hæm*o*glo"bin (? or ?), n. [Pref. met- + hæmoglobin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A stable crystalline compound obtained by the decomposition of hemoglobin. It is found in old blood stains.

Meth"al (?), n. [Myristic + ether + alcohol.] (Chem.) A white waxy substance, found in small quantities in spermaceti as an ethereal salt of several fatty acids, and regarded as an alcohol of the methane series.

Meth"ane (?), n. [See Methal.] (Chem.) A light, colorless, gaseous, inflammable hydrocarbon, CH4; marsh gas. See Marsh gas, under Gas.

Methane series (Chem.), a series of saturated hydrocarbons, of which methane is the first member and type, and (because of their general chemical inertness and indifference) called also the paraffin (little affinity) series. The lightest members are gases, as methane, ethane; intermediate members are liquids, as hexane, heptane, etc. (found in benzine, kerosene, etc.); while the highest members are white, waxy, or fatty solids, as paraffin proper.

Me*theg"lin (?), n. [W. meddyglyn; medd mead + llyn liquor, juice. See Mead a drink.] A fermented beverage made of honey and water; mead. Gay.

Meth"ene (?), n. [Methyl + ethylene.] (Chem.) See Methylene.

Meth"e*nyl (?), n. [Methene + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical hydrocarbon radical CH, regarded as an essential residue of certain organic compounds.

Meth"ide (? or ?), n. [See Methyl.] (Chem.) A binary compound of methyl with some element; as, aluminium methide, Al2(CH3)6.

Me*thinks" (?), v. impers. [imp. Methought (?).] [AS. þyncan to seem, m þynceð, m þhte, OE. me thinketh, me thoughte; akin to G. dünken to seem, denken to think, and E. think. See Me, and Think.] It seems to me; I think. See Me. [R., except in poetry.]

In all ages poets have been had in special reputation, and, methinks, not without great cause.


Me*thi"on*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of methionic acid.

Meth`i*on"ic (?), a. [Methyl + thionic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a sulphonic (thionic) acid derivative of methane, obtained as a stable white crystalline substance, CH2.(SO3H)2, which forms well defined salts.

Meth"od (?), n. [F. méthode, L. methodus, fr. Gr. meqodos method, investigation following after; meta` after + "odo`s way.] 1. An orderly procedure or process; regular manner of doing anything; hence, manner; way; mode; as, a method of teaching languages; a method of improving the mind. Addison.

2. Orderly arrangement, elucidation, development, or classification; clear and lucid exhibition; systematic arrangement peculiar to an individual.

Though this be madness, yet there's method in it.


All method is a rational progress, a progress toward an end.

Sir W. Hamilton.

3. (Nat. Hist.) Classification; a mode or system of classifying natural objects according to certain common characteristics; as, the method of Theophrastus; the method of Ray; the Linnæan method.

Syn. -- Order; system; rule; regularity; way; manner; mode; course; process; means. -- Method, Mode, Manner. Method implies arrangement; mode, mere action or existence. Method is a way of reaching a given end by a series of acts which tend to secure it; mode relates to a single action, or to the form which a series of acts, viewed as a whole, exhibits. Manner is literally the handling of a thing, and has a wider sense, embracing both method and mode. An instructor may adopt a good method of teaching to write; the scholar may acquire a bad mode of holding his pen; the manner in which he is corrected will greatly affect his success or failure.

{ Me*thod"ic (?), Me*thod"ic*al (?), } a. [L. methodicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. méthodique.] 1. Arranged with regard to method; disposed in a suitable manner, or in a manner to illustrate a subject, or to facilitate practical observation; as, the methodical arrangement of arguments; a methodical treatise. "Methodical regularity." Addison.

2. Proceeding with regard to method; systematic. "Aristotle, strict, methodic, and orderly." Harris.

3. Of or pertaining to the ancient school of physicians called methodists. Johnson.

-- Me*thod"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Me*thod"ic*al*ness, n.

Me*thod"ios (?), n. The art and principles of method.

Meth"o*dism (?), n. (Eccl.) The system of doctrines, polity, and worship, of the sect called Methodists. Bp. Warburton.

Meth"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. méthodiste. See Method.] 1. One who observes method. [Obs.]

2. One of an ancient school of physicians who rejected observation and founded their practice on reasoning and theory. Sir W. Hamilton.

3. (Theol.) One of a sect of Christians, the outgrowth of a small association called the "Holy Club," formed at Oxford University, A.D. 1729, of which the most conspicuous members were John Wesley and his brother Charles; -- originally so called from the methodical strictness of members of the club in all religious duties.

4. A person of strict piety; one who lives in the exact observance of religious duties; -- sometimes so called in contempt or ridicule.

Meth"o*dist, a. Of or pertaining to the sect of Methodists; as, Methodist hymns; a Methodist elder.

{ Meth`o*dis"tic (?), Meth`o*dis"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to methodists, or to the Methodists. -- Meth`o*dis"tic*al*ly, adv.

Meth`od*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of methodizing, or the state of being methodized.

Meth"od*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Methodized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Methodizing (?).] To reduce to method; to dispose in due order; to arrange in a convenient manner; as, to methodize one's work or thoughts. Spectator.

Meth"od*i`zer (?), n. One who methodizes.

Meth`od*o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to methodology.

Meth`od*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; method + -logy.] The science of method or arrangement; a treatise on method. Coleridge.

Meth"ol (?), n. [Gr. &?; wine + - ol.] (Chem.) The technical name of methyl alcohol or wood spirit; also, by extension, the class name of any of the series of alcohols of the methane series of which methol proper is the type. See Methyl alcohol, under Methyl.

Me*thought" (?), imp. of Methinks.

Meth*ox"yl (?), n. [Methyl + hydroxyl.] (Chem.) A hypothetical radical, CH3O, analogous to hydroxyl.

Meth"yl (?), n. [See Methylene.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical, CH3, not existing alone but regarded as an essential residue of methane, and appearing as a component part of many derivatives; as, methyl alcohol, methyl ether, methyl amine, etc. [Formerly written also methule, methyle, etc.]

Methyl alcohol (Chem.), a light, volatile, inflammable liquid, CH3.OH, obtained by the distillation of wood, and hence called wood spirit; -- called also methol, carbinol, etc. -- Methyl amine (Chem.), a colorless, inflammable, alkaline gas, CH3.NH2, having an ammoniacal, fishy odor. It is produced artificially, and also occurs naturally in herring brine and other fishy products. It is regarded as ammonia in which a third of its hydrogen is replaced by methyl, and is a type of the class of substituted ammonias. -- Methyl ether (Chem.), a light, volatile ether CH3.O.CH3, obtained by the etherification of methyl alcohol; -- called also methyl oxide. -- Methyl green. (Chem.) See under Green, n. -- Methyl orange. (Chem.) See Helianthin. -- Methyl violet (Chem.), an artificial dye, consisting of certain methyl halogen derivatives of rosaniline.

Meth"yl*al (?), n. [Methylene + alcohol.] (Chem.) A light, volatile liquid, H2C(OCH3)2, regarded as a complex ether, and having a pleasant ethereal odor. It is obtained by the partial oxidation of methyl alcohol. Called also formal.

Meth`yl*am"ine (? or ?), n. (Chem.) See Methyl amine, under Methyl.

Meth"yl*ate (?), n. [Methyl + alcoholate.] (Chem.) An alcoholate of methyl alcohol in which the hydroxyl hydrogen is replaced by a metal, after the analogy of a hydrate; as, sodium methylate, CH3ONa.

Meth"yl*ate (?), v. t. To impregnate or mix with methyl or methyl alcohol.

Meth"yl*a`ted (?), a. (Chem.) Impregnated with, or containing, methyl alcohol or wood spirit; as, methylated spirits.

Meth"yl*ene (?), n. [F. méthylène, from Gr. &?; wine + &?; wood; -- a word coined to correspond to the name wood spirit.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical, CH2, not known in the free state, but regarded as an essential residue and component of certain derivatives of methane; as, methylene bromide, CH2Br2; -- formerly called also methene.

Methylene blue (Chem.), an artificial dyestuff consisting of a complex sulphur derivative of diphenyl amine; -- called also pure blue.

Me*thyl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, methyl; specifically, designating methyl alcohol. See under Methyl.

Me*thys"ti*cin (?), n. (Chem.) A white, silky, crystalline substance extracted from the thick rootstock of a species of pepper (Piper methysticum) of the South Sea Islands; -- called also kanakin.

Met"ic (? or ?; 277), n. [Gr. &?;, prop., changing one's abode; &?;, indicating change + &?; house, abode: cf. L. metoecus, F. métèque.] (Gr. Antiq.) A sojourner; an immigrant; an alien resident in a Grecian city, but not a citizen. Mitford.

The whole force of Athens, metics as well as citizens, and all the strangers who were then in the city.

Jowett (Thucyd. ).

Me*tic"u*lous (?), a. [L. meticulosus, fr. metus fear: cf. F. méticuleux.] Timid; fearful.

-- Me*tic"u*lous*ly, adv.

{ ||Mé`tif" (?), n. m. ||Mé`tive" (?), n. f. }[F.] See Métis.

{ ||Mé`tis" (?), n. m. ||Mé`tisse" (?), n. f. }[F.; akin to Sp. mestizo. See Mestizo.] 1. The offspring of a white person and an American Indian.

2. The offspring of a white person and a quadroon; an octoroon. [Local, U. S.] Bartlett.

Met"o*che (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a sharing, fr. &?; to share in; &?; with + &?; to have.] (Arch.) (a) The space between two dentils. (b) The space between two triglyphs.

Me*ton"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. métonique.] Pertaining to, or discovered by, Meton, the Athenian.

Metonic cycle or year. (Astron.) See under Cycle.

{ Met`o*nym"ic (?), Met`o*nym"ic*al (?), } a. [See Metonymy.] Used by way of metonymy. -- Met`o*nym"ic*al*ly, adv.

Me*ton"y*my (m*tn"*m; 277), n. [L. metonymia, Gr. metwnymi`a; meta`, indicating change + 'o`nyma , for 'o`noma a name: cf. F. métonymie. See Name.] (Rhet.) A trope in which one word is put for another that suggests it; as, we say, a man keeps a good table instead of good provisions; we read Virgil, that is, his poems; a man has a warm heart, that is, warm affections.

Met"o*pe (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; meta` with, between + &?; opening, hole, the hole in the frieze between the beam ends.] 1. (Arch.) The space between two triglyphs of the Doric frieze, which, among the ancients, was often adorned with carved work. See Illust. of Entablature.

2. (Zoöl.) The face of a crab.

In the Parthenon, groups of centaurs and heroes in high relief occupy the metopes.

Me*top"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; the forehead.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the forehead or frontal bones; frontal; as, the metopic suture.

Met"o*po*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; the forehead + -mancy.] Fortune telling by physiognomy. [R.] Urquhart.

{ Met`o*po*scop"ic (?), Met`o*po*scop"ic*al (?), } a. Of or relating to metoposcopy.

Met`o*pos"co*pist (?), n. One versed in metoposcopy.

Met`o*pos"co*py (?), n. [Gr. &?; observing the forehead; &?; the forehead + &?; to view: cf. F. métoposcopie.] The study of physiognomy; the art of discovering the character of persons by their features, or the lines of the face.

||Me*tos"te*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; after + &?; bone.] (Anat.) The postero-lateral ossification in the sternum of birds; also, the part resulting from such ossification.

<! p. 920 !>

Me"tre (m"tr), n. See Meter.

Met"ric (mt"rk), a. [L. metricus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. métrique. See Meter rhythm.] 1. Relating to measurement; involving, or proceeding by, measurement.

2. Of or pertaining to the meter as a standard of measurement; of or pertaining to the decimal system of measurement of which a meter is the unit; as, the metric system; a metric measurement.

Metric analysis (Chem.), analysis by volume; volumetric analysis. -- Metric system, a system of weights and measures originating in France, the use of which is required by law in many countries, and permitted in many others, including the United States and England. The principal unit is the meter (see Meter). From this are formed the are, the liter, the stere, the gram, etc. These units, and others derived from them, are divided decimally, and larger units are formed from multiples by 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000. The successive multiplies are designated by the prefixes, deca- , hecto-, kilo-, and myria-; successive parts by deci-, centi-, and milli-. The prefixes mega- and micro- are sometimes used to denote a multiple by one million, and the millionth part, respectively. See the words formed with these prefixes in the Vocabulary. For metric tables, see p. 1682.

Met"ric*al (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to the meter; arranged in meter; consisting of verses; as, metrical compositions.

2. Of or pertaining to measurement; as, the inch, foot, yard, etc., are metrical terms; esp., of or pertaining to the metric system.

Met"ric*al*ly, adv. In a metrical manner.

Me*tri"cian (?), n. [Cf. F. métricien. See Meter rhythm.] A composer of verses. [Obs.]

Met"ric sys"tem (?). See Metric, a.

Met`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. Composition in metrical form; versification. [R.] Tennyson.

Met"ri*fy (?), v. i. [L. metrum meter + -fy: cf. F. métrifier.] To make verse. [R.] Skelton.

Me"trist (?), n. A maker of verses. Bale.

Spenser was no mere metrist, but a great composer.


||Me*tri"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; womb + -tis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the womb.

Met"ro*chrome (?), n. [Gr. &?; + &?; color.] An instrument for measuring colors.

Met"ro*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; measure + -graph.] An instrument attached to a locomotive for recording its speed and the number and duration of its stops.

Met`ro*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. métrologique.] Of or pertaining to metrology.

Me*trol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; measure + -métrologie.] The science of, or a system of, weights and measures; also, a treatise on the subject.

Met`ro*ma"ni*a (?), n. [Gr. &?; measure + E. mania.] A mania for writing verses.

Met`ro*ma"ni*ac (?), n. One who has metromania.

Me*trom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; womb + -meter.] (Med.) An instrument for measuring the size of the womb. Knight.

Met"ro*nome (?), n. [Gr. &?; measure + &?; distribute, assign: cf. F. métronome, It. metronomo.] An instrument consisting of a short pendulum with a sliding weight. It is set in motion by clockwork, and serves to measure time in music.

Me*tron"o*my (?), n. [See Metronome.] Measurement of time by an instrument.

Met`ro*nym"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; mother + &?;, for &?; name.] Derived from the name of one's mother, or other female ancestor; as, a metronymic name or appellation. -- n. A metronymic appellation.

Met"ro*pole (?), n. [Cf. F. métropole. See Metropolis.] A metropolis. [Obs.] Holinshed.

Me*trop"o*lis (?), n. [L. metropolis, Gr. &?;, prop., the mother city (in relation to colonies); &?; mother + &?; city. See Mother, and Police.]

1. The mother city; the chief city of a kingdom, state, or country.

[Edinburgh] gray metropolis of the North.


2. (Eccl.) The seat, or see, of the metropolitan, or highest church dignitary.

The great metropolis and see of Rome.


Met`ro*pol"i*tan (?; 277), a. [L. metropolitanus: cf. F. métropolitain.]

1. Of or pertaining to the capital or principal city of a country; as, metropolitan luxury.

2. (Eccl.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a metropolitan or the presiding bishop of a country or province, his office, or his dignity; as, metropolitan authority. "Bishops metropolitan." Sir T. More.

Met`ro*pol"i*tan, n. [LL. metropolitanus.] 1. The superior or presiding bishop of a country or province.

2. (Lat. Church.) An archbishop.

3. (Gr. Church) A bishop whose see is a civil metropolis. His rank is intermediate between that of an archbishop and a patriarch. Hook.

Met`ro*pol"i*tan*ate (?), n. The see of a metropolitan bishop. Milman.

Me*trop"o*lite (?), n. [L. metropolita, Gr. &?;.] A metropolitan. Barrow.

Met`ro*po*lit"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a metropolis; being a metropolis; metropolitan; as, the metropolitical chair. Bp. Hall.

||Met`ror*rha"gi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; womb + &?; to break.] (Med.) Profuse bleeding from the womb, esp. such as does not occur at the menstrual period.

Met"ro*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; womb + -scope.] A modification of the stethoscope, for directly auscultating the uterus from the vagina.

||Met`ro*si*de"ros (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; heart of a tree + &?; iron.] (Bot.) A myrtaceous genus of trees or shrubs, found in Australia and the South Sea Islands, and having very hard wood. Metrosideros vera is the true ironwood.

Met"ro*tome (?), n. [See Metrotomy.] (Surg.) An instrument for cutting or scarifying the uterus or the neck of the uterus.

Me*trot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; womb + &?; to cut: cf. F. métrotomie.] (Surg.) The operation of cutting into the uterus; hysterotomy; the Cæsarean section.

-me*try (?). [See -meter.] A suffix denoting the art, process, or science, of measuring; as, acidimetry, chlorometry, chronometry.

Mette (?), obs. imp. of Mete, to dream. Chaucer.

Met"tle (?), n. [E. metal, used in a tropical sense in allusion to the temper of the metal of a sword blade. See Metal.] Substance or quality of temperament; spirit, esp. as regards honor, courage, fortitude, ardor, etc.; disposition; -- usually in a good sense.

A certain critical hour which shall . . . try what mettle his heart is made of.


Gentlemen of brave mettle.


The winged courser, like a generous horse,
Shows most true mettle when you check his course.


To put one one's mettle, to cause or incite one to use one's best efforts.

Met"tled (?), a. Having mettle; high-spirited; ardent; full of fire. Addison.

Met"tle*some (?), a. Full of spirit; possessing constitutional ardor; fiery; as, a mettlesome horse.

-- Met"tle*some*ly, adv. -- Met"tle*some*ness, n.

Meute (?), n. A cage for hawks; a mew. See 4th Mew, 1. Milman.

Meve (?), v. t. & i. To move. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Mew (?), n. [AS. m&?;w, akin to D. meeuw, G. möwe, OHG. m&?;h, Icel. mr.] (Zoöl.) A gull, esp. the common British species (Larus canus); called also sea mew, maa, mar, mow, and cobb.

Mew, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mewed; p. pr. & vb. n. Mewing.] [OE. muen, F. muer, fr. L. mutare to change, fr. movere to move. See Move, and cf. Mew a cage, Molt.] To shed or cast; to change; to molt; as, the hawk mewed his feathers.

Nine times the moon had mewed her horns.


Mew, v. i. To cast the feathers; to molt; hence, to change; to put on a new appearance.

Now everything doth mew,
And shifts his rustic winter robe.


Mew, n. [OE. mue, F. mue change of feathers, scales, skin, the time or place when the change occurs, fr. muer to molt, mew, L. mutare to change. See 2d Mew.]

1. A cage for hawks while mewing; a coop for fattening fowls; hence, any inclosure; a place of confinement or shelter; -- in the latter sense usually in the plural.

Full many a fat partrich had he in mewe.


Forthcoming from her darksome mew.


Violets in their secret mews.


2. A stable or range of stables for horses; - - compound used in the plural, and so called from the royal stables in London, built on the site of the king's mews for hawks.

Mew, v. t. [From Mew a cage.] To shut up; to inclose; to confine, as in a cage or other inclosure.

More pity that the eagle should be mewed.


Close mewed in their sedans, for fear of air.


Mew, v. i. [Of imitative origin; cf. G. miauen.] To cry as a cat. [Written also meaw, meow.] Shak.

Mew, n. The common cry of a cat. Shak.

Mewl (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Mewled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mewling.] [Cf. F. miauler to mew, E. mew to cry as a cat. Cf. Miaul.] To cry, as a young child; to squall. [Written also meawl.] Shak.

Mewl"er (?), n. One that mewls.

Mews (?), n. sing. & pl. [Prop. pl. of mew. See Mew a cage.] An alley where there are stables; a narrow passage; a confined place. [Eng.]

Mr. Turveydrop's great room . . . was built out into a mews at the back.


||Mex*al" (?), Mex"i*cal (#), n. [Sp. mexcal.] See Mescal.

Mex"i*can (?), a. Of or pertaining to Mexico or its people. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Mexico.

Mexican poppy (Bot.), a tropical American herb of the Poppy family (Argemone Mexicana) with much the look of a thistle, but having large yellow or white blossoms. -- Mexican tea (Bot.), an aromatic kind of pigweed from tropical America (Chenopodium ambrosioides).

Mex"i*can*ize (?), v. t. To cause to be like the Mexicans, or their country, esp. in respect of frequent revolutions of government.

Mex"i*can*ize, v. i. To become like the Mexicans, or their country or government.

Meyn"e (mn"), n. [Obs.] Same as Meine.

Mez*cal" (?), n. Same as Mescal.

Me*ze"re*on (?), n. [F. mézéréon, Per. mzriyn.] (Bot.) A small European shrub (Daphne Mezereum), whose acrid bark is used in medicine.

||Mez*qui"ta (?), n. [Sp.] A mosque.

Mez"u*zoth (?), n. [Heb. mzzth, pl. of mzzh doorpost.] A piece of parchment bearing the Decalogue and attached to the doorpost; -- in use among orthodox Hebrews.

Mez"za*nine (?), n. [F. mezzanine, It. mezzanino, fr. mezzano middle, fr. mezzo middle, half. See Mezzo.] (Arch.) (a) Same as Entresol. (b) A partial story which is not on the same level with the story of the main part of the edifice, as of a back building, where the floors are on a level with landings of the staircase of the main house.

||Mez"za vo"ce (?). [It., fr. mezzo, fem. mezza middle, half + voce voice, L. vox.] (Mus.) With a medium fullness of sound.

||Mez"zo (?), a. [It., from L. medius middle, half. See Mid, a.] (Mus.) Mean; not extreme.

Mez"zo-re*lie"vo (?), n. Mezzo- rilievo.

||Mez"zo-ri*lie"vo (?), n. [It.] (a) A middle degree of relief in figures, between high and low relief. (b) Sculpture in this kind of relief. See under Alto-rilievo.

Mez"zo-so*pra"no (?), a. (Mus.) Having a medium compass between the soprano and contralto; -- said of the voice of a female singer. -- n. (a) A mezzo-soprano voice. (b) A person having such a voice.

Mez"zo*tint (?), n. [Cf. F. mezzo- tinto.] A manner of engraving on copper or steel by drawing upon a surface previously roughened, and then removing the roughness in places by scraping, burnishing, etc., so as to produce the requisite light and shade. Also, an engraving so produced.

Mez"zo*tint, v. t. To engrave in mezzotint.

Mez"zo*tint`er (?), n. One who engraves in mezzotint.

Mez`zo*tin"to (?), n. [It. mezzo half + tinto tinted, p. p. of tingere to dye, color, tinge, L. tingere. See Mezzo.] Mezzotint.

Mez`zo*tin"to, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mezzotintoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mezzotintoing (?).] To engrave in mezzotint; to represent by mezzotint.

Mhorr (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Mohr.

Mi (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A syllable applied to the third tone of the scale of C, i. e., to E, in European solmization, but to the third tone of any scale in the American system.

Mi*a"mis (?), n. pl.; sing. Miami (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians that formerly occupied the country between the Wabash and Maumee rivers.

Mi*ar"gy*rite (?), n. [Gr. &?; less + &?; silver. So called because it contains less silver than some kindred ore.] (Min.) A mineral of an iron-black color, and very sectile, consisting principally of sulphur, antimony, and silver.

Mi"as (?), n. [Malayan.] The orang-outang.

Mi*asc"ite (?), n. [Named from Miask, in the Ural Mountains.] (Min.) A granitoid rock containing feldspar, biotite, elæolite, and sodalite.

Mi"asm (?), n. [Cf. F. miasme.] Miasma.

Mi*as"ma (?), n.; pl. Miasmata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; defilement, fr. &?; to pollute.] Infectious particles or germs floating in the air; air made noxious by the presence of such particles or germs; noxious effluvia; malaria.

Mi*as"mal (?), a. Containing miasma; miasmatic.

{ Mi`as*mat"ic (?), Mi`as*mat"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. miasmatique.] Containing, or relating to, miasma; caused by miasma; as, miasmatic diseases.

Mi*as"ma*tist (?), n. One who has made a special study of miasma.

Mi`as*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Miasma + -logy.] That department of medical science which treats of miasma.

Mi*aul" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Miauled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Miauling.] [Cf. F. miauler, of imitative origin, and E. mew. Cf. Mewl.] To cry as a cat; to mew; to caterwaul. Sir W. Scott.

Mi*aul", n. The crying of a cat.

Mi"ca (?), n. [L. mica crumb, grain, particle; cf. F. mica.] (Min.) The name of a group of minerals characterized by highly perfect cleavage, so that they readily separate into very thin leaves, more or less elastic. They differ widely in composition, and vary in color from pale brown or yellow to green or black. The transparent forms are used in lanterns, the doors of stoves, etc., being popularly called isinglass. Formerly called also cat-silver, and glimmer.

The important species of the mica group are: muscovite, common or potash mica, pale brown or green, often silvery, including damourite (also called hydromica); biotite, iron-magnesia mica, dark brown, green, or black; lepidomelane, iron, mica, black; phlogopite, magnesia mica, colorless, yellow, brown; lepidolite, lithia mica, rose- red, lilac.

Mica (usually muscovite, also biotite) is an essential constituent of granite, gneiss, and mica slate; biotite is common in many eruptive rocks; phlogopite in crystalline limestone and serpentine.

Mica diorite (Min.), an eruptive rock allied to diorite but containing mica (biotite) instead of hornblende. -- Mica powder, a kind of dynamite containing fine scales of mica. -- Mica schist, Mica slate (Geol.), a schistose rock, consisting of mica and quartz with, usually, some feldspar.

Mi*ca`ce*o-cal*ca"re*ous (?), a. (Geol.) Partaking of the nature of, or consisting of, mica and lime; -- applied to a mica schist containing carbonate of lime.

Mi*ca"ceous (?), a. [Cf. F. micacé.] Pertaining to, or containing, mica; splitting into laminæ or leaves like mica.

Mice (?), n., pl of Mouse.

||Mi*cel"la (?), n.; pl. Micellæ (#). [NL., dim. of L. mica a morsel, grain.] (Biol.) A theoretical aggregation of molecules constituting a structural particle of protoplasm, capable of increase or diminution without change in chemical nature.

{ Mich, Miche } (?), v. i. [OE. michen; cf. OE. muchier, mucier, to conceal, F. musser, and OHG. mhhen to waylay. Cf. Micher, Curmudgeon, Muset.] To lie hid; to skulk; to act, or carry one's self, sneakingly. [Obs. or Colloq.] [Written also meach and meech.] Spenser.

Mich"ael*mas (?), n. [Michael + mass religious service; OE. Mighelmesse.] The feast of the archangel Michael, a church festival, celebrated on the 29th of September. Hence, colloquially, autumn.

Michaelmas daisy. (Bot.) See under Daisy.

Mich"er (?), n. [OE. michare, muchare. See Mich.] One who skulks, or keeps out of sight; hence, a truant; an idler; a thief, etc. [Obs.] Shak.

Mich"er*y (?), n. Theft; cheating. [Obs.] Gower.

Mich"ing, a. Hiding; skulking; cowardly. [Colloq.] [Written also meaching and meeching.]

<! p. 921 !>

Mic"kle (mk"k'l), a. [OE. mikel, muchel, mochel, mukel, AS. micel, mycel; akin to OS. mikil, OHG. mihil, mihhil, Icel. mikill, mykill, Goth. mikils, L. magnus, Gr. me`gas, gen. mega`loy; cf. Skr. mahat. √103. Cf. Much, Muckle, Magnitude.] Much; great. [Written also muckle and mockle.] [Old Eng. & Scot.] "A man of mickle might." Spenser.

Mic"macs (?), n. pl.; sing. Micmac (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians inhabiting Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. [Written also Mikmaks.]

Mi"co (?), n. [Sp. or Pg. mico.] (Zoöl.) A small South American monkey (Mico melanurus), allied to the marmoset. The name was originally applied to an albino variety.

Mi`cra*cous"tic (?), a. Same as Microustic.

||Mi*cras"ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mikro`s small + &?; star.] (Paleon.) A genus of sea urchins, similar to Spatangus, abounding in the chalk formation; -- from the starlike disposal of the ambulacral furrows.

Mi`cren*ceph"a*lous (?), [Micr- + Gr. &?; brain.] Having a small brain.

{ Mi"cro- (?), Mi"cr- }. [Gr. mikro`s small.] A combining form signifying: (a) Small, little, trivial, slight; as, microcosm, microscope. (b) (Metric System, Elec., Mech., etc.) A millionth part of; as, microfarad, microohm, micrometer.

Mi`cro*am`père" (?), n. [Micr- + ampère.] (Elec.) One of the smaller measures of electrical currents; the millionth part of one ampère.

||Mi`cro*bac*te"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Micro-, and Bacterium.] (Biol.) In the classification of Cohn, one of the four tribes of Bacteria.

In this classification bacteria are divided into four tribes: 1. Spherobacteria, or spherical bacteria, as the genus Micrococcus. 2. Microbacteria, or bacteria in the form of short rods, including the genus Bacterium. 3. Desmobacteria, or bacteria in straight filaments, of which the genus Bacillus is a type. 4. Spirobacteria, or bacteria in spiral filaments, as the genus Vibrio.

{ Mi"crobe (?), ||Mi*cro"bi*on (?), } n. [NL. microbion, fr. Gr. &?; little + &?; life.] (Biol.) A microscopic organism; -- particularly applied to bacteria and especially to pathogenic forms; as, the microbe of fowl cholera.

Mi*cro"bi*an (?), a. (Biol.) Of, pertaining to, or caused by, microbes; as, the microbian theory; a microbian disease.

Mi*crob"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to a microbe.

Mi*crob"i*cide (?), n. [Microbe + L. caedere to kill.] (Biol.) Any agent detrimental to, or destructive of, the life of microbes or bacterial organisms.

{ Mi`cro*ce*phal"ic (?), Mi`cro*ceph"a*lous (?), } a. [Micro- + cephalic, cephalous.] (Anat.) Having a small head; having the cranial cavity small; -- opposed to megacephalic.

Mi`cro-chem"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to micro-chemistry; as, a micro-chemical test.

Mi`cro-chem"is*try (?), n. [Micro- + chemistry.] The application of chemical tests to minute objects or portions of matter, magnified by the use of the microscopy; -- distinguished from macro-chemistry.

Mi`cro*chro*nom"e*ter (?), n. A chronoscope.

Mi"cro*cline (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; to incline.] (Min.) A mineral of the feldspar group, like orthoclase or common feldspar in composition, but triclinic in form.

Mi`cro*coc"cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to micrococci; caused by micrococci. Nature.

||Mi`cro*coc"cus (?), n.; pl. Micrococci (#). [NL. See Micro-, and Coccus.] (Biol.) A genus of Spherobacteria, in the form of very small globular or oval cells, forming, by transverse division, filaments, or chains of cells, or in some cases single organisms shaped like dumb-bells (Diplococcus), all without the power of motion. See Illust. of Ascoccus.

Physiologically, micrococci are divided into three groups; chromogenic, characterized by their power of forming pigment; zymogenic, including those associated with definite chemical processes; and pathogenic, those connected with disease.

Mi"cro*cosm (?), n. [F. microcosme, L. microcosmus, fr. Gr. mikro`s small + ko`smos the world.] A little world; a miniature universe. Hence (so called by Paracelsus), a man, as a supposed epitome of the exterior universe or great world. Opposed to macrocosm. Shak.

{ Mi`cro*cos"mic (?), Mi`cro*cos"mic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. microcosmique.] Of or pertaining to the microcosm.

Microcosmic salt (Chem.), a white crystalline substance obtained by mixing solutions of sodium phosphate and ammonium phosphate, and also called hydric-sodic- ammonic-phosphate. It is a powerful flux, and is used as a substitute for borax as a blowpipe reagent in testing for the metallic oxides. Originally obtained by the alchemists from human urine, and called sal microcosmicum.

Mi`cro*cos*mog"ra*phy (?), n. [Microcosm + -graphy.] Description of man as a microcosm.

Mi`cro*cou`lomb" (?), n. [Micro- + coulomb.] (Elec.) A measure of electrical quantity; the millionth part of one coulomb.

Mi`cro*cous"tic (?), a. [Micro- + acoustic: cf. F. microcoustique, micracoustique.] Pertaining, or suited, to the audition of small sounds; fitted to assist hearing.

Mi`cro*cous"tic, n. An instrument for making faint sounds audible, as to a partially deaf person.

Mi`cro*crith" (?), n. [Micro- + crith.] (Chem.) The weight of the half hydrogen molecule, or of the hydrogen atom, taken as the standard in comparing the atomic weights of the elements; thus, an atom of oxygen weighs sixteen microcriths. See Crith. J. P. Cooke.

Mi`cro*crys"tal*line (?), a. [Micro- + crystalline.] (Crystallog.) Crystalline on a fine, or microscopic, scale; consisting of fine crystals; as, the ground mass of certain porphyrics is microcrystalline.

Mi"cro*cyte (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; a hollow vessel.] (Physiol.) One of the elementary granules found in blood. They are much smaller than an ordinary corpuscle, and are particularly noticeable in disease, as in anæmia.

Mic"ro*dont (?), a. [Micr- + Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth.] (Anat.) Having small teeth.

Mi`cro*far"ad (?), n. [Micro- + farad.] (Elec.) The millionth part of a farad.

Mi"cro*form (?), n. [Micro- + form, n.] (Biol.) A microscopic form of life; an animal or vegetable organism of microscopic size.

Mi`cro-ge`o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to micro-geology.

Mi`cro-ge*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Micro- + geology.] The part of geology relating to structure and organisms which require to be studied with a microscope.

Mi"cro*graph (?), n. [See Micrography.] An instrument for executing minute writing or engraving.

Mi`cro*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to micrography.

Mi*crog"ra*phy (?), n. [Micro- + -graphy: cf. F. micrographie.] The description of microscopic objects.

Mi*crohm" (?), n. [Micr- + ohm.] (Elec.) The millionth part of an ohm.

||Mi`cro*lep`i*dop"te*ra (?), n. pl. [NL. See Micro-, and Lepidoptera.] (Zoöl.) A tribe of Lepidoptera, including a vast number of minute species, as the plume moth, clothes moth, etc.

||Mi`cro*les"tes (?), n. [NL., from Gr. mikro`s small + &?; a robber.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of small Triassic mammals, the oldest yet found in European strata.

Mi"cro*lite (?), n. [Micro- + -lite.] (Min.)

1. A rare mineral of resinous luster and high specific gravity. It is a tantalate of calcium, and occurs in octahedral crystals usually very minute.

2. (Min.) A minute inclosed crystal, often observed when minerals or rocks are examined in thin sections under the microscope.

Mi"cro*lith (?), n. [Micro- + lith.] (Min.) Same as Microlite, 2.

Mi`cro*lith"ic (?), a. Formed of small stones.

{ Mi`cro*log"ic (?), Mi`cro*log"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to micrology; very minute; as, micrologic examination. -- Mi`cro*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Mi*crol"o*gy (?), n. [Micro- + -logy.]

1. That part of science which treats of microscopic objects, or depends on microscopic observation.

2. Attention to petty items or differences. W. Taylor.

Mi"cro*mere (?), n. [Micro- + -mere.] (Biol.) One of the smaller cells, or blastomeres, resulting from the complete segmentation of a telolecithal ovum.

Mi*crom"e*ter (?), n. [Micro- + -meter: cf. F. micromètre.] An instrument, used with a telescope or microscope, for measuring minute distances, or the apparent diameters of objects which subtend minute angles. The measurement given directly is that of the image of the object formed at the focus of the object glass.

Circular, or Ring, micrometer, a metallic ring fixed in the focus of the object glass of a telescope, and used to determine differences of right ascension and declination between stars by observations of the times at which the stars cross the inner or outer periphery of the ring. -- Double image micrometer, a micrometer in which two images of an object are formed in the field, usually by the two halves of a bisected lens which are movable along their line of section by a screw, and distances are determined by the number of screw revolutions necessary to bring the points to be measured into optical coincidence. When the two images are formed by a bisected object glass, it is called a divided-object-glass micrometer, and when the instrument is large and equatorially mounted, it is known as a heliometer. -- Double refraction micrometer, a species of double image micrometer, in which the two images are formed by the double refraction of rock crystal. -- Filar, or Bifilar, micrometer. See under Bifilar. -- Micrometer caliper or gauge (Mech.), a caliper or gauge with a micrometer screw, for measuring dimensions with great accuracy. -- Micrometer head, the head of a micrometer screw. -- Micrometer microscope, a compound microscope combined with a filar micrometer, used chiefly for reading and subdividing the divisions of large astronomical and geodetical instruments. -- Micrometer screw, a screw with a graduated head used in some forms of micrometers. -- Position micrometer. See under Position. -- Scale, or Linear, micrometer, a minute and very delicately graduated scale of equal parts used in the field of a telescope or microscope, for measuring distances by direct comparison.

{ Mi`cro*met"ric (?), Mi`cro*met"ric*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. micrométrique.] Belonging to micrometry; made by the micrometer. -- Mi`cro*met"ric*al*ly, adv.

Mi*crom"e*try (?), n. The art of measuring with a micrometer.

Mi`cro*mil"li*me`ter (?), n. [Micro- + millimeter.] The millionth part of a meter.

Mic"ron (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mikro`s small.] (Physics) A measure of length; the thousandth part of one millimeter; the millionth part of a meter.

Mi"cro*ne"sian (?), a. [From Micronesia, fr. Gr. mikro`s small + nh^sos an island.] Of or pertaining to Micronesia, a collective designation of the islands in the western part of the Pacific Ocean, embracing the Marshall and Gilbert groups, the Ladrones, the Carolines, etc.

Mi`cro*ne"sians (?), n. pl.; sing. Micronesian. (Ethnol.) A dark race inhabiting the Micronesian Islands. They are supposed to be a mixed race, derived from Polynesians and Papuans.

Mi`cro*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Micro- + chronometer.] An instrument for noting minute portions of time.

Mi`cro*ör"gan*ism (?), n. [Micro- + organism.] (Biol.) Any microscopic form of life; -- particularly applied to bacteria and similar organisms, esp. such are supposed to cause infectious diseases.

Mi`cro*pan"to*graph (?), n. [Micro- + pantograph.] A kind of pantograph which produces copies microscopically minute.

Mi`cro*peg"ma*tite (?), n. [Micro- + pegmatite.] (Min.) A rock showing under the microscope the structure of a graphic granite (pegmatite). -- Mi`cro*peg`ma*tit"ic (#), a.

Mi"cro*phone (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; sound, voice: cf. F. microphone.] (Physics) An instrument for intensifying and making audible very feeble sounds. It produces its effects by the changes of intensity in an electric current, occasioned by the variations in the contact resistance of conducting bodies, especially of imperfect conductors, under the action of acoustic vibrations.

Mi`cro*phon"ics (?), n. [See Microphone.] The science which treats of the means of increasing the intensity of low or weak sounds, or of the microphone.

Mi*croph"o*nous (?), a. Serving to augment the intensity of weak sounds; microcoustic.

Mi`cro*pho"to*graph (?), n. [Micro- + photograph.]

1. A microscopically small photograph of a picture, writing, printed page, etc.

2. An enlarged representation of a microscopic object, produced by throwing upon a sensitive plate the magnified image of an object formed by a microscope or other suitable combination of lenses.

A picture of this kind is preferably called a photomicrograph.

Mi`cro*pho*tog"ra*phy (?), n. The art of making microphotographs.

{ Mi`croph*thal"mi*a (?), Mi`croph*thal"my (?), } n. [Micro- + Gr. 'ofqalmo`s eye.] An unnatural smallness of the eyes, occurring as the result of disease or of imperfect development.

Mi*croph"yl*lous (?), a. [Micro- + Gr. fy`llon leaf.] (Bot.) Small- leaved.

Mi*croph"y*tal (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to, or of the nature of, microphytes.

Mi"cro*phyte (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; a plant: cf. F. microphyte.] (Bot.) A very minute plant, one of certain unicellular algæ, such as the germs of various infectious diseases are believed to be.

Mi"cro*pyle (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; gate, orifice: cf. F. micropyle.] (Biol.) (a) An opening in the membranes surrounding the ovum, by which nutrition is assisted and the entrance of the spermatozoa permitted. (b) An opening in the outer coat of a seed, through which the fecundating pollen enters the ovule. -- Mi*crop"y*lar (#), a.

Mi*cros"co*pal (?), a. Pertaining to microscopy, or to the use of the microscope. Huxley.

Mi"cro*scope (?), n. [Micro- + -scope.] An optical instrument, consisting of a lens, or combination of lenses, for making an enlarged image of an object which is too minute to be viewed by the naked eye.

Compound microscope, an instrument consisting of a combination of lenses such that the image formed by the lens or set of lenses nearest the object (called the objective) is magnified by another lens called the ocular or eyepiece. -- Oxyhydrogen microscope, and Solar microscope. See under Oxyhydrogen, and Solar. -- Simple, or Single, microscope, a single convex lens used to magnify objects placed in its focus.

Mi`cro*sco"pi*al (?), a. Microscopic. [R.] Berkeley.

{ Mi`cro*scop"ic (?), Mi`cro*scop"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. microscopique.]

1. Of or pertaining to the microscope or to microscopy; made with a microscope; as, microscopic observation.

2. Able to see extremely minute objects.

Why has not man a microscopic eye?


3. Very small; visible only by the aid of a microscope; as, a microscopic insect.

Mi`cro*scop"ic*al*ly, adv. By the microscope; with minute inspection; in a microscopic manner.

Mi*cros"co*pist (?; 277), n. One skilled in, or given to, microscopy.

Mi*cros"co*py (?), n. The use of the microscope; investigation with the microscope.

Mi"cro*seme (?), a. [Micro- + Gr. &?; sign, mark: cf. F. microsème.] (Anat.) Having the orbital index relatively small; having the orbits broad transversely; -- opposed to megaseme.

<! p. 922 !>

Mi`cro*spec"tro*scope (m`kr*spk"tr*skp or m`kr-), n. [Micro- + spectroscope.] (Physics) A spectroscope arranged for attachment to a microscope, for observation of the spectrum of light from minute portions of any substance.

||Mi`cro*spo*ran"gi*um (?), n. [NL. See Micro-, and Sporangium.] (Bot.) A sporangium or conceptacle containing only very minute spores. Cf. Macrosporangium.

Mi"cro*spore (?), n. [Micro- + spore.] (Bot.) One of the exceedingly minute spores found in certain flowerless plants, as Selaginella and Isoetes, which bear two kinds of spores, one very much smaller than the other. Cf. Macrospore.

Mi`cro*spor"ic (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to microspores.

Mi"cro*sthene (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. sqe`nos might, strength.] (Zoöl.) One of a group of mammals having a small size as a typical characteristic. It includes the lower orders, as the Insectivora, Cheiroptera, Rodentia, and Edentata.

Mi`cro*sthen"ic (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having a typically small size; of or pertaining to the microsthenes.

Mi`cro*ta*sim"e*ter (?), n. [Micro- + tasimeter.] (Physics) A tasimeter, especially when arranged for measuring very small extensions. See Tasimeter.

Mi"cro*tome (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. te`mnein to cut.] An instrument for making very thin sections for microscopical examination.

Mi*crot"o*mist (?), n. One who is skilled in or practices microtomy.

Mi*crot"o*my (?), n. The art of using the microtome; investigation carried on with the microtome.

Mi`cro*volt" (?), n. [Micro- + volt.] (Elec.) A measure of electro-motive force; the millionth part of one volt.

Mi`cro*we"ber (?), n. [Micro- + weber.] (Elec.) The millionth part of one weber.

||Mi`cro*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. mikro`s small + zw^,on an animal.] (Zoöl.) The Infusoria.

Mi`cro*zo"ö*spore (?), n. [Micro- + zoöspore.] (Bot.) A small motile spore furnished with two vibratile cilia, found in certain green algæ.

Mi"cro*zyme (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. zy`mh leaven.] (Biol.) A microörganism which is supposed to act like a ferment in causing or propagating certain infectious or contagious diseases; a pathogenic bacterial organism.

Mic`tu*ri"tion (?), n. [L. micturire to desire to make water, v. desid. fr. mingere, mictum, to make water.] The act of voiding urine; also, a morbidly frequent passing of the urine, in consequence of disease.

Mid (md), a. [Compar. wanting; superl. Midmost.] [AS. midd; akin to OS. middi, D. mid (in comp.), OHG. mitti, Icel. miðr, Goth. midjis, L. medius, Gr. me`sos, Skr. madhya. √271. Cf. Amid, Middle, Midst, Mean, Mediate, Meridian, Mizzen, Moiety.]

1. Denoting the middle part; as, in mid ocean.

No more the mounting larks, while Daphne sings,
Shall list'ning in mid air suspend their wings.


2. Occupying a middle position; middle; as, the mid finger; the mid hour of night.

3. (Phon.) Made with a somewhat elevated position of some certain part of the tongue, in relation to the palate; midway between the high and the low; -- said of certain vowel sounds; as, (le), (ll), (ld). See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 10, 11.

Mid is much used as a prefix, or combining form, denoting the middle or middle part of a thing; as, mid-air, mid-channel, mid-age, midday, midland, etc. Also, specifically, in geometry, to denote a circle inscribed in a triangle (a midcircle), or relation to such a circle; as, mid-center, midradius.

Mid, n. Middle. [Obs.]

About the mid of night come to my tent.


Mid, prep. See Amid.

Mi"da (?), n. [Gr. &?; a destructive insect in pulse.] (Zoöl.) The larva of the bean fly.

Mi"das (?), n. [So called from L. Midas, a man fabled to have had ass's ears.] (Zoöl.) A genus of longeared South American monkeys, including numerous species of marmosets. See Marmoset.

Mi"das's ear" (?). [See Midas.] (Zoöl.) A pulmonate mollusk (Auricula, or Ellobium, aurismidæ); -- so called from resemblance to a human ear.

Mid"brain` (?), n. [Mid, a. + brain.] (Anat.) The middle segment of the brain; the mesencephalon. See Brain.

Mid"day` (?), n. [AS. middæg. See Mid, a., and Day.] The middle part of the day; noon.

Mid"day`, a. Of or pertaining to noon; meridional; as, the midday sun.

Mid"den (?), n. [Also midding.] [Cf. Dan. mögdynge, E. muck, and dung.]

1. A dunghill. [Prov. Eng.]

2. An accumulation of refuse about a dwelling place; especially, an accumulation of shells or of cinders, bones, and other refuse on the supposed site of the dwelling places of prehistoric tribes, -- as on the shores of the Baltic Sea and in many other places. See Kitchen middens.

Mid"den crow" (?). (Zoöl.) The common European crow. [Prov. Eng.]

Mid"dest (?), a.; superl. of Mid. [See Midst.] Situated most nearly in the middle; middlemost; midmost. [Obs.] " 'Mongst the middest crowd." Spenser.

Mid"dest, n. Midst; middle. [Obs.] Fuller.

Mid"ding (?), n. Same as Midden.

Mid"dle (-d'l), a. [OE. middel, AS. middel; akin to D. middel, OHG. muttil, G. mittel. √271. See Mid, a.]

1. Equally distant from the extreme either of a number of things or of one thing; mean; medial; as, the middle house in a row; a middle rank or station in life; flowers of middle summer; men of middle age.

2. Intermediate; intervening.

Will, seeking good, finds many middle ends.

Sir J. Davies.

Middle is sometimes used in the formation of self- explaining compounds; as, middle-sized, middle- witted.

Middle Ages, the period of time intervening between the decline of the Roman Empire and the revival of letters. Hallam regards it as beginning with the sixth and ending with the fifteenth century. -- Middle class, in England, people who have an intermediate position between the aristocracy and the artisan class. It includes professional men, bankers, merchants, and small landed proprietors

The middle-class electorate of Great Britain.

M. Arnold.

-- Middle distance. (Paint.) See Middle-ground. -- Middle English. See English, n., 2. -- Middle Kingdom, China. -- Middle oil (Chem.), that part of the distillate obtained from coal tar which passes over between 170° and 230° Centigrade; -- distinguished from the light, and the heavy or dead, oil. -- Middle passage, in the slave trade, that part of the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the West Indies. -- Middle post. (Arch.) Same as King-post. -- Middle States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware; which, at the time of the formation of the Union, occupied a middle position between the Eastern States (or New England) and the Southern States. [U.S.] -- Middle term (Logic), that term of a syllogism with which the two extremes are separately compared, and by means of which they are brought together in the conclusion. Brande. -- Middle tint (Paint.), a subdued or neutral tint. Fairholt. -- Middle voice. (Gram.) See under Voice. -- Middle watch, the period from midnight to four A. M.; also, the men on watch during that time. Ham. Nav. Encyc. -- Middle weight, a pugilist, boxer, or wrestler classed as of medium weight, i. e., over 140 and not over 160 lbs., in distinction from those classed as light weights, heavy weights, etc.

Mid"dle (?), n. [AS. middel. See Middle, a.] The point or part equally distant from the extremities or exterior limits, as of a line, a surface, or a solid; an intervening point or part in space, time, or order of series; the midst; central portion; specif., the waist. Chaucer. "The middle of the land." Judg. ix. 37.

In this, as in most questions of state, there is a middle.


Syn. -- See Midst.

Mid"dle-age` (?), [Middle + age. Cf. Mediæval.] Of or pertaining to the Middle Ages; mediæval.

Mid"dle-aged` (?), a. Being about the middle of the ordinary age of man; between 30 and 50 years old.

Mid"dle-earth` (?), n. The world, considered as lying between heaven and hell. [Obs.] Shak.

Mid"dle-ground` (?), n. (Paint.) That part of a picture between the foreground and the background.

Mid"dle*man (?), n.; pl. Middlemen (&?;).

1. An agent between two parties; a broker; a go-between; any dealer between the producer and the consumer; in Ireland, one who takes land of the proprietors in large tracts, and then rents it out in small portions to the peasantry.

2. A person of intermediate rank; a commoner.

3. (Mil.) The man who occupies a central position in a file of soldiers.

Mid"dle*most` (?), a. [Cf. Midmost.] Being in the middle, or nearest the middle; midmost.

Mid"dler (?), n. One of a middle or intermediate class in some schools and seminaries.

Mid"dling (?), a. Of middle rank, state, size, or quality; about equally distant from the extremes; medium; moderate; mediocre; ordinary. "A town of but middling size." Hallam.

Plainly furnished, as beseemed the middling circumstances of its inhabitants.


-- Mid"dling*ly, adv. -- Mid"dling*ness, n.

Mid"dlings (?), n. pl. 1. A combination of the coarser parts of ground wheat the finest bran, separated from the fine flour and coarse bran in bolting; -- formerly regarded as valuable only for feed; but now, after separation of the bran, used for making the best quality of flour. Middlings contain a large proportion of gluten.

2. In the southern and western parts of the United States, the portion of the hog between the ham and the shoulder; bacon; -- called also middles. Bartlett.

Mid"dy (?), n.; pl. Middies (&?;). A colloquial abbreviation of midshipman.

Mid"feath`er (?), n. 1. (Steam Boilers) A vertical water space in a fire box or combustion chamber.

2. (Mining) A support for the center of a tunnel.

Mid"gard` (?), n. [Icel. miðgarðr.] (Scand. Myth.) The middle space or region between heaven and hell; the abode of human beings; the earth.

Midge (?), n. [OE. migge, AS. mycge; akin to OS. muggia, D. mug, G. mücke, OHG. mucca, Icel. m&?;, Sw. mygga, mygg, Dan. myg; perh. named from its buzzing; cf. Gr. &?; to low, bellow.] (Zoöl.)

1. Any one of many small, delicate, long- legged flies of the Chironomus, and allied genera, which do not bite. Their larvæ are usually aquatic.

2. A very small fly, abundant in many parts of the United States and Canada, noted for the irritating quality of its bite.

The name is also applied to various other small flies. See Wheat midge, under Wheat.

Midg"et (?), n. [Dim. of midge.]

1. (Zoöl.) A minute bloodsucking fly. [Local, U. S.]

2. A very diminutive person.

Mid"gut` (?), n. [Mid, a. + gut.] (Anat.) The middle part of the alimentary canal from the stomach, or entrance of the bile duct, to, or including, the large intestine.

Mid"heav`en (?), n. 1. The midst or middle of heaven or the sky.

2. (Astron.) The meridian, or middle line of the heavens; the point of the ecliptic on the meridian.

Mid"land (?), a. 1. Being in the interior country; distant from the coast or seashore; as, midland towns or inhabitants. Howell.

2. Surrounded by the land; mediterranean.

And on the midland sea the French had awed.


Mid"land (?), n. The interior or central region of a country; -- usually in the plural. Drayton.

Mid"main` (?), n. The middle part of the main or sea. [Poetic] Chapman.

Mid"most` (?), a. [OE. middemiste. Cf. Foremost.] Middle; middlemost.

Ere night's midmost, stillest hour was past.


Mid"night` (?), n. [AS. midniht.] The middle of the night; twelve o'clock at night.

The iron tongue of midnight hath told twelve.


Mid"night`, a. Being in, or characteristic of, the middle of the night; as, midnight studies; midnight gloom. "Midnight shout and revelry." Milton.

||Mid*rash" (?), n.; pl. Midrashim (#), Midrashoth (#). [Heb., explanation.] A talmudic exposition of the Hebrew law, or of some part of it.

Mid"rib` (?), n. (Bot.) A continuation of the petiole, extending from the base to the apex of the lamina of a leaf.

Mid"riff (md"rf), n. [AS. midhrif; midd mid, middle + hrif bowels, womb; akin to OFries. midref midriff, rif, ref, belly, OHG. href body, and to L. corpus body. See Corpse.] (Anat.) See Diaphragm, n., 2.

Smote him into the midriff with a stone.


{ Mid" sea", or Mid"-sea" (?) }. The middle part of the sea or ocean. Milton.

The Mid-sea, the Mediterranean Sea. [Obs.]

Mid"ship`, a. Of or pertaining to, or being in, the middle of a ship.

Midship beam (Naut.), the beam or timber upon which the broadest part of a vessel is formed. -- Midship bend, the broadest frame in a vessel. Weale.

Mid"ship`man (?), n.; pl. Midshipmen (&?;).

1. (a) Formerly, a kind of naval cadet, in a ship of war, whose business was to carry orders, messages, reports, etc., between the officers of the quarter-deck and those of the forecastle, and render other services as required. (b) In the English naval service, the second rank attained by a combatant officer after a term of service as naval cadet. Having served three and a half years in this rank, and passed an examination, he is eligible to promotion to the rank of lieutenant. (c) In the United States navy, the lowest grade of officers in line of promotion, being graduates of the Naval Academy awaiting promotion to the rank of ensign.

2. (Zoöl.) An American marine fish of the genus Porichthys, allied to the toadfish.

Cadet midshipman, formerly a title distinguishing a cadet line officer from a cadet engineer at the U. S. Naval Academy. See under Cadet. -- Cadet midshipman, formerly, a naval cadet who had served his time, passed his examinations, and was awaiting promotion; -- now called, in the United States, midshipman; in England, sublieutenant.

Mid"ships`, adv. [For amidships.] (Naut.) In the middle of a ship; -- properly amidships.

Mid"ships`, n. pl. (Naut.) The timbers at the broadest part of the vessel. R. H. Dana, Jr.

Midst (?), n. [From middest, in the middest, for older in middes, where -s is adverbial (orig. forming a genitive), or still older a midde, a midden, on midden. See Mid, and cf. Amidst.]

1. The interior or central part or place; the middle; -- used chiefly in the objective case after in; as, in the midst of the forest.

And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him.

Luke iv. 35.

There is nothing . . . in the midst [of the play] which might not have been placed in the beginning.


2. Hence, figuratively, the condition of being surrounded or beset; the press; the burden; as, in the midst of official duties; in the midst of secular affairs.

The expressions in our midst, in their midst, etc., are avoided by some good writers, the forms in the midst of us, in the midst of them, etc., being preferred.

Syn. -- Midst, Middle. Midst in present usage commonly denotes a part or place surrounded on enveloped by or among other parts or objects (see Amidst); while middle is used of the center of length, or surface, or of a solid, etc. We say in the midst of a thicket; in the middle of a line, or the middle of a room; in the midst of darkness; in the middle of the n