The Project Gutenberg EBook of Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary: I, J, K & L

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary: Letters I, J, K & L


Release Date: February, 1999 [EBook #664]
Last Updated: February 7, 2020

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

Version published 1913

by the C. & G. Merriam Co.
Springfield, Mass.
Under the direction of
Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.


I (). 1. I, the ninth letter of the English alphabet, takes its form from the Phœnician, through the Latin and the Greek. The Phœnician letter was probably of Egyptian origin. Its original value was nearly the same as that of the Italian I, or long e as in mete. Etymologically I is most closely related to e, y, j, g; as in dint, dent, beverage, L. bibere; E. kin, AS. cynn; E. thin, AS. þynne; E. dominion, donjon, dungeon. In English I has two principal vowel sounds: the long sound, as in pne, ce; and the short sound, as in pn. It has also three other sounds: (a) That of e in term, as in thirst. (b) That of e in mete (in words of foreign origin), as in machine, pique, regime. (c) That of consonant y (in many words in which it precedes another vowel), as in bunion, million, filial, Christian, etc. It enters into several digraphs, as in fail, field, seize, feign. friend; and with o often forms a proper diphtong, as in oil, join, coin.

See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 98-106.

The dot which we place over the small or lower case i dates only from the 14th century. The sounds of I and J were originally represented by the same character, and even after the introduction of the form J into English dictionaries, words containing these letters were, till a comparatively recent time, classed together.

2. In our old authors, I was often used for ay (or aye), yes, which is pronounced nearly like it.

3. As a numeral, I stands for 1, II for 2, etc.

I- (?), prefix. See Y- .

I (), pron. [poss. My (m) or Mine (mn); object. Me (m). pl. nom. We (w); poss. Our (our) or Ours (ourz); object. Us (s).] [OE. i, ich, ic, AS. ic; akin to OS. & D. ik, OHG. ih, G. ich, Icel. ek, Dan. jeg, Sw. jag, Goth. ik, OSlav. az', Russ. ia, W. i, L. ego, Gr. 'egw`, 'egw`n, Skr. aham. √179. Cf. Egoism.] The nominative case of the pronoun of the first person; the word with which a speaker or writer denotes himself.

I*am`a*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, medicine + -logy.] (Med.) Materia Medica; that branch of therapeutics which treats of remedies.

I"amb (?), n. [Cf. F. iambe. See Lambus.] An iambus or iambic. [R.]

I*am"bic (?), a. [L. iambicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. iambique.] 1. (Pros.) Consisting of a short syllable followed by a long one, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented; as, an iambic foot.

2. Pertaining to, or composed of, iambics; as, an iambic verse; iambic meter. See Lambus.

I*am"bic, n. 1. (Pros.) (a) An iambic foot; an iambus. (b) A verse composed of iambic feet.

The following couplet consists of iambic verses.

Thy gen- | ius calls | thee not | to pur- | chase fame
In keen | iam- | bics, but | mild an- | agram.


2. A satirical poem (such poems having been anciently written in iambic verse); a satire; a lampoon.

I*am"bic*al (?), a. Iambic. [Obs. or R.]

I*am"bic*al*ly, adv. In a iambic manner; after the manner of iambics.

I*am"bize (?), v. t. [Gr. &?;.] To satirize in iambics; to lampoon. [R.]

I*am"bus (?), n.; pl. L. Iambi (#), E. Iambuses (#). [L. iambus, Gr. &?;; prob. akin to &?; to throw, assail (the iambus being first used in satiric poetry), and to L. jacere to throw. Cf. Jet a shooting forth.] (Pros.) A foot consisting of a short syllable followed by a long one, as in mns, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented one, as invent; an iambic. See the Couplet under Iambic, n.

||I*an"thi*na (?), n.; pl. L. Ianthinæ (#), E. Ianthinas (#). [NL., fr. L. ianthinus violet-blue, Gr. &?;; &?; violet + &?; flower.] (Zoöl.) Any gastropod of the genus Ianthina, of which various species are found living in mid ocean; -- called also purple shell, and violet snail. [Written also janthina.]

It floats at the surface by means of a raft, which it constructs by forming and uniting together air bubbles of hardened mucus. The Tyrian purple of the ancients was obtained in part from mollusks of this genus.

I*a`tra*lip"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; physician + &?; belonging to the &?; or anointer, fr. &?; to anoint: cf. F. iatraliptique.] Treating diseases by anointing and friction; as, the iatraliptic method. [Written also iatroleptic.]

{ I*at"ric (?), I*at"ric*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?; healing, fr. &?; physician, fr. &?; to heal.] Of or pertaining to medicine, or to medical men.

I*a`tro*chem"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to iatrochemistry, or to the iatrochemists.

I*a`tro*chem"ist (?), n. [Gr. &?; physician + E. chemist.] A physician who explained or treated diseases upon chemical principles; one who practiced iatrochemistry.

I*a`tro*chem"is*try (?), n. Chemistry applied to, or used in, medicine; -- used especially with reference to the doctrines in the school of physicians in Flanders, in the 17th century, who held that health depends upon the proper chemical relations of the fluids of the body, and who endeavored to explain the conditions of health or disease by chemical principles.

I*a`tro*math`e*mat"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to iatromathematicians or their doctrine.

I*a`tro*math`e*ma*ti"cian (?), n. [Gr. &?; physician + E. mathematician.] (Hist. Med.) One of a school of physicians in Italy, about the middle of the 17th century, who tried to apply the laws of mechanics and mathematics to the human body, and hence were eager student of anatomy; -- opposed to the iatrochemists.

I*be"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Iberia.

I"bex ("bks), n.; pl. E. Ibexes (-z), L. Ibices (b"*sz). [L., a kind of goat, the chamois.] (Zoöl.) One of several species of wild goats having very large, recurved horns, transversely ridged in front; -- called also steinbok.

The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) is the best known. The Spanish, or Pyrenean, ibex (C. Hispanica) has smoother and more spreading horns.

||I*bi"dem (?), adv. [L.] In the same place; -- abbreviated ibid. or ib.

I"bis (?), n. [L. ibis, Gr. &?;; of Egyptian origin.] (Zoöl.) Any bird of the genus Ibis and several allied genera, of the family Ibidæ, inhabiting both the Old World and the New. Numerous species are known. They are large, wading birds, having a long, curved beak, and feed largely on reptiles.

The sacred ibis of the ancient Egyptians (Ibis Æthiopica) has the head and neck black, without feathers. The plumage of the body and wings is white, except the tertiaries, which are lengthened and form a dark purple plume. In ancient times this bird was extensively domesticated in Egypt, but it is now seldom seen so far north. The glossy ibis (Plegadis autumnalis), which is widely distributed both in the Old World and the New, has the head and neck feathered, except between the eyes and bill; the scarlet ibis (Guara rubra) and the white ibis (G. alba) inhabit the West Indies and South America, and are rarely found in the United States. The wood ibis (Tantalus loculator) of America belongs to the Stork family (Ciconidæ). See Wood ibis.

-i*ble (?). See -able.

-ic (?). [L. -icus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. -ique.] 1. A suffix signifying, in general, relating to, or characteristic of; as, historic, hygienic, telegraphic, etc.

2. (Chem.) A suffix, denoting that the element indicated enters into certain compounds with its highest valence, or with a valence relatively higher than in compounds where the name of the element ends in -ous; as, ferric, sulphuric. It is also used in the general sense of pertaining to; as, hydric, sodic, calcic.

I*ca"ri*an (?), a. [L. Icarius, Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, the mythic son of Dædalus, who, when flying from Crete on wings cemented with wax, mounted so high that the sun melted the wax, and he fell into the sea.] Soaring too high for safety, like Icarus; adventurous in flight.

Ice (s), n. [OE. is, iis, AS. s; aksin to D. ijs, G. eis, OHG. s, Icel. ss, Sw. is, Dan. iis, and perh. to E. iron.] 1. Water or other fluid frozen or reduced to the solid state by cold; frozen water. It is a white or transparent colorless substance, crystalline, brittle, and viscoidal. Its specific gravity (0.92, that of water at 4° C. being 1.0) being less than that of water, ice floats.

Water freezes at 32° F. or 0° Cent., and ice melts at the same temperature. Ice owes its cooling properties to the large amount of heat required to melt it.

2. Concreted sugar. Johnson.

3. Water, cream, custard, etc., sweetened, flavored, and artificially frozen.

4. Any substance having the appearance of ice; as, camphor ice.

Anchor ice, ice which sometimes forms about stones and other objects at the bottom of running or other water, and is thus attached or anchored to the ground. -- Bay ice, ice formed in bays, fiords, etc., often in extensive fields which drift out to sea. -- Ground ice, anchor ice. -- Ice age (Geol.), the glacial epoch or period. See under Glacial. -- Ice anchor (Naut.), a grapnel for mooring a vessel to a field of ice. Kane. -- Ice blink [Dan. iisblink], a streak of whiteness of the horizon, caused by the reflection of light from ice not yet in sight. -- Ice boat. (a) A boat fitted with skates or runners, and propelled on ice by sails; an ice yacht. (b) A strong steamboat for breaking a channel through ice. -- Ice box or chest, a box for holding ice; a box in which things are kept cool by means of ice; a refrigerator. -- Ice brook, a brook or stream as cold as ice. [Poetic] Shak. -- Ice cream [for iced cream], cream, milk, or custard, sweetened, flavored, and frozen. -- Ice field, an extensive sheet of ice. -- Ice float, Ice floe, a sheet of floating ice similar to an ice field, but smaller. -- Ice foot, shore ice in Arctic regions; an ice belt. Kane. -- Ice house, a close-covered pit or building for storing ice. -- Ice machine (Physics), a machine for making ice artificially, as by the production of a low temperature through the sudden expansion of a gas or vapor, or the rapid evaporation of a volatile liquid. -- Ice master. See Ice pilot (below). -- Ice pack, an irregular mass of broken and drifting ice. -- Ice paper, a transparent film of gelatin for copying or reproducing; papier glacé. -- Ice petrel (Zoöl.), a shearwater (Puffinus gelidus) of the Antarctic seas, abundant among floating ice. -- Ice pick, a sharp instrument for breaking ice into small pieces. -- Ice pilot, a pilot who has charge of a vessel where the course is obstructed by ice, as in polar seas; -- called also ice master. -- Ice pitcher, a pitcher adapted for ice water. -- Ice plow, a large tool for grooving and cutting ice. -- Ice sludge, bay ice broken small by the wind or waves; sludge. -- Ice spar (Min.), a variety of feldspar, the crystals of which are very clear like ice; rhyacolite. -- Ice tongs, large iron nippers for handling ice. -- Ice water. (a) Water cooled by ice. (b) Water formed by the melting of ice. -- Ice yacht. See Ice boat (above). -- To break the ice. See under Break. -- Water ice, a confection consisting of water sweetened, flavored, and frozen.

Ice (s), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Iced (st); p. pr. & vb. n. Icing ("sng).] 1. To cover with ice; to convert into ice, or into something resembling ice.

2. To cover with icing, or frosting made of sugar and milk or white of egg; to frost, as cakes, tarts, etc.

3. To chill or cool, as with ice; to freeze.

Ice"berg` (?), n. [Prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. iisbierg, Sw. isberg, properly, a mountain of ice. See Ice, and Berg.] A large mass of ice, generally floating in the ocean.

Icebergs are large detached portions of glaciers, which in cold regions often project into the sea.

Ice"bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) An Arctic sea bird, as the Arctic fulmar.

Ice"bound` (?), a. Totally surrounded with ice, so as to be incapable of advancing; as, an icebound vessel; also, surrounded by or fringed with ice so as to hinder easy access; as, an icebound coast.

Ice"-built` (?), a. 1. Composed of ice.

2. Loaded with ice. "Ice-built mountains." Gray.

Iced (?), a. 1. Covered with ice; chilled with ice; as, iced water.

2. Covered with something resembling ice, as sugar icing; frosted; as, iced cake.

Iced cream. Same as Ice cream, under Ice.

Ice"fall` (?), n. A frozen waterfall, or mass of ice resembling a frozen waterfall. Coleridge.

Ice"land*er (?), n. A native, or one of the Scandinavian people, of Iceland.

Ice*lan"dic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Iceland; relating to, or resembling, the Icelanders.

Ice*lan"dic (?), n. The language of the Icelanders. It is one of the Scandinavian group, and is more nearly allied to the Old Norse than any other language now spoken.

Ice"land moss` (?). (Bot.) A kind of lichen (Cetraria Icelandica) found from the Arctic regions to the North Temperate zone. It furnishes a nutritious jelly and other forms of food, and is used in pulmonary complaints as a demulcent.

Ice"land spar` (?). (Min.) A transparent variety of calcite, the best of which is obtained in Iceland. It is used for the prisms of the polariscope, because of its strong double refraction. Cf. Calcite.

Ice"man (?), n.; pl. Icemen (&?;). 1. A man who is skilled in traveling upon ice, as among glaciers.

2. One who deals in ice; one who retails or delivers ice.

Ice" plant` (?). (Bot.) A plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), sprinkled with pellucid, watery vesicles, which glisten like ice. It is native along the Mediterranean, in the Canaries, and in South Africa. Its juice is said to be demulcent and diuretic; its ashes are used in Spain in making glass.

Ice-skater = one who skates on ice wearing an ice skate; esp. an athlete who performs athletic or artistic movements on a sheet of ice, wearing ice skates; including speed skater and figure skater -- >

<! p. 724 !>

Ice"quake` (s"kwk`), n. The crash or concussion attending the breaking up of masses of ice, -- often due to contraction from extreme cold.

Ich (k), pron. I. [Obs.] Chaucer.

In the Southern dialect of Early English this is the regular form. Cf. Ik.

Ich*neu"mon (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, lit., the tracker; so called because it hunts out the eggs of the crocodile, fr. &?; to track or hunt after, fr. 'i`chnos track, footstep.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any carnivorous mammal of the genus Herpestes, and family Viverridæ. Numerous species are found in Asia and Africa. The Egyptian species (H. ichneumon), which ranges to Spain and Palestine, is noted for destroying the eggs and young of the crocodile as well as various snakes and lizards, and hence was considered sacred by the ancient Egyptians. The common species of India (H. griseus), known as the mongoose, has similar habits and is often domesticated. It is noted for killing the cobra.

2. (Zoöl.) Any hymenopterous insect of the family Ichneumonidæ, of which several thousand species are known, belonging to numerous genera.

The female deposits her eggs upon, or in, the bodies of other insects, such as caterpillars, plant lice, etc. The larva lives upon the internal tissues of the insect in which it is parasitic, and finally kills it. Hence, many of the species are beneficial to agriculture by destroying noxious insects.

Ichneumon fly. See Ichneumon, 2.

Ich`neu*mon"i*dan (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Ichneumonidæ, or ichneumon flies. -- n. One of the Ichneumonidæ.

||Ich`neu*mon"i*des (?), n. pl. [NL. See Ichneumon.] (Zoöl.) The ichneumon flies.

Ich"nite (?), n. [Gr. 'i`chnos track, footstep.] A fossil footprint; as, the ichnites in the Triassic sandstone. Page.

{ Ich`no*graph"ic (?), Ich`no*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. ichonographique.] Of or pertaining to ichonography; describing a ground plot.

Ich*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; 'i`chnos track, footstep + &?; to describe: cf. F. ichonographie.] (Drawing) A horizontal section of a building or other object, showing its true dimensions according to a geometric scale; a ground plan; a map; also, the art of making such plans.

Ich"no*lite (?), n. [Gr. 'i`chnos track, footstep + -lite.] A fossil footprint; an ichnite.

Ich`no*li*thol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. 'i`chnos footstep + -lith + -logy.] Same as Ichnology. Hitchcock.

Ich`no*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to ichnology.

Ich*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. 'i`chnos a footstep + -logy.] (Geol.) The branch of science which treats of fossil footprints.

Ich*nos"co*py (?), n. [Gr. 'i`chnos footstep + -scopy.] The search for the traces of anything. [R.]

I"chor (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;: cf. F. ichor.] 1. (Class. Myth.) An ethereal fluid that supplied the place of blood in the veins of the gods.

2. A thin, acrid, watery discharge from an ulcer, wound, etc.

||I`chor*hæ"mi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; ichor + &?; blood.] (Med.) Infection of the blood with ichorous or putrid substances.

I"chor*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. ichoreux.] Of or like ichor; thin; watery; serous; sanious.

Ich"thi*din (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A substance from the egg yolk of osseous fishes.

Ich"thin (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s fish.] (Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous substance resembling vitellin, present in the egg yolk of cartilaginous fishes.

Ich"thu*lin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A substance from the yolk of salmon's eggs.

Ich"thus (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s.] In early Christian and eccesiastical art, an emblematic fish, or the Greek word for fish, which combined the initials of the Greek words Ihsoy^s, Christo`s, Qeoy^ Gio`s Swth`r, Jesus, Christ, Son of God, Savior.

Ich"thy*ic (?), a. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish.] (Zoöl.) Like, or pertaining to, fishes.

{ Ich"thy*o*col (?), Ich`thy*o*col"la (?), } n. [L. ichthyocolla, Gr. &?;; 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; glue: cf. F. ichthyocolle.] Fish glue; isinglass; a glue prepared from the sounds of certain fishes.

Ich`thy*o*cop"ro*lite (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + E. coprolite.] (Geol.) Fossil dung of fishes.

Ich`thy*o*dor"u*lite (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; a spear + - lite.] (Zoöl.) One of the spiny plates found on the back and tail of certain skates.

Ich`thy*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os + graphy: cf. F. ichthyographie.] A treatise on fishes.

{ Ich"thy*oid (?), Ich`thy*oid"al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; form.] (Zoöl.) Somewhat like a fish; having some of the characteristics of fishes; -- said of some amphibians.

Ich`thy*ol"a*try (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; to worship.] Worship of fishes, or of fish-shaped idols. Layard.

Ich"thy*o*lite (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + -lite.] (Paleon.) A fossil fish, or fragment of a fish.

{ Ich`thy*o*log"ic (?), Ich`thy*o*log"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. ichthyologique.] Of or pertaining to ichthyology.

Ich`thy*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. ichthyologiste.] One versed in, or who studies, ichthyology.

Ich`thy*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + -logy: cf. F. ichthyologie.] The natural history of fishes; that branch of zoölogy which relates to fishes, including their structure, classification, and habits.

Ich"thy*o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + -mancy: cf. F. ichthyomancie.] Divination by the heads or the entrails of fishes.

||Ich`thy*o*mor"pha (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; fish-shaped; 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; form.] (Zoöl.) The Urodela.

{ Ich`thy*o*mor"phic (?), Ich`thy*o*mor"phous (?), } a. [See Ichthyomorpha.] Fish- shaped; as, the ichthyomorphic idols of ancient Assyria.

Ich`thy*oph"a*gist (?), n. [See Ichthyophagous.] One who eats, or subsists on, fish.

Ich`thy*oph"a*gous (?), a. [L. ichthyophagus, Gr. &?;; 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; to eat.] Eating, or subsisting on, fish.

Ich`thy*oph"a*gy (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqyofagi`a: cf. F. ichthyophagie.] The practice of eating, or living upon, fish.

Ich`thy*oph*thal"mite (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; eye.] See Apophyllite. [R.]

||Ich`thy*oph*thi"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; a louse.] (Zoöl.) A division of copepod crustaceans, including numerous species parasitic on fishes.

||Ich`thy*op"si*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; appearance.] (Zoöl.) A grand division of the Vertebrata, including the Amphibia and Fishes.

||Ich`thy*op`te*ryg"i*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Ichthyopterygium.] (Paleon.) See Ichthyosauria.

||Ich`thy*op`te*ryg"i*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; a fin.] (Anat.) The typical limb, or lateral fin, of fishes.

||Ich`thy*or"nis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; bird.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of toothed birds found in the American Cretaceous formation. It is remarkable for having biconcave vertebræ, and sharp, conical teeth set in sockets. Its wings were well developed. It is the type of the order Odontotormæ.

Ich"thy*o*saur (?), n. [Cf. F. ichthyosaure.] (Paleon.) One of the Ichthyosaura.

||Ich`thy*o*sau"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Ichthyosaurus.] (Paleon.) An extinct order of marine reptiles, including Ichthyosaurus and allied forms; -- called also Ichthyopterygia. They have not been found later than the Cretaceous period.

Ich`thy*o*sau"ri*an (?), a. (Paleon.) Of or pertaining to the Ichthyosauria. -- n. One of the Ichthyosauria.

||Ich`thy*o*sau"rus (?), n.; pl. Ichthyosauri (#). [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + say^ros a lizard.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of marine reptiles; - - so named from their short, biconcave vertebræ, resembling those of fishes. Several species, varying in length from ten to thirty feet, are known from the Liassic, Oölitic, and Cretaceous formations.

||Ich`thy*o"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s fish.] (Med.) A disease in which the skin is thick, rough, and scaly; -- called also fishskin. -- Ich`thy*ot"ic (#), a.

Ich`thy*ot"o*mist (?), n. One skilled in ichthyotomy.

Ich`thy*ot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. 'ichqy`s, -y`os, a fish + &?; to cut.] The anatomy or dissection of fishes. [R.]

||Ich"thys (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ichqy`s a fish.] Same as Ichthus.

I"ci*cle (?), n. [OE. isikel, AS. sgicel; s ice + gicel icicle; akin to Icel. jökull; cf. Gael. eigh ice, Ir. aigh.] A pendent, and usually conical, mass of ice, formed by freezing of dripping water; as, the icicles on the eaves of a house.

I"ci*cled (?), a. Having icicles attached.

I"ci*ly (?), adv. In an icy manner; coldly.

Faultily faultless, icily regular, splendidly null,
Dead perfection, no more.


I"ci*ness (?), n. The state or quality of being icy or very cold; frigidity.

I"cing (?), n. A coating or covering resembling ice, as of sugar and milk or white of egg; frosting.

Ic"kle (?), n. [OE. ikil. See Icicle.] An icicle. [Prov. Eng.]

I"con ("kn), n. [L., fr. Gr. e'ikw`n.] An image or representation; a portrait or pretended portrait.

Netherlands whose names and icons are published.


I*con"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or consisting of, images, pictures, or representations of any kind.

I"con*ism (?), n. [L. iconismus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to mold, delineate, fr. e'ikw`n an image: cf. F. iconisme.] The formation of a figure, representation, or semblance; a delineation or description.

Some kind of apish imitations, counterfeit iconisms.


I"con*ize (?), v. t. [Gr. e'ikoni`zein.] To form an image or likeness of. [R.] Cudworth.

I*con"o*clasm (?), n. [Cf. F. iconoclasme. See Iconoclast.] The doctrine or practice of the iconoclasts; image breaking.

I*con"o*clast (?), n. [Gr. e'ikw`n image + &?; to break: cf. F. iconoclaste.] 1. A breaker or destroyer of images or idols; a determined enemy of idol worship.

2. One who exposes or destroys impositions or shams; one who attacks cherished beliefs; a radical.

I*con`o*clas"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the iconoclasts, or to image breaking. Milman.

{I*con"o*dule (?), I*con"o*du`list (?), } n. [Gr. e'ikw`n an image + &?; a slave.] (Eccl. Hist.) One who serves images; -- opposed to an iconoclast. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

I`co*nog"ra*pher (?), n. A maker of images. Fairholt.

I*con`o*graph"ic (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to iconography.

2. Representing by means of pictures or diagrams; as, an icongraphic encyclopædia.

I`co*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; a sketch or description; e'ikw`n an image + &?; to describe: cf. F. iconographie.] 1. The art or representation by pictures or images; the description or study of portraiture or representation, as of persons; as, the iconography of the ancients.

2. The study of representative art in general.

Christian iconography, the study of the representations in art of the Deity, the persons of the Trinity, angels, saints, virtues, vices, etc.

I`co*nol"a*ter (?), n. [Gr. e'ikw`n an image + &?; to worship: cf. F. iconolâtre.] One who worships images.

I`co*nol"a*try (?), n. [See Iconolater.] The worship of images as symbols; -- distinguished from idolatry, the worship of images themselves.

I`co*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; e'ikw`n an image + &?; discourse: cf. F. iconologie.] The discussion or description of portraiture or of representative images. Cf. Iconography.

I`co*nom"a*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?; a war against images; e'ikw`n an image + &?; fight.] Hostility to images as objects of worship. [R.]

I`co*nom"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. &?;; e'ikw`n image + &?; fight.] Opposed to pictures or images as objects of worship. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

I`co*noph"i*list (?), n. [Gr. e'ikw`n an image + &?; to love.] A student, or lover of the study, of iconography.

I`co*sa*he"dral (?), a. [See Icosahedron.] (Geom.) Having twenty equal sides or faces.

I`co*sa*he"dron (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; twenty + &?; seat, base, fr. &?; to sit.] (Geom.) A solid bounded by twenty sides or faces.

Regular icosahedron, one of the five regular polyhedrons, bounded by twenty equilateral triangules. Five triangles meet to form each solid angle of the polyhedron.

||I`co*san"dri*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; twenty +&?;, &?;, man, male: cf. F. icosandrie.] (Bot.) A Linnæan class of plants, having twenty or more stamens inserted in the calyx.

{ I`co*san"dri*an (?), I`co*san"drous (?), } a. (Bot.) Pertaining to the class Icosandria; having twenty or more stamens inserted in the calyx.

I`co*si*tet`ra*he"dron (?), n. [Gr. &?; twenty + &?;, combining form of &?; four + &?; seat, base.] (Crystallog.) A twenty-four-sided solid; a tetragonal trisoctahedron or trapezohedron.

-ics (?). A suffix used in forming the names of certain sciences, systems, etc., as acoustics, mathematics, dynamics, statistics, politics, athletics.

The names sciences ending in ics, as mathematics, mechanics, metaphysics, optics, etc., are, with respect to their form, nouns in the plural number. The plural form was probably introduced to mark the complex nature of such sciences; and it may have been in imitation of the use of the Greek plurals &?;, &?;, &?;, &?;, etc., to designate parts of Aristotle's writings. Previously to the present century, nouns ending in ics were construed with a verb or a pronoun in the plural; but it is now generally considered preferable to treat them as singular. In Greman we have die Mathematik, die Mechanik, etc., and in French la metaphysique, la optique, etc., corresponding to our mathematics, mechanics, metaphysics, optics, etc.

Mathematics have for their object the consideration of whatever is capable of being numbered or measured.

John Davidson.

The citations subjoined will serve as examples of the best present usage.

Ethics is the sciences of the laws which govern our actions as moral agents.

Sir W. Hamilton.

All parts of knowledge have their origin in metaphysics, and finally, perhaps, revolve into it.

De Quincey.

Mechanics, like pure mathematics, may be geometrical, or may be analytical; that is, it may treat space either by a direct consideration of its properties, or by a symbolical representation.


<! p. 725 !>

Ic*ter"ic (?), n. A remedy for the jaundice.

{ Ic*ter"ic (?), Ic*ter"ic*al (?), } a. [L. ictericus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; jaundice: cf. F. ictérique.] 1. Pertaining to, or affected with, jaundice.

2. Good against the jaundice. Johnson.

{ Ic`ter*i"tious (?), Ic*ter"i*tous (?), } a. Yellow; of the color of the skin when it is affected by the jaundice.

Ic"ter*oid (?), a. [Gr. &?; jaundice + -oid.] Of a tint resembling that produced by jaundice; yellow; as, an icteroid tint or complexion.

||Ic"te*rus (?), n. [NL. See Icteric, a.] (Med.) The jaundice.

Ic"tic (?), a. [L. ictus blow.] Pertaining to, or caused by, a blow; sudden; abrupt. [R.] H. Bushnell.

||Ic"tus (?), n. [L., fr. icere, ictum, to strike.] 1. (Pros.) The stress of voice laid upon accented syllable of a word. Cf. Arsis.

2. (Med.) A stroke or blow, as in a sunstroke, the sting of an insect, pulsation of an artery, etc.

I"cy (?), a. [Compar. Icier (?); superl. Iciest.] [AS. sig. See Ice.] 1. Pertaining to, resembling, or abounding in, ice; cold; frosty. "Icy chains." Shak. "Icy region." Boyle. "Icy seas." Pope.

2. Characterized by coldness, as of manner, influence, etc.; chilling; frigid; cold.

Icy was the deportment with which Philip received these demonstrations of affection.


I"cy-pearl`ed (?), a. Spangled with ice.

Mounting up in icy-pearled car.


I'd (?). A contraction from I would or I had.

Id (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small fresh-water cyprinoid fish (Leuciscus idus or Idus idus) of Europe. A domesticated variety, colored like the goldfish, is called orfe in Germany.

I*da"li*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Idalium, a mountain city in Cyprus, or to Venus, to whom it was sacred. "Idalian Aphrodité." Tennyson.

Ide (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Id.

-ide (?). (Chem.) A suffix used to denote: (a) The nonmetallic, or negative, element or radical in a binary compound; as, oxide, sulphide, chloride. (b) A compound which is an anhydride; as, glycolide, phthalide. (c) Any one of a series of derivatives; as, indogenide, glucoside, etc.

I*de"a (?), n.; pl. Ideas (#). [L. idea, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to see; akin to E. wit: cf. F. idée. See Wit.] 1. The transcript, image, or picture of a visible object, that is formed by the mind; also, a similar image of any object whatever, whether sensible or spiritual.

Her sweet idea wandered through his thoughts.


Being the right idea of your father
Both in your form and nobleness of mind.


This representation or likeness of the object being transmitted from thence [the senses] to the imagination, and lodged there for the view and observation of the pure intellect, is aptly and properly called its idea.

P. Browne.

2. A general notion, or a conception formed by generalization.

Alice had not the slightest idea what latitude was.

L. Caroll.

3. Hence: Any object apprehended, conceived, or thought of, by the mind; a notion, conception, or thought; the real object that is conceived or thought of.

Whatsoever the mind perceives in itself, or as the immediate object of perception, thought, or undersanding, that I call idea.


4. A belief, option, or doctrine; a characteristic or controlling principle; as, an essential idea; the idea of development.

That fellow seems to me to possess but one idea, and that is a wrong one.


What is now "idea" for us? How infinite the fall of this word, since the time where Milton sang of the Creator contemplating his newly-created world, -
"how it showed . . .
Answering his great idea," -
to its present use, when this person "has an idea that the train has started," and the other "had no idea that the dinner would be so bad!"


5. A plan or purpose of action; intention; design.

I shortly afterwards set off for that capital, with an idea of undertaking while there the translation of the work.

W. Irving.

6. A rational conception; the complete conception of an object when thought of in all its essential elements or constituents; the necessary metaphysical or constituent attributes and relations, when conceived in the abstract.

7. A fiction object or picture created by the imagination; the same when proposed as a pattern to be copied, or a standard to be reached; one of the archetypes or patterns of created things, conceived by the Platonists to have excited objectively from eternity in the mind of the Deity.

Thence to behold this new-created world,
The addition of his empire, how it showed
In prospect from his throne, how good, how fair,
Answering his great idea.


"In England, Locke may be said to have been the first who naturalized the term in its Cartesian universality. When, in common language, employed by Milton and Dryden, after Descartes, as before him by Sidney, Spenser, Shakespeare, Hooker, etc., the meaning is Platonic." Sir W. Hamilton.

Abstract idea, Association of ideas, etc. See under Abstract, Association, etc.

Syn. -- Notion; conception; thought; sentiment; fancy; image; perception; impression; opinion; belief; observation; judgment; consideration; view; design; intention; purpose; plan; model; pattern. There is scarcely any other word which is subjected to such abusive treatment as is the word idea, in the very general and indiscriminative way in which it is employed, as it is used variously to signify almost any act, state, or content of thought.

I*de"al (?), a. [L. idealis: cf. F. idéal.] 1. Existing in idea or thought; conceptional; intellectual; mental; as, ideal knowledge.

2. Reaching an imaginary standard of excellence; fit for a model; faultless; as, ideal beauty. Byron.

There will always be a wide interval between practical and ideal excellence.


3. Existing in fancy or imagination only; visionary; unreal. "Planning ideal common wealth." Southey.

4. Teaching the doctrine of idealism; as, the ideal theory or philosophy.

5. (Math.) Imaginary.

Syn. -- Intellectual; mental; visionary; fanciful; imaginary; unreal; impracticable; utopian.

I*de"al (?), n. A mental conception regarded as a standard of perfection; a model of excellence, beauty, etc.

The ideal is to be attained by selecting and assembling in one whole the beauties and perfections which are usually seen in different individuals, excluding everything defective or unseemly, so as to form a type or model of the species. Thus, the Apollo Belvedere is the ideal of the beauty and proportion of the human frame.


Beau ideal. See Beau ideal.

I*de"a*less (?), a. Destitute of an idea.

I*de"al*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. idéalisme.] 1. The quality or state of being ideal.

2. Conception of the ideal; imagery.

3. (Philos.) The system or theory that denies the existence of material bodies, and teaches that we have no rational grounds to believe in the reality of anything but ideas and their relations.

I*de"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. idéaliste.] 1. One who idealizes; one who forms picturesque fancies; one given to romantic expectations.

2. One who holds the doctrine of idealism.

I*de`al*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to idealists or their theories.

I`de*al"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Idealities (&?;). 1. The quality or state of being ideal.

2. The capacity to form ideals of beauty or perfection.

3. (Phren.) The conceptive faculty.

I*de`al*i*za"tion (?), n. 1. The act or process of idealizing.

2. (Fine Arts) The representation of natural objects, scenes, etc., in such a way as to show their most important characteristics; the study of the ideal.

I*de"al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Idealized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Idealizing (?).] 1. To make ideal; to give an ideal form or value to; to attribute ideal characteristics and excellences to; as, to idealize real life.

2. (Fine Arts) To treat in an ideal manner. See Idealization, 2.

I*de"al*ize, v. i. [Cf. F. idéaliser.] To form ideals.

I*de"al*i`zer (?), n. An idealist.

I*de"al*ly, adv. In an ideal manner; by means of ideals; mentally.

I*de`a*log"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to an idealogue, or to idealization.

I*de"a*logue (?), n. [Idea + -logue, as in theologue: cf. F. idéologue.] One given to fanciful ideas or theories; a theorist; a spectator. [R.] Mrs. Browning.

{ I*de"at (?), I*de"ate (?), } n. [LL. ideatum. See Idea.] (Metaph.) The actual existence supposed to correspond with an idea; the correlate in real existence to the idea as a thought or existence.

I*de"ate (?), v. t. 1. To form in idea; to fancy. [R.]

The ideated man . . . as he stood in the intellect of God.

Sir T. Browne.

2. To apprehend in thought so as to fix and hold in the mind; to memorize. [R.]

I`de*a"tion (?), n. The faculty or capacity of the mind for forming ideas; the exercise of this capacity; the act of the mind by which objects of sense are apprehended and retained as objects of thought.

The whole mass of residua which have been accumulated . . . all enter now into the process of ideation.

J. D. Morell.

I`de*a"tion*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, ideation.

Certain sensational or ideational stimuli.

Blackw. Mag.

I"dem (?), pron. or adj. [L.] The same; the same as above; -- often abbreviated id.

I*den"tic (?), a. Identical. [Obs.] Hudibras.

I*den"tic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. identique. See Identity.] 1. The same; the selfsame; the very same; not different; as, the identical person or thing.

I can not remember a thing that happened a year ago, without a conviction . . . that I, the same identical person who now remember that event, did then exist.


2. Uttering sameness or the same truth; expressing in the predicate what is given, or obviously implied, in the subject; tautological.

When you say body is solid, I say that you make an identical proposition, because it is impossible to have the idea of body without that of solidity.


Identical equation (Alg.), an equation which is true for all values of the algebraic symbols which enter into it.

I*den"tic*al*ly, adv. In an identical manner; with respect to identity. "Identically the same." Bp. Warburton. "Identically different." Ross.

I*den"tic*al*ness, n. The quality or state of being identical; sameness.

I*den"ti*fi`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being identified.

I*den`ti*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. identification.] The act of identifying, or proving to be the same; also, the state of being identified.

I*den"ti*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Identified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Identifying (?).] [Cf. F. identifier. See Identity, and -fy.] 1. To make to be the same; to unite or combine in such a manner as to make one; to treat as being one or having the same purpose or effect; to consider as the same in any relation.

Every precaution is taken to identify the interests of the people and of the rulers.

D. Ramsay.

Let us identify, let us incorporate ourselves with the people.


2. To establish the identity of; to prove to be the same with something described, claimed, or asserted; as, to identify stolen property.

I*den"ti*fy (?), v. i. To become the same; to coalesce in interest, purpose, use, effect, etc. [Obs. or R.]

An enlightened self-interest, which, when well understood, they tell us will identify with an interest more enlarged and public.


I*den"tism (?), n. [See Identity.] (Metaph.) The doctrine taught by Schelling, that matter and mind, and subject and object, are identical in the Absolute; -- called also the system or doctrine of identity.

I*den"ti*ty (?), n.; pl. Identities (#). [F. identité, LL. identitas, fr. L. idem the same, from the root of is he, that; cf. Skr. idam this. Cf. Item.] 1. The state or quality of being identical, or the same; sameness.

Identity is a relation between our cognitions of a thing, not between things themselves.

Sir W. Hamilton.

2. The condition of being the same with something described or asserted, or of possessing a character claimed; as, to establish the identity of stolen goods.

3. (Math.) An identical equation.

I"de*o- (?). A combining form from the Gr. &?;, an idea.

I`de*o*gen"ic*al (?), a. Of or relating to ideology.

I`de*og"e*ny (?), n. [Ideo- + -geny, from the same root as Gr. &?;, birth: cf. F. idéogénie.] The science which treats of the origin of ideas.

I*de"o*gram (?), n. [Ideo- + -gram; cf. F. idéograme.] 1. An original, pictorial element of writing; a kind of hieroglyph expressing no sound, but only an idea.

Ideograms may be defined to be pictures intended to represent either things or thoughts.

I. Taylor (The Alphabet).

You might even have a history without language written or spoken, by means of ideograms and gesture.

J. Peile.

2. A symbol used for convenience, or for abbreviation; as, 1, 2, 3, +, -, &?;, $, &?;, etc.

3. A phonetic symbol; a letter.

I*de"o*graph (?), n. Same as Ideogram.

{ I`de*o*graph"ic (?), I`de*o*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. idéographique.] Of or pertaining to an ideogram; representing ideas by symbols, independently of sounds; as, 9 represents not the word "nine," but the idea of the number itself. -- I`de*o*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.

I`de*o*graph"ics (?), n. The system of writing in ideographic characters; also, anything so written.

I`de*og"ra*phy (?), n. The representation of ideas independently of sounds, or in an ideographic manner, as sometimes is done in shorthand writing, etc.

I`de*o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. idéologique.] Of or pertaining to ideology.

I`de*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of ideas; one who theorizes or idealizes; one versed in the science of ideas, or who advocates the doctrines of ideology.

I`de*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Ideo- + -logy: cf. F. idéologie.] 1. The science of ideas. Stewart.

2. (Metaph.) A theory of the origin of ideas which derives them exclusively from sensation.

By a double blunder in philosophy and Greek, idéologie . . . has in France become the name peculiarly distinctive of that philosophy of mind which exclusively derives our knowledge from sensation. Sir W. Hamilton.

I`de*o-mo"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) An ideo-motor movement.

I`de*o-mo"tor (?), a. [Ideo- + motor.] (Physiol.) Applied to those actions, or muscular movements, which are automatic expressions of dominant ideas, rather than the result of distinct volitional efforts, as the act of expressing the thoughts in speech, or in writing, while the mind is occupied in the composition of the sentence. Carpenter.

Ides (dz), n. pl. [L. idus: cf. F. ides.] (Anc. Rom. Calendar) The fifteenth day of March, May, July, and October, and the thirteenth day of the other months.

The ides of March remember.


Eight days in each month often pass by this name, but only one strictly receives it, the others being called respectively the day before the ides, and so on, backward, to the eighth from the ides.

Id"i*o- (d"*-). A combining form from the Greek 'i`dios, meaning private, personal, peculiar, distinct.

Id"i*o*blast (d"**blst), n. [Ideo- + -blast.] (Bot.) An individual cell, differing greatly from its neighbours in regard to size, structure, or contents.

||Id`i*o*cra"sis (?), n. [NL.] Idiocracy.

Id`i*oc"ra*sy (?), n.; pl. Idiocrasies (#). [Idio- + Gr. kra^sis a mixture, fr. &?; to mix: cf. F. idiocrasie.] Peculiarity of constitution; that temperament, or state of constitution, which is peculiar to a person; idiosyncrasy.

{ Id`i*o*crat"ic (?), Id`i*o*crat"ic*al (?), } a. Peculiar in constitution or temperament; idiosyncratic.

Id"i*o*cy (d"**s), n. [From idiot; cf. Gr. &?; uncouthness, want of education, fr. &?;. See Idiot, and cf. Idiotcy.] The condition or quality of being an idiot; absence, or marked deficiency, of sense and intelligence.

I will undertake to convict a man of idiocy, if he can not see the proof that three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles.

F. W. Robertson.

Id`i*o*cy*cloph"a*nous (?), a. [Idio- + Gr. &?; circle + &?; to appear.] (Crystallog.) Same as Idiophanous.

Id`i*o*e*lec"tric (?), a. [Idio- + electric: cf. F. idioélectrique.] (Physics) Electric by virtue of its own peculiar properties; capable of becoming electrified by friction; -- opposed to anelectric. -- n. An idioelectric substance.

Id"i*o*graph (d"**grf), n. [Gr. &?; autographic; 'i`dios one's own + gra`fein to write.] A mark or signature peculiar to an individual; a trade-mark.

<! p. 726 !>

{ Id`i*o*graph"ic (d`**grf"k), Id`i*o*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to an idiograph.

Id`i*ol"a*try (?), n. [Idio- + Gr. &?; to worship.] Self-worship; excessive self- esteem.

Id"i*om (d"*m), n. [F. idiome, L. idioma, fr. Gr. 'idi`wma, fr. 'idioy^n to make a person's own, to make proper or peculiar; fr. 'i`dios one's own, proper, peculiar; prob. akin to the reflexive pronoun o"y^, o'i^, 'e`, and to "eo`s, 'o`s, one's own, L. suus, and to E. so.] 1. The syntactical or structural form peculiar to any language; the genius or cast of a language.

Idiom may be employed loosely and figuratively as a synonym of language or dialect, but in its proper sense it signifies the totality of the general rules of construction which characterize the syntax of a particular language and distinguish it from other tongues.

G. P. Marsh.

By idiom is meant the use of words which is peculiar to a particular language.

J. H. Newman.

He followed their language [the Latin], but did not comply with the idiom of ours.


2. An expression conforming or appropriate to the peculiar structural form of a language; in extend use, an expression sanctioned by usage, having a sense peculiar to itself and not agreeing with the logical sense of its structural form; also, the phrase forms peculiar to a particular author.

Some that with care true eloquence shall teach,
And to just idioms fix our doubtful speech.


Sometimes we identify the words with the object -- though by courtesy of idiom rather than in strict propriety of language.


Every good writer has much idiom.


It is not by means of rules that such idioms as the following are made current: "I can make nothing of it." "He treats his subject home." Dryden. "It is that within us that makes for righteousness." M. Arnold.

Gostwick (Eng. Gram.)

3. Dialect; a variant form of a language.

Syn. -- Dialect. -- Idiom, Dialect. The idioms of a language belong to its very structure; its dialects are varieties of expression ingrafted upon it in different localities or by different professions. Each county of England has some peculiarities of dialect, and so have most of the professions, while the great idioms of the language are everywhere the same. See Language.

{ Id`i*o*mat"ic (?), Id`i*o*mat"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. 'idiwmatiko`s.] Of or pertaining to, or conforming to, the mode of expression peculiar to a language; as, an idiomatic meaning; an idiomatic phrase. -- Id`i*o*mat"ic*al*ly, adv.

Id`i*o*morph"ic (?), a. Idiomorphous.

Id`i*o*morph"ous (?), a. [Gr. 'idio`morfos of peculiar form; 'i`dios peculiar + &?; form.] 1. Having a form of its own.

2. (Crystallog.) Apperaing in distinct crystals; -- said of the mineral constituents of a rock.

Id`i*o*mus"cu*lar (?), a. [Idio- + muscular.] (Physiol.) Applied to a semipermanent contraction of a muscle, produced by a mechanical irritant.

Id`i*o*pa*thet"ic (?), a. Idiopathic. [R.]

{ Id`i*o*path"ic (?), Id`i*o*path"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. idiopathique.] (Med.) Pertaining to idiopathy; characterizing a disease arising primarily, and not in consequence of some other disease or injury; -- opposed to symptomatic, sympathetic, and traumatic. -- Id`i*o*path"ic*al*ly, adv.

Id`i*op"a*thy (?), n.; pl. Idiopathies (#). [Gr. &?;; 'i`dios proper, peculiar + &?;, &?;, to suffer: cf. F. idiopathie.] 1. A peculiar, or individual, characteristic or affection.

All men are so full of their own fancies and idiopathies, that they scarce have the civility to interchange any words with a stranger.

Dr. H. More.

2. (Med.) A morbid state or condition not preceded or occasioned by any other disease; a primary disease.

Id`i*oph"a*nous (?), a. [Idio- + &?; to appear.] (Crystallog.) Exhibiting interference figures without the aid of a polariscope, as certain crystals.

Id"i*o*plasm (?), n. (Biol.) Same as Idioplasma.

||Id`i*o*plas"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'i`dios proper, peculiar + &?; a form, mold.] (Biol.) That portion of the cell protoplasm which is the seat of all active changes, and which carries on the function of hereditary transmission; -- distinguished from the other portion, which is termed nutritive plasma. See Hygroplasm.

Id`i*o*re*pul"sive (?), a. [Idio- + repulsive.] Repulsive by itself; as, the idiorepulsive power of heat.

Id`i*o*syn"cra*sy (?), n.; pl. Idiosyncrasies (#). [Gr. &?;; 'i`dios proper, peculiar + &?; a mixing together, fr. &?; to mix together; &?; with + &?; to mix: cf. F. idiosyncrasie. See Idiom, and Crasis.] A peculiarity of physical or mental constitution or temperament; a characteristic belonging to, and distinguishing, an individual; characteristic susceptibility; idiocrasy; eccentricity.

The individual mind . . . takes its tone from the idiosyncrasies of the body.

I. Taylor.

{ Id`i*o*syn*crat"ic (?), Id`i*o*syn*crat"ic*al (?), } a. Of peculiar temper or disposition; belonging to one's peculiar and individual character.

Id"i*ot (d"*t), n. [F. idiot, L. idiota an uneducated, ignorant, ill-informed person, Gr. 'idiw`ths, also and orig., a private person, not holding public office, fr. 'i`dios proper, peculiar. See Idiom.] 1. A man in private station, as distinguished from one holding a public office. [Obs.]

St. Austin affirmed that the plain places of Scripture are sufficient to all laics, and all idiots or private persons.

Jer. Taylor.

2. An unlearned, ignorant, or simple person, as distinguished from the educated; an ignoramus. [Obs.]

Christ was received of idiots, of the vulgar people, and of the simpler sort, while he was rejected, despised, and persecuted even to death by the high priests, lawyers, scribes, doctors, and rabbis.

C. Blount.

3. A human being destitute of the ordinary intellectual powers, whether congenital, developmental, or accidental; commonly, a person without understanding from birth; a natural fool; a natural; an innocent.

Life . . . is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.


4. A fool; a simpleton; -- a term of reproach.

Weenest thou make an idiot of our dame?


Id"i*ot*cy (?), n. [Cf. Idiocy.] Idiocy. [R.]

Id"i*ot*ed (?), a. Rendered idiotic; befooled. [R.] Tennyson.

Id`i*o*ther"mic (?), a. [Idio- + thermic.] Self-heating; warmed, as the body of animal, by process going on within itself.

{ Id`i*ot"ic (?), Id`i*ot"ic*al (?), } a. [L. idioticus ignorant, Gr. &?;: cf. F. idiotique. See Idiot.] 1. Common; simple. [Obs.] Blackwall.

2. Pertaining to, or like, an idiot; characterized by idiocy; foolish; fatuous; as, an idiotic person, speech, laugh, or action.

Id`i*ot"ic*al*ly, adv. In an idiotic manner.

Id`i*ot"i*con (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; belonging to a private man, private. See Idiot.] A dictionary of a peculiar dialect, or of the words and phrases peculiar to one part of a country; a glossary.

Id"i*ot*ish (?), a. Like an idiot; foolish.

Id"i*ot*ism (?), n. [F. idiotisme, L. idiotismus the way of fashion of a private person, the common or vulgar manner of speaking, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to put into or use common language, fr. &?;. See Idiot.] 1. An idiom; a form, mode of expression, or signification, peculiar to a language.

Scholars sometimes give terminations and idiotisms, suitable to their native language, unto words newly invented.

M. Hale.

2. Lack of knowledge or mental capacity; idiocy; foolishness.

Worse than mere ignorance or idiotism.


The running that adventure is the greatist idiotism.


Id"i*ot*ize (?), v. i. To become stupid. [R.]

Id"i*ot*ry (?), n. Idiocy. [R.] Bp. Warburton.

I"dle (?), a. [Compar. Idler (?); superl. Idlest.] [OE. idel, AS. del vain, empty, useless; akin to OS. dal, D. ijdel, OHG. tal vain, empty, mere, G. eitel, Dan. & Sw. idel mere, pure, and prob. to Gr. &?; clear, pure, &?; to burn. Cf. Ether.] 1. Of no account; useless; vain; trifling; unprofitable; thoughtless; silly; barren. "Deserts idle." Shak.

Every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.

Matt. xii. 36.

Down their idle weapons dropped.


This idle story became important.


2. Not called into active service; not turned to appropriate use; unemployed; as, idle hours.

The idle spear and shield were high uphing.


3. Not employed; unoccupied with business; inactive; doing nothing; as, idle workmen.

Why stand ye here all the day idle?

Matt. xx. 6.

4. Given rest and ease; averse to labor or employment; lazy; slothful; as, an idle fellow.

5. Light-headed; foolish. [Obs.] Ford.

Idle pulley (Mach.), a pulley that rests upon a belt to tighten it; a pulley that only guides a belt and is not used to transmit power. -- Idle wheel (Mach.), a gear wheel placed between two others, to transfer motion from one to the other without changing the direction of revolution. -- In idle, in vain. [Obs.] "God saith, thou shalt not take the name of thy Lord God in idle." Chaucer.

Syn. -- Unoccupied; unemployed; vacant; inactive; indolent; sluggish; slothful; useless; ineffectual; futile; frivolous; vain; trifling; unprofitable; unimportant. -- Idle, Indolent, Lazy. A propensity to inaction is expressed by each of these words; they differ in the cause and degree of this characteristic. Indolent denotes an habitual love to ease, a settled dislike of movement or effort; idle is opposed to busy, and denotes a dislike of continuous exertion. Lazy is a stronger and more contemptuous term than indolent.

I"dle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Idled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Idling (?).] To lose or spend time in inaction, or without being employed in business. Shak.

I"dle, v. t. To spend in idleness; to waste; to consume; -- often followed by away; as, to idle away an hour a day.

I"dle-head`ed (?), a. 1. Foolish; stupid. [Obs.] "The superstitious idle-headed eld." Shak.

2. Delirious; infatuated. [Obs.] L'Estrange.

I"dle*ness, n. [AS. delnes.] The condition or quality of being idle (in the various senses of that word); uselessness; fruitlessness; triviality; inactivity; laziness.

Syn. -- Inaction; indolence; sluggishness; sloth.

I"dle-pat`ed (?), a. Idle-headed; stupid. [Obs.]

I"dler (?), n. 1. One who idles; one who spends his time in inaction; a lazy person; a sluggard.

2. (Naut.) One who has constant day duties on board ship, and keeps no regular watch. Totten.

3. (Mach.) An idle wheel or pulley. See under Idle.

{ I"dless, I"dlesse } (?), n. Idleness. [Archaic] "In ydlesse." Spenser.

And an idlesse all the day
Beside a wandering stream.

Mrs. Browning.

I"dly (?), adv. In a idle manner; ineffectually; vainly; lazily; carelessly; (Obs.) foolishly.

Id"o*crase (d"*krs; 277), n. [Gr. e'i^dos form + kra^sis mixture, fr. keranny`nai to mix; cf. F. idocrase.] (Min.) Same as Vesuvianite.

I"dol (?), n. [OE. idole, F. idole, L. idolum, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; that which is seen, the form, shape, figure, fr. &?; to see. See Wit, and cf. Eidolon.] 1. An image or representation of anything. [Obs.]

Do her adore with sacred reverence,
As th' idol of her maker's great magnificence.


2. An image of a divinity; a representation or symbol of a deity or any other being or thing, made or used as an object of worship; a similitude of a false god.

That they should not worship devils, and idols of gold.

Rev. ix. 20.

3. That on which the affections are strongly (often excessively) set; an object of passionate devotion; a person or thing greatly loved or adored.

The soldier's god and people's idol.


4. A false notion or conception; a fallacy. Bacon.

The idols of preconceived opinion.


I`do*las"tre (?), n. [OE., for idolatre.] An idolater. [Obs.] Chaucer.

I*dol"a*ter (?), n. [F. idolâtre: cf. L. idololatres, Gr. &?;. See Idolatry.] 1. A worshiper of idols; one who pays divine honors to images, statues, or representations of anything made by hands; one who worships as a deity that which is not God; a pagan.

2. An adorer; a great admirer.

Jonson was an idolater of the ancients.

Bp. Hurd.

I*dol"a*tress (?), n. A female worshiper of idols.

I`do*lat"ric*al (?), a. [Cf. F. idolâtrique.] Idolatrous. [Obs.]

I*dol"a*trize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Idolatrized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Idolatrizing (?).] To worship idols; to pay idolatrous worship.

I*dol"a*trize, v. t. To make in idol of; to idolize.

I*dol"a*trous (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to idolatry; partaking of the nature of idolatry; given to idolatry or the worship of false gods; as, idolatrous sacrifices.

[Josiah] put down the idolatrous priests.

2 Kings xxiii. 5.

2. Consisting in, or partaking of, an excessive attachment or reverence; as, an idolatrous veneration for antiquity.

I*dol"a*trous*ly, adv. In a idolatrous manner.

I*dol"a*try (?), n.; pl. Idolatries (#). [F. idolâtrie, LL. idolatria, L. idololatria, Fr. Gr. &?;; &?; idol + &?; service.] 1. The worship of idols, images, or anything which is not God; the worship of false gods.

His eye surveyed the dark idolatries
Of alienated Judah.


2. Excessive attachment or veneration for anything; respect or love which borders on adoration. Shak.

I"dol*ish (?), a. Idolatrous. [Obs.] Milton.

I"dol*ism (?), n. The worship of idols. [Obs.]

I"dol*ist, n. A worshiper of idols. [Obs.] Milton.

I"dol*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Idolized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Idolizing (?).] 1. To make an idol of; to pay idolatrous worship to; as, to idolize the sacred bull in Egypt.

2. To love to excess; to love or reverence to adoration; as, to idolize gold, children, a hero.

I"dol*ize, v. i. To practice idolatry. [R.]

To idolize after the manner of Egypt.


I"dol*i`zer (?), n. One who idolizes or loves to the point of reverence; an idolater.

I*dol"o*clast (?), n. [Gr. &?; idol + &?; to break.] A breaker of idols; an iconoclast.

I*dol`o*graph"ic*al (?), a. [Idol + -graph.] Descriptive of idols. [R.] Southey.

I"dol*ous (?), a. Idolatrous. [Obs.] Bale.

I*do"ne*ous (?), a. [L. idoneus.] Appropriate; suitable; proper; fit; adequate. [R.]

An ecclesiastical benefice . . . ought to be conferred on an idoneous person.


Id*or"gan (?), n. [Gr. &?; form + E. organ.] (Biol.) A morphological unit, consisting of two or more plastids, which does not possess the positive character of the person or stock, in distinction from the physiological organ or biorgan. See Morphon.

{ Id"ri*a*line (?), Id"ri*a*lite (?), } n. [Cf. F. idrialine.] (Min.) A bituminous substance obtained from the mercury mines of Idria, where it occurs mixed with cinnabar.

Id`u*me"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to ancient Idumea, or Edom, in Western Asia. -- n. An inhabitant of Idumea, an Edomite.

I"dyl (?), n. [L. idyllium, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; form; literally, a little form of image: cf. F. idylle. See Idol.] A short poem; properly, a short pastoral poem; as, the idyls of Theocritus; also, any poem, especially a narrative or descriptive poem, written in an eleveted and highly finished style; also, by extension, any artless and easily flowing description, either in poetry or prose, of simple, rustic life, of pastoral scenes, and the like. [Written also idyll.]

Wordsworth's solemn-thoughted idyl.

Mrs. Browning.

His [Goldsmith's] lovely idyl of the Vicar's home.

F. Harrison.

I*dyl"lic (?), a. Of or belonging to idyls.

I. e. Abbreviation of Latin id est, that is.

If (?), conj. [OE. if, gif, AS. gif; akin to OFries. ief, gef, ef, OS. ef, of, D. of, or, whether, if, G. ob whether, if, OHG. oba, ibu, Icel. ef, Goth. iba, ibai, an interrogative particle; properly a case form of a noun meaning, doubt (cf. OHG. iba doubt, condition, Icel. if, ef, ifi, efi), and therefore orig. meaning, on condition that.] 1. In case that; granting, allowing, or supposing that; -- introducing a condition or supposition.

Tisiphone, that oft hast heard my prayer,
Assist, if Œdipus deserve thy care.


If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.

Matt. iv. 3.

2. Whether; -- in dependent questions.

Uncertain if by augury or chance.


She doubts if two and two make four.


As if, But if. See under As, But.

I' faith" (?). In faith; indeed; truly. Shak.

<! p. 727 !>

I*fere" (?), a. [Corrupted fr. in fere.] Together. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ig`a*su"ric (?), a. [See Igasurine.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, nux vomica or St. Ignatius's bean; as, igasuric acid.

Ig`a*su"rine (?), n. [Malay igasura the nux vomica.] (Chem.) An alkaloid found in nux vomica, and extracted as a white crystalline substance.

Ig"loo (?), n. 1. An Eskimo snow house.

2. (Zoöl.) A cavity, or excavation, made in the snow by a seal, over its breathing hole in the ice.

Ig*na"tius bean` (?). (Bot.) See Saint Ignatius's bean, under Saint.

Ig"ne*ous (?), a. [L. igneus, fr. ignis fire; allied to Skr. agni, Lith. ugnis, OSlav. ogne.] 1. Pertaining to, having the nature of, fire; containing fire; resembling fire; as, an igneous appearance.

2. (Geol.) Resulting from, or produced by, the action of fire; as, lavas and basalt are igneous rocks.

Ig*nes"cent (?), a. [L. ignescens, p. pr. of ignescere to become inflamed, fr. ignis fire: cf. F. ignescent.] Emitting sparks of fire when struck with steel; scintillating; as, ignescent stones.

Ig*nic"o*list (?), n. [L. ignis fire + colere to worship.] A worshiper of fire. [R.]

Ig*nif"er*ous (?), a. [L. ignifer; ignis fire + ferre to bear.] Producing fire. [R.] Blount.

Ig*nif"lu*ous (?), a. [L. ignifluus; ignis fire + fluere to flow.] Flowing with fire. [Obs.] Cockerman.

Ig"ni*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ignified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ignifying (?).] [L. ignis fire + -fy.] To form into fire. [R.] Stukeley.

Ig*nig"e*nous (?), a. [L. ignigenus; ignis fire + genere, ginere, to beget, produce.] Produced by the action of fire, as lava. [R.]

Ig*nip"o*tence (?), n. Power over fire. [R.]

Ig*nip"o*tent (?), a. [L. ignipotens; ignis fire + potens powerful.] Presiding over fire; also, fiery.

Vulcan is called the powerful ignipotent.


||Ig"nis fat"u*us (?); pl. Ignes fatui (#). [L. ignis fire + fatuus foolish. So called in allusion to its tendency to mislead travelers.] 1. A phosphorescent light that appears, in the night, over marshy ground, supposed to be occasioned by the decomposition of animal or vegetable substances, or by some inflammable gas; -- popularly called also Will-with-the-wisp, or Will-o'-the-wisp, and Jack-with-a-lantern, or Jack-o'-lantern.

2. Fig.: A misleading influence; a decoy.

Scared and guided by the ignis fatuus of popular superstition.

Jer. Taylor.

Ig*nite" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ignited (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Igniting.] [L. ignitus, p. p. of ignire to ignite, fr. ignis fire. See Igneous.] 1. To kindle or set on fire; as, to ignite paper or wood.

2. (Chem.) To subject to the action of intense heat; to heat strongly; -- often said of incombustible or infusible substances; as, to ignite iron or platinum.

Ig*nite", v. i. To take fire; to begin to burn.

Ig*nit"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being ignited.

Ig*ni"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. ignition.] 1. The act of igniting, kindling, or setting on fire.

2. The state of being ignited or kindled. Sir T. Browne.

Ig*nit"or (?), n. One who, or that which, produces ignition; especially, a contrivance for igniting the powder in a torpedo or the like. [Written also igniter.]

Ig*niv"o*mous (?), a. [L. ignivomus; ignis fire + vomere 8vomit.] Vomiting fire. [R.]

Ig`no*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. ignobilitas: cf. F. ignobilité.] Ignobleness. [Obs.] Bale.

Ig*no"ble (?), a. [L. ignobilis; pref. in- not + nobilis noble: cf. F. ignoble. See In- not, and Noble, a.] 1. Of low birth or family; not noble; not illustrious; plebeian; common; humble.

I was not ignoble of descent.


Her royal stock graft with ignoble plants.


2. Not honorable, elevated, or generous; base.

'T is but a base, ignoble mind,
That mounts no higher than a bird can soar.


Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.


3. (Zoöl.) Not a true or noble falcon; -- said of certain hawks, as the goshawk.

Syn. -- Degenerate; degraded; mean; base; dishonorable; reproachful; disgraceful; shameful; scandalous; infamous.

Ig*no"ble, v. t. To make ignoble. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ig*no"ble*ness, n. State or quality of being ignoble.

Ig*no"bly, adv. In an ignoble manner; basely.

Ig`no*min"i*ous (?), a. [L. ignominiosus: cf. F. ignominieux.] 1. Marked with ignominy; incurring public disgrace; dishonorable; shameful.

Then first with fear surprised and sense of pain,
Fled ignominious.


2. Deserving ignominy; despicable.

One single, obscure, ignominious projector.


3. Humiliating; degrading; as, an ignominious judgment or sentence. Macaulay.

Ig`no*min"i*ous*ly, adv. In an ignominious manner; disgracefully; shamefully; ingloriously.

Ig"no*min*y (?), n.; pl. Ignominies (#). [L. ignominia ignominy (i.e., a deprivation of one's good name); in- not + nomen name: cf. F. ignominie. See In- not, and Name.] 1. Public disgrace or dishonor; reproach; infamy.

Their generals have been received with honor after their defeat; yours with ignominy after conquest.


Vice begins in mistake, and ends in ignominy.


Ignominy is the infliction of such evil as is made dishonorable, or the deprivation of such good as is made honorable by the Commonwealth.


2. An act deserving disgrace; an infamous act.

Syn. -- Opprobrium; reproach; dishonor.

Ig"no*my (?), n. Ignominy. [R. & Obs.]

I blush to think upon this ignomy.


Ig`no*ra"mus (?), n. [L., we are ignorant. See Ignore.] 1. (Law) We are ignorant; we ignore; -- being the word formerly written on a bill of indictment by a grand jury when there was not sufficient evidence to warrant them in finding it a true bill. The phrase now used is, "No bill," "No true bill," or "Not found," though in some jurisdictions "Ignored" is still used. Wharton (Law Dict. ). Burn.

2. (pl. Ignoramuses (&?;).) A stupid, ignorant person; a vain pretender to knowledge; a dunce.

An ignoramus in place and power.


Ig"no*rance (?), n. [F., fr. L. ignorantia.] 1. The condition of being ignorant; the want of knowledge in general, or in relation to a particular subject; the state of being uneducated or uninformed.

Ignorance is the curse of God,
Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.


2. (Theol.) A willful neglect or refusal to acquire knowledge which one may acquire and it is his duty to have. Book of Common Prayer.

Invincible ignorance (Theol.), ignorance beyond the individual's control and for which, therefore, he is not responsible before God.

Ig"no*rant (?), a. [F., fr. L. ignorans, -antis, p. pr. of ignorare to be ignorant. See Ignore.] 1. Destitute of knowledge; uninstructed or uninformed; untaught; unenlightened.

He that doth not know those things which are of use for him to know, is but an ignorant man, whatever he may know besides.


2. Unacquainted with; unconscious or unaware; -- used with of.

Ignorant of guilt, I fear not shame.


3. Unknown; undiscovered. [Obs.]

Ignorant concealment.


Alas, what ignorant sin have I committed?


4. Resulting from ignorance; foolish; silly.

His shipping,
Poor ignorant baubles! -- on our terrible seas,
Like eggshells moved.


Syn. -- Uninstructed; untaught; unenlightened; uninformed; unlearned; unlettered; illiterate. -- Ignorant, Illiterate. Ignorant denotes want of knowledge, either as to single subject or information in general; illiterate refers to an ignorance of letters, or of knowledge acquired by reading and study. In the Middle Ages, a great proportion of the higher classes were illiterate, and yet were far from being ignorant, especially in regard to war and other active pursuits.

In such business
Action is eloquence, and the eyes of the ignorant
More learned than the ears.


In the first ages of Christianity, not only the learned and the wise, but the ignorant and illiterate, embraced torments and death.


Ig"no*rant, n. A person untaught or uninformed; one unlettered or unskilled; an ignoramous.

Did I for this take pains to teach
Our zealous ignorants to preach?


Ig"no*rant*ism (?), n. The spirit of those who extol the advantage of ignorance; obscurantism.

Ig"no*rant*ist, n. One opposed to the diffusion of knowledge; an obscurantist.

Ig"no*rant*ly, adv. In a ignorant manner; without knowledge; inadvertently.

Whom therefoer ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

Acts xvii. 23.

Ig*nore" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ignored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ignoring.] [L. ignorare; pref. in- not + the root of gnarus knowing, noscere to become acquainted with. See Know, and cf. Narrate.] 1. To be ignorant of or not acquainted with. [Archaic]

Philosophy would solidly be established, if men would more carefully distinguish those things that they know from those that they ignore.


2. (Law) To throw out or reject as false or ungrounded; -- said of a bill rejected by a grand jury for want of evidence. See Ignoramus.

3. Hence: To refuse to take notice of; to shut the eyes to; not to recognize; to disregard willfully and causelessly; as, to ignore certain facts; to ignore the presence of an objectionable person.

Ignoring Italy under our feet,
And seeing things before, behind.

Mrs. Browning.

Ig*nos"ci*ble (?), a. [L. ignoscibilis, fr. ignoscere to pardon, lit., not to wish to know; pref. in- not + gnoscere, noscere, to learn to know. See In- not, and Know.] Pardonable. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ig*note" (?), a. [L. ignotus; pref. in- not + gnotus, notus, known, p. p. of gnocere, nocere, to learn to know.] Unknown. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys. -- n. One who is unknown. Bp. Hacket.

I*gua"na (?), n. [Sp. iguana, from the native name in Hayti. Cf. Guana.] (Zoöl.) Any species of the genus Iguana, a genus of large American lizards of the family Iguanidæ. They are arboreal in their habits, usually green in color, and feed chiefly upon fruits.

The common iguana (Iguana iguana, formerly Iguana tuberculata, and also called by other synonyms of the West Indies and South America is sometimes five feet long. Its flesh is highly prized as food. The horned iguana (Iguana cornuta) has a conical horn between the eyes.

I*gua"ni*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Resembling, or pertaining to, the iguana.

I*gua"nid (?), a. (Zoöl.) Same as Iguanoid.

I*gua"no*don (?), n. [Iguana + Gr. &?;, &?;, a tooth.] (Paleon.) A genus of gigantic herbivorous dinosaurs having a birdlike pelvis and large hind legs with three-toed feet capable of supporting the entire body. Its teeth resemble those of the iguana, whence its name. Several species are known, mostly from the Wealden of England and Europe. See Illustration in Appendix.

I*gua"no*dont (?), a. (Paleon.) Like or pertaining to the genus Iguanodon.

I*gua"noid (?), a. [Iguana + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Pertaining to the Iguanidæ.

Ih*lang`-ih*lang" (?), n. [Malayan, flower of flowers.] A rich, powerful, perfume, obtained from the volatile oil of the flowers of Canada odorata, an East Indian tree. [Also written ylang-ylang.]

||Ih*ram" (?), n. The peculiar dress worn by pilgrims to Mecca.

Ik (?), pron. [See I.] I. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

The Northern dialectic form of I, in Early English, corresponding to ich of the Southern.

Il- (?). A form of the prefix in-, not, and in-, among. See In-.

Ile (?), n. [AS. egl.] Ear of corn. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Ile, n. [See Aisle.] An aisle. [Obs.] H. Swinburne.

Ile, n. [See Isle.] An isle. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Il"e*ac (?), a. [See Ileum.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining to the ileum. [Written also iliac.]

2. See Iliac, 1. [R.]

Ileac passion. (Med.) See Ileus.

Il`e*o*cæ"cal (?), a. [Ileum + cæcal.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the ileum and cæcum.

Il`e*o*col"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the ileum and colon; as, the ileocolic, or ileocæcal, valve, a valve where the ileum opens into the large intestine.

||Il"e*um (?), n. [L. ile, ileum, ilium, pl. ilia, groin, flank.] 1. (Anat.) The last, and usually the longest, division of the small intestine; the part between the jejunum and large intestine. [Written also ileon, and ilium.]

2. (Anat.) See Ilium. [R.]

Most modern writers restrict ileum to the division of the intestine and ilium to the pelvic bone.

||Il"e*us (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, fr. &?; to roll up.] (Med.) A morbid condition due to intestinal obstruction. It is characterized by complete constipation, with griping pains in the abdomen, which is greatly distended, and in the later stages by vomiting of fecal matter. Called also ileac, or iliac, passion.

||I"lex (?), n. [L., holm oak.] (Bot.) (a) The holm oak (Quercus Ilex). (b) A genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, including the common holly.

Il"i*ac (?), a. [L. Iliacus, Gr. &?;. See Iliad.] Pertaining to ancient Ilium, or Troy. Gladstone.

Il"i*ac, a. [Cf. F. iliaque. See Ileum, and cf. Jade a stone.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or in the region of, the ilium, or dorsal bone of the pelvis; as, the iliac artery. [Written also ileac.]

2. See Ileac, 1. [R.]

Iliac crest, the upper margin of the ilium. -- Iliac passion. See Ileus. -- Iliac region, a region of the abdomen, on either side of the hypogastric regions, and below the lumbar regions.

I*li"a*cal (?), a. Iliac. [R.]

Il"i*ad (?), n. [L. Ilias, - adis, Gr. &?;, &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?;, &?;, Ilium, the city of Ilus, a son of Tros, founder of Ilium, which is a poetical name of Troy.] A celebrated Greek epic poem, in twenty-four books, on the destruction of Ilium, the ancient Troy. The Iliad is ascribed to Homer.

Il"i*al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the ilium; iliac.

I*liche" (?), adv. [OE., fr. AS. gelc. Cf. Alike.] Alike. [Obs.] Chaucer.

I*lic"ic (?), a. [L. ilex, ilicis, holm oak.] Pertaining to, or derived from, the holly (Ilex), and allied plants; as, ilicic acid.

Il"i*cin (?), n. (Chem.) The bitter principle of the holly.

Il"i*o- (?). [From Ilium.] A combining form used in anatomy to denote connection with, or relation to, the ilium; as, ilio-femoral, ilio- lumbar, ilio-psoas, etc.

Il`i*o*fem"o*ral (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the ilium and femur; as, iliofemoral ligaments.

Il`i*o*lum"bar (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the iliac and lumbar regions; as, the iliolumbar artery.

Il`i*o*pso"as (?), n. (Anat.) The great flexor muscle of the hip joint, divisible into two parts, the iliac and great psoas, -- often regarded as distinct muscles.

||Il"i*um (?), n. [See Ileum.] (Anat.) The dorsal one of the three principal bones comprising either lateral half of the pelvis; the dorsal or upper part of the hip bone. See Innominate bone, under Innominate. [Written also ilion, and ileum.]

Il`ix*an"thin (?), n. [Ilex the genus including the holly + Gr. &?; yellow.] (Chem.) A yellow dye obtained from the leaves of the holly.

Ilk (?), a. [Scot. ilk, OE. ilke the same, AS. ilca. Cf. Each.] Same; each; every. [Archaic] Spenser.

Of that ilk, denoting that a person's surname and the title of his estate are the same; as, Grant of that ilk, i.e., Grant of Grant. Jamieson.

Il"ke (?), a. [See Ilk.] Same. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{ Il*kon", Il*koon" (?) }, pron. [See Ilk, and One.] Each one; every one. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ill (?), a. [The regular comparative and superlative are wanting, their places being supplied by worse (&?;) and worst (&?;), from another root.] [OE. ill, ille, Icel. illr; akin to Sw. illa, adv., Dan. ilde, adv.] 1. Contrary to good, in a physical sense; contrary or opposed to advantage, happiness, etc.; bad; evil; unfortunate; disagreeable; unfavorable.

Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets, and ill neighbors.


There 's some ill planet reigns.


2. Contrary to good, in a moral sense; evil; wicked; wrong; iniquitious; naughtly; bad; improper.

Of his own body he was ill, and gave
The clergy ill example.


3. Sick; indisposed; unwell; diseased; disordered; as, ill of a fever.

I am in health, I breathe, and see thee ill.


4. Not according with rule, fitness, or propriety; incorrect; rude; unpolished; inelegant.

That 's an ill phrase.


Ill at ease, uneasy; uncomfortable; anxious. "I am very ill at ease." Shak. -- Ill blood, enmity; resentment. -- Ill breeding, want of good breeding; rudeness. -- Ill fame, ill or bad repute; as, a house of ill fame, a house where lewd persons meet for illicit intercourse. -- Ill humor, a disagreeable mood; bad temper. -- Ill nature, bad disposition or temperament; sullenness; esp., a disposition to cause unhappiness to others. -- Ill temper, anger; moroseness; crossness. -- Ill turn. (a) An unkind act. (b) A slight attack of illness. [Colloq. U.S.] -- Ill will, unkindness; enmity; malevolence.

Syn. -- Bad; evil; wrong; wicked; sick; unwell.

<! p. 728 !>

Ill (?), n. 1. Whatever annoys or impairs happiness, or prevents success; evil of any kind; misfortune; calamity; disease; pain; as, the ills of humanity.

Who can all sense of others' ills escape
Is but a brute at best in human shape.


That makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of.


2. Whatever is contrary to good, in a moral sense; wickedness; depravity; iniquity; wrong; evil.

Strong virtue, like strong nature, struggles still,
Exerts itself, and then throws off the ill.


Ill, adv. In a ill manner; badly; weakly.

How ill this taper burns!


Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey,
Where wealth accumulates and men decay.


Ill, like above, well, and so, is used before many participal adjectives, in its usual adverbal sense. When the two words are used as an epithet preceding the noun qualified they are commonly hyphened; in other cases they are written separatively; as, an ill-educated man; he was ill educated; an ill-formed plan; the plan, however ill formed, was acceptable. Ao, also, the following: ill-affected or ill affected, ill-arranged or ill arranged, ill-assorted or ill assorted, ill-boding or ill boding, ill-bred or ill bred, ill- conditioned, ill-conducted, ill-considered, ill- devised, ill-disposed, ill-doing, ill-fairing, ill-fated, ill-favored, ill-featured, ill-formed, ill-gotten, ill-imagined, ill-judged, ill-looking, ill-mannered, ill-matched, ill-meaning, ill-minded, ill-natured, ill-omened, ill-proportioned, ill-provided, ill-required, ill-sorted, ill-starred, ill-tempered, ill-timed, ill-trained, ill-used, and the like.

I' ll (?). Contraction for I will or I shall.

I'll by a sign give notice to our friends.


Il*lab"ile (?), a. Incapable of falling or erring; infalliable. [Obs.] -- Il`la*bil"i*ty (#), n. [Obs.]

Il*lac"er*a*ble (?), a. [L. illacerabilis: cf. F. illacérable. See In- not, and Lacerable.] Not lacerable; incapable of being torn or rent. [Obs.]

Il*lac"ry*ma*ble (?), a. [L. illacrimabilis; pref. il- not + lacrimabilis worthy of tears.] Incapable of weeping. [Obs.] Bailey.

Il*laps"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. il- not + lapsable.] Incapable of slipping, or of error. [R.]

Morally immutable and illapsable.


Il*lapse" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Illapsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illapsing.] [L. illapsus, p. p. of illabi; pref. il- in + labi to fall, slide.] To fall or glide; to pass; -- usually followed by into. Cheyne.

Il*lapse", n. [L. illapsus. See Illapse, v. i.] A gliding in; an immisson or entrance of one thing into another; also, a sudden descent or attack. Akenside.

They sit silent . . . waiting for an illapse of the spirit.


Il*la"que*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being insnared or entrapped. [R.] Cudworth.

Il*la"que*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illaqueated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illaqueating.] [L. illaqueatus, p. p. of illaqueare; pref. il- in + laqueare to insnare, fr. laqueus, noose, snare.] To insnare; to entrap; to entangle; to catch.

Let not the surpassing eloquence of Taylor dazzle you, nor his scholastic retiary versatility of logic illaqueate your good sense.


Il*la`que*a"tion (?), n. 1. The act of catching or insnaring. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

2. A snare; a trap. Johnson.

Il*la"tion (?), n. [L. illatio, fr. illatus, used as p. p. of inferre to carry or bring in, but from a different root: cf. F. illation. See 1st In- , and Tolerate, and cf. Infer.] The act or process of inferring from premises or reasons; perception of the connection between ideas; that which is inferred; inference; deduction; conclusion.

Fraudulent deductions or inconsequent illations from a false conception of things.

Sir T. Browne.

Il"la*tive (?), a. [L. illativus: cf. F. illatif.] Relating to, dependent on, or denoting, illation; inferential; conclusive; as, an illative consequence or proposition; an illative word, as then, therefore, etc.

Illative conversion (Logic), a converse or reverse statement of a proposition which in that form must be true because the original proposition is true. -- Illative sense (Metaph.), the faculty of the mind by which it apprehends the conditions and determines upon the correctness of inferences.

Il"la*tive, n. An illative particle, as for, because.

Il"la*tive*ly, adv. By inference; as an illative; in an illative manner.

Il*laud"a*ble (?), a. [L. illaudabilis. See In- not, and Laudable.] Not laudable; not praise-worthy; worthy of censure or disapprobation. Milton.

-- Il*laud"a*bly, adv. [Obs.] Broome.

Ill`-bod"ing (?), a. Boding evil; inauspicious; ill-omened. "Ill-boding stars." Shak.

Ill"-bred` (?), a. Badly educated or brought up; impolite; incivil; rude. See Note under Ill, adv.

Il*lec`e*bra"tion (?), n. [See Illecebrous.] Allurement. [R.] T. Brown.

Il*lec"e*brous (?), a. [L. illecebrosus, fr. illecebra allurement, fr. illicere to allure.] Alluring; attractive; enticing. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.

Il*le"gal (?), a. [Pref. il- not + legal: cf. F. illégal.] Not according to, or authorized by, law; specif., contrary to, or in violation of, human law; unlawful; illicit; hence, immoral; as, an illegal act; illegal trade; illegal love. Bp. Burnet.

Il`le*gal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Illegalities (#). [Cf. F. illégalité.] The quality or condition of being illegal; unlawfulness; as, the illegality of trespass or of false imprisonment; also, an illegal act.

Il*le"gal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illegalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illegalizing (?).] To make or declare illegal or unlawful.

Il*le"gal*ly, adv. In a illegal manner; unlawfully.

Il*le"gal*ness, n. Illegality, unlawfulness.

Il*leg`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being illegible.

Il*leg"i*ble (?), a. Incapable of being read; not legible; as, illegible handwriting; an illegible inscription. -- Il*leg"i*ble*ness, n. -- Il*leg"i*bly, adv.

Il`le*git"i*ma*cy (?), n. The state of being illegitimate. Blackstone.

Il`le*git"i*mate (?), a. 1. Not according to law; not regular or authorized; unlawful; improper.

2. Unlawfully begotten; born out of wedlock; bastard; as, an illegitimate child.

3. Not legitimately deduced or inferred; illogical; as, an illegitimate inference.

4. Not authorized by good usage; not genuine; spurious; as, an illegitimate word.

Illegitimate fertilization, or Illegitimate union (Bot.), the fertilization of pistils by stamens not of their own length, in heterogonously dimorphic and trimorphic flowers. Darwin.

Il`le*git"i*mate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illegitimated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illegitimating.] To render illegitimate; to declare or prove to be born out of wedlock; to bastardize; to illegitimatize.

The marriage should only be dissolved for the future, without illegitimating the issue.

Bp. Burnet.

Il`le*git"i*mate*ly (?), adv. In a illegitimate manner; unlawfully.

Il`le*git`i*ma"tion (?), n. 1. The act of illegitimating; bastardizing.

2. The state of being illegitimate; illegitimacy. [Obs.]

Gardiner had performed his promise to the queen of getting her illegitimation taken off.

Bp. Burnet.

Il`le*git"i*ma*tize (?), v. t. To render illegitimate; to bastardize.

Il*le"sive (?), a. [Pref. il- not + L. laedere, laesum, to injure.] Not injurious; harmless. [R.]

Il*lev"i*a*ble (?), a. Not leviable; incapable of being imposed, or collected. [R.] Sir M. Hale.

Ill`-fa"vored (?), a. Wanting beauty or attractiveness; deformed; ugly; ill-looking.

Ill-favored and lean-fleshed.

Gen. xli. 3.

-- Ill`-fa"vored*ly, adv. -- Ill`- fa"vored*ness, n.

Il*lib"er*al (?), a. [L. illiberalis; pref. il- not + liberalis liberal: cf. F. illibéral.] 1. Not liberal; not free or generous; close; niggardly; mean; sordid. "A thrifty and illiberal hand." Mason.

2. Indicating a lack of breeding, culture, and the like; ignoble; rude; narrow-minded; disingenuous.

3. Not well authorized or elegant; as, illiberal words in Latin. [R.] Chesterfield.

Il*lib"er*al*ism (?), n. Illiberality. [R.]

Il*lib`er*al"i*ty (?), n. [L. illiberalitas: cf. F. illibéralité.] The state or quality of being illiberal; narrowness of mind; meanness; niggardliness. Bacon.

Il*lib"er*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illiberalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illiberalizing (?).] To make illiberal.

Il*lib"er*al*ly, adv. In a illiberal manner, ungenerously; uncharitably; parsimoniously.

Il*lib"er*al*ness, n. The state of being illiberal; illiberality.

Il*lic"it (?), a. [L. illicitus; pref. il- not + licitus, p. p. of licere to be allowed or permitted: cf. F. illicite. See In- not, and License.] Not permitted or allowed; prohibited; unlawful; as, illicit trade; illicit intercourse; illicit pleasure.

One illicit . . . transaction always leads to another.


-- Il*lic"it*ly, adv. -- Il*lic"it*ness, n.

Il*lic"it*ous (?), a. Illicit. [R.] Cotgrave.

||Il*li"ci*um (?), n. [So called, in allusion to its aroma, from L. illicium an allurement.] (Bot.) A genus of Asiatic and American magnoliaceous trees, having star-shaped fruit; star anise. The fruit of Illicium anisatum is used as a spice in India, and its oil is largely used in Europe for flavoring cordials, being almost identical with true oil of anise.

Il*light"en (?), v. t. To enlighten. [Obs.]

Il*lim"it*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. il- not + limitable: cf. F. illimitable.] Incapable of being limited or bounded; immeasurable; limitless; boundless; as, illimitable space.

The wild, the irregular, the illimitable, and the luxuriant, have their appropriate force of beauty.

De Quincey.

Syn. -- Boundless; limitless; unlimited; unbounded; immeasurable; infinite; immense; vast.

-- Il*lim"it*a*ble*ness, n. -- Il*lim"it*a*bly, adv.

Il*lim`it*a"tion (?), n. [Pref. il- not + limitation: cf. F. illimitation.] State of being illimitable; want of, or freedom from, limitation. Bp. Hall.

Il*lim"it*ed (?), a. Not limited; interminable. Bp. Hall. -- Il*lim"it*ed*ness, n.

The absoluteness and illimitedness of his commission was generally much spoken of.


Il`li*ni"tion (?), n. [L. illinire, illinere, to besmear; pref. il- in, on + linire, linere, to smear.] 1. A smearing or rubbing in or on; also, that which is smeared or rubbed on, as ointment or liniment.

2. A thin crust of some extraneous substance formed on minerals. [R.]

A thin crust or illinition of black manganese.


Il`li*nois" (?), n.sing. & pl. (Ethnol.) A tribe of North American Indians, which formerly occupied the region between the Wabash and Mississippi rivers.

Il`li*qua"tion (?), n. [Pref. il- in + L. liquare to melt.] The melting or dissolving of one thing into another.

Ill"ish (?), a. Somewhat ill. [Obs.] Howell.

Il*li"sion (?), n. [L. illisio, fr. illidere, illisum, to strike against; pref. il- in + laedere to strike.] The act of dashing or striking against. Sir T. Browne.

Il*lit"er*a*cy (?), n.; pl. Illiteracies (#). [From Illiterate.] 1. The state of being illiterate, or uneducated; want of learning, or knowledge; ignorance; specifically, inability to read and write; as, the illiteracy shown by the last census.

2. An instance of ignorance; a literary blunder.

The many blunders and illiteracies of the first publishers of his [Shakespeare's] works.


Il*lit"er*al (?), a. Not literal. [R.] B. Dawson.

Il*lit"er*ate (?), a. [L. illiteratus: pref. il- not + literatus learned. See In- not, and Literal.] Ignorant of letters or books; unlettered; uninstructed; uneducated; as, an illiterate man, or people.

Syn. -- Ignorant; untaught; unlearned; unlettered; unscholary. See Ignorant.

-- Il*lit"er*ate*ly, adv. -- Il*lit"er*ate*ness, n.

Il*lit"er*a*ture (?), n. Want of learning; illiteracy. [R.] Ayliffe. Southey.

Ill"-judged` (?), a. Not well judged; unwise.

Ill"-lived` (?), a. Leading a wicked life. [Obs.]

Ill"-look`ing (?), a. Having a bad look; threatening; ugly. See Note under Ill, adv.

Ill`-man"nered (?), a. Impolite; rude.

Ill"-mind`ed (?), a. Ill- disposed. Byron.

Ill`-na"tured (?), a. 1. Of habitual bad temper; peevish; fractious; cross; crabbed; surly; as, an ill-natured person.

2. Dictated by, or indicating, ill nature; spiteful. "The ill-natured task refuse." Addison.

3. Intractable; not yielding to culture. [R.] "Ill-natured land." J. Philips.

-- Ill`-na"tured*ly, adv. -- Ill`- na"tured*ness, n.

Ill"ness (?), n. [From Ill.] 1. The condition of being ill, evil, or bad; badness; unfavorableness. [Obs.] "The illness of the weather." Locke.

2. Disease; indisposition; malady; disorder of health; sickness; as, a short or a severe illness.

3. Wrong moral conduct; wickedness. Shak.

Syn. -- Malady; disease; indisposition; ailment. -- Illness, Sickness. Within the present century, there has been a tendency in England to use illness in the sense of a continuous disease, disorder of health, or sickness, and to confine sickness more especially to a sense of nausea, or "sickness of the stomach."

Ill"-nur`tured (?), a. Ill- bred. Shak.

Il`lo*cal"i*ty (?), n. Want of locality or place. [R.] Cudworth.

Il*log"ic*al (?), a. Ignorant or negligent of the rules of logic or correct reasoning; as, an illogical disputant; contrary of the rules of logic or sound reasoning; as, an illogical inference. -- Il*log"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Il*log"ic*al*ness, n.

Ill`-o"mened (?), a. Having unlucky omens; inauspicious. See Note under Ill, adv.

Ill"-starred` (?), a. Fated to be unfortunate; unlucky; as, an ill-starred man or day.

Ill`-tem"pered (?), a. 1. Of bad temper; morose; crabbed; sour; peevish; fretful; quarrelsome.

2. Unhealthy; ill-conditioned. [Obs.]

So ill-tempered I am grown, that I am afraid I shall catch cold, while all the world is afraid to melt away.


Ill"-timed` (?), a. Done, attempted, or said, at an unsuitable or unpropitious time.

Ill`treat" (?), v. t. To treat cruelly or improperly; to ill use; to maltreat.

Il*lude" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illuded; p. pr. & vb. n. Illuding.] [L. illudere, illusum; pref. il- in + ludere to play: cf. OF. illuder. See Ludicrous.] To play upon by artifice; to deceive; to mock; to excite and disappoint the hopes of.

Il*lume" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illumed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illuming.] [Cf. F. illuminer. See Illuminate.] To throw or spread light upon; to make light or bright; to illuminate; to illumine. Shak.

The mountain's brow,
Illumed with fluid gold.


Il*lu"mi*na*ble (?), a. Capable of being illuminated.

Il*lu"mi*nant (?), n. [L. illuminans, -antis, p. pr. of illuminare.] That which illuminates or affords light; as, gas and petroleum are illuminants. Boyle.

Il*lu"mi*na*ry (?), a. Illuminative.

Il*lu"mi*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illuminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illuminating (?).] [L. illuminatus, p. p. of illuminare; pref. il- in + luminare to enlighten, fr. lumen light. See Luminous, and cf. Illume, Illumine, Enlimn, Limn.] 1. To make light; to throw light on; to supply with light, literally or figuratively; to brighten.

2. To light up; to decorate with artificial lights, as a building or city, in token of rejoicing or respect.

3. To adorn, as a book or page with borders, initial letters, or miniature pictures in colors and gold, as was done in manuscripts of the Middle Ages.

4. To make plain or clear; to dispel the obscurity to by knowledge or reason; to explain; to elucidate; as, to illuminate a text, a problem, or a duty.

<! p. 729 !>

Il*lu"mi*nate (?), v. i. To light up in token or rejoicing.

Il*lu"mi*nate (?), a. [L. illuminatus, p. p.] Enlightened. Bp. Hall.

Il*lu"mi*nate, n. One who is enlightened; esp., a pretender to extraordinary light and knowledge.

||Il*lu`mi*na"ti (?), n. pl. [L. illuminatus. See Illuminate, v. t., and cf. Illuminee.] Literally, those who are enlightened; -- variously applied as follows: --

1. (Eccl.) Persons in the early church who had received baptism; in which ceremony a lighted taper was given them, as a symbol of the spiritual illumination they has received by that sacrament.

2. (Eccl. Hist.) Members of a sect which sprung up in Spain about the year 1575. Their principal doctrine was, that, by means of prayer, they had attained to so perfect a state as to have no need of ordinances, sacraments, good works, etc.; -- called also Alumbrados, Perfectibilists, etc.

3. (Mod. Hist.) Members of certain associations in Modern Europe, who combined to promote social reforms, by which they expected to raise men and society to perfection, esp. of one originated in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, professor of canon law at Ingolstadt, which spread rapidly for a time, but ceased after a few years.

4. Also applied to: (a) An obscure sect of French Familists; (b) The Hesychasts, Mystics, and Quietists; (c) The Rosicrucians.

5. Any persons who profess special spiritual or intellectual enlightenment.

Il*lu"mi*na`ting (?), a. Giving or producing light; used for illumination.

Illuminating gas. See Gas, n., 2 (a).

Il*lu`mi*na"tion (?), n. [L. illuminatio: cf. F. illumination.] 1. The act of illuminating, or supplying with light; the state of being illuminated.

2. Festive decoration of houses or buildings with lights.

3. Adornment of books and manuscripts with colored illustrations. See Illuminate, v. t., 3.

4. That which is illuminated, as a house; also, an ornamented book or manuscript.

5. That which illuminates or gives light; brightness; splendor; especially, intellectual light or knowledge.

The illumination which a bright genius giveth to his work.


6. (Theol.) The special communication of knowledge to the mind by God; inspiration.

Hymns and psalms . . . are framed by meditation beforehand, or by prophetical illumination are inspired.


Il*lu"mi*na*tism (?), n. Illuminism. [R.]

Il*lu"mi*na*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. illuminatif.] Tending to illuminate or illustrate; throwing light; illustrative. "Illuminative reading." Carlyle.

Il*lu"mi*na`tor (?), n. [L., an enlightener, LL. also, an illuminator of books.] 1. One whose occupation is to adorn books, especially manuscripts, with miniatures, borders, etc. See Illuminate, v. t., 3.

2. A condenser or reflector of light in optical apparatus; also, an illuminant.

Il*lu"mine (?), v. t. [Cf. F. illuminer. See Illuminate.] To illuminate; to light up; to adorn.

Il*lu`mi*nee" (?), n. [F. illuminé. Cf. Illuminati.] One of the Illuminati.

Il*lu"mi*ner (?), n. One who, or that which, illuminates.

Il*lu"mi*nism (?), n. [Cf. F. illuminisme.] The principles of the Illuminati.

Il*lu`mi*nis"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to illuminism, or the Illuminati.

Il*lu"mi*nize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illuminized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illuminizing (?).] To initiate the doctrines or principles of the Illuminati.

Il*lu"mi*nous (?), a. Bright; clear. [R.] H. Taylor.

Il*lure" (?), v. t. [Pref. il- in + lure.] To deceive; to entice; to lure. [Obs.]

The devil insnareth the souls of many men, by illuring them with the muck and dung of this world.


Ill`-used" (?), a. Misapplied; treated badly.

Il*lu"sion (?), n. [F. illusion, L. illusio, fr. illudere, illusum, to illude. See Illude.] 1. An unreal image presented to the bodily or mental vision; a deceptive appearance; a false show; mockery; hallucination.

To cheat the eye with blear illusions.


2. Hence: Anything agreeably fascinating and charming; enchantment; witchery; glamour.

Ye soft illusions, dear deceits, arise!


3. (Physiol.) A sensation originated by some external object, but so modified as in any way to lead to an erroneous perception; as when the rolling of a wagon is mistaken for thunder.

Some modern writers distinguish between an illusion and hallucination, regarding the former as originating with some external object, and the latter as having no objective occasion whatever.

4. A plain, delicate lace, usually of silk, used for veils, scarfs, dresses, etc.

Syn. -- Delusion; mockery; deception; chimera; fallacy. See Delusion. Illusion, Delusion. Illusion refers particularly to errors of the sense; delusion to false hopes or deceptions of the mind. An optical deception is an illusion; a false opinion is a delusion. E. Edwards.

Il*lu"sion*a*ble (?), a. Liable to illusion.

Il*lu"sion*ist, n. One given to illusion; a visionary dreamer.

Il*lu"sive (?), a. [See Illude.] Deceiving by false show; deceitful; deceptive; false; illusory; unreal.

Truth from illusive falsehood to command.


Il*lu"sive*ly, adv. In a illusive manner; falsely.

Il*lu"sive*ness, n. The quality of being illusive; deceptiveness; false show.

Il*lu"so*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. illusore.] Deceiving, or tending of deceive; fallacious; illusive; as, illusory promises or hopes.

Il*lus"tra*ble (?), a. Capable of illustration. Sir T. Browne.

Il*lus"trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Illustrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Illustrating (?).] [L. illustratus, p. p. of illustrare to illustrate, fr. illustris bright. See Illustrious.] 1. To make clear, bright, or luminous.

Here, when the moon illustrates all the sky.


2. To set in a clear light; to exhibit distinctly or conspicuously. Shak.

To prove him, and illustrate his high worth.


3. To make clear, intelligible, or apprehensible; to elucidate, explain, or exemplify, as by means of figures, comparisons, and examples.

4. To adorn with pictures, as a book or a subject; to elucidate with pictures, as a history or a romance.

5. To give renown or honor to; to make illustrious; to glorify. [Obs.]

Matter to me of glory, whom their hate


Il*lus"trate (?), a. [L. illustratus, p. p.] Illustrated; distinguished; illustrious. [Obs.]

This most gallant, illustrate, and learned gentleman.


Il`lus*tra"tion (?), n. [L. illustratio: cf. F. illustration.] 1. The act of illustrating; the act of making clear and distinct; education; also, the state of being illustrated, or of being made clear and distinct.

2. That which illustrates; a comparison or example intended to make clear or apprehensible, or to remove obscurity.

3. A picture designed to decorate a volume or elucidate a literary work.

Il*lus"tra*tive (?), a. 1. Tending or designed to illustrate, exemplify, or elucidate.

2. Making illustrious. [Obs.]

Il*lus"tra*tive*ly, adv. By way of illustration or elucidation. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Il*lus"tra*tor (?), n. [L.] One who illustrates.

Il*lus"tra*to*ry (?), a. Serving to illustrate.

Il*lus"tri*ous (?), a. [L. illustris, prob. for illuxtris; fr. il- in + the root of lucidus bright: cf. F. illustre. See Lucid.] 1. Possessing luster or brightness; brilliant; luminous; splendid.

Quench the light; thine eyes are guides illustrious.

Beau. & Fl.

2. Characterized by greatness, nobleness, etc.; eminent; conspicuous; distinguished.

Illustrious earls, renowened everywhere.


3. Conferring luster or honor; renowned; as, illustrious deeds or titles.

Syn. -- Distinguished; famous; remarkable; brilliant; conspicuous; noted; celebrated; signal; renowened; eminent; exalted; noble; glorious. See Distinguished, Famous.

Il*lus"tri*ous*ly, adv. In a illustrious manner; conspicuously; eminently; famously. Milton.

Il*lus"tri*ous*ness, n. The state or quality of being eminent; greatness; grandeur; glory; fame.

Il*lus"trous (?), a. [Pref. il- not + lustrous.] Without luster. [Obs. & R.]

Il`lu*ta"tion (?), n. [Pref. il- in + L. lutum mud: cf. F. illutation.] The act or operation of smearing the body with mud, especially with the sediment from mineral springs; a mud bath.

Il`lux*u"ri*ous (?), a. Not luxurious. [R.] Orrery.

Ill`-will" (?). See under Ill, a.

Ill`-wish"er (?), n. One who wishes ill to another; an enemy.

Il"ly (?), adv. [A word not fully approved, but sometimes used for the adverb ill.]

Il"men*ite (?), n. [So called from Ilmen, a branch of the Ural Mountains.] (Min.) Titanic iron. See Menaccanite.

Il*me"ni*um (?), n. [NL. See Ilmenite.] (Chem.) A supposed element claimed to have been discovered by R.Harmann.

Il"va*ite (?), n. [From L. Ilva, the island now called Elba.] (Min.) A silicate of iron and lime occurring in black prismatic crystals and columnar masses.

I'm (?). A contraction of I am.

Im- (?). A form of the prefix in- not, and in- in. See In-. Im- also occurs in composition with some words not of Latin origin; as, imbank, imbitter.

Im"age (?), n. [F., fr. L. imago, imaginis, from the root of imitari to imitate. See Imitate, and cf. Imagine.] 1. An imitation, representation, or similitude of any person, thing, or act, sculptured, drawn, painted, or otherwise made perceptible to the sight; a visible presentation; a copy; a likeness; an effigy; a picture; a semblance.

Even like a stony image, cold and numb.


Whose is this image and superscription?

Matt. xxii. 20.

This play is the image of a murder done in Vienna.


And God created man in his own image.

Gen. i. 27.

2. Hence: The likeness of anything to which worship is paid; an idol. Chaucer.

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, . . . thou shalt not bow down thyself to them.

Ex. xx. 4, 5.

3. Show; appearance; cast.

The face of things a frightful image bears.


4. A representation of anything to the mind; a picture drawn by the fancy; a conception; an idea.

Can we conceive
Image of aught delightful, soft, or great?


5. (Rhet.) A picture, example, or illustration, often taken from sensible objects, and used to illustrate a subject; usually, an extended metaphor. Brande & C.

6. (Opt.) The figure or picture of any object formed at the focus of a lens or mirror, by rays of light from the several points of the object symmetrically refracted or reflected to corresponding points in such focus; this may be received on a screen, a photographic plate, or the retina of the eye, and viewed directly by the eye, or with an eyeglass, as in the telescope and microscope; the likeness of an object formed by reflection; as, to see one's image in a mirror.

Electrical image. See under Electrical. -- Image breaker, one who destroys images; an iconoclast. -- Image graver, Image maker, a sculptor. -- Image worship, the worship of images as symbols; iconolatry distinguished from idolatry; the worship of images themselves. -- Image Purkinje (Physics), the image of the retinal blood vessels projected in, not merely on, that membrane. -- Virtual image (Optics), a point or system of points, on one side of a mirror or lens, which, if it existed, would emit the system of rays which actually exists on the other side of the mirror or lens. Clerk Maxwell.

Im"age (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imaging (?).] 1. To represent or form an image of; as, the still lake imaged the shore; the mirror imaged her figure. "Shrines of imaged saints." J. Warton.

2. To represent to the mental vision; to form a likeness of by the fancy or recollection; to imagine.

Condemn'd whole years in absence to deplore,
And image charms he must behold no more.


Im"age*a*ble (?), a. That may be imaged. [R.]

Im"age*less, a. Having no image. Shelley.

Im"a*ger (?), n. One who images or forms likenesses; a sculptor. [Obs.]

Praxiteles was ennobled for a rare imager.


Im"age*ry (m"j*r; 277), n. [OE. imagerie, F. imagerie.] 1. The work of one who makes images or visible representation of objects; imitation work; images in general, or in mass. "Painted imagery." Shak.

In those oratories might you see
Rich carvings, portraitures, and imagery.


2. Fig.: Unreal show; imitation; appearance.

What can thy imagery of sorrow mean?


3. The work of the imagination or fancy; false ideas; imaginary phantasms.

The imagery of a melancholic fancy.


4. Rhetorical decoration in writing or speaking; vivid descriptions presenting or suggesting images of sensible objects; figures in discourse.

I wish there may be in this poem any instance of good imagery.


Im*ag`i*na*bil"i*ty (?), n. Capacity for imagination. [R.] Coleridge.

Im*ag"i*na*ble (?), a. [L. imaginabilis: cf. F. imaginable.] Capable of being imagined; conceivable.

Men sunk into the greatest darkness imaginable.


-- Im*ag"i*na*ble*ness, n. -- Im*ag"i*na*bly, adv.

Im*ag"i*nal (?), a. [L. imaginalis.] 1. Characterized by imagination; imaginative; also, given to the use or rhetorical figures or imagins.

2. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to an imago.

Imaginal disks (Zoöl.), masses of hypodermic cells, carried by the larvæ of some insects after leaving the egg, from which masses the wings and legs of the adult are subsequently formed.

Im*ag"i*nant (?), a. [L. imaginans, p. pr. of imaginari: cf. F. imaginant.] Imagining; conceiving. [Obs.] Bacon. -- n. An imaginer. [Obs.] Glanvill.

Im*ag"i*na*ri*ly (?), a. In a imaginary manner; in imagination. B. Jonson.

Im*ag"i*na*ri*ness, n. The state or quality of being imaginary; unreality.

Im*ag"i*na*ry (?), a. [L. imaginarius: cf. F. imaginaire.] Existing only in imagination or fancy; not real; fancied; visionary; ideal.

Wilt thou add to all the griefs I suffer
Imaginary ills and fancied tortures?


Imaginary calculus See under Calculus. -- Imaginary expression or quantity (Alg.), an algebraic expression which involves the impossible operation of taking the square root of a negative quantity; as, √-9, a + b √- 1. -- Imaginary points, lines, surfaces, etc. (Geom.), points, lines, surfaces, etc., imagined to exist, although by reason of certain changes of a figure they have in fact ceased to have a real existence.

Syn. -- Ideal; fanciful; chimerical; visionary; fancied; unreal; illusive.

Im*ag"i*na*ry, n. (Alg.) An imaginary expression or quantity.

Im*ag"i*nate (?), a. Imaginative. [Obs.] Holland.

Im*ag`i*na"tion (?), n. [OE. imaginacionum, F. imagination, fr. L. imaginatio. See Imagine.] 1. The imagine-making power of the mind; the power to create or reproduce ideally an object of sense previously perceived; the power to call up mental imagines.

Our simple apprehension of corporeal objects, if present, is sense; if absent, is imagination.


Imagination is of three kinds: joined with belief of that which is to come; joined with memory of that which is past; and of things present, or as if they were present.


2. The representative power; the power to reconstruct or recombine the materials furnished by direct apprehension; the complex faculty usually termed the plastic or creative power; the fancy.

The imagination of common language -- the productive imagination of philosophers -- is nothing but the representative process plus the process to which I would give the name of the "comparative."

Sir W. Hamilton.

The power of the mind to decompose its conceptions, and to recombine the elements of them at its pleasure, is called its faculty of imagination.

I. Taylor.

The business of conception is to present us with an exact transcript of what we have felt or perceived. But we have moreover a power of modifying our conceptions, by combining the parts of different ones together, so as to form new wholes of our creation. I shall employ the word imagination to express this power.


3. The power to recombine the materials furnished by experience or memory, for the accomplishment of an elevated purpose; the power of conceiving and expressing the ideal.

The lunatic, the lover, and the poet
Are of imagination all compact . . .
The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven,
And as imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing
A local habitation and a name.


4. A mental image formed by the action of the imagination as a faculty; a conception; a notion. Shak.

Syn. -- Conception; idea; conceit; fancy; device; origination; invention; scheme; design; purpose; contrivance. -- Imagination, Fancy. These words have, to a great extent, been interchanged by our best writers, and considered as strictly synonymous. A distinction, however, is now made between them which more fully exhibits their nature. Properly speaking, they are different exercises of the same general power -- the plastic or creative faculty. Imagination consists in taking parts of our conceptions and combining them into new forms and images more select, more striking, more delightful, more terrible, etc., than those of ordinary nature. It is the higher exercise of the two. It creates by laws more closely connected with the reason; it has strong emotion as its actuating and formative cause; it aims at results of a definite and weighty character. Milton's fiery lake, the debates of his Pandemonium, the exquisite scenes of his Paradise, are all products of the imagination. Fancy moves on a lighter wing; it is governed by laws of association which are more remote, and sometimes arbitrary or capricious. Hence the term fanciful, which exhibits fancy in its wilder flights. It has for its actuating spirit feelings of a lively, gay, and versatile character; it seeks to please by unexpected combinations of thought, startling contrasts, flashes of brilliant imagery, etc. Pope's Rape of the Lock is an exhibition of fancy which has scarcely its equal in the literature of any country. -- "This, for instance, Wordsworth did in respect of the words ‘imagination' and ‘fancy.' Before he wrote, it was, I suppose, obscurely felt by most that in ‘imagination' there was more of the earnest, in ‘fancy' of the play of the spirit; that the first was a loftier faculty and gift than the second; yet for all this words were continually, and not without loss, confounded. He first, in the preface to his Lyrical Ballads, rendered it henceforth impossible that any one, who had read and mastered what he has written on the two words, should remain unconscious any longer of the important difference between them." Trench.

The same power, which we should call fancy if employed on a production of a light nature, would be dignified with the title of imagination if shown on a grander scale.

C. J. Smith.

<! p. 730 !>

Im*ag`i*na"tion*al (?), a. Pertaining to, involving, or caused by, imagination.

Im*ag`i*na"tion*al*ism (?), n. Idealism. J. Grote.

Im*ag"i*na*tive (?), a. [F. imaginatif.] 1. Proceeding from, and characterized by, the imagination, generally in the highest sense of the word.

In all the higher departments of imaginative art, nature still constitutes an important element.


2. Given to imagining; full of images, fancies, etc.; having a quick imagination; conceptive; creative.

Milton had a highly imaginative, Cowley a very fanciful mind.


3. Unreasonably suspicious; jealous. [Obs.] Chaucer.

-- Im*ag"i*na*tive*ly, adv. -- Im*ag"i*na*tive*ness, n.

Im*ag"ine (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imagined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imagining.] [F. imaginer, L. imaginari, p. p. imaginatus, fr. imago image. See Image.] 1. To form in the mind a notion or idea of; to form a mental image of; to conceive; to produce by the imagination.

In the night, imagining some fear,
How easy is a bush supposed a bear!


2. To contrive in purpose; to scheme; to devise; to compass; to purpose. See Compass, v. t., 5.

How long will ye imagine mischief against a man?

Ps. lxii. 3.

3. To represent to one's self; to think; to believe. Shak.

Syn. -- To fancy; conceive; apprehend; think; believe; suppose; opine; deem; plan; scheme; devise.

Im*ag"ine, v. i. 1. To form images or conceptions; to conceive; to devise.

2. To think; to suppose.

My sister is not so defenseless left
As you imagine.


Im*ag"in*er (?), n. One who forms ideas or conceptions; one who contrives. Bacon.

Im*ag"in*ous (?), a. Imaginative. [R.] Chapman.

||I*ma"go (?), n.; pl. Imagoes (#). [L. See Image.] 1. An image.

2. (Zoöl.) The final adult, and usually winged, state of an insect. See Illust. of Ant- lion, and Army worm.

{ ||I*mam" (?), ||I*man" (?), ||I*maum" (?), } n. [Ar. imm.] 1. Among the Mohammedans, a minister or priest who performs the regular service of the mosque.

2. A Mohammedan prince who, as a successor of Mohammed, unites in his person supreme spiritual and temporal power.

I*ma"ret (?), n. [Turk., fr. Ar. 'imra.] A lodging house for Mohammedan pilgrims. Moore.

Im*balm" (?), v. t. See Embalm.

Im*ban" (?), v. t. To put under a ban. [R.] Barlow.

Im*band" (?), v. t. To form into a band or bands. "Imbanded nations." J. Barlow.

Im*bank" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbanking.] [Pref. im- in + bank. Cf. Embank.] To inclose or defend with a bank or banks. See Embank.

Im*bank"ment (?), n. The act of surrounding with a bank; a bank or mound raised for defense, a roadway, etc.; an embankment. See Embankment.

Im*ban"nered (?), a. Having banners.

Im*bar" (?), v. t. To bar in; to secure. [Obs.]

To imbar their crooked titles.


Im*bar"go (?), n. See Embargo.

Im*bark" (?), v. i. & t. See Embark.

Im*barn" (?), v. t. To store in a barn. [Obs.]

Im*base" (?), v. t. See Embase.

Im*base", v. i. To diminish in value. [Obs.] Hales.

Im*bas"tard*ize (?), v. t. To bastardize; to debase. [Obs.] Milton.

Im*bathe" (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + bathe. Cf. Embathe.] To bathe; to wash freely; to immerse.

And gave her to his daughters to imbathe
In nectared lavers strewed with asphodel.


Im*bay" (?), v. t. See Embay.

Im"be*cile (?), a. [L. imbecillis, and imbecillus; of unknown origin: cf. F. imbécile.] Destitute of strength, whether of body or mind; feeble; impotent; esp., mentally wea; feeble-minded; as, hospitals for the imbecile and insane.

Syn. -- Weak; feeble; feeble-minded; idiotic.

Im"be*cile, n. One destitute of strength; esp., one of feeble mind.

Im"be*cile, v. t. To weaken; to make imbecile; as, to imbecile men's courage. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Im`be*cil"i*tate (?), v. t. To weaken, as to the body or the mind; to enfeeble. [R.] A. Wilson.

Im`be*cil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Imbecilities (#). [L. imbecillitas: cf. F. imbécillité.] The quality of being imbecile; weakness; feebleness, esp. of mind.

Cruelty . . . argues not only a depravedness of nature, but also a meanness of courage and imbecility of mind.

Sir W. Temple.

This term is used specifically to denote natural weakness of the mental faculties, affecting one's power to act reasonably or intelligently.

Syn. -- Debility; infirmity; weakness; feebleness; impotence. See Debility.

Im*bed" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbedded (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbedding.] [Pref. im- in + bed. Cf. Embed.] To sink or lay, as in a bed; to deposit in a partly inclosing mass, as of clay or mortar; to cover, as with earth, sand, etc.

Im*bel"lic (?), a. [L. imbellis; pref. im- = in- not + bellum war; cf. bellicus warlike.] Not warlike or martial. [Obs.] R. Junius.

Im*bench"ing (?), n. [Pref. im- in + bench.] A raised work like a bench. [Obs.] Parkhurst.

Im"ber-goose` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The loon. See Ember-goose.

Im*bez"zle (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Embezzle.

Im*bibe" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbibed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbibing.] [L. imbibere; pref. im- in + bibere to drink: cf. F. imbiber. Cf. Bib, Imbue, Potable.] 1. To drink in; to absorb; to suck or take in; to receive as by drinking; as, a person imbibes drink, or a sponge imbibes moisture.

2. To receive or absorb into the mind and retain; as, to imbibe principles; to imbibe errors.

3. To saturate; to imbue. [Obs.] "Earth, imbibed with . . . acid." Sir I. Newton.

Im*bib"er (?), n. One who, or that which, imbibes.

Im`bi*bi"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. imbibition.] The act or process of imbibing, or absorbing; as, the post-mortem imbibition of poisons. Bacon.

Im*bit"ter (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbittered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbittering.] [Pref. im- in + bitter. Cf. Embitter.] [Written also embitter.] To make bitter; hence, to make distressing or more distressing; to make sad, morose, sour, or malignant.

Is there anything that more imbitters the enjoyment of this life than shame?


Imbittered against each other by former contests.


Im*bit"ter*er (?), n. One who, or that which, imbitters.

Im*bit"ter*ment (?), n. The act of imbittering; bitter feeling; embitterment.

Im*blaze" (?), v. t. See Emblaze.

Im*bla"zon (?), v. t. See Emblazon.

Im*bod"y (?), v. i. [See Embody.] To become corporeal; to assume the qualities of a material body. See Embody.

The soul grows clotted by contagion,
Imbodies, and imbrutes.


Im*boil" (?), v. t. & i. [Obs.] See Emboil.

Im*bold"en (?), v. t. See Embolden.

Im*bon"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. im- not + L. bonitas goodness.] Want of goodness. [Obs.] Burton.

Im*bor"der (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbordered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbordering.] [Pref. im- in + border. Cf. Emborder.] To furnish or inclose with a border; to form a border of. Milton.

Im*bosk" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbosked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbosking.] [CF. It. imboscare to imbosk, imboscarsi to retire into a wood; pref. im- in + bosco wood. See Boscage, and cf. Ambush.] To conceal, as in bushes; to hide. [Obs.] Shelton.

Im*bosk", v. i. To be concealed. [R.] Milton.

Im*bos"om (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbosomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbosoming.] [Pref. im- in + bosom. Cf. Embosom.] 1. To hold in the bosom; to cherish in the heart or affection; to embosom.

2. To inclose or place in the midst of; to surround or shelter; as, a house imbosomed in a grove. "Villages imbosomed soft in trees." Thomson.

The Father infinite,
By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son.


Im*boss" (?), v. t. See Emboss.

Im*bos"ture (?), n. [See Emboss.] Embossed or raised work. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Im*bound" (?), v. t. To inclose in limits; to shut in. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*bow" (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + bow. Cf. Embow.] To make like a bow; to curve; to arch; to vault; to embow. "Imbowed windows." Bacon.

Im*bow"el (?), v. t. See Embowel.

Im*bow"er (?), v. t. & i. See Embower.

Im*bow"ment (?), n. act of imbowing; an arch; a vault. Bacon.

Im*box" (?), v. t. To inclose in a box.

Im*bra"cer*y (?), n. Embracery. [Obs.]

Im*braid" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Embraid.

Im*bran"gle (?), v. t. To entangle as in a cobweb; to mix confusedly. [R.] Hudibras.

Physiology imbrangled with an inapplicable logic.


Im*breed" (?), v. t. [Cf. Inbreed.] To generate within; to inbreed. [Obs.] Hakewill.

{ Im"bri*cate (?), Im"bri*ca`ted (?), } a. [L. imbricatus, p. p. of imbricare to cover with tiles, to form like a gutter tile, fr. imbrex, -icis, a hollow tile, gutter tile, fr. imber rain.] 1. Bent and hollowed like a roof or gutter tile.

2. Lying over each other in regular order, so as to "break joints," like tiles or shingles on a roof, the scales on the leaf buds of plants and the cups of some acorns, or the scales of fishes; overlapping each other at the margins, as leaves in æstivation.

3. In decorative art: Having scales lapping one over the other, or a representation of such scales; as, an imbricated surface; an imbricated pattern.

Im"bri*cate (?), v. t. To lay in order, one lapping over another, so as to form an imbricated surface.

Im`bri*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. imbrication.] An overlapping of the edges, like that of tiles or shingles; hence, intricacy of structure; also, a pattern or decoration representing such a structure.

Im"bri*ca*tive (?), a. (Bot.) Imbricate.

Im`bro*ca"do (?), n.; pl. Imbrocadoes (#). [See Brocade.] Cloth of silver or of gold. [R.]

{ ||Im`bro*ca"ta (?), Im`broc*ca"ta }, n. [It. imbroccata.] A hit or thrust. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Im*brogl"io (?), n.; pl. Imbroglios (#). [Written also embroglio.] [It. See 1st Broil, and cf. Embroil.] 1. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.

2. A complicated and embarrassing state of things; a serious misunderstanding.

Wrestling to free itself from the baleful imbroglio.


Im*brown" (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + brown. Cf. Embrown.] To make brown; to obscure; to darken; to tan; as, features imbrowned by exposure.

The mountain mass by scorching skies imbrowned.


Im*brue" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbureed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbureing.] [Cf. OF. embruer, also embruver, embreuver, embrever, to give to drink, soak (see pref. En-, 1, 1st In-, and Breverage), but also OE. enbrewen, enbrowen, to stain, soil (cf. Brewis).] To wet or moisten; to soak; to drench, especially in blood.

While Darwen stream, will blood of Scots imbrued.


Im*brue"ment (?), n. The act of imbruing or state of being imbrued.

Im*brute" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbruted; p. pr. & vb. n. Imbruting.] [Pref. im- in + brute: cf. F. abrutir. Cf. Embrute.] To degrade to the state of a brute; to make brutal.

And mixed with bestial slime,
THis essence to incarnate and imbrute.


Im*brute", v. i. To sink to the state of a brute.

The soul grows clotted by contagion,
Imbodies, and imbrutes, till she quite lose
The divine property of her first being.


Im*brute"ment (?), n. The act of imbruting, or the state of being imbruted. [R.] Brydges.

Im*bue" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imbued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imbuing.] [L. imbuere; pref. im- in + perh. a disused simple word akin to L. bibere to drink. Cf. Imbibe.] 1. To tinge deeply; to dye; to cause to absorb; as, clothes thoroughly imbued with black.

2. To tincture deply; to cause to become impressed or penetrated; as, to imbue the minds of youth with good principles.

Thy words with grace divine
Imbued, bring to their sweetness no satiety.


Im*bue"ment (?), n. The act of imbuing; the state of being imbued; hence, a deep tincture.

Im*burse" (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + burse: cf. F. embourser to put into one's purse. See Burse, and Purse.] To supply or stock with money. [Obs.]

Im*burse"ment (?), n. 1. The act of imbursing, or the state of being imbursed. [Obs.]

2. Money laid up in stock. [Obs.]

Im*bu"tion (?), n. An imbuing. [Obs.]

I*mes"a*tin (?), n. [Imide + isatin.] (Chem.) A dark yellow, crystalline substance, obtained by the action of ammonia on isatin.

Im"ide (?), n. (Chem.) A compound with, or derivative of, the imido group; specif., a compound of one or more acid radicals with the imido group, or with a monamine; hence, also, a derivative of ammonia, in which two atoms of hydrogen have been replaced by divalent basic or acid radicals; -- frequently used as a combining form; as, succinimide.

Im"i*do (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, containing, or combined with, the radical NH, which is called the imido group.

Imido acid, an organic acid, consisting of one or more acid radicals so united with the imido group that it contains replaceable acid hydrogen, and plays the part of an acid; as, uric acid, succinimide, etc., are imido acids.

Im`it*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [See Imitable.] The quality of being imitable. Norris.

<! p. 731 !>

Im"i*ta*ble (?), a. [L. imitabilis: cf. F. imitable. See Imitate.] 1. Capable of being imitated or copied.

The characters of man placed in lower stations of life are more usefull, as being imitable by great numbers.


2. Worthy of imitation; as, imitable character or qualities. Sir W. Raleigh.

Im"i*ta*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being imitable; worthness of imitation.

Im"i*tan*cy (?), n. [From L. imitans, p. pr. of imitare.] Tendency to imitation. [R.] Carlyle.

Im"i*tate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imitating (?).] [L. imitatus, p. p. of imitari to imitate; of unknown origin. Cf. Image.] 1. To follow as a pattern, model, or example; to copy or strive to copy, in acts, manners etc.

Despise wealth and imitate a dog.


2. To produce a semblance or likeness of, in form, character, color, qualities, conduct, manners, and the like; to counterfeit; to copy.

A place picked out by choice of best alive
The Nature's work by art can imitate.


This hand appeared a shining sword to weild,
And that sustained an imitated shield.


3. (Biol.) To resemble (another species of animal, or a plant, or inanimate object) in form, color, ornamentation, or instinctive habits, so as to derive an advantage thereby; sa, when a harmless snake imitates a venomous one in color and manner, or when an odorless insect imitates, in color, one having secretion offensive to birds.

Im"i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. imitatio: cf. F. imitation.] 1. The act of imitating.

Poesy is an art of imitation, . . . that is to say, a representing, counterfeiting, or figuring forth.

Sir P. Sidney.

2. That which is made or produced as a copy; that which is made to resemble something else, whether for laudable or for fraudulent purposes; likeness; resemblance.

Both these arts are not only true imitations of nature, but of the best nature.


3. (Mus.) One of the principal means of securing unity and consistency in polyphonic composition; the repetition of essentially the same melodic theme, phrase, or motive, on different degrees of pitch, by one or more of the other parts of voises. Cf. Canon.

4. (Biol.) The act of condition of imitating another species of animal, or a plant, or unanimate object. See Imitate, v. t., 3.

Imitation is often used adjectively to characterize things which have a deceptive appearance, simulating the qualities of a superior article; -- opposed to real or genuine; as, imitation lace; imitation bronze; imitation modesty, etc.

Im`i*ta"tion*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or employed in, imitation; as, imitational propensities.

Im"i*ta*tive (?), a. [L. imitavitus: cf. F. imitatif.] 1. Inclined to imitate, copy, or follow; imitating; exhibiting some of the qualities or characteristics of a pattern or model; dependent on example; not original; as, man is an imitative being; painting is an imitative art.

2. Formed after a model, pattern, or original.

This temple, less in form, with equal grace,
Was imitative of the first in Thrace.


3. (Nat. Hist.) Designed to imitate another species of animal, or a plant, or inanimate object, for some useful purpose, such as protection from enemies; having resemblance to something else; as, imitative colors; imitative habits; dendritic and mammillary forms of minerals are imitative.

-- Im"i*ta*tive*ly, adv. -- Im"i*ta*tive*ness, n.

Im"i*ta*tive, n. (Gram.) A verb expressive of imitation or resemblance. [R.]

Im"i*ta"tor (?), n. [L.] One who imitates.

Im"i*ta`tor*ship, n. The state or office of an imitator. "Servile imitatorship." Marston.

Im"i*ta`tress (?), n. A woman who is an imitator.

Im"i*ta`trix (?), n. An imitatress.

Im*mac"u*late (?), a. [L. immaculatus; pref. im- not + maculatus, p. p. of maculare to spot, stane, fr. macula spot. See Mail armor.] Without stain or blemish; spotless; undefiled; clear; pure.

Were but my soul as pure
From other guilt as that, Heaven did not hold
One more immaculate.


Thou sheer, immaculate and silver fountain.


Immaculate conception (R. C. Ch.), the doctrine that the Virgin Mary was conceived without original sin.

-- Im*mac"u*late*ly, adv. -- Im*mac"u*late*ness, n.

Im*mailed" (?), a. Wearing mail or armor; clad of armor. W. Browne.

Im*mal"le*a*ble (?), a. Not maleable.

Im*man"a*cle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immanacled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immanacling (?).] To manacle; to fetter; hence; to confine; to restrain from free action.

Although this corporal rind
Thou hast immanacled.


Im"ma*na"tion (?), n. [Pref. im- in + L. manare to flow; cf. mantio a flowing.] A flowing or entering in; -- opposed to emanation. [R.] Good.

Im*mane" (?), a. [L. immanis.] Very great; huge; vast; also, monstrous in character; inhuman; atrocious; fierce. [Obs.] "So immane a man." Chapman.

-- Im*mane"ly, adv. [Obs.]

{ Im"ma*nence (?), Im"ma*nen*cy (?), } n. The condition or quality of being immanent; inherence; an indwelling.

[Clement] is mainly concerned in enforcing the immanence of God. Christ is everywhere presented by him as Deity indwelling in the world.

A. V. G. Allen.

Im"ma*nent (?), a. [L. immanens, p. pr. of immanere to remain in or near; pref. im- in + manere to remain: cf. F. immanent.] Remaining within; inherent; indwelling; abiding; intrinsic; internal or subjective; hence, limited in activity, agency, or effect, to the subject or associated acts; -- opposed to emanant, transitory, transitive, or objective.

A cognition is an immanent act of mind.

Sir W. Hamilton.

An immanent power in the life of the world.


Im*man"i*fest (?), a. Not manifest. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*man"i*ty (?), n. [L. immanitas.] The state or quality of being immane; barbarity. [R.] Shak.

Im*man"tle (?), v. t. See Emmantle. [R.]

Im*man"u*el (?), n. [Heb. 'immn&?;l, fr. 'im with + n&?; us + l God.] God with us; -- an appellation of the Christ. Is. vii. 14. Matt. i. 23.

Im`mar*ces"ci*ble (?), a. [L. immarcescibilis; pref. im- not + marcescere to fade: cf. F. immarcescible.] Unfading; lasting. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Im`mar*ces"ci*bly, adv. Unfadingly. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Im*mar"gin*ate (?), a. (Bot.) Not having a distinctive margin or border. Grey.

Im*mar"tial (?), a. Not martial; unwarlike. [Obs.]

Im*mask" (?), v. t. To cover, as with a mask; to disguise or conceal. [R.] Shak.

Im*match"a*ble (?), a. Matchless; peerless. [Obs.] Holland.

Im`ma*te"ri*al (m`m*t"r*al), a. [Pref. im- not + material: cf. F. immatériel.] 1. Not consisting of matter; incorporeal; spiritual; disembodied.

Angels are spirits immaterial and intellectual.


2. Of no substantial consequence; without weight or significance; unimportant; as, it is wholly immaterial whether he does so or not.

Syn. -- Unimportant; inconsequential; insignificant; inconsiderable; trifling.

Im`ma*te"ri*al*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. immatérialisme.] 1. The doctrine that immaterial substances or spiritual being exist, or are possible.

2. (Philos.) The doctrine that external bodies may be reduced to mind and ideas in a mind; any doctrine opposed to materialism or phenomenalism, esp. a system that maintains the immateriality of the soul; idealism; esp., Bishop Berkeley's theory of idealism.

Im`ma*te"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. immatérialiste.] (Philos.) One who believes in or professes, immaterialism.

Im`ma*te`ri*al"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Immaterialities (#). [Cf. F. immatérialité.] The state or quality of being immaterial or incorporeal; as, the immateriality of the soul.

Im`ma*te"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [Cf. F. immatérialiser.] To render immaterial or incorporeal.

Immateralized spirits.


Im`ma*te"ri*al*ly, adv. 1. In an immaterial manner; without matter or corporeal substance.

2. In an unimportant manner or degree.

Im`ma*te"ri*al*ness, n. The state or quality of being immaterial; immateriality.

Im`ma*te"ri*ate (?), a. Immaterial. [Obs.] Bacon.

Im`ma*ture" (?), a. [L. immaturus; pref. im- not + maturus mature, ripe. See Mature.] 1. Not mature; unripe; not arrived at perfection of full development; crude; unfinished; as, immature fruit; immature character; immature plans. "An ill-measured and immature counsel." Bacon.

2. Premature; untimely; too early; as, an immature death. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im`ma*tured" (?), a. Immature.

Im`ma*ture"ly (?), adv. In an immature manner. Warburion.

Im`ma*ture"ness, n. The state or quality of being immature; immaturity. Boyle.

Im`ma*tu"ri*ty (?), n. [L. immaturitas: cf. F. immaturité.] The state or quality of being immature or not fully developed; unripeness; incompleteness.

When the world has outgrown its intellectual immaturity.


Im`me*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. im- not + L. meabilis passable, fr. meare to pass.] Want of power to pass, or to permit passage; impassableness.

Immeability of the juices.


Im*meas`ur*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being immeasurable; immensurability.

Im*meas"ur*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + measurable: cf. F. measurable. Cf. Immensurable, Unmeasurable.] Incapable of being measured; indefinitely extensive; illimitable; immensurable; vast.

Of depth immeasurable.


Im*meas"ur*a*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being immeasurable.

Eternity and immeasurableness belong to thought alone.

F. W. Robertson.

Im*meas"ur*a*bly, adv. In an immeasurable manner or degree. "Immeasurably distant." Wordsworth.

Im*meas"ured (?), a. Immeasurable. [R.] Spenser.

Im`me*chan"ic*al (?), a. Not mechanical. [Obs.] Cheyne. -- Im"me*chan"ic*al*ly, adv. [Obs.]

Im*me"di*a*cy (?), n. The relation of freedom from the interventionof a medium; immediateness. Shak.

Im*me"di*ate (?), a. [F. immédiat. See In- not, and Mediate.] 1. Not separated in respect to place by anything intervening; proximate; close; as, immediate contact.

You are the most immediate to our throne.


2. Not deferred by an interval of time; present; instant. "Assemble we immediate council." Shak.

Death . . . not yet inflicted, as he feared,
By some immediate stroke.


3. Acting with nothing interposed or between, or without the intervention of another object as a cause, means, or agency; acting, perceived, or produced, directly; as, an immediate cause.

The immediate knowledge of the past is therefore impossible.

Sir. W. Hamilton.

Immediate amputation (Surg.), an amputation performed within the first few hours after an injury, and before the the effects of the shock have passed away.

Syn. -- Proximate; close; direct; next.

Im*me"di*ate*ly (?), adv. 1. In an immediate manner; without intervention of any other person or thing; proximately; directly; -- opposed to mediately; as, immediately contiguous.

God's acceptance of it either immediately by himself, or mediately by the hands of the bishop.


2. Without interval of time; without delay; promptly; instantly; at once.

And Jesus . . . touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.

Matt. viii. 3.

3. As soon as. Cf. Directly, 8, Note.

Syn. -- Directly; instantly; quickly; forthwith; straightway; presently. See Directly.

Im*me"di*ate*ness, n. The quality or relations of being immediate in manner, place, or time; exemption from second or interventing causes. Bp. Hall.

Im*me"di*a*tism (?), n. Immediateness.

Im*med"i*ca*ble (?), a. [L. Immedicabilis. See In- not, and Medicable.] Not to be healed; incurable. "Wounds immedicable." Milton.

Im`me*lo"di*ous (?), a. Not melodious.

Im*mem"o*ra*ble (?), a. [L. immemorabilis; pref. im- not + memorabilis memorable: cf. F. immémorable. See Memorable.] Not memorable; not worth remembering. Johnson.

Im`me*mo"ri*al (?), a. [Pref. im- not + memorial: cf. F. immémorial.] Extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition; indefinitely ancient; as, existing from time immemorial. "Immemorial elms." Tennyson. "Immemorial usage or custom." Sir M. Hale.

Time immemorial (Eng. Law.), a time antedating (legal) history, and beyond "legal memory" so called; formerly an indefinite time, but in 1276 this time was fixed by statute as the begining of the reign of Richard I. (1189). Proof of unbroken possession or use of any right since that date made it unnecessary to establish the original grant. In 1832 the plan of dating legal memory from a fixed time was abandoned and the principle substituted that rights which had been enjoyed for full twenty years (or as against the crown thirty years) should not be liable to impeachment merely by proving that they had not been enjoyed before.

Im`me*mo"ri*al*ly, adv. Beyond memory. Bentley.

Im*mense" (?), a. [L. immensus; pref. im- not + mensus, p. p. of metiri to measure: cf. F. immense. See Measure.] Immeasurable; unlimited. In commonest use: Very great; vast; huge. "Immense the power" Pope. "Immense and boundless ocean." Daniel.

O Goodness infinite! Goodness immense!


Syn. -- Infinite; immeasurable; illimitable; unbounded; unlimited; interminable; vast; prodigious; enormous; monstrous. See Enormous.

Im*mense"ly, adv. In immense manner or degree.

Im*mense"ness, n. The state of being immense.

Im*men"si*ble (?), a. [Immense + -ible.] Immeasurable. [Obs.] Davies.

Im*men"si*ty (?), n.; pl. Immensities (#). [L. immensitas: cf. F. immensité.] The state or quality of being immense; inlimited or immeasurable extension; infinity; vastness in extent or bulk; greatness.

Lost in the wilds of vast immensity.


The immensity of the material system.

I. Taylor.

Im*men"sive (?), a. Huge. [Obs.] Herrick.

Im*men`su*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being immensurable.

Im*men"su*ra*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + L. mensurabilis measurable: cf. F. immensurable. Cf. Immeasurable.] Immeasurable.

What an immensurable space is the firmament.


Im*men"su*rate (?), a. [Pref. im- not + mensurate.] Unmeasured; unlimited. [R.] W. Montagu.

Im*merge" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immerged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immerging (?).] [L. immergere; pref. im- in + mergere to dip, plunge: cf. F. immerger. See Merge, and cf. Immerse.] To plungel into, under, or within anything especially a fuid; to dip; to immerse. See Immerse.

We took . . . lukewarm water, and in it immerged a quantity of the leaves of senna.


Their souls are immerged in matter.

Jer. Taylor.

Im*merge" (?), v. i. To dissapear by entering into any medium, as a star into the light of the sun. [R.]

Im*mer"it (?), n. Want of worth; demerit. [R.] Suckling.

Im*mer"it*ed, a. Unmerited. [Obs.] Charles I.

Im*mer"it*ous (?), a. [L. immeritus; pref. im- not + meritus, p. p. of merere, mereri, to deserve.] Undeserving. [Obs.] Milton.

Im*mers"a*ble (?), a. See Immersible.

Im*merse" (?), a. [L. immersus, p. p. of immergere. See Immerge.] Immersed; buried; hid; sunk. [Obs.] "Things immerse in matter." Bacon.

Im*merse", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immersed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immersing.] 1. To plunge into anything that surrounds or covers, especially into a fluid; to dip; to sink; to bury; to immerge.

Deep immersed beneath its whirling wave.

J Warton.

More than a mile immersed within the wood.


2. To baptize by immersion.

3. To engage deeply; to engross the attention of; to involve; to overhelm.

The queen immersed in such a trance.


It is impossible to have a lively hope in another life, and yet be deeply immersed inn the enjoyments of this.


<! p. 732 !>

Im*mersed" (?), p. p. & a. 1. Deeply plunged into anything, especially a fluid.

2. Deeply occupied; engrossed; entangled.

3. (Bot.) Growing wholly under water. Gray.

Im*mers"i*ble (?), a. [From Immerse.] Capable of being immersed.

Im*mers"i*ble, a. [Pref. im- not + L. mersus, p. p. of mergere to plunge.] Not capable of being immersed.

Im*mer"sion (?), n. [L. immersio; cf. F. immersion.] 1. The act of immersing, or the state of being immersed; a sinking within a fluid; a dipping; as, the immersion of Achilles in the Styx.

2. Submersion in water for the purpose of Christian baptism, as, practiced by the Baptists.

3. The state of being overhelmed or deeply absorbed; deep engagedness.

Too deep an immersion in the affairs of life.


4. (Astron.) The dissapearance of a celestail body, by passing either behind another, as in the occultation of a star, or into its shadow, as in the eclipse of a satellite; -- opposed to emersion.

Immersion lens, a microscopic objective of short focal distance designed to work with a drop of liquid, as oil, between the front lens and the slide, so that this lens is practically immersed.

Im*mer"sion*ist, n. (Eccl.) One who holds the doctrine that immersion is essential to Christian baptism.

Im*mesh" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immeshed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immeshing.] [Pref. im- in + mesh. Cf. Inmesh.] To catch or entangle in, or as in, the meshes of a net. or in a web; to insnare.

Im`me*thod"ic*al (?), a. Not methodical; without method or systematic arrangement; without order or regularity; confused. Addison.

Syn. -- Irregular; confused; disoderly; unsystematic; desultory.

Im`me*thod"ic*al*ly, adv. Without method; confusedly; unsystematically.

Im`me*thod"ic*al*ness, n. Want of method.

Im*meth"od*ize (?), v. t. To render immethodical; to destroy the method of; to confuse. [R.]

Im*met"ric*al (&?;), a. Not metrical or rhythmical. [R.] Chapman.

Im*mew" (?), v. t. See Emmew.

Im"mi*grant (?), n. [L. immigrans, p. pr. of immigrare to go into: cf. F. immigrant. See Immigrate.] One who immigrates; one who comes to a country for the purpose of permanent residence; -- correlative of emigrant.

Syn. -- See Emigrant.

Im"mi*grate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immigrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immigrating (?).] [L. immigrare, immigratum, to immigrate; pref. im- in + migrare to migrate. See Migrate.] To come into a country of which one is not a native, for the purpose of permanent residence. See Emigrate.

Im"mi*gra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. immigration.] The act of immigrating; the passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence.

The immigrations of the Arabians into Europe.

T. Warton.

Im"mi*nence (?), n. [Cf. F. imminence, L. imminentia, See Imminent.] 1. The condition or quality of being imminent; a threatening, as of something about to happen. The imminence of any danger or distress. Fuller.

2. That which is imminent; impending evil or danger. "But dare all imminence." Shak.

Im"mi*nent (?), a. [L. imminens, p. pr. of imminere to project; pref. im- in + minere (in comp.) to jut, project. See Eminent.] 1. Threatening to occur immediately; near at hand; impending; -- said especially of misfortune or peril. "In danger imminent." Spenser.

2. Full of danger; threatening; menacing; perilous.

Hairbreadth scapes i' the imminent deadly breach.


3. (With upon) Bent upon; attentive to. [R.]

Their eyes ever imminent upon worldly matters.


Syn. -- Impending; threatening; near; at hand. -- Imminent, Impending, Threatening. Imminent is the strongest: it denotes that something is ready to fall or happen on the instant; as, in imminent danger of one's life. Impending denotes that something hangs suspended over us, and may so remain indefinitely; as, the impending evils of war. Threatening supposes some danger in prospect, but more remote; as, threatening indications for the future.

Three times to-day
You have defended me from imminent death.


No story I unfold of public woes,
Nor bear advices of impending foes.


Fierce faces threatening war.


Im"mi*nent*ly, adv. In an imminent manner.

Im*min"gle (?), v. t. To mingle; to mix; to unite; to blend. [R.] Thomson.

Im`mi*nu"tion (?), n. [L. imminutio, fr. imminuere, imminutum, to lessen; pref. im- in + minuere.] A lessening; diminution; decrease. [R.] Ray.

Im*mis"ci*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. immiscibilité.] Incapability of being mixed, or mingled.

Im*mis"ci*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + miscible: cf. F. immiscible.] Not capable of being mixed or mingled.

A chaos of immiscible and conflicting particles.


Im*mis"sion (?), n. [L. immissio: cf. F. immission. See Immit.] The act of immitting, or of sending or thrusting in; injection; -- the correlative of emission.

Im*mit" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Immiting.] [L. immittere, immissum; pref. im- in + mittere to send.] To send in; to inject; to infuse; -- the correlative of emit. [R.] Boyle.

Im*mit"i*ga*ble (?), a. [L. immitigabilis; fr. pref. im- not + mitigare to mitigate.] Not capable of being mitigated, softened, or appeased. Coleridge.

Im*mit"i*ga*bly (?), adv. In an immitigable manner.

Im*mix" (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + mix.] To mix; to mingle. [R.]

Amongst her tears immixing prayers meek.


Im*mix"a*ble (?), a. Not mixable. Bp. Wilkins.

Im*mixed" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + mixed, p. p. of mix.] Unmixed. [Obs.]

How pure and immixed the design is.


Im*mix"ture (?), n. Freedom from mixture; purity. [R.] W. Montagu.

Im*mo"bile (?), a. [L. immobilis: cf. F. immobile. See Immobility.] Incapable of being moved; immovable; fixed; stable. Prof. Shedd.

Im`mo*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. immobilitas, fr. immobilis immovable; pref. im- not + mobilis movable: cf. F. immobilité. See Mobile.] The condition or quality of being immobile; fixedness in place or state.

Im*mob"i*lize (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + mobilize; cf. f. immobiliser.] To make immovable; in surgery, to make immovable (a naturally mobile part, as a joint) by the use of splints, or stiffened bandages.

Im*mo"ble (?), a. [Obs.] See Immobile.

Im*mod"er*a*cy (?), n. [From Immoderate.] Immoderateness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*mod"er*an*cy (?), n. [L. immoderantia.] Immoderateness; excess. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*mod"er*ate (?), a. [L. immoderatus; pref. im- not + moderatus moderate. See Moderate.] Not moderate; exceeding just or usual and suitable bounds; excessive; extravagant; unreasonable; as, immoderate demands; immoderate grief; immoderate laughter.

So every scope by the immoderate use
Turns to restraint.


Syn. -- Excessive; exorbitant; unreasonable; extravagant; intemperate; inordinate.

Im*mod"er*ate*ly, adv. In an immoderate manner; excessively.

Im*mod"er*ate*ness, n. The quality of being immoderate; excess; extravagance. Puller.

Im*mod`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. immoderatio: cf. F. imodération.] Want of moderation. Hallywell.

Im*mod"est (?), a. [F. immodeste, L. immodestus immoderate; pref. im- not + modestus modest. See Modest.] 1. Not limited to due bounds; immoderate.

2. Not modest; wanting in the reserve or restraint which decorum and decency require; indecent; indelicate; obscene; lewd; as, immodest persons, behavior, words, pictures, etc.

Immodest deeds you hinder to be wrought,
But we proscribe the least immodest thought.


Syn. -- Indecorous; indelicate; shameless; shameful; impudent; indecent; impure; unchaste; lewd; obscene.

Im*mod"est*ly, adv. In an immodest manner.

Im*mod"es*ty (?), n. [L. immodestia: cf. F. immodestie.] Want of modesty, delicacy, or decent reserve; indecency. "A piece of immodesty." Pope.

Im"mo*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immolated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immolating.] [L. immolatus, p. p. of immolare to sacrifice, orig., to sprinkle a victim with sacrifical meal; pref. im- in + mola grits or grains of spelt coarsely ground and mixed with salt; also, mill. See Molar, Meal ground grain.] To sacrifice; to offer in sacrifice; to kill, as a sacrificial victim.

Worshipers, who not only immolate to them [the deities] the lives of men, but . . . the virtue and honor of women.


Im`mo*la"tion (?), n. [L. immolatio: cf. F. immolation.] 1. The act of immolating, or the state of being immolated, or sacrificed. Sir. T. Browne.

2. That which is immolated; a sacrifice.

Im"mo*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who offers in sacrifice; specifically, one of a sect of Russian fanatics who practice self-mutilation and sacrifice.

{ Im*mold", Im*mould" } (?), v. t. To mold into shape, or form. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.

Im*mo"ment (?), a. [See Immomentous.] Trifling. [R.] "Immoment toys." Shak.

Im`mo*men"tous (?), a. [Pref. im- not + momentous.] Not momentous; unimportant; insignificant. [R.] A. Seward.

Im*mor"al (?), a. [Pref. im- not + moral: cf. F. immoral.] Not moral; inconsistent with rectitude, purity, or good morals; contrary to conscience or the divine law; wicked; unjust; dishonest; vicious; licentious; as, an immoral man; an immoral deed.

Syn. -- Wicked; sinful; criminal; vicious; unjust; dishonest; depraved; impure; unchaste; profligate; dissolute; abandoned; licentious; lewd; obscene.

Im`mo*ral"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Immoralities (#). [Cf. F. immoralité.] 1. The state or quality of being immoral; vice.

The root of all immorality.

Sir W. Temple.

2. An immoral act or practice.

Luxury and sloth and then a great drove of heresies and immoralities broke loose among them.


Im*mor"al*ly (?), adv. In an immoral manner; wickedly.

Im`mo*rig"er*ous (?), a. [Pref. im- not + morigerous.] Rude; uncivil; disobedient. [Obs.] -- Im`mo*rig"er*ous*ness, n. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Im*mor"tal (?), a. [L. immortalis; pref. im- not + mortalis mortal: cf. F. immortel. See Mortal, and cf. Immortelle.] 1. Not mortal; exempt from liability to die; undying; imperishable; lasting forever; having unlimited, or eternal, existance.

Unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible.

1 Tim. i. 17.

For my soul, what can it do to that,
Being a thing immortal as itself?


2. Connected with, or pertaining to immortality.

I have immortal longings in me.


3. Destined to live in all ages of this world; abiding; exempt from oblivion; imperishable; as, immortal fame.

One of the few, immortal names,
That were not born to die.


4. Great; excessive; grievous. [Obs.] Hayward.

Immortal flowers, immortelles; everlastings.

Syn. -- Eternal; everlasting; never-ending; ceaseless; perpetual; continual; enduring; endless; imperishable; incorruptible; deathless; undying.

Im*mor"tal (?), n. One who will never cease to be; one exempt from death, decay, or annihilation. Bunyan.

Im*mor"tal*ist, n. One who holds the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im`mor*tal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Immortalities (#). [L. immortalitas: cf. F. immortalité.] 1. The quality or state of being immortal; exemption from death and annihilation; unending existance; as, the immortality of the soul.

This mortal must put on immortality.

1 Cor. xv. 53.

2. Exemption from oblivion; perpetuity; as, the immortality of fame.

Im*mor`tal*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of immortalizing, or state of being immortalized.

Im*mor"tal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immortalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immortalizing (?).] [Cf. F. immortaliser.] 1. To render immortal; to cause to live or exist forever. S. Clarke.

2. To exempt from oblivion; to perpetuate in fame.

Alexander had no Homer to immortalize his guilty name.

T. Dawes.

Im*mor"tal*ize, v. i. To become immortal. [R.]

Im*mor"tal*ly, adv. In an immortal manner.

Im`mor*telle" (?), n.; pl. Immortelles (#). [F. See Immortal.] (Bot.) A plant with a conspicuous, dry, unwithering involucre, as the species of Antennaria, Helichrysum, Gomphrena, etc. See Everlasting.

Im*mor`ti*fi*ca"tion (?), n. Failure to mortify the passions. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im*mov"a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being immovable; fixedness; steadfastness; as, immovability of a heavy body; immovability of purpose.

Im*mov"a*ble (?), a. 1. Incapable of being moved; firmly fixed; fast; -- used of material things; as, an immovable foundation.

Immovable, infixed, and frozen round.


2. Steadfast; fixed; unalterable; unchangeable; -- used of the mind or will; as, an immovable purpose, or a man who remains immovable.

3. Not capable of being affected or moved in feeling or by sympathy; unimpressible; impassive. Dryden.

4. (Law.) Not liable to be removed; permanent in place or tenure; fixed; as, an immovable estate. See Immovable, n. Blackstone.

Immovable apparatus (Med.), an appliance, like the plaster of paris bandage, which keeps fractured parts firmly in place. -- Immovable feasts (Eccl.), feasts which occur on a certain day of the year and do not depend on the date of Easter; as, Christmas, the Epiphany, etc.

Im*mov"a*ble, n. 1. That which can not be moved.

2. pl. (Civil Law) Lands and things adherent thereto by nature, as trees; by the hand of man, as buildings and their accessories; by their destination, as seeds, plants, manure, etc.; or by the objects to which they are applied, as servitudes. Ayliffe. Bouvier.

Im*mov"a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being immovable.

Im*mov"a*bly, adv. In an immovable manner.

Im*mund" (?), a. [L. immundus; pref. im- not + mundus clean.] Unclean. [R.] Burton.

Im`mun*dic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. immondicité, L. immunditia, immundities.] Uncleanness; filthiness. [R.] W. Montagu.

Im*mune" (?), a. [L. immunis. See Immunity.] Exempt; protected by inoculation. -- Im*mu"nize (#), v. t.

Im*mu"ni*ty (?), n.; pl. Immunities (#). [L. immunitas, fr. immunis free from a public service; pref. im- not + munis complaisant, obliging, cf. munus service, duty: cf. F. immunité. See Common, and cf. Mean, a.] 1. Freedom or exemption from any charge, duty, obligation, office, tax, imposition, penalty, or service; a particular privilege; as, the immunities of the free cities of Germany; the immunities of the clergy.

2. Freedom; exemption; as, immunity from error.

Im*mure" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Immured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Immuring.] [Pref. im- in + mure: cf. F. emmurer.] 1. To wall around; to surround with walls. [Obs.] Sandys.

2. To inclose whithin walls, or as within walls; hence, to shut up; to imprison; to incarcerate.

Those tender babes
Whom envy hath immured within your walls.


This huge convex of fire,
Outrageous to devour, immures us round.


Im*mure", n. A wall; an inclosure. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*mure"ment (?), n. The act of immuring, or the state of being immured; imprisonment.

Im*mu"sic*al (?), a. Inharmonious; unmusical; discordant. Bacon.

Im*mu`ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. immutabilitas: cf. F. immutabilité.] The state or quality of being immutable; immutableness. Heb. vi. 17.

Im*mu"ta*ble (?), a. [L. immutabilis; pref. im- not + mutabilis mutable. See Mutable.] Not mutable; not capable or susceptible of change; unchangeable; unalterable.

That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation.

Heb. vi. 18.

Immutable, immortal, infinite,
Eternal King.


-- Im*mu"ta*ble*ness, n. -- Im*mu"ta*bly, adv.

<! p. 733 !>

Im*mu"tate (m*m"tt), a. [L. immutatus, p. p. of immature.] Unchanged. [Obs.]

Im"mu*ta"tion (?), n. [L. immutatio, from immutare, immutatum, to change. See Immute.] Change; alteration; mutation. [R.] Dr. H. More.

Im*mute" (m*mt"), v. t. [L. immutare, immutatum; perf. im- in + mutare to change : cf. OF. immuter.] To change or alter. [Obs.] J. Salkeld.

Imp (mp), n. [OE. imp a graft, AS. impa; akin to Dan. ympe, Sw. ymp, prob. fr. LL. impotus, Gr. &?; engrafted, innate, fr. &?; to implant; &?; in + &?; to produce; akin to E. be. See 1st In-, Be.] 1. A shoot; a scion; a bud; a slip; a graft. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. An offspring; progeny; child; scion. [Obs.]

The tender imp was weaned.


3. A young or inferior devil; a little, malignant spirit; a puny demon; a contemptible evil worker.

To mingle in the clamorous fray
Of squabbling imps.


4. Something added to, or united with, another, to lengthen it out or repair it, -- as, an addition to a beehive; a feather inserted in a broken wing of a bird; a length of twisted hair in a fishing line. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

Imp, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imping.] [AS. impian to imp, ingraft, plant; akin to Dan. ympe, Sw. ympa, OHG. impfn, impitn, G. impfen. See Imp, n.] 1. To graft; to insert as a scion. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

2. (Falconry) To graft with new feathers, as a wing; to splice a broken feather. Hence, Fig.: To repair; to extend; to increase; to strengthen; to equip. [Archaic]

Imp out our drooping country's broken wing.


Who lazily imp their wings with other men's plumes.


Here no frail Muse shall imp her crippled wing.


Help, ye tart satirists, to imp my rage
With all the scorpions that should whip this age.


Im*pa"ca*ble (?), a. [L. pref. im- not + pacare to quiet. See Pacate.] Not to be appeased or quieted. [Obs.] Spenser. -- Im*pa"ca*bly, adv.

Im*pack"ment (?), n. [Pref. im- in + pack.] The state of being closely surrounded, crowded, or pressed, as by ice. [R.] Kane.

Im*pact" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impacted; p. pr. & vb. n. Impacting.] [L. impactus, p. p. of impingere to push, strike against. See Impinge.] To drive close; to press firmly together: to wedge into a place. Woodward.

Im"pact (?), n. 1. Contact or impression by touch; collision; forcible contact; force communicated.

The quarrel, by that impact driven.


2. (Mech.) The single instantaneous stroke of a body in motion against another either in motion or at rest.

Im*pact"ed (?), a. Driven together or close.

Impacted fracture (Surg.), a fracture in which the fragments are driven into each other so as to be immovable.

Im*pac"tion (?), n. [L. impactio a striking : cf. F. impaction.] 1. (Surg.) The driving of one fragment of bone into another so that the fragments are not movable upon each other; as, impaction of the skull or of the hip.

2. An immovable packing; (Med.), a lodgment of something in a strait or passage of the body; as, impaction of the fetal head in the strait of the pelvis; impaction of food or feces in the intestines of man or beast.

Im*paint" (?), v. t. To paint; to adorn with colors. [R.] "To impaint his cause." Shak.

Im*pair" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impaired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impairing.] [Written also empair.] [OE. empeiren, enpeiren, OF. empeirier, empirier, F. empirer, LL. impejorare; L. pref. im- in + pejorare to make worse, fr. pejor worse. Cf. Appair.] To make worse; to diminish in quantity, value, excellence, or strength; to deteriorate; as, to impair health, character, the mind, value.

Time sensibly all things impairs.


In years he seemed, but not impaired by years.


Syn. -- To diminish; decrease; injure; weaken; enfeeble; debilitate; reduce; debase; deteriorate.

Im*pair", v. t. To grow worse; to deteriorate. Milton.

Im"pair (?), a. [F. impair uneven, L. impar; im- not + par equal.] Not fit or appropriate. [Obs.]

Im*pair" (?), n. Diminution; injury. [Obs.]

Im*pair"er (?), n. One who, or that which, impairs.

Im*pair"ment (?), n. [OE. enpeirement, OF. empirement.] The state of being impaired; injury. "The impairment of my health." Dryden.

Im*pal"a*ta*ble (?), a. Unpalatable. [R.]

Im*pale" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impaled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impaling.] [See 2d Empale.] 1. To pierce with a pale; to put to death by fixing on a sharp stake. See Empale.

Then with what life remains, impaled, and left
To writhe at leisure round the bloody stake.


2. To inclose, as with pales or stakes; to surround.

Impale him with your weapons round about.


Impenetrable, impaled with circling fire.


3. (Her.) To join, as two coats of arms on one shield, palewise; hence, to join in honorable mention.

Ordered the admission of St. Patrick to the same to be matched and impaled with the blessed Virgin in the honor thereof.


Im*pale"ment (?), n. 1. The act of impaling, or the state of being impaled. Byron.

2. An inclosing by stakes or pales, or the space so inclosed. H. Brooke.

3. That which hedges in; inclosure. [R.] Milton.

4. (Her.) The division of a shield palewise, or by a vertical line, esp. for the purpose of putting side by side the arms of husband and wife. See Impale, 3.

Im*pal"la (?), n. (Zoöl.) The pallah deer of South Africa.

Im*pal"lid (?), v. t. To make pallid; to blanch. [Obs.] Feltham.

Im*palm" (?), v. t. To grasp with or hold in the hand. [R.] J. Barlow.

Im*pal`pa*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impalpabilité.] The quality of being impalpable. Jortin.

Im*pal"pa*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + palpable: cf. F. impalpable.] 1. Not palpable; that cannot be felt; extremely fine, so that no grit can be perceived by touch. "Impalpable powder." Boyle.

2. Not material; intangible; incorporeal. "Impalpable, void, and bodiless." Holland.

3. Not apprehensible, or readily apprehensible, by the mind; unreal; as, impalpable distinctions.

Im*pal"pa*bly, adv. In an impalpable manner.

Im*pal"sy (?), v. t. To palsy; to paralyze; to deaden. [R.]

Im*pa"nate (?), a. [LL. impanatus, p. p. of impanare to impanate; L. pref. im- in + panis bread.] Embodied in bread, esp. in the bread of the eucharist. [Obs.] Cranmer.

Im*pa"nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impanated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impanating.] To embody in bread, esp. in the bread of the eucharist. [Obs.]

Im"pa*na"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. impanation. See Impanate, a.] (Eccl.) Embodiment in bread; the supposed real presence and union of Christ's material body and blood with the substance of the elements of the eucharist without a change in their nature; -- distinguished from transubstantiation, which supposes a miraculous change of the substance of the elements. It is akin to consubstantiation.

Im*pa"na*tor (?), n. [LL.] (Eccl.) One who holds the doctrine of impanation.

Im*pan"el (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impaneled (?) or Impanelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Impaneling or Impanelling.] [Pref. im- in + panel. Cf. Empanel.] [Written also empanel.] To enter in a list, or on a piece of parchment, called a panel; to form or enroll, as a list of jurors in a court of justice. Blackstone.

Im*pan"el*ment (?), n. The act or process of impaneling, or the state of being impaneled.

Im*par"a*dise (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imparadised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imparadising (?).] [Pref. im- + paradise: cf. F. emparadiser.] To put in a state like paradise; to make supremely happy. "Imparadised in one another's arms." Milton.

Im*par"al*leled (?), a. Unparalleled. [Obs.]

Im*par"don*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. impardonnable.] Unpardonable. [Obs.] South.

Im*par`i*dig"i*tate (?), a. [L. impar unequal + digitus finger.] (Anat.) Having an odd number of fingers or toes, either one, three, or five, as in the horse, tapir, rhinoceros, etc.

Im*par"i*pin"nate (?), a. [L. impar unequal + E. pinnate.] (Bot.) Pinnate with a single terminal leaflet.

Im*par"i*syl*lab"ic (?), a. [L. impar unequal + E. syllabic: cf. F. imparisyllabique.] (Gram.) Not consisting of an equal number of syllables; as, an imparisyllabic noun, one which has not the same number of syllables in all the cases; as, lapis, lapidis; mens, mentis.

Im*par"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. im- + parity: cf. F. imparité.] 1. Inequality; disparity; disproportion; difference of degree, rank, excellence, number, etc. Milton.

2. Lack of comparison, correspondence, or suitableness; incongruity.

In this region of merely intellectual notion we are at once encountered by the imparity of the object and the faculty employed upon it.

I. Taylor.

3. Indivisibility into equal parts; oddness. [R.]

Im*park" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imparked (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Imparking.] [Cf. Empark.] To inclose for a park; to sever from a common; hence, to inclose or shut up.

They . . . impark them [the sheep] within hurdles.


Im*parl" (?), v. i. [OF. emparler; pref. em- (L. in) + parler to speak. See In, prep., and Parley.] 1. To hold discourse; to parley. [Obs.] Sir. T. North.

2. (Law) To have time before pleading; to have delay for mutual adjustment. Blackstone.

Im*par"lance (?), n. [Cf. Emparlance, Parlance.] [Written also inparliance.] 1. Mutual discourse; conference. [Obs.]

2. (Law) (a) Time given to a party to talk or converse with his opponent, originally with the object of effecting, if possible, an amicable adjustment of the suit. The actual object, however, has long been merely to obtain further time to plead, or answer to the allegations of the opposite party. (b) Hence, the delay or continuance of a suit.

Imparlance and continuance by imparlance have been abolished in England. Wharton (Law Dict. ).

Im*par`son*ee" (?), a. [OF. empersone. See 1st In-, and Parson.] (Eng. Eccl. Law) Presented, instituted, and inducted into a rectory, and in full possession. -- n. A clergyman so inducted.

Im*part" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imparted; p. pr. & vb. n. Imparting.] [OF. impartir, empartir, L. impartire, impertire; pref. im- in + partire to part, divide, fr. pars, partis, part, share. See Part, n. ] 1. To bestow a share or portion of; to give, grant, or communicate; to allow another to partake in; as, to impart food to the poor; the sun imparts warmth.

Well may he then to you his cares impart.


2. To obtain a share of; to partake of. [R.] Munday.

3. To communicate the knowledge of; to make known; to show by words or tokens; to tell; to disclose.

Gentle lady,
When I did first impart my love to you.


Syn. -- To share; yield; confer; convey; grant; give; reveal; disclose; discover; divulge. See Communicate.

Im*part" (?), v. i. 1. To give a part or share.

He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none.

Luke iii. 11.

2. To hold a conference or consultation. Blackstone.

Im*part"ance (?), n. Impartation.

Im`par*ta"tion (?), n. The act of imparting, or the thing imparted.

The necessity of this impartation.

I. Taylor.

Im*part"er (?), n. One who imparts.

Im*par"tial (?), a. [Pref. im- not + partial: cf. F. impartial.] Not partial; not favoring one more than another; treating all alike; unprejudiced; unbiased; disinterested; equitable; fair; just. Shak.

Jove is impartial, and to both the same.


A comprehensive and impartial view.


Im*par"tial*ist, n. One who is impartial. [R.] Boyle.

Im*par`ti*al"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impartialité.] The quality of being impartial; freedom from bias or favoritism; disinterestedness; equitableness; fairness; as, impartiality of judgment, of treatment, etc.

Impartiality strips the mind of prejudice and passion.


Im*par"tial*ly (?), a. In an impartial manner.

Im*par"tial*ness, n. Impartiality. Sir W. Temple.

Im*part`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being impartible; communicability. Blackstone.

Im*part`i*bil"i*ty, n. [Cf. F. impartibilité.] The quality of being incapable of division into parts; indivisibility. Holland.

Im*part"i*ble (?), a. [From Impart.] Capable of being imparted or communicated.

Im*part"i*ble, a. [Pref. im- not + partible: cf. F. impartible.] Not partible; not subject to partition; indivisible; as, an impartible estate. Blackstone.

Im*part"ment (?), n. The act of imparting, or that which is imparted, communicated, or disclosed. [R.]

It beckons you to go away with it,
As if it some impartment did desire
To you alone.


Im*pass"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. Unpassable.] Incapable of being passed; not admitting a passage; as, an impassable road, mountain, or gulf. Milton. -- Im*pass"a*ble*ness, n. - - Im*pass"a*bly, adv.

Im*pas`si*bil"i*ty (?), a. [L. impassibilitas: cf. F. impassibilité.] The quality or condition of being impassible; insusceptibility of injury from external things.

Im*pas"si*ble (?), a. [L. impassibilis; pref. im- not + passibilis passable: cf. F. impassible. See Passible.] Incapable of suffering; inaccessible to harm or pain; not to be touched or moved to passion or sympathy; unfeeling, or not showing feeling; without sensation. "Impassible to the critic." Sir W. Scott.

Secure of death, I should contemn thy dart
Though naked, and impassible depart.


Im*pas"si*ble*ness, n. Impassibility.

Im*pas"sion (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + passion. Cf. Empassion, Impassionate, v.] To move or affect strongly with passion. [Archaic] Chapman.

Im*pas"sion*a*ble (?), a. Excitable; susceptible of strong emotion.

Im*pas"sion*ate (?), a. Strongly affected. Smart.

Im*pas"sion*ate (?), v. t. To affect powerfully; to arouse the passions of. Dr. H. More.

Im*pas"sion*ate (?), a. [Pref. im- not + passionate.] Without passion or feeling. Burton.

Im*pas"sioned (?), p. p. & a. Actuated or characterized by passion or zeal; showing warmth of feeling; ardent; animated; excited; as, an impassioned orator or discourse.

Im*pas"sive (?), a. Not susceptible of pain or suffering; apathetic; impassible; unmoved.

Impassive as the marble in the quarry.

De Quincey.

On the impassive ice the lightings play.


-- Im*pas"sive*ly, adv. -- Im*pas"sive*ness, n.

Im`pas*siv"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being insusceptible of feeling, pain, or suffering; impassiveness.

Im`pas*ta"tion (?), n. [F. See Impaste.] The act of making into paste; that which is formed into a paste or mixture; specifically, a combination of different substances by means of cements.

Im*paste" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Impasting.] [Pref. im- in + paste: cf. It. impastare, OF. empaster, F. empâter. See 1st In- and Paste.] 1. To knead; to make into paste; to concrete. "Blood . . . baked and impasted." Shak.

2. (Paint.) To lay color on canvas by uniting them skillfully together. [R.] Cf. Impasto.

Im*past"ing, (Paint.) The laying on of colors to produce impasto.

Im*pas"to (?), n. [It. See Impaste.] (Paint.) The thickness of the layer or body of pigment applied by the painter to his canvas with especial reference to the juxtaposition of different colors and tints in forming a harmonious whole. Fairholt.

Im*pas"ture (?), v. t. To place in a pasture; to foster. [R.] T. Adams.

Im*pat"i*ble (?), a. [L. impatibilis; pref. im- not + patibilis supportable. See Patible.] 1. Not capable of being borne; impassible.

A spirit, and so impatible of material fire.


Im*pa"tience (?) n. [OE. impacience, F. impatience, fr. L. impatientia.] The quality of being impatient; want of endurance of pain, suffering, opposition, or delay; eagerness for change, or for something expected; restlessness; chafing of spirit; fretfulness; passion; as, the impatience of a child or an invalid.

I then, . . .
Out of my grief and my impatience,
Answered neglectingly.


With huge impatience he inly swelt
More for great sorrow that he could not pass,
Than for the burning torment which he felt.


<! p. 734 !>

Im*pa"tien*cy (m*p"shen*s), n. Impatience. [Obs.]

||Im*pa"ti*ens (-sh*nz), n. [L., impatient.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, several species of which have very beautiful flowers; -- so called because the elastic capsules burst when touched, and scatter the seeds with considerable force. Called also touch-me-not, jewelweed, and snapweed. I. Balsamina (sometimes called lady's slipper) is the common garden balsam.

Im*pa"tient (?), a. [OE. impacient, F. impatient, fr. L. impatiens; pref. im- not + patiens patient. See Patient.] 1. Not patient; not bearing with composure; intolerant; uneasy; fretful; restless, because of pain, delay, or opposition; eager for change, or for something expected; hasty; passionate; -- often followed by at, for, of, and under.

A violent, sudden, and impatient necessity.

Jer. Taylor.

Fame, impatient of extremes, decays
Not more by envy than excess of praise.


The impatient man will not give himself time to be informed of the matter that lies before him.


Dryden was poor and impatient of poverty.


2. Not to be borne; unendurable. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. Prompted by, or exhibiting, impatience; as, impatient speeches or replies. Shak.

Syn. -- Restless; uneasy; changeable; hot; eager; fretful; intolerant; passionate.

Im*pa"tient, n. One who is impatient. [R.]

Im*pa"tient*ly, adv. In an impatient manner.

Im*pat`ron*i*za"tion (?), n. Absolute seignory or possession; the act of investing with such possession. [R.] Cotgrave.

Im*pat"ron*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impatronized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impatronizing (?).] To make lord or master; as, to impatronize one's self of a seigniory. [R.] Bacon.

Im*pave" (?), v. t. To pave. [Poetic]

Impaved with rude fidelity
Of art mosaic.


Im*pav"id (?), a. [L. impavidus. See In- not, and Pavid.] Fearless. -- Im*pav"id*ly, adv.

Im*pawn" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impawning.] [Pref. im- + pawn: cf. Empawn.] To put in pawn; to pledge. Shak.

Im*peach" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impeached (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impeaching.] [OE. empeechier to prevent, hinder, bar, F. empêcher, L. impedicare to entangle; pref. im- in + pedica fetter, fr. pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and Appeach, Dispatch, Impede.] 1. To hinder; to impede; to prevent. [Obs.]

These ungracious practices of his sons did impeach his journey to the Holy Land.

Sir J. Davies.

A defluxion on my throat impeached my utterance.


2. To charge with a crime or misdemeanor; to accuse; especially to charge (a public officer), before a competent tribunal, with misbehavior in office; to cite before a tribunal for judgment of official misconduct; to arraign; as, to impeach a judge. See Impeachment.

3. Hence, to charge with impropriety; to dishonor; to bring discredit on; to call in question; as, to impeach one's motives or conduct.

And doth impeach the freedom of the state.


4. (Law) To challenge or discredit the credibility of, as of a witness, or the validity of, as of commercial paper.

When used in law with reference to a witness, the term signifies, to discredit, to show or prove unreliable or unworthy of belief; when used in reference to the credit of witness, the term denotes, to impair, to lessen, to disparage, to destroy. The credit of a witness may be impeached by showing that he has made statements out of court contradictory to what he swears at the trial, or by showing that his reputation for veracity is bad, etc.

Syn. -- To accuse; arraign; censure; criminate; indict; impair; disparage; discredit. See Accuse.

Im*peach", n. Hindrance; impeachment. [Obs.]

Im*peach"a*ble (?), a. That may be impeached; liable to impeachment; chargeable with a crime.

Owners of lands in fee simple are not impeachable for waste.

Z. Swift.

Im*peach"er (?), n. One who impeaches.

Im*peach"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. empêchement.] The act of impeaching, or the state of being impeached; as: (a) Hindrance; impediment; obstruction. [Obs.]

Willing to march on to Calais,
Without impeachment.


(b) A calling to account; arraignment; especially, of a public officer for maladministration.

The consequence of Coriolanus' impeachment had like to have been fatal to their state.


(c) A calling in question as to purity of motives, rectitude of conduct, credibility, etc.; accusation; reproach; as, an impeachment of motives. Shak.

In England, it is the privilege or right of the House of Commons to impeach, and the right of the House of Lords to try and determine impeachments. In the United States, it is the right of the House of Representatives to impeach, and of the Senate to try and determine impeachments.

Articles of impeachment. See under Article. -- Impeachment of waste (Law), restraint from, or accountability for, injury; also, a suit for damages for injury. Abbott.

Im*pearl" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impearled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impearling.] [Pref. im- in + pearl: cf. F. emperler.] 1. To form into pearls, or into that which resembles pearls. [Poetic]

Dewdrops which the sun
Impearls on every leaf and every flower.


2. To decorate as with pearls or with anything resembling pearls. [Poetic]

With morning dews impearled.

Mrs. Browning.

The dews of the morning impearl every thorn.

R. Digby.

Im*pec`ca*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impeccabilité.] The quality of being impeccable; exemption from sin, error, or offense.

Infallibility and impeccability are two of his attributes.


Im*pec"ca*ble (?), a. [L. impeccabilis; pref. im- not + peccare to err, to sin: cf. F. impeccable.] Not liable to sin; exempt from the possibility of doing wrong. -- n. One who is impeccable; esp., one of a sect of Gnostic heretics who asserted their sinlessness.

God is infallible, impeccable, and absolutely perfect.

P. Skelton.

Im*pec"can*cy (?), n. Sinlessness. Bp. Hall.

Im*pec"cant (?), a. Sinless; impeccable. Byron.

Im`pe*cu`ni*os"i*ty (?), n. The state of being impecunious. Thackeray. Sir W. Scott.

Im"pe*cu"ni*ous (?), a. [L. im- not + pecunia money: cf. F. impécunieux.] Not having money; habitually without money; poor.

An impecunious creature.

B. Jonson.

Im*pede" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impeded; p. pr. & vb. n. Impeding.] [L. impedire, lit., to entangle the feet; pref. im- in + pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and cf. Impeach.] To hinder; to stop in progress; to obstruct; as, to impede the advance of troops.

Whatever hinders or impedes
The action of the nobler will.


Im*ped"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being impeded or hindered. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im*ped"i*ment (?), n. [L. impedimentum: cf. F. impediment.] That which impedes or hinders progress, motion, activity, or effect.

Thus far into the bowels of the land
Have we marched on without impediment.


Impediment in speech, a defect which prevents distinct utterance.

Syn. -- Hindrance; obstruction; obstacle; difficulty; incumbrance. -- Impediment, Obstacle, Difficulty, Hindrance. An impediment literally strikes against our feet, checking our progress, and we remove it. An obstacle rises before us in our path, and we surmount or remove it. A difficulty sets before us something hard to be done, and we encounter it and overcome it. A hindrance holds us back for a time, but we break away from it.

The eloquence of Demosthenes was to Philip of Macedon, a difficulty to be met with his best resources, an obstacle to his own ambition, and an impediment in his political career.

C. J. Smith.

Im*ped"i*ment, v. t. To impede. [R.] Bp. Reynolds.

Im*ped`i*men"tal (?), a. Of the nature of an impediment; hindering; obstructing; impeditive.

Things so impedimental to success.

G. H. Lewes.

Im"pe*dite (?), a. [L. impeditus, p. p. See Impede.] Hindered; obstructed. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im"pe*dite, v. t. To impede. [Obs.] Boyle.

Im"pe*di"tion (?), n. [L. impeditio.] A hindering; a hindrance. [Obs.] Baxier.

Im*ped"i*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. impéditif.] Causing hindrance; impeding. "Cumbersome, and impeditive of motion." Bp. Hall.

Im*pel" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impelled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impelling.] [L. impellere; pref. im- in + pellere, pulsum, to drive. See Pulse a beat, and cf. Impulse.] To drive or urge forward or on; to press on; to incite to action or motion in any way.

The surge impelled me on a craggy coast.


Syn. -- To instigate; incite; induce; influence; force; drive; urge; actuate; move.

Im*pel"lent (?), a. [L. impellens, p. pr. of impellere.] Having the quality of impelling.

Im*pel"lent, n. An impelling power or force. Glanvill.

Im*pel"ler (?), n. One who, or that which, impels.

Im*pen" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impenned (?) and Impent (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Impenning.] To shut up or inclose, as in a pen. Feltham.

Im*pend" (?), v. t. [L. impendre; pref. im- in + pendre to weigh out, pay.] To pay. [Obs.] Fabyan.

Im*pend", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Impended; p. pr. & vb. n. Impending.] [L. impendre; pref. im- in + pendre to hang. See Pendant.] To hang over; to be suspended above; to threaten from near at hand; to menace; to be imminent. See Imminent.

Destruction sure o'er all your heads impends.


{ Im*pend"ence (?), Im*pend"en*cy (?), } n. The state of impending; also, that which impends. "Impendence of volcanic cloud." Ruskin.

Im*pend"ent (?), a. [L. impendens, p. pr. of impendre.] Impending; threatening.

Impendent horrors, threatening hideous fall.


Im*pend"ing, a. Hanging over; overhanging; suspended so as to menace; imminet; threatening.

An impending brow.


And nodding Ilion waits th' impending fall.


Syn. -- Imminent; threatening. See Imminent.

Im*pen`e*tra*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impénétrabilité.] 1. Quality of being impenetrable.

2. (Physics) That property in virtue of which two portions of matter can not at the same time occupy the same portion of space.

3. Insusceptibility of intellectual or emotional impression; obtuseness; stupidity; coldness.

Im*pen"e*tra*ble (?), a. [L. impenetrabilis; pref. im- not + penetrabilis penetrable: cf. F. impénétrable.] 1. Incapable of being penetrated or pierced; not admitting the passage of other bodies; not to be entered; impervious; as, an impenetrable shield.

Highest woods impenetrable
To star or sunlight.


2. (Physics) Having the property of preventing any other substance from occupying the same space at the same time.

3. Inaccessible, as to knowledge, reason, sympathy, etc.; unimpressible; not to be moved by arguments or motives; as, an impenetrable mind, or heart.

They will be credulous in all affairs of life, but impenetrable by a sermon of the gospel.

Jer. Taylor.

Im*pen"e*tra*ble*ness (?), n. The quality of being impenetrable; impenetrability.

Im*pen"e*tra*bly, adv. In an impenetrable manner or state; imperviously. "Impenetrably armed." Milton. "Impenetrably dull." Pope.

Im*pen"i*tence (?), n. [L. impenitentia: cf. F. impénitence.] The condition of being impenitent; failure or refusal to repent; hardness of heart.

He will advance from one degree of wickedness and impenitence to another.


Im*pen"i*ten*cy (?), n. Impenitence. Milton.

Im*pen"i*tent (?), a. [L. impaenitens; pref. im- not + paenitens penitens: cf. F. impénitent. See Penitent.] Not penitent; not repenting of sin; not contrite; of a hard heart. "They . . . died impenitent." Milton. "A careless and impenitent heart." Bp. Hall.

Im*pen"i*tent, n. One who is not penitent. [R.]

Im*pen"i*tent*ly, adv. Without repentance.

Im*pen"nate (?), a. (Zoöl.) Characterized by short wings covered with feathers resembling scales, as the penguins. -- n. One of the Impennes.

||Im*pen"nes (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. pref. im- not + penna feather.] (Zoöl.) An order of birds, including only the penguins, in which the wings are without quills, and not suited for flight.

Im*pen"nous (?) a. [L. pref. im- not + penna wing.] (Zoöl.) Having no wings, as some insects.

Im*peo"ple (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impeopled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impeopling (?).] [See Empeople.] To people; to give a population to. [Obs.]

Thou hast helped to impeople hell.


Im"pe*rant (?), a. [L. imperans, p. pr. of imperare to command.] Commanding. [R.] Baxter.

Im"pe*rate (?), a. [L. imperatus, p. p. of imperare to command.] Done by express direction; not involuntary; communded. [Obs.]

Those imperate acts, wherein we see the empire of the soul.

Sir M. Hale.

Im*per`a*ti"val (?), a. (Gram.) Of or pertaining to the imperative mood.

Im*per"a*tive (?), a. [L. imperativus, fr. imperare to command; pref. im- in + parare to make ready, prepare: cf. F. impératif. See Perade, and cf. Empire.] 1. Expressive of command; containing positive command; authoritatively or absolutely directive; commanding; authoritative; as, imperative orders.

The suit of kings are imperative.

Bp. Hall.

2. Not to be avoided or evaded; obligatory; binding; compulsory; as, an imperative duty or order.

3. (Gram.) Expressive of commund, entreaty, advice, or exhortation; as, the imperative mood.

Im*per"a*tive, n. (Gram.) The imperative mood; also, a verb in the imperative mood.

Im*per"a*tive*ly, adv. In an imperative manner.

||Im`pe*ra"tor (?), n. [L. See Emperor.] (Rom. Antiq.) A commander; a leader; an emperor; -- originally an appellation of honor by which Roman soldiers saluted their general after an important victory. Subsequently the title was conferred as a recognition of great military achievements by the senate, whence it carried wiht it some special privileges. After the downfall of the Republic it was assumed by Augustus and his successors, and came to have the meaning now attached to the word emperor.

Im*per`a*to"ri*al (?), a. [L. imperatorius.] 1. Commanding; imperative; authoritative.

2. Of or pertaining to the title or office of imperator. "Imperatorial laurels." C. Merivale.

Im*per`a*to"ri*an (?), a. Imperial. [R.] Gauden.

Im*per"a*to*ry (?), a. Imperative. [R.]

Im`per*ceiv"a*ble (?), a. Imperceptible. [R.] South. -- Im`per*ceiv"a*ble*ness, n. Sharp.

Im`per*ceived" (?), a. Not perceived. [Obs.]

Im`per*cep`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being imperceptible.

Im`per*cep"ti*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + perceptible: cf. F. imperceptible.] Not perceptible; not to be apprehended or cognized by the senses; not discernible by the mind; not easily apprehended.

Almost imperceptible to the touch.


Its operation is slow, and in some cases almost imperceptible.


-- Im`per*cep"ti*ble*ness, n. -- Im`per*cep"ti*bly, adv.

Their . . . subtilty and imperceptibleness.

Sir M. Hale.

Im`per*cep"tion (?), n. Want of perception.

Im`per*cep"tive (?), a. Unable to perceive.

The imperceptive part of the soul.

Dr. H. More.

Im`per*cip"i*ent (?), a. Not perceiving, or not able to perceive. A. Baxter.

Im*per`di*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being imperdible. [Obs.] Derham.

Im*per"di*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + L. perdere to destroy.] Not destructible. [Obs.] -- Im*per"di*bly, adv. [Obs.]

Im*per"fect (?), a. [L. imperfectus: pref. im- not + perfectus perfect: cf. F imparfait, whence OE. imparfit. See Perfect.] 1. Not perfect; not complete in all its parts; wanting a part; deective; deficient.

Something he left imperfect in the state.


Why, then, your other senses grow imperfect.


2. Wanting in some elementary organ that is essential to successful or normal activity.

He . . . stammered like a child, or an amazed, imperfect person.

Jer. Taylor.

3. Not fulfilling its design; not realizing an ideal; not conformed to a standard or rule; not satisfying the taste or conscience; esthetically or morally defective.

Nothing imperfect or deficient left
Of all that he created.


Then say not man's imperfect, Heaven in fault;
Say rather, man's as perfect as he ought.


Imperfect arch, an arch of less than a semicircle; a skew arch. -- Imperfect cadence (Mus.), one not ending with the tonic, but with the dominant or some other chord; one not giving complete rest; a half close. -- Imperfect consonances (Mus.), chords like the third and sixth, whose ratios are less simple than those of the fifth and forth. -- Imperfect flower (Bot.), a flower wanting either stamens or pistils. Gray. -- Imperfect interval (Mus.), one a semitone less than perfect; as, an imperfect fifth. -- Imperfect number (Math.), a number either greater or less than the sum of its several divisors; in the former case, it is called also a defective number; in the latter, an abundant number. -- Imperfect obligations (Law), obligations as of charity or gratitude, which cannot be enforced by law. -- Imperfect power (Math.), a number which can not be produced by taking any whole number or vulgar fraction, as a factor, the number of times indicated by the power; thus, 9 is a perfect square, but an imperfect cube. -- Imperfect tense (Gram.), a tense expressing past time and incomplete action.

<! p. 735 !>

Im*per"fect (?), n. (Gram.) The imperfect tense; or the form of a verb denoting the imperfect tense.

Im*per"fect, v. t. To make imperfect. [Obs.]

Im`per*fec`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being imperfectible. [R.]

Im`per*fec"ti*ble (?), a. Incapable of being made perfect. [R.]

Im`per*fec"tion (?), n. [L. imperfectio: cf. F. imperfection. See Imperfect, a.] The quality or condition of being imperfect; want of perfection; incompleteness; deficiency; fault or blemish.

Sent to my account
With all my imperfections on my head.


Syn. -- Defect; deficiency; incompleteness; fault; failing; weakness; frailty; foible; blemish; vice.

Im*per"fect*ness, n. The state of being imperfect.

Im*per"fo*ra*ble (?), a. [See Imperforate.] Incapable of being perforated, or bored through.

||Im*per"fo*ra"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Imperforate.] (Zoöl.) A division of Foraminifera, including those in which the shell is not porous.

{ Im*per"fo*rate (?), Im*per"fo*ra"ted (?), } a. [L. pref. im- not + perforatus, p. p. of perforate to perforate. See Perforate.] Not perforated; having no opening or aperture. Sir J. Banks.

Im*per`fo*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. imperforation.] The state of being without perforation.

Im*pe"ri*al (?), a. [OE. emperial, OF. emperial, F. impérial, fr. L. imperialis, fr. imperium command, sovereignty, empire. See Empire.] 1. Of or pertaining to an empire, or to an emperor; as, an imperial government; imperial authority or edict.

The last
That wore the imperial diadem of Rome.


2. Belonging to, or suitable to, supreme authority, or one who wields it; royal; sovereign; supreme. "The imperial democracy of Athens." Mitford.

Who, as Ulysses says, opinion crowns
With an imperial voice.


To tame the proud, the fetter'd slave to free,
These are imperial arts, and worthy thee.


He sounds his imperial clarion along the whole line of battle.

E. Everett.

3. Of superior or unusual size or excellence; as, imperial paper; imperial tea, etc.

Imperial bushel, gallon, etc. See Bushel, Gallon, etc. -- Imperial chamber, the, the sovereign court of the old German empire. -- Imperial city, under the first German empire, a city having no head but the emperor. -- Imperial diet, an assembly of all the states of the German empire. -- Imperial drill. (Manuf.) See under 8th Drill. -- Imperial eagle. (Zoöl.) See Eagle. -- Imperial green. See Paris green, under Green. -- Imperial guard, the royal guard instituted by Napoleon I. - - Imperial weights and measures, the standards legalized by the British Parliament.

Im*pe"ri*al, n. [F. impériale: cf. Sp. imperial.]

1. The tuft of hair on a man's lower lip and chin; -- so called from the style of beard of Napoleon III.

2. An outside seat on a diligence. T. Hughes.

3. A luggage case on the top of a coach. Simmonds.

4. Anything of unusual size or excellence, as a large decanter, a kind of large photograph, a large sheet of drawing, printing, or writing paper, etc.

5. A gold coin of Russia worth ten rubles, or about eight dollars. McElrath.

6. A kind of fine cloth brought into England from Greece. or other Eastern countries, in the Middle Ages.

Im*pe"ri*al*ism (?), n. The power or character of an emperor; imperial authority; the spirit of empire.

Roman imperialism had divided the world.

C. H. Pearson.

Im*pe"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. impérialiste.] One who serves an emperor; one who favors imperialism.

Im*pe`ri*al"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Imperialities (&?;).

1. Imperial power.

2. An imperial right or privilegs. See Royalty.

The late empress having, by ukases of grace, relinquished her imperialities on the private mines, viz., the tenths of the copper, iron, silver and gold.

W. Tooke.

Im*pe"ri*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imperialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imperializing (?).] To invest with imperial authority, character, or style; to bring to the form of an empire. Fuller.

Im*pe"ri*al*ly, adv. In an imperial manner.

Im*pe"ri*al*ly (?), n. Imperial power. [R.] Sheldon.

Im*per"il (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imperiled (?) or Imperilled; p. pr. & vb. n. Imperiling or Imperilling.] To bring into peril; to endanger.

Im*per"il*ment (?), n. The act of imperiling, or the state of being imperiled.

Im*pe"ri*ous (?), a. [L. imperiosus: cf. F. impérieux. See Imperial.] 1. Commanding; ascendant; imperial; lordly; majestic. [Obs.] "A vast and imperious mind." Tilloison.

Therefore, great lords, be, as your titles witness,


2. Haughly; arrogant; overbearing; as, an imperious tyrant; an imperious manner.

This imperious man will work us all
From princes into pages.


His bold, contemptuous, and imperious spirit soon made him conspicuous.


3. Imperative; urgent; compelling.

Imperious need, which can not be withstood.


Syn. -- Dictatorial; haughty; domineering; overbearing; lordly; tyrannical; despotic; arrogant; imperative; authoritative; commanding; pressing. -- Imperious, Lordly, Domineering. One who is imperious exercises his authority in a manner highly offensive for its spirit and tone; one who is lordly assumes a lofty air in order to display his importance; one who is domineering gives orders in a way to make others feel their inferiority.

Im*pe"ri*ous*ly, adv. In an imperious manner.

Im*pe"ri*ous*ness, n. The quality or state of being imperious; arrogance; haughtiness.

Imperiousness and severity is but an ill way of treating men who have reason of their own to guide them.


Im*per`ish*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being imperishable: indstructibility. "The imperishability of the universe." Milman.

Im*per"ish*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + perishable: cf. F. impérissable.] Not perishable; not subject to decay; indestructible; enduring permanently; as, an imperishable monument; imperishable renown. -- Im*per"ish*a*ble*ness, n. -- Im*per"ish*a*bly, adv.

Im*per"i"wigged (?), a. Wearing a periwig.

{ Im*per"ma*nence (?), Im*per"ma*nen*cy (?), } n. lack of permanence.

Im*per"ma*nent (?), a. Not permanent.

Im*per`me*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. im- not + permeability: cf. F. imperméabilité.] The quality of being impermeable.

Im*per"me*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + permeable: cf. F. imperméable, L. impermeabilis.] Not permeable; not permitting passage, as of a fluid. through its substance; impervious; impenetrable; as, India rubber is impermeable to water and to air. -- Im*per"me*a*ble*ness, n. -- Im*per"me*a*bly, adv.

Im`per*mis"si*ble (?), a. Not permissible.

Im`per*scru"ta*ble (?), a. [L. imperscrutabilis.] Not capable of being searched out; inscrutable. [Obs.] -- Im`per*scru"ta*ble*ness, n. [Obs.]

Im`per*sev"er*ant (?), a. Not persevering; fickle; thoughtless. [Obs.]

Im*per"son*al (?), a. [L. impersonalis; pref. im- not + personalis personal: cf. F. impersonnel. See Personal.] Not personal; not representing a person; not having personality.

An almighty but impersonal power, called Fate.

Sir J. Stephen.

Impersonal verb (Gram.), a verb used with an indeterminate subject, commonly, in English, with the impersonal pronoun it; as, it rains; it snows; methinks (it seems to me). Many verbs which are not strictly impersonal are often used impersonally; as, it goes well with him.

Im*per"son*al, n. That which wants personality; specifically (Gram.), an impersonal verb.

Im*per`son*al"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being impersonal; want or absence of personality.

Im*per"son*al*ly (?), adv. In an impersonal manner.

Im*per"son*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impersonated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impersonating.] 1. To invest with personality; to endow with the form of a living being.

2. To ascribe the qualities of a person to; to personify.

3. To assume, or to represent, the person or character of; to personate; as, he impersonated Macbeth.

Benedict impersonated his age.


{ Im*per`son*a"tion (?), Im`per*son`i*fi*ca"tion (?), } n. The act of impersonating; personification; investment with personality; representation in a personal form.

Im*per"son*a`tor (?), n. One who impersonates; an actor; a mimic.

Im*per`spi*cu"i*ty (?), n. Want of perspicuity or clearness; vagueness; ambiguity.

Im`per*spic"u*ous (?), a. Not perspicuous; not clear; obscure; vague; ambiguous.

Im`per*suad"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. Impersuasible.] Not to be persuaded; obstinate; unyielding; impersuasible. -- Im`per*suad"a*ble*ness, n.

Im`per*sua"si*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + persuasible: cf. OF. impersuasible.] Not persuasible; not to be moved by persuasion; inflexible; impersuadable. Dr. H. More. -- Im`per*sua`si*bil"i*ty (#), n.

Im*per"ti*nence (?), n. [Cf. F. impertinence. See Impertinent.] 1. The condition or quality of being impertinent; absence of pertinence, or of adaptedness; irrelevance; unfitness.

2. Conduct or language unbecoming the person, the society, or the circumstances; rudeness; incivility.

We should avoid the vexation and impertinence of pedants who affect to talk in a language not to be understood.


3. That which is impertinent; a thing out of place, or of no value.

There are many subtile impertinences learned in schools.


Im*per"ti*nen*cy (?), n. Impertinence. [R.]

O, matter and impertinency mixed!
Reason in madness!


Im*per"ti*nent (?), a. [F., fr. L. impertinens, -entis; pref. im- not + pertinens. See Pertinent.] 1. Not pertinent; not pertaining to the matter in hand; having no bearing on the subject; not to the point; irrelevant; inapplicable.

Things that are impertinent to us.


How impertinent that grief was which served no end!

Jer. Taylor.

2. Contrary to, or offending against, the rules of propriety or good breeding; guilty of, or prone to, rude, unbecoming, or uncivil words or actions; as, an impertient coxcomb; an impertient remark.

3. Trifing; inattentive; frivolous.

Syn. -- Rude; officious; intrusive; saucy; unmannerly; meddlesome; disrespectful; impudent; insolent. -- Impertinent, Officious, Rude. A person is officious who obtrudes his offices or assistance where they are not needed; he is impertinent when he intermeddles in things with which he has no concern. The former shows a want of tact, the latter a want of breeding, or, more commonly, a spirit of sheer impudence. A person is rude when he violates the proprieties of social life either from ignorance or wantonness. "An impertinent man will ask questions for the mere gratification of curiosity; a rude man will burst into the room of another, or push against his person, inviolant of all decorum; one who is officious is quite as unfortunate as he is troublesome; when he strives to serve, he has the misfortune to annoy." Crabb. See Impudence, and Insolent.

Im*per"ti*nent, n. An impertinent person. [R.]

Im*per"ti*nent*ly, adv. In an impertinent manner. "Not to betray myself impertinently." B. Jonson.

Im`per*tran`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being impertransible. [R.]

Im`per*tran"si*ble (?), a. [L. pref. im- not + pertransire to go through. See Per- and Transient.] Incapable of being passed through. [R.]

Im`per*turb`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being imperturbable.
[1913 Webster]

Im`per*turb"a*ble (?), a. [L. imperturbabilis; pref. im- not + perturbare to disturb: cf. F. imperturbable. See Perture.] Incapable of being disturbed or disconcerted; as, imperturbable gravity.

Im`per*turb"a*bly, adv. In an imperturbable manner; calmly. C. Bronté.

Im*per`tur*ba"tion (?), n. [L. imperturbatio.] Freedom from agitation of mind; calmness; quietude. W. Montagu.

Im`per*turbed" (?), a. Not perturbed.

Im*per`vi*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being imperviable.

Im*per"vi*a*ble (?), a. Not pervious; impervious. [R.] -- Im*per"vi*a*ble*ness, n. [R.]

Im*per"vi*ous (?), a. [L. impervius; pref. im- not + per through + via way. See Voyage.] Not pervious; not admitting of entrance or passage through; as, a substance impervious to water or air.

This gulf impassable, impervious.


The minds of these zealots were absolutely impervious.


Syn. -- Impassable; pathless; impenetrable; imperviable; impermeable.

-- Im*per"vi*ous*ly, adv. -- Im*per"vi*ous*ness, n.

Im"per*y (?), n. Empery. [Archaic] Joye.

Im*pest" (?), v. t. To affict with pestilence; to infect, as with plague. [Obs.]

Im*pes"ter (?), v. t. See Pester. [Obs.]

Im`pe*tig"i*nous (?), a. [L. impetiginous: cf. F. impétigineux.] Of the nature of, or pertaining to, impetigo.

||Im`pe*ti"go (?), n. [L., fr. impetere to attack.] (Med.) A cutaneous, pustular eruption, not attended with fever; usually, a kind of eczema with pustulation.

Im"pe*tra*ble (?) a. [L. impetrabilis: cf. F. impétrable. See Impetrate.] Capable of being obtained or moved by petition. [Obs.] Bailey.

Im"pe*trate (?), a. [L. impetratus, p. p. of impetrare to obtain; pref. im- in + patrare to bring to pass.] Obtained by entreaty. [Obs.] Ld. Herbert.

Im"pe*trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impetrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impetrating (?).] To obtain by request or entreaty. Usher.

Im`pe*tra"tion (?), n. [L. impetratio: cf. F. impétration.] 1. The act of impetrating, or obtaining by petition or entreaty. [Obs.]

In way of impertation procuring the removal or allevation of our crosses.


2. (Old Eng. Law) The obtaining of benefice from Rome by solicitation, which benefice belonged to the disposal of the king or other lay patron of the realm.

Im"pe*tra*tive (?), a. [L. impetrativus obtained by entreaty.] Of the nature of impetration; getting, or tending to get, by entreaty. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Im"pe*tra*to*ry (?), a. Containing or expressing entreaty. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Im*pet`u*os"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impétuosité.] 1. The condition or quality of being impetuous; fury; violence.

2. Vehemence, or furiousnes of temper. Shak.

Im*pet"u*ous (?), a. [F. impetueux, L. impetuosus. See Impetus.] 1. Rushing with force and violence; moving with impetus; furious; forcible; violent; as, an impetuous wind; an impetuous torrent.

Went pouring forward with impetuous speed.


2. Vehement in feeling; hasty; passionate; violent; as, a man of impetuous temper.

The people, on their holidays,
Impetuous, insolent, unquenchable.


Syn. -- Forcible; rapid; hasty; precipitate; furious; boisterous; violent; raging; fierce; passionate.

-- Im*pet"u*ous*ly, adv. -- Im*pet"u*ous*ness, n.

Im"pe*tus (?), n. [L., fr. impetere to rush upon, attack; pref. im- in + petere to fall upon, seek. See Petition.] 1. A property possessed by a moving body in virtue of its weight and its motion; the force with which any body is driven or impelled; momentum.

Momentum is the technical term, impetus its popular equivalent, yet differing from it as applied commonly to bodies moving or moved suddenly or violently, and indicating the origin and intensity of the motion, rather than its quantity or effectiveness.

2. Fig.: Impulse; incentive; vigor; force. Buckle.

3. (Gun.) The altitude through which a heavy body must fall to acquire a velocity equal to that with which a ball is discharged from a piece.

<! p. 736 !>

Im"pey*an pheas"ant (m"p*an fz"ant). [From Lady Impey, who attempted to naturalize the bird in England.] (Zoöl.) An Indian crested pheasant of the genus Lophophorus. Several species are known. Called also monaul, monal.

They are remarkable for the bright color and brilliant matallic hues of their plumage. The best known species (L. Impeyanus) has the neck of a brilliant metallic red, changing to golden yellow in certain lights.

Im"phee (m"f), n. (Bot.) The African sugar cane (Holcus saccharatus), -- resembling the sorghum, or Chinese sugar cane.

Im*pic"tured (m*pk"trd; 135), a. Pictured; impressed. [Obs.] Spenser.

Im*pierce" (m*prs"), v. t. [Pref. im- in + pierce. Cf. Empierce.] To pierce; to penetrate. [Obs.] Drayton.

Im*pierce"a*ble (-*b'l) a. Not capable of being pierced; impenetrable. [Obs.] Spenser.

Im*pi"e*ty (m*p"*t), n.; pl. Impieties (- tz). [L. impietas, fr. impius impious; cf. F. impiété. See Impious, Piety.] 1. The quality of being impious; want of piety; irreverence toward the Supreme Being; ungodliness; wickedness.

2. An impious act; an act of wickedness.

Those impieties for the which they are now visited.


Syn. -- Ungodliness; irreligion; unrighteousness; sinfulness; profaneness; wickedness; godlessness.

Im*pig"no*rate (m*pg"n*rt), v. t. [LL. impignoratus, p. pl of impignorare to pawn. See Pignoration.] To pledge or pawn. [Obs.] Laing.

Im*pig`no*ra"tion (-r"shn), n. [LL. impignoratio: cf. F. impignoration.] The act of pawning or pledging; the state of being pawned. [Obs.] Bailey.

Imp"ing (mp"ng), n. [See Imp to graft.] 1. The act or process of grafting or mending. [Archaic]

2. (Falconry) The process of repairing broken feathers or a deficient wing.

Im*pinge" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impinged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impinging (?).] [L. impingere; pref. im- in + pangere to fix, strike; prob. akin to pacisci to agree, contract. See Pact, and cf. Impact.] To fall or dash against; to touch upon; to strike; to hit; to clash with; -- with on or upon.

The cause of reflection is not the impinging of light on the solid or impervious parts of bodies.

Sir I. Newton.

But, in the present order of things, not to be employed without impinging on God's justice.

Bp. Warburton.

Im*pinge"ment (?), n. The act of impinging.

Im*pin"gent (?), a. [L. impingens, p. pr.] Striking against or upon.

Im*pin"guate (?), v. t. [L. impinguatus, p. p. of impinguare to fatten; pref. im- in + pinguis fat.] To fatten; to make fat. [Obs.] Bacon.

Im`pin*gua"tion (?), n. The act of making fat, or the state of being fat or fattened. [Obs.]

Im"pi*ous (?), a. [L. impius; pref. im- not + pius piou. See Pious.] Not pious; wanting piety; irreligious; irreverent; ungodly; profane; wanting in reverence for the Supreme Being; as, an impious deed; impious language.

When vice prevails, and impious men bear away,
The post of honor is a private station.


Syn. -- Impious, Irreligious, Profane. Irreligious is negative, impious and profane are positive. An indifferent man may be irreligious; a profane man is irreverent in speech and conduct; an impious man is wickedly and boldly defiant in the strongest sense. Profane also has the milder sense of secular. C. J. Smith.

-- Im"pi*ous*ly, adv. -- Im"pi*ous*ness, n.

Im"pire (?), n. See Umpire. [Obs.] Huloet.

Imp"ish (mp"sh), a. Having the qualities, or showing the characteristics, of an imp.

Imp"ish*ly, adv. In the manner of an imp.

Im*pit"e*ous (?), a. Pitiless; cruel. [Obs.]

Im*pla`ca*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. implacabilitas: cf. F. implacabilité.] The quality or state of being implacable.

Im*pla"ca*ble (?), a. [L. implacabilis; pref. im- not + placabilis: cf. F. implacable. See Placable.] 1. Not placable; not to be appeased; incapable of being pacified; inexorable; as, an implacable prince.

I see thou art implacable.


An object of implacable enmity.


2. Incapable of being relieved or assuaged; inextinguishable. [R.]

O! how I burn with implacable fire.


Which wrought them pain
Implacable, and many a dolorous groan.


Syn. -- Unappeasable; inexorable; irreconcilable; unrelenting; relentless; unyielding.

Im*pla"ca*ble*ness (?), n. The quality of being implacable; implacability.

Im*pla"ca*bly, adv. In an implacable manner.

Im`pla*cen"tal (?), a. (Zoöl.) Without a placenta, as marsupials and monotremes. -- n. A mammal having no placenta.

||Im`pla*cen*ta"li*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See In- not, and Placental.] (Zoöl.) A primary division of the Mammalia, including the monotremes and marsupials, in which no placenta is formed.

Im*plant" (?) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Implanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Implanting.] [Pref. im- in + plant: cf. F. implanter.] To plant, or infix, for the purpose of growth; to fix deeply; to instill; to inculate; to introduce; as, to implant the seeds of virtue, or the principles of knowledge, in the minds of youth.

Minds well implanted with solid . . . breeding.


Im`plan*ta"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. implantation.] The act or process of implanting.

Im*plate" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Implated; p. pr. & vb. n. Implating.] To cover with plates; to sheathe; as, to implate a ship with iron.

Im*plau`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. Want of plausibility; the quality of being implausible.

Im*plau"si*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + plausible: cf. F. implausible.] Not plausible; not wearing the appearance of truth or credibility, and not likely to be believed. "Implausible harangues." Swift.

-- Im*plau"si*ble*ness, n. -- Im*plau"si*bly, adv.

Im*pleach" (?), v. t. To pleach; to interweave. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*plead" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impleaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Impleading.] [Cf. Emplead.] (Law) To institute and prosecute a suit against, in court; to sue or prosecute at law; hence, to accuse; to impeach.

Im*plead", v. i. To sue at law.

Im*plead"a*ble (?), a. Not admitting excuse, evasion, or plea; rigorous. [R.] T. Adams.

Im*plead"er (?), n. (Law) One who prosecutes or sues another.

Im*pleas"ing (&?;), a. Unpleasing; displeasing. [Obs.] Overbury.

Im*pledge" (?), v. t. To pledge. Sir W. Scott.

Im"ple*ment (m"pl*ment), n. [LL. implementum accomplishment, fr. L. implere, impletum, to fill up, finish, complete; pref. im- in + plere to fill. The word was perh. confused with OF. empleier, emploier, to employ, F. employer, whence E. employ. See Plenty.] That which fulfills or supplies a want or use; esp., an instrument, tool, or utensil, as supplying a requisite to an end; as, the implements of trade, of husbandry, or of war.

Genius must have talent as its complement and implement.


Im"ple*ment, v. t. 1. To accomplish; to fulfill. [R.]

Revenge . . . executed and implemented by the hand of Vanbeest Brown.

Sir W. Scott.

2. To provide with an implement or implements; to cause to be fulfilled, satisfied, or carried out, by means of an implement or implements.

The chief mechanical requisites of the barometer are implemented in such an instrument as the following.


3. (Scots Law) To fulfill or perform, as a contract or an engagement.

Im`ple*men"tal (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, implements or their use; mechanical.

Im*ple"tion (?), n. [L. impletio. See Implement.] 1. The act of filling, or the state of being full. Sir T. Browne.

2. That which fills up; filling. Coleridge.

Im"plex (?), a. [L. implexus, p. p. of implectere to infold; pref. im- in + plectere to plait: cf. F implexe.] Intricate; entangled; complicated; complex.

The fable of every poem is . . . simple or implex. it is called simple when there is no change of fortune in it; implex, when the fortune of the chief actor changes from bad to good, or from good to bad.


Im*plex"ion (?), n. [L. implexio.] Act of involving, or state of being involved; involution.

Im*pli"a*ble (?), a. Not pliable; inflexible; unyielding.

Im"pli*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Implicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Implicating.] [L. implicatus, p. p. of implicare to involve; pref. im- in + plicare to fold. See Employ, Ply, and cf. Imply, Implicit.] 1. To infold; to fold together; to interweave.

The meeting boughs and implicated leaves.


2. To bring into connection with; to involve; to connect; -- applied to persons, in an unfavorable sense; as, the evidence implicates many in this conspiracy; to be implicated in a crime, a discreditable transaction, a fault, etc.

Im`pli*ca"tion (?), n. [L. implicatio: cf. F. implication.] 1. The act of implicating, or the state of being implicated.

Three principal causes of firmness are. the grossness, the quiet contact, and the implication of component parts.


2. An implying, or that which is implied, but not expressed; an inference, or something which may fairly be understood, though not expressed in words.

Whatever things, therefore, it was asserted that the king might do, it was a necessary implication that there were other things which he could not do.


Im"pli*ca*tive (?), a. Tending to implicate.

Im"pli*ca*tive*ly, adv. By implication. Sir G. Buck.

Im*plic"it (?), a. [L. implicitus, p. p. of implicare to entwine, entangle, attach closely: cf. F. implicite. See Implicate.] 1. Infolded; entangled; complicated; involved. [Obs.] Milton.

In his woolly fleece
I cling implicit.


2. Tacitly comprised; fairly to be understood, though not expressed in words; implied; as, an implicit contract or agreement. South.

3. Resting on another; trusting in the word or authority of another, without doubt or reserve; unquestioning; complete; as, implicit confidence; implicit obedience.

Back again to implicit faith I fall.


Implicit function. (Math.) See under Function.

Im*plic"it*ly (?), adv. 1. In an implicit manner; without reserve; with unreserved confidence.

Not to dispute the methods of his providence, but humbly and implicitly to acquiesce in and adore them.


2. By implication; impliedly; as, to deny the providence of God is implicitly to deny his existence. Bentley.

Im*plic"it*ness, n. State or quality of being implicit.

Im*plic"i*ty (?), n. Implicitness. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

Im*plied" (?), a. Virtually involved or included; involved in substance; inferential; tacitly conceded; -- the correlative of express, or expressed. See Imply.

Im*pli"ed*ly (?), adv. By implication or inference. Bp. Montagu.

Im*plod"ed (?), a. (Phon.) Formed by implosion. Ellis.

Im*plod"ent (?), n. (Phon.) An implosive sound. Ellis.

Im`plo*ra"tion (?), n. [L. imploratio: cf. OF. imploration. See Implore.] The act of imploring; earnest supplication. Bp. Hall.

Im"plo*ra`tor (?), n. One who implores. [Obs.]

Mere implorators of unholy suits.


Im*plor"a*to*ry (?), a. Supplicatory; entreating. [R.] Carlyle.

Im*plore" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Implored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imploring.] [L. implorare; pref. im- in + plorare to cry aloud. See Deplore.] To call upon, or for, in supplication; to beseech; to pray to, or for, earnestly; to petition with urgency; to entreat; to beg; -- followed directly by the word expressing the thing sought, or the person from whom it is sought.

Imploring all the gods that reign above.


I kneel, and then implore her blessing.


Syn. -- To beseech; supplicate; crave; entreat; beg; solicit; petition; prey; request; adjure. See Beseech.

Im*plore", v. i. To entreat; to beg; to prey.

Im*plore", n. Imploration. [Obs.] Spencer.

Im*plor"er (?), n. One who implores.

Im*plor"ing, a. That implores; beseeching; entreating. -- Im*plor"ing*ly, adv.

Im*plo"sion (?), n. [Formed by substitution of pref. im- in for pref. ex- in explosion.] 1. A bursting inwards, as of a vessel from which the air has been exhausted; -- contrasted with explosion.

2. (Phon.) A sudden compression of the air in the mouth, simultaneously with and affecting the sound made by the closure of the organs in uttering p, t, or k, at the end of a syllable (see Guide to Pronunciation, §§159, 189); also, a similar compression made by an upward thrust of the larynx without any accompanying explosive action, as in the peculiar sound of b, d, and g, heard in Southern Germany. H. Sweet.

Im*plo"sive (?), a. (Phon.) Formed by implosion. -- n. An implosive sound, an implodent. -- Im*plo"sive*ly, adv. H. Sweet.

Im*plumed" (?), a. Not plumed; without plumes or feathers; featherless. [R.] Drayton.

Im*plunge" (?), v. t. To plunge. Fuller.

||Im*plu"vi*um (?), n. [L., fr. impluere to rain into; pref. im- in + pluere to rain.] (Arch.) In Roman dwellings, a cistern or tank, set in the atrium or peristyle to recieve the water from the roof, by means of the compluvium; generally made ornamental with flowers and works of art around its birm.

Im*ply" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Implied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Implying.] [From the same source as employ. See Employ, Ply, and cf. Implicate, Apply.] 1. To infold or involve; to wrap up. [Obs.] "His head in curls implied." Chapman.

2. To involve in substance or essence, or by fair inference, or by construction of law, when not include virtually; as, war implies fighting.

Where a malicious act is proved, a malicious intention is implied.

Bp. Sherlock.

When a man employs a laborer to work for him, . . . the act of hiring implies an obligation and a promise that he shall pay him a reasonable reward for his services.


3. To refer, ascribe, or attribute. [Obs.]

Whence might this distaste arise?

If [from] neither your perverse and peevish will.
To which I most imply it.

J. Webster.

Syn. -- To involve; include; comprise; import; mean; denote; signify; betoken. See Involve.

Im*poi"son (?), v. t. [Cf. Empoison.] To poison; to imbitter; to impair.

Im*poi"son*er (?), n. A poisoner. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Im*poi"son*ment (?), n. [Cf. Empoisonment.] The act of poisoning or impoisoning. [Obs.] Pope.

{ Im*po"lar*i*ly (?), Im*po"lar*ly (?), } adv. Not according to or in, the direction of the poles. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*pol"i*cy (?), n. The quality of being impolitic; inexpedience; unsuitableness to the end proposed; bads policy; as, the impolicy of fraud. Bp. Horsley.

Im`po*lite" (?), a. [L. impolitus unpolishied, pref. im- not + politus, p. p. of polire to polish, refine. See Polite.] Not polite; not of polished manners; wanting in good manners; discourteous; uncivil; rude. -- Im`po*lite"ly, adv. -- Im`po*lite"ness, n.

Im*pol"i*tic (?), a. [Pref. im- not + politic; cf. F. impolitique.] Not politic; contrary to, or wanting in, policy; unwise; imprudent; indiscreet; inexpedient; as, an impolitic ruler, law, or measure.

The most unjust and impolitic of all things, unequal taxation.


Syn. -- Indiscreet; inexpedient; undiplomatic.

<! p. 737 !>

Im`po*lit"i*cal (?), a. Impolitic. [Obs.] -- Im`po*lit"i*cal*ly, adv. [Obs.] Bacon.

Im*pol"i*tic*ly (?), adv. In an impolitic manner.

Im*pol"i*tic*ness, n. The quality of being impolitic.

Im*pon`der*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. impondérabilité.] The quality or state of being imponderable; imponderableness.

Im*pon"der*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + ponderable: cf. F. impondérable.] Not ponderable; without sensible or appreciable weight; incapable of being weighed.

Im*pon"der*a*ble, n. (Physics) An imponderable substance or body; specifically, in the plural, a name formerly applied to heat, light, electricity, and magnetism, regarded as subtile fluids destitute of weight but in modern science little used.

Im*pon"der*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being imponderable.

Im*pon"der*ous (?), a. Imponderable. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne. -- Im*pon"der*ous*ness, n. [Obs.]

Im*pone" (?), v. t. [L. imponere, impositum, to place upon; pref. im- in + ponere to place. See Position.] To stake; to wager; to pledge. [Obs.]

Against the which he has imponed, as I take it, six French rapiers and poniards.


||Im*poo"fo (?), n. (Zoöl.) The eland. [Written also impoofoo.]

||Im*poon" (?), n. (Zoöl.) The duykerbok.

Im*poor" (?), v. t. To impoverish. [Obs.]

Im`po*ros"i*ty (?), n. [Perf. im- not + porosity: cf. F. imporosité.] The state or quality of being imporous; want of porosity; compactness. "The . . . imporosity betwixt the tangible parts." Bacon.

Im*por"ous (?), a. Destitute of pores; very close or compact in texture; solid. Sir T. Browne.

Im*port" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imported; p. pr. & vb. n. Importing.] [L. importare to bring in, to occasion, to cause; pref. im- in + portare to bear. Sense 3 comes through F. importer, from the Latin. See Port demeanor.] 1. To bring in from abroad; to introduce from without; especially, to bring (wares or merchandise) into a place or country from a foreign country, in the transactions of commerce; -- opposed to export. We import teas from China, coffee from Brasil, etc.

2. To carry or include, as meaning or intention; to imply; to signify.

Every petition . . . doth . . . always import a multitude of speakers together.


3. To be of importance or consequence to; to have a bearing on; to concern.

I have a motion much imports your good.


If I endure it, what imports it you?


Syn. -- To denote; mean; signify; imply; indicate; betoken; interest; concern.

Im*port", v. i. To signify; to purport; to be of moment. "For that . . . importeth to the work." Bacon.

Im"port (?), n. 1. Merchandise imported, or brought into a country from without its boundaries; -- generally in the plural, opposed to exports.

I take the imports from, and not the exports to, these conquests, as the measure of these advantages which we derived from them.


2. That which a word, phrase, or document contains as its signification or intention or interpretation of a word, action, event, and the like.

3. Importance; weight; consequence.

Most serious design, and the great import.


Im*port"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. importable. See Import.] Capable of being imported.

Im*port"a*ble, a. [L. importabilis; pref. im- not + portabilis bearable: cf. OF. importable. See Portable.] Not to be endured; insupportable; intolerable. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Im*port"a*ble*ness, n. [Obs.]

Im*por"tance (?), n. [F. importance. See Important.] 1. The quality or state of being important; consequence; weight; moment; significance.

Thy own importance know,
Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.


2. Subject; matter. [Obs.]

Upon importance of so slight and trivial a nature.


3. Import; meaning; significance. [Obs.]

The wisest beholder could not say if the importance were joy or sorrow.


4. Importunity; solicitation. [Obs.]

At our importance hither is he come.


Im*por"tan*cy (?), n. Importance; significance; consequence; that which is important. [Obs.] Shak. "Careful to conceal importancies." Fuller.

Im*por"tant (?), a. [F. important. See Import, v. t.] 1. Full of, or burdened by, import; charged with great interests; restless; anxious. [Obs.]

Thou hast strength as much
As serves to execute a mind very important.


2. Carrying or possessing weight or consequence; of valuable content or bearing; significant; weighty.

Things small as nothing . . .
He makes important.


3. Bearing on; forcible; driving. [Obs.]

He fiercely at him flew,
And with important outrage him assailed.


4. Importunate; pressing; urgent. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. -- Weighty; momentous; significant; essential; necessary; considerable; influential; serious.

Im*por"tant*ly, adv. In an important manner.

Im`por*ta"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. importation. See Import, v. t.] 1. The act of carrying, conveying, or delivering. [R.]

2. The act or practice of importing, or bringing into a country or state; -- opposed to exportation.

3. That which is imported; commodities or wares introduced into a country from abroad.

Im*port"er (?), n. One who imports; the merchant who brings goods into a country or state; -- opposed to exporter.

Im*port"ing, a. Full of meaning. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*port"less, a. Void of meaning. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*por"tu*na*ble (?), a. Heavy; insupportable. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

Im*por"tu*na*cy (?), n. [From Importunate.] The quality of being importunate; importunateness.

Im*por"tu*nate (?), a. [See Importune.] 1. Troublesomely urgent; unreasonably solicitous; overpressing in request or demand; urgent; teasing; as, an impotunate petitioner, curiosity. Whewell.

2. Hard to be borne; unendurable. [R.] Donne.

-- Im*por"tu*nate*ly, adv. -- Im*por"tu*nate*ness, n.

Im*por"tu*na`tor (?), n. One who importunes; an importuner. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.

Im`por*tune" (?), a. [F. importun, L. importunus; pref. im- not + a derivative from the root of portus harbor, importunus therefore orig. meaning, hard of access. See Port harbor, and cf. Importunate.] 1. Inopportune; unseasonable. [Obs.]

2. Troublesome; vexatious; persistent; urgent; hence, vexatious on account of untimely urgency or pertinacious solicitation. [Obs.]

And their importune fates all satisfied.


Of all other affections it [envy] is the most importune and continual.


Im`por*tune", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Importuned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Importuning.] [From Importune, a.: cf. F. importuner.] 1. To request or solicit, with urgency; to press with frequent, unreasonable, or troublesome application or pertinacity; hence, to tease; to irritate; to worry.

Their ministers and residents here have perpetually importuned the court with unreasonable demands.


2. To import; to signify. [Obs.] "It importunes death." Spenser.

Im`por*tune", v. i. To require; to demand. [Obs.]

We shall write to you,
As time and our concernings shall importune.


Im`por*tune"ly, adv. In an importune manner. [Obs.]

Im`por*tun"er (?), n. One who importunes.

Im`por*tu"ni*ty (?), n.; pl. Importunities (#). [L. importunitas unsuitableness, rudeness: cf. F. importunité.] The quality of being importunate; pressing or pertinacious solicitation; urgent request; incessant or frequent application; troublesome pertinacity.

O'ercome with importunity and tears.


Im*por"tu*ous (?), a. [L. importuosus; pref. im- not + portuosus abounding in harbors, fr. portus harbor.] Without a port or harbor. [R.]

Im*pos"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. imposable.] Capable of being imposed or laid on. Hammond.

Im*pos"a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being imposable.

Im*pose" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imposed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imposing.] [F. imposer; pref. im- in + poser to place. See Pose, v. t.] 1. To lay on; to set or place; to put; to deposit.

Cakes of salt and barley [she] did impose
Within a wicker basket.


2. To lay as a charge, burden, tax, duty, obligation, command, penalty, etc.; to enjoin; to levy; to inflict; as, to impose a toll or tribute.

What fates impose, that men must needs abide.


Death is the penalty imposed.


Thou on the deep imposest nobler laws.


3. (Eccl.) To lay on, as the hands, in the religious rites of confirmation and ordination.

4. (Print.) To arrange in proper order on a table of stone or metal and lock up in a chase for printing; -- said of columns or pages of type, forms, etc.

Im*pose", v. i. To practice tricks or deception.

To impose on or upon, to pass or put a trick on; to delude. "He imposes on himself, and mistakes words for things." Locke.

Im*pose", n. A command; injunction. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*pose"ment (?), n. Imposition. [Obs.]

Im*pos"er (?), n. One who imposes.

The imposers of these oaths might repent.


Im*pos"ing, a. 1. Laying as a duty; enjoining.

2. Adapted to impress forcibly; impressive; commanding; as, an imposing air; an imposing spectacle. "Large and imposing edifices." Bp. Hobart.

3. Deceiving; deluding; misleading.

Im*pos"ing, n. (Print.) The act of imposing the columns of a page, or the pages of a sheet. See Impose, v. t., 4.

Imposing stone (Print.), the stone on which the pages or columns of types are imposed or made into forms; - - called also imposing table.

Im*pos"ing*ly, adv. In an imposing manner.

Im*pos"ing*ness, n. The quality of being imposing.

Im`po*si"tion (?), n. [F., fr. L. impositio the application of a name to a thing. See Impone.] 1. The act of imposing, laying on, affixing, enjoining, inflicting, obtruding, and the like. "From imposition of strict laws." Milton.

Made more solemn by the imposition of hands.


2. That which is imposed, levied, or enjoined; charge; burden; injunction; tax.

3. (Eng. Univ.) An extra exercise enjoined on students as a punishment. T. Warton.

4. An excessive, arbitrary, or unlawful exaction; hence, a trick or deception put on laid on others; cheating; fraud; delusion; imposture.

Reputation is an idle and most false imposition.


5. (Eccl.) The act of laying on the hands as a religious ceremoy, in ordination, confirmation, etc.

6. (Print.) The act or process of imosing pages or columns of type. See Impose, v. t., 4.

Syn. -- Deceit; fraud; imposture. See Deception.

Im*pos`si*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Impossibilities (#). [L. impossibilitas: cf. F. impossibilité.] 1. The quality of being impossible; impracticability.

They confound difficulty with impossibility.


2. An impossible thing; that which can not be thought, done, or endured.

Impossibilities! O, no, there's none.


3. Inability; helplessness. [R.] Latimer.

Logical impossibility, a condition or statement involving contradiction or absurdity; as, that a thing can be and not be at the same time. See Principle of Contradiction, under Contradiction.

Im*pos"si*ble (?), a. [F., fr. L. impossibilis; pref. im- not + possibilis possible. See Possible.] Not possible; incapable of being done, of existing, etc.; unattainable in the nature of things, or by means at command; insuperably difficult under the circumstances; absurd or impracticable; not feasible.

With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible.

Matt. xix. 26.

Without faith it is impossible to please him.

Heb. xi. 6.

Impossible quantity (Math.), an imaginary quantity. See Imaginary.

Syn. -- See Impracticable.

Im*pos"si*ble, n. An impossibility. [Obs.]

"Madam," quoth he, "this were an impossible!"


Im*pos"si*bly, adv. Not possibly. Sir. T. North.

Im"post (?), n. [OF. impost, F. impot, LL. impostus, fr. L. impostus, p. p. of imponere to impose. See Impone.] 1. That which is imposed or levied; a tax, tribute, or duty; especially, a duty or tax laid by goverment on goods imported into a country.

Even the ship money . . . Johnson could not pronounce to have been an unconstitutional impost.


2. (Arch.) The top member of a pillar, pier, wall, etc., upon which the weight of an arch rests.

The impost is called continuous, if the moldings of the arch or architrave run down the jamb or pier without a break.

Syn. -- Tribute; excise; custom; duty; tax.

Im*post"hu*mate (?), v. t. [See Imposthume.] To apostemate; to form an imposthume or abscess. Arbuthnot.

Im*post"hu*mate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imposthumated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imposthumating (?).] To affect with an imposthume or abscess.

Im*post"hu*mate (?), a. Imposthumated.

Im*post`hu*ma"tion (?), n. 1. The act of forming an abscess; state of being inflamed; suppuration.

2. An abscess; an imposthume. Coxe.

Im*post"hume (?), n. [A corruption of aposteme. See Aposteme.] A collection of pus or purulent matter in any part of an animal body; an abscess.

Im*post"hume, v. t. & i. Same as Imposthumate.

Im*pos"tor (?), n. [L. impostor a deceiver, fr. imponere to impose upon, deceive. See Impone.] One who imposes upon others; a person who assumes a character or title not his own, for the purpose of deception; a pretender. "The fraudulent impostor foul." Milton.

Syn. -- Deceiver; cheat; rogue. See Deceiver.

Im*pos"tor*ship, n. The condition, character, or practice of an impostor. Milton.

{ Im*pos"tress (?), Im*pos"trix (?), } n. [LL. impostrix. See Impostor.] A woman who imposes upon or deceives others. [R.] Fuller.

Im*pos"trous (?), n. Characterized by imposture; deceitful. "Impostrous pretense of knowledge." Grote.

Im*pos"tur*age (?), n. Imposture; cheating. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

Im*pos"ture (?), n. [L. impostura: cf. F. imposture. See Impone.] The act or conduct of an impostor; deception practiced under a false or assumed character; fraud or imposition; cheating.

From new legends
And fill the world with follies and impostures.


Syn. -- Cheat; fraud; trick; imposition; delusion.

Im*pos"tured (?), a. Done by imposture. [Obs.]

Im*pos"tur*ous (?), a. Impostrous; deceitful.

Strictness fales and impostrous.

Beau. & Fl.

Im*pos"tur*y (?), n. Imposture. [Obs.] Fuller.

{ Im"po*tence (?), Im"po*ten*cy (?), } n. [L. impotenia inability, poverty, want of moderation. See Impotent.] 1. The quality or condition of being impotent; want of strength or power, animal, intellectual, or moral; weakness; feebleness; inability; imbecility.

Some were poor by impotency of nature; as young fatherless children, old decrepit persons, idiots, and cripples.


O, impotence of mind in body strong!


2. Want of self-restraint or self- control. [R.] Milton.

3. (Law & Med.) Want of procreative power; inability to copulate, or beget children; also, sometimes, sterility; barrenness.

Im"po*tent (?), a. [F. impotent, L. impotens, -entis; pref. im- not + potens potent, powerful. See Potent.] 1. Not potent; wanting power, strength. or vigor. whether physical, intellectual, or moral; deficient in capacity; destitute of force; weak; feeble; infirm.

There sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent inhis feet.

Acts xiv. 8.

O most lame and impotent conclusion!


Not slow to hear,
Nor impotent to save.


2. Wanting the power of self-restraint; incontrolled; ungovernable; violent.

Impotent of tongue, her silence broke.


3. (Med.) Wanting the power of procreation; unable to copulate; also, sometimes, sterile; barren.

Im"po*tent, n. One who is impotent. [R.] Shak.

Im"po*tent*ly, adv. In an impotent manner.

Im*pound" (&?;), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impounded; p. pr. & vb. n. Impounding.] To shut up or place in an inclosure called a pound; hence, to hold in the custody of a court; as, to impound stray cattle; to impound a document for safe keeping.

But taken and impounded as a stray,
The king of Scots.


<! p. 738 !>

Im*pound"age (m*pound"j), n. 1. The act of impounding, or the state of being impounded.

2. The fee or fine for impounding.

Im*pound"er (?), n. One who impounds.

Im*pov"er*ish (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impoverished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impoverishing.] [OF. empovrir; pref. em- (L. in) + povre poor, F. pauvre; cf. OF. apovrir, F. appauvrir, where the prefix is a- , L. ad. Cf. Empoverish, and see Poor, and -ish.] 1. To make poor; to reduce to poverty or indigence; as, misfortune and disease impoverish families.

2. To exhaust the strength, richness, or fertility of; to make sterile; as, to impoverish land.

Im*pov"er*ish*er (?), n. One who, or that which, impoverishes.

Im*pov"er*ish*ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. empoverissement, and F. appauvrissement.] The act of impoverishing, or the state of being impoverished; reduction to poverty. Sir W. Scott.

Im*pow"er (?), v. t. See Empower.

Imp"-pole` (&?;), n. (Building) A pole for supporting a scaffold.

Im*prac`ti*ca*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Impracticabilities (&?;). 1. The state or quality of being impracticable; infeasibility. Goldsmith.

2. An impracticable thing.

3. Intractableness; stubbornness.

Im*prac"ti*ca*ble (?), a. 1. Not practicable; incapable of being performed, or accomplished by the means employed, or at command; impossible; as, an impracticable undertaking.

2. Not to be overcome, persuaded, or controlled by any reasonable method; unmanageable; intractable; not capable of being easily dealt with; -- used in a general sense, as applied to a person or thing that is difficult to control or get along with.

This though, impracticable heart
Is governed by a dainty-fingered girl.


Patriotic but loyal men went away disgusted afresh with the impracticable arrogance of a sovereign.


3. Incapable of being used or availed of; as, an impracticable road; an impracticable method.

Syn. -- Impossible; infeasible. -- Impracticable, Impossible. A thing is impracticable when it can not be accomplished by any human means at present possessed; a thing is impossible when the laws of nature forbid it. The navigation of a river may now be impracticable, but not impossible, because the existing obstructions may yet be removed. "The barons exercised the most despotic authority over their vassals, and every scheme of public utility was rendered impracticable by their continued petty wars with each other." Mickle. "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible." Matt. xix. 26.

Im*prac"ti*ca*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being impracticable; impracticability.

Im*prac"ti*ca*bly, adv. In an impracticable manner.

Morality not impracticably rigid.


Im*prac"ti*cal (?), a. Not practical.

Im"pre*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imprecated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imprecating (?).] [L. imprecatus, p. p. of imprecari to imprecate; pref. im- in, on + precari to pray. See Pray.] 1. To call down by prayer, as something hurtful or calamitous.

Imprecate the vengeance of Heaven on the guilty empire.


2. To invoke evil upon; to curse; to swear at.

In vain we blast the ministers of Fate,
And the forlorn physicians imprecate.


Im`pre*ca"tion (?), n. [L. imprecatio: cf. F. imprécation.] The act of imprecating, or invoking evil upon any one; a prayer that a curse or calamity may fall on any one; a curse.

Men cowered like slaves before such horrid imprecations.


Syn. -- Malediction; curse; execration; anathema. See Malediction.

Im"pre*ca*to*ry (?), a. Of the nature of, or containing, imprecation; invoking evil; as, the imprecatory psalms.

Im`pre*ci"sion (?), n. Want of precision. [R.]

Im*pregn" (?), v. t. [Cf. F. impregner. See Impregnate.] To impregnate; to make fruitful. [Obs.]

His pernicious words, impregned
With reason.


Semele doth Bacchus bear
Impregned of Jove.

Dr. H. More.

Im*preg`na*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being impregnable; invincibility.

Im*preg"na*ble (?), a. [F. imprenable; pref. im- not + prenable pregnable, fr. prendre to take, L. prehendere. See Comprehend, Get to obtain.] Not to be stormed, or taken by assault; incapable of being subdued; able to resist attack; unconquerable; as, an impregnable fortress; impregnable virtue.

The man's affection remains wholly unconcerned and impregnable.


-- Im*preg"na*ble*ness, n. -- Im*preg"na*bly, adv.

Im*preg"na*ble (?), a. [See Impregnate.] (Biol.) Capable of being impregnated, as the egg of an animal, or the ovule of a plant.

Im*preg"nant (?), n. [See Impregnate.] That which impregnates. [R.] Glanvill.

Im*preg"nant, a. [Pref. im- not + pregnant.] Not pregnant; unfertilized or infertile. [R.]

Im*preg"nate (m*prg"nt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impregnated (-n*td); p. pr. & vb. n. Impregnating (-n*tng).] [LL. impraegnatus, p. p. of impraegnare to impregnate, fr. L. pref. im- in + praegnans pregnant. See Pregnant.] 1. To make pregnant; to cause to conceive; to render prolific; to get with child or young.

2. (Biol.) To come into contact with (an ovum or egg) so as to cause impregnation; to fertilize; to fecundate.

3. To infuse an active principle into; to render fruitful or fertile in any way; to fertilize; to imbue.

4. To infuse particles of another substance into; to communicate the quality of another to; to cause to be filled, imbued, mixed, or furnished (with something); as, to impregnate India rubber with sulphur; clothing impregnated with contagion; rock impregnated with ore.

Im*preg"nate (m*prg"nt), v. i. To become pregnant. Addison.

Im*preg"nate (-nt), a. [LL. impraegnatus, p. p.] Impregnated; made prolific.

The scorching ray
Here pierceth not, impregnate with disease.


Im`preg*na"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. imprégnation, LL. impraegnatio.] 1. The act of impregnating or the state of being impregnated; fecundation.

2. (Biol.) The fusion of a female germ cell (ovum) with a male germ cell (in animals, a spermatozoön) to form a single new cell endowed with the power of developing into a new individual; fertilization; fecundation.

In the broadest biological sense, impregnation, or sexual generation, consists simply in the coalescence of two similar masses of protoplasmic matter, either derived from different parts of the same organism or from two distinct organisms. From the single mass, which results from the fusion, or coalescence, of these two masses, a new organism develops.

3. That with which anything is impregnated. Derham.

4. Intimate mixture; infusion; saturation.

5. (Mining) An ore deposit, with indefinite boundaries, consisting of rock impregnated with ore. Raymond.

Im`pre*ju"di*cate (?), a. Not prejudged; unprejudiced; impartial. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*pre"na*ble (?), a. Impregnable. [Obs.]

Im*prep`a*ra"tion (?), n. Want of preparation. [Obs.] Hooker.

||Im*pre"sa (m*pr"s), n. [It. See Emprise, and cf. Impress, n., 4.] (Her.) A device on a shield or seal, or used as a bookplate or the like. [Written also imprese and impress.]

My impresa to your lordship; a swain
Flying to a laurel for shelter.

J. Webster.

||Im`pre*sa"ri*o (?), n.; pl. Impresarios (#). [It., from impresa enterprise.] The projector, manager, or conductor, of an opera or concert company.

Im`pre*scrip`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. imprescriptibilité.] The quality of being imprescriptible.

Im`pre*scrip"ti*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + prescriptible: cf. F. imprescriptible.] 1. Not capable of being lost or impaired by neglect, by disuse, or by the claims of another founded on prescription.

The right of navigation, fishing, and others that may be exercised on the sea, belonging to the right of mere ability, are imprescriptible.

Vattel (Trans. )

2. Not derived from, or dependent on, external authority; self-evidencing; obvious.

The imprescriptible laws of the pure reason.


Im`pre*scrip"ti*bly, adv. In an imprescriptible manner; obviously.

Im*prese" (?), n. A device. See Impresa.

An imprese, as the Italians call it, is a device in picture with his motto or word, borne by noble or learned personages.


Im*press" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impressed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impressing.] [L. impressus, p. p. of imprimere to impress; pref. im- in, on + premere to press. See Press to squeeze, and cf. Imprint.] 1. To press, stamp, or print something in or upon; to mark by pressure, or as by pressure; to imprint (that which bears the impression).

His heart, like an agate, with your print impressed.


2. To produce by pressure, as a mark, stamp, image, etc.; to imprint (a mark or figure upon something).

3. Fig.: To fix deeply in the mind; to present forcibly to the attention, etc.; to imprint; to inculcate.

Impress the motives of persuasion upon our own hearts till we feel the force of them.

I. Watts.

4. [See Imprest, Impress, n., 5.] To take by force for public service; as, to impress sailors or money.

The second five thousand pounds impressed for the service of the sick and wounded prisoners.


Im*press", v. i. To be impressed; to rest. [Obs.]

Such fiendly thoughts in his heart impress.


Im"press (?), n.; pl. Impresses (&?;). 1. The act of impressing or making.

2. A mark made by pressure; an indentation; imprint; the image or figure of anything, formed by pressure or as if by pressure; result produced by pressure or influence.

The impresses of the insides of these shells.


This weak impress of love is as a figure
Trenched in ice.


3. Characteristic; mark of distinction; stamp. South.

4. A device. See Impresa. Cussans.

To describe . . . emblazoned shields,
Impresses quaint.


5. [See Imprest, Press to force into service.] The act of impressing, or taking by force for the public service; compulsion to serve; also, that which is impressed.

Why such impress of shipwrights?


Impress gang, a party of men, with an officer, employed to impress seamen for ships of war; a press gang. -- Impress money, a sum of money paid, immediately upon their entering service, to men who have been impressed.

Im*press`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being impressible; susceptibility.

Im*press"i*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. impressible.] Capable of being impressed; susceptible; sensitive. -- Im*press"i*ble*ness, n. -- Im*press"i*bly, adv.

Im*pres"sion (?), n. [F. impression, L. impressio.] 1. The act of impressing, or the state of being impressed; the communication of a stamp, mold, style, or character, by external force or by influence.

2. That which is impressed; stamp; mark; indentation; sensible result of an influence exerted from without.

The stamp and clear impression of good sense.


To shelter us from impressions of weather, we must spin, we must weave, we must build.


3. That which impresses, or exercises an effect, action, or agency; appearance; phenomenon. [Obs.]

Portentous blaze of comets and impressions in the air.


A fiery impression falling from out of Heaven.


4. Influence or effect on the senses or the intellect hence, interest, concern. Reid.

His words impression left.


Such terrible impression made the dream.


I have a father's dear impression,
And wish, before I fall into my grave,
That I might see her married.


5. An indistinct notion, remembrance, or belief.

6. Impressiveness; emphasis of delivery.

Which must be read with an impression.


7. (Print.) The pressure of the type on the paper, or the result of such pressure, as regards its appearance; as, a heavy impression; a clear, or a poor, impression; also, a single copy as the result of printing, or the whole edition printed at a given time.

Ten impressions which his books have had.


8. In painting, the first coat of color, as the priming in house painting and the like. [R.]

9. (Engraving) A print on paper from a wood block, metal plate, or the like.

Proof impression, one of the early impressions taken from an engraving, before the plate or block is worn.

Im*pres`sion*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being impressionable.

Im*pres"sion*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. impressionnable.] Liable or subject to impression; capable of being molded; susceptible; impressible.

He was too impressionable; he had too much of the temperament of genius.


A pretty face and an impressionable disposition.

T. Hook.

Im*pres"sion*a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being impressionable.

Im*pres"sion*ism (?), n. [F. impressionnisme.] (Fine Arts) The theory or method of suggesting an effect or impression without elaboration of the details; -- a disignation of a recent fashion in painting and etching.

Im*pres"sion*ist, n. [F. impressionniste.] (Fine Arts) One who adheres to the theory or method of impressionism, so called.

Im*pres`sion*is"tic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, impressionism.

Im*pres"sion*less, a. Having the quality of not being impressed or affected; not susceptible.

Im*press"ive (?), a. [Cf. F. impressif.] 1. Making, or tending to make, an impression; having power to impress; adapted to excite attention and feeling, to touch the sensibilities, or affect the conscience; as, an impressive discourse; an impressive scene.

2. Capable of being impressed. [Obs.] Drayton.

- Im*press"ive*ly, adv. -- Im*press"ive*ness, n.

Im*press"ment (?), n. The act of seizing for public use, or of impressing into public service; compulsion to serve; as, the impressment of provisions or of sailors.

The great scandal of our naval service -- impressment -- died a protracted death.

J. H. Burton.

Im*press"or (?), n. [LL., a printer.] One who, or that which, impresses. Boyle.

Im*pres"sure (?), n. [Cf. OF. impressure, LL. impressura.] Dent; impression. [Obs.] Shak.

Im*prest" (&?;), v. t. [ imp. & p. p. Imprested; p. pr. & vb. n. Impresting.] [Pref. im- + prest: cf. It. imprestare. See Prest, n.] To advance on loan. Burke.

Im"prest (?), n. [Cf. It. impresto, imprestito, LL. impraestitum. See Imprest, v. t., and Impress compulsion to serve.] A kind of earnest money; loan; -- specifically, money advanced for some public service, as in enlistment. Burke.

The clearing of their imprests for what little of their debts they have received.


{ Im*prev"a*lence (?), Im*prev"a*len*cy (?), } n. Want of prevalence. [Obs.]

Im`pre*vent`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being impreventable. [R.]

Im`pre*vent"a*ble (?), a. Not preventable; inevitable.

||Im`pri*ma"tur (?), n. [L., let it be printed.] (Law) A license to print or publish a book, paper, etc.; also, in countries subjected to the censorship of the press, approval of that which is published.

Im*prim"er*y (?), n. [F. imprimerie, fr. imprimer to imprint.] [Obs.] (a) A print; impression. (b) A printing establishment. (c) The art of printing.

Im*prim"ing (?), n. A beginning. [Obs.] "Their springings and imprimings." Sir H. Wotton.

||Im*pri"mis (?), adv. [L., for in primis among the first, chiefly; in in + primus first.] In the first place; first in order.

Im*print" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imptrinted; p. pr. & vb. n. Imprinting.] [OE. emprenten, F. empreint, p. p. of empreindre to imprint, fr. L. imprimere to impres, imprint. See 1st In-, Print, and cf. Impress.] 1. To impress; to mark by pressure; to indent; to stamp.

And sees his num'rous herds imprint her sands.


2. To stamp or mark, as letters on paper, by means of type, plates, stamps, or the like; to print the mark (figures, letters, etc., upon something).

Nature imprints upon whate'er we see,
That has a heart and life in it, "Be free."


3. To fix indelibly or permanently, as in the mind or memory; to impress.

Ideas of those two different things distinctly imprinted on his mind.


<! p. 739 !>

Im"print (?), n. [Cf. F. empreinte impress, stamp. See Imprint, v. t.] Whatever is impressed or imprinted; the impress or mark left by something; specifically, the name of the printer or publisher (usually) with the time and place of issue, in the title- page of a book, or on any printed sheet. "That imprint of their hands." Buckle.

Im*pris"on (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imprisoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Imprisoning.] [OE. enprisonen, OF. enprisoner, F. emprisonner; pref. en- (L. in) + F. & OF. prison. See Prison.] 1. To put in prison or jail; To arrest and detain in custody; to confine.

He imprisoned was in chains remediless.


2. To limit, restrain, or confine in any way.

Try to imprison the resistless wind.


Syn. -- To incarcerate; confine; immure.

Im*pris"on*er (?), n. One who imprisons.

Im*pris"on ment (?), n. [OE. enprisonment; F. emprisonnement.] The act of imprisoning, or the state of being imprisoned; confinement; restraint.

His sinews waxen weak and raw
Through long imprisonment and hard constraint.


Every confinement of the person is an imprisonment, whether it be in a common prison, or in a private house, or even by foreibly detaining one in the public streets.


False imprisonment. (Law) See under False.

Syn. -- Incarceration; custody; confinement; durance; restraint.

Im*prob`a*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Improbabilities (#). [Cf. F. improbabilité.] The quality or state of being improbable; unlikelihood; also, that which is improbable; an improbable event or result.

Im*prob"a*ble (?), a. [L. improbabilis; pref. im- not + probabilis probable: cf. F. improbable. See Probable.] Not probable; unlikely to be true; not to be expected under the circumstances or in the usual course of events; as, an improbable story or event.

He . . . sent to Elutherius, then bishop of Rome, an improbable letter, as some of the contents discover.


-- Im*prob"a*ble*ness, n. -- Im*prob"a*bly, adv.

Im"pro*bate (?), v. t. [L. improbatus, p. p. of improbare to disapprove; pref. im- not + probare to approve.] To disapprove of; to disallow. [Obs.]

Im`pro*ba"tion (?), n. [L. improbatio.] 1. The act of disapproving; disapprobation.

2. (Scots Law) The act by which falsehood and forgery are proved; an action brought for the purpose of having some instrument declared false or forged. Bell.

{ Im"pro*ba*tive (?), Im"pro*ba`to*ry (?) }, a. Implying, or tending to, improbation.

Im*prob"i*ty (?), n. [L. improbitas; pref. im- not + probitas probity: cf. F. improbité.] Lack of probity; want of integrity or rectitude; dishonesty.

Persons . . . cast out for notorious improbity.


{ Im`pro*fi"cience (?), Im`pro*fi"cien*cy, } n. Want of proficiency. [R.] Bacon.

Im*prof"it*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- not + profitable: cf. F. improfitable.] Unprofitable. [Obs.]

Im`pro*gress"ive (?), a. Not progressive. De Quincey. -- Im"pro*gress"ive*ly, adv.

Im`pro*lif"ic (?), a. [Pref. im- not + prolific: cf. F. improlifique.] Not prolific. [Obs.] E. Waterhouse.

Im`pro*lif"ic*ate (?), v. t. [Pref. im- in + prolificate.] To impregnate. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*prompt" (?), a. Not ready. [R.] Sterne.

Im*promp"tu (?), adv. or a. [F. impromptu, fr. L. in promptu in readiness, at hand; in in + promptus visibility, readiness, from promptus visible, ready. See Prompt.] Offhand; without previous study; extemporaneous; extempore; as, an impromptu verse.

Im*promp"tu, n. 1. Something made or done offhand, at the moment, or without previous study; an extemporaneous composition, address, or remark.

2. (Mus.) A piece composed or played at first thought; a composition in the style of an extempore piece.

Im*prop"er (?), a. [F. impropre, L. improprius; pref. im- not + proprius proper. See Proper.] 1. Not proper; not suitable; not fitted to the circumstances, design, or end; unfit; not becoming; incongruous; inappropriate; indecent; as, an improper medicine; improper thought, behavior, language, dress.

Follow'd his enemy king, and did him service,
Improper for a slave.


And to their proper operation still,
Ascribe all Good; to their improper, Ill.


2. Not peculiar or appropriate to individuals; general; common. [Obs.]

Not to be adorned with any art but such improper ones as nature is said to bestow, as singing and poetry.

J. Fletcher.

3. Not according to facts; inaccurate; erroneous.

Improper diphthong. See under Diphthong. -- Improper feud, an original feud, not earned by military service. Mozley & W. -- Improper fraction. See under Fraction.

Im*prop"er, v. t. To appropriate; to limit. [Obs.]

He would in like manner improper and inclose the sunbeams to comfort the rich and not the poor.


Im*prop`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. improperare, improperatum, to taunt.] The act of upbraiding or taunting; a reproach; a taunt. [Obs.]

Improperatios and terms of scurrility.

Sir T. Browne

||Im`pro*pe"ri*a (?), n. pl. [L., reproaches.] (Mus.) A series of antiphons and responses, expressing the sorrowful remonstrance of our Lord with his people; -- sung on the morning of the Good Friday in place of the usual daily Mass of the Roman ritual. Grove.

Im*prop"er*ly (?), adv. In an improper manner; not properly; unsuitably; unbecomingly.

Im*prop"er*ty (?), n. Impropriety. [Obs.]

Im`pro*pi"tious (?), a. Unpropitious; unfavorable. [Obs.] "Dreams were impropitious." Sir H. Wotton.

Im`pro*por"tion*a*ble (?), a. Not proportionable. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Im`pro*por"tion*ate (?), a. Not proportionate. [Obs.]

Im*pro"pri*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impropriated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impropriating (?).] [Pref. im- in + L. propriatus, p. p. of propriare to appropriate. See Appropriate.] 1. To appropriate to one's self; to assume. [Obs.]

To impropriate the thanks to himself.


2. (Eng. Eccl. Law) To place the profits of (ecclesiastical property) in the hands of a layman for care and disbursement.

Im*pro"pri*ate, v. i. To become an impropriator. [R.]

Im*pro"pri*ate (?), a. (Eng. Eccl. Law) Put into the hands of a layman; impropriated.

Im*pro`pri*a"tion (?), n. 1. The act of impropriating; as, the impropriation of property or tithes; also, that which is impropriated.

2. (Eng. Eccl. Law) (a) The act of putting an ecclesiastical benefice in the hands of a layman, or lay corporation. (b) A benefice in the hands of a layman, or of a lay corporation.

Im*pro"pri*a`tor (?), n. One who impropriates; specifically, a layman in possession of church property.

Im*pro`pri*a"trix (?), n.; pl. E. -trixes, L. -trices (&?;). A female impropriator.

Im`pro*pri"e*ty (?), n.; pl. Improprieties (#). [L. improprietas; cf. F. impropriété. See Improper.] 1. The quality of being improper; unfitness or unsuitableness to character, time place, or circumstances; as, impropriety of behavior or manners.

2. That which is improper; an unsuitable or improper act, or an inaccurate use of language.

But every language has likewise its improprieties and absurdities.


Many gross improprieties, however authorized by practice, ought to be discarded.


Im`pros*per"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. improspérité.] Want of prosperity. [Obs.]

Im*pros"per*ous (?), a. [Pref. im- not + prosperous: cf. F. improspère, L. improsper.] Not prosperous. [Obs.] Dryden. - - Im*pros"per*ous*ly, adv. [Obs.] -- Im*pros"per*ous*ness, n. [Obs.]

Im*prov`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being improvable; improvableness.

Im*prov"a*ble (?), a. [From Improve.] 1. Capable of being improved; susceptible of improvement; admitting of being made better; capable of cultivation, or of being advanced in good qualities.

Man is accommodated with moral principles, improvable by the exercise of his faculties.

Sir M. Hale.

I have a fine spread of improvable lands.


2. Capable of being used to advantage; profitable; serviceable; advantageous.

The essays of weaker heads afford improvable hints to better.

Sir T. Browne.

-- Im*pro"a*ble*ness, n. -- Im*prov"a*bly, adv.

Im*prove" (?), v. t. [Pref. im- not + prove: cf. L. improbare, F. improuver.] 1. To disprove or make void; to refute. [Obs.]

Neither can any of them make so strong a reason which another can not improve.


2. To disapprove; to find fault with; to reprove; to censure; as, to improve negligence. [Obs.] Chapman.

When he rehearsed his preachings and his doing unto the high apostles, they could improve nothing.


Im*prove", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Improved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Improving.] [Pref. in- in + prove, in approve. See Approve, Prove.] 1. To make better; to increase the value or good qualities of; to ameliorate by care or cultivation; as, to improve land. Donne.

I love not to improve the honor of the living by impairing that of the dead.


2. To use or employ to good purpose; to make productive; to turn to profitable account; to utilize; as, to improve one's time; to improve his means. Shak.

We shall especially honor God by improving diligently the talents which God hath committed to us.


A hint that I do not remember to have seen opened and improved.


The court seldom fails to improve the opportunity.


How doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour.

I. Watts.

Those moments were diligently improved.


True policy, as well as good faith, in my opinion, binds us to improve the occasion.


3. To advance or increase by use; to augment or add to; -- said with reference to what is bad. [R.]

We all have, I fear, . . . not a little improved the wretched inheritance of our ancestors.

Bp. Porteus.

Syn. -- To better; meliorate; ameliorate; advance; heighten; mend; correct; rectify; amend; reform.

Im*prove", v. i. 1. To grow better; to advance or make progress in what is desirable; to make or show improvement; as, to improve in health.

We take care to improve in our frugality and diligence.


2. To advance or progress in bad qualities; to grow worse. "Domitian improved in cruelty." Milner.

3. To increase; to be enhanced; to rise in value; as, the price of cotton improves.

To improve on or upon, to make useful additions or amendments to, or changes in; to bring nearer to perfection; as, to improve on the mode of tillage.

Im*prove"ment (?), n. 1. The act of improving; advancement or growth; promotion in desirable qualities; progress toward what is better; melioration; as, the improvement of the mind, of land, roads, etc.

I look upon your city as the best place of improvement.


Exercise is the chief source of improvement in all our faculties.


2. The act of making profitable use or applicaton of anything, or the state of being profitably employed; a turning to good account; practical application, as of a doctrine, principle, or theory, stated in a discourse. "A good improvement of his reason." S. Clarke.

I shall make some improvement of this doctrine.


3. The state of being improved; betterment; advance; also, that which is improved; as, the new edition is an improvement on the old.

The parts of Sinon, Camilla, and some few others, are improvements on the Greek poet.


4. Increase; growth; progress; advance.

There is a design of publishing the history of architecture, with its several improvements and decays.


Those vices which more particularly receive improvement by prosperity.


5. pl. Valuable additions or betterments, as buildings, clearings, drains, fences, etc., on premises.

6. (Patent Laws) A useful addition to, or modification of, a machine, manufacture, or composition. Kent.

Im*prov"er (?), n. One who, or that which, improves.

Im`pro*vid"ed (?), a. Unforeseen; unexpected; not provided against; unprepared. [Obs.]

All improvided for dread of death.

E. Hall.

Im*prov"i*dence (?), n. [L. improvidentia; OF. improvidence. Cf. Imprudence.] The quality of being improvident; want of foresight or thrift.

The improvidence of my neighbor must not make me inhuman.


Im*prov"i*dent (?), a. [Pref. im- not + provident: cf. L. improvidus. See Provident, and cf. Imprudent.] Not provident; wanting foresight or forethought; not foreseeing or providing for the future; negligent; thoughtless; as, an improvident man.

Improvident soldiers! had your watch been good,
This sudden mischief never could have fallen.


Syn. -- Inconsiderable; negligent; careless; shiftless; prodigal; wasteful.

Im*prov`i*den"tial*ly (?), adv. Improvidently. [R.]

Im*prov"i*dent*ly (?), adv. In a improvident manner. "Improvidently rash." Drayton.

Im*prov"ing (?), a. Tending to improve, beneficial; growing better. -- Im*prov"ing*ly, adv.

Improving lease (Scots Law), an extended lease to induce the tenant to make improvements on the premises.

Im*prov"i*sate (?), a. [See Improvise.] Unpremeditated; impromptu; extempore. [R.]

Im*prov"i*sate (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Improvisated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Improvisating (?).] To improvise; to extemporize.

Im*prov`i*sa"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. improvisation.] 1. The act or art of composing and rendering music, poetry, and the like, extemporaneously; as, improvisation on the organ.

2. That which is improvised; an impromptu.

Im`pro*vis"a*tize (?), v. t. & i. Same as Improvisate.

Im*prov"i*sa`tor (?), n. An improviser, or improvvisatore.

||Im`pro*vi`sa*to"re (?), n. See Improvvisatore.

{ Im*prov`i*sa*to"ri*al (?), Im*prov"i*sa*to*ry (?), } a. Of or pertaining to improvisation or extemporaneous composition.

||Im`pro*vi`sa*tri"ce (?), n. See Improvvisatrice.

Im`pro*vise" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Improvised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Improvising.] [F. improviser, it. improvvisare, fr. improvviso unprovided, sudden, extempore, L. improvisus; pref. im- not + provisus foreseen, provided. See Proviso.] 1. To compose, recite, or sing extemporaneously, especially in verse; to extemporize; also, to play upon an instrument, or to act, extemporaneously.

2. To bring about, arrange, or make, on a sudden, or without previous preparation.

Charles attempted to improvise a peace.


3. To invent, or provide, offhand, or on the spur of the moment; as, he improvised a hammer out of a stone.

Im`pro*vise", v. i. To produce or render extemporaneous compositions, especially in verse or in music, without previous preparation; hence, to do anything offhand.

Im`pro*vis"er (?), n. One who improvises.

Im`pro*vi"sion (?), n. [Pref. im- not + provision.] Improvidence. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Im`pro*vi"so (?), a. [L. improvisus unforeseen; cf. It. improvviso.] Not prepared or mediated beforehand; extemporaneous. [Obs.] Jonhson.

||Im`prov*vi`sa*to"re (?), n.; pl. Improvvisatori (#). [It. See Improvise.] One who composes and sings or recites rhymes and short poems extemporaneously. [Written also improvisatore.]

||Im`prov*vi`sa*tri"ce (?), n.; pl. Improvvisatrici (#). [It. See Improvise.] A female improvvisatore. [Written also improvisatrice.]

Im*pru"dence (?), n. [L. imprudentia: cf. F. imprudence. Cf. Improvidence.] The quality or state of being imprudent; want to caution, circumspection, or a due regard to consequences; indiscretion; inconsideration; rashness; also, an imprudent act; as, he was guilty of an imprudence.

His serenity was interrupted, perhaps, by his own imprudence.


Im*pru"dent (?), a. [L. imprudens; pref. im- not + prudens prudent: cf. F. imprudent. See Prudent, and cf. Improvident.] Not prudent; wanting in prudence or discretion; indiscreet; injudicious; not attentive to consequence; improper. -- Im*pru"dent*ly, adv.

Her majesty took a great dislike at the imprudent behavior of many of the ministers and readers.


<! p. 740 !>

Syn. -- Indiscreet; injudicious; incautious; ill-advised; unwise; heedless; careless; rash; negligent.

Im*pu"ber*al (m*p"br*al), a. Not having arrived at puberty; immature.

In impuberal animals the cerebellum is, in proportion to the brain proper, greatly less than in adults.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Im*pu"ber*ty (-t), n. The condition of not having reached puberty, or the age of ability to reproduce one's species; want of age at which the marriage contract can be legally entered into.

Im"pu*dence (m"p*dens), n. [L. impudentia: cf. F. impudence. See Impudent.] The quality of being impudent; assurance, accompanied with a disregard of the presence or opinions of others; shamelessness; forwardness; want of modesty.

Clear truths that their own evidence forces us to admit, or common experience makes it impudence to deny.


Where pride and impudence (in fashion knit)
Usurp the chair of wit.

B. Jonson.

Syn. -- Shamelessness; audacity; insolence; effrontery; sauciness; impertinence; pertness; rudeness. -- Impudence, Effrontery, Sauciness. Impudence refers more especially to the feelings as manifested in action. Effrontery applies to some gross and public exhibition of shamelessness. Sauciness refers to a sudden pert outbreak of impudence, especially from an inferior. Impudence is an unblushing kind of impertinence, and may be manifested in words, tones, gestures, looks, etc. Effrontery rises still higher, and shows a total or shameless disregard of duty or decorum under the circumstances of the case. Sauciness discovers itself toward particular individuals, in certain relations; as in the case of servants who are saucy to their masters, or children who are saucy to their teachers. See Impertinent, and Insolent.

Im"pu*den*cy (?), n. Impudence. [Obs.] Burton.

Audacious without impudency.


Im"pu*dent (?), a. [L. impudens, -entis; pref. im- not + pudens ashamed, modest, p. pr. of pudere to feel shame: cf. F. impudent.] Bold, with contempt or disregard; unblushingly forward; impertinent; wanting modesty; shameless; saucy.

More than impudent sauciness.


When we behold an angel, not to fear
Is to be impudent.


Syn. -- Shameless; audacious; brazen; bold-faced; pert; immodest; rude; saucy; impertinent; insolent.

Im"pu*dent*ly, adv. In an impudent manner; with unbecoming assurance; shamelessly.

At once assail
With open mouths, and impudently rail.


Im`pu*dic"i*ty (?), n. [L. impudicus immodest; im- not + pudicus shamefaced, modest: cf. F. impudicité, L. impudicitia.] Immodesty. Sheldon.

Im*pugn" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impugned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impugning.] [OE. impugnen, F. impugner, fr. L. impugnare; in on, against + pugnare to flight. See Pugnacious.] To attack by words or arguments; to contradict; to assail; to call in question; to make insinuations against; to gainsay; to oppose.

The truth hereof I will not rashly impugn, or overboldly affirm.


Im*pugn"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being impugned; that may be gainsaid.

Im`pug*na"tion (?), n. [L. impugnatio: cf. OF. impugnation.] Act of impugning; opposition; attack. [Obs.]

A perpetual impugnation and self- conflict.

Bp. Hall.

Im*pugn"er (?), n. One who impugns.

Im*pugn"ment (?), n. The act of impugning, or the state of being impugned. Ed. Rev.

Im*pu"is*sance (?), n. [Cf. F. impuissance.] Lack of power; inability. Bacon.

Their own impuissance and weakness.


Im*pu"is*sant (?), a. [F., fr. pref. im- not + puissant. See Puissant.] Weak; impotent; feeble.

Im"pulse (?), n. [L. impulsus, fr. impellere. See Impel.]

1. The act of impelling, or driving onward with sudden force; impulsion; especially, force so communicated as to produced motion suddenly, or immediately.

All spontaneous animal motion is performed by mechanical impulse.

S. Clarke.

2. The effect of an impelling force; motion produced by a sudden or momentary force.

3. (Mech.) The action of a force during a very small interval of time; the effect of such action; as, the impulse of a sudden blow upon a hard elastic body.

4. A mental force which simply and directly urges to action; hasty inclination; sudden motive; momentary or transient influence of appetite or passion; propension; incitement; as, a man of good impulses; passion often gives a violent impulse to the will.

These were my natural impulses for the undertaking.


Syn. -- Force; incentive; influence; motive; feeling; incitement; instigation.

Im*pulse" (?), v. t. [See Impel.] To impel; to incite. [Obs.] Pope.

Im*pul"sion (?), n. [L. impulsio: cf. F. impulsion. See Impel.]

1. The act of impelling or driving onward, or the state of being impelled; the sudden or momentary agency of a body in motion on another body; also, the impelling force, or impulse. "The impulsion of the air." Bacon.

2. Influence acting unexpectedly or temporarily on the mind; sudden motive or influence; impulse. "The impulsion of conscience." Clarendon. "Divine impulsion prompting." Milton.

Im*pul"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. impulsif.]

1. Having the power of driving or impelling; giving an impulse; moving; impellent.

Poor men! poor papers! We and they
Do some impulsive force obey.


2. Actuated by impulse or by transient feelings.

My heart, impulsive and wayward.


3. (Mech.) Acting momentarily, or by impulse; not continuous; -- said of forces.

Im*pul"sive (?), n. That which impels or gives an impulse; an impelling agent. Sir W. Wotton.

Im*pul"sive*ly, adv. In an impulsive manner.

Im*pul"sive*ness, n. The quality of being impulsive.

Im*pul"sor (?), n. [L.] One who, or that which, impels; an inciter. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Im*punc"tate (?), a. Not punctate or dotted.

Im*punc"tu*al (?), a. [Pref. im- not + punctual: cf. F. imponctuel.] Not punctual. [R.]

Im*punc`tu*al"i*ty (?), n. Neglect of, or failure in, punctuality. [R.] A. Hamilton.

Im*pune" (?), a. [L. impunis.] Unpunished. [R.]

Im*pu"ni*bly (?), adv. Without punishment; with impunity. [Obs.] J. Ellis.

Im*pu"ni*ty (?), n. [L. impunitas, fr. impunis without punishment; pref. im- not + poena punishment: cf. F. impunité. See Pain.] Exemption or freedom from punishment, harm, or loss.

Heaven, though slow to wrath,
Is never with impunity defied.


The impunity and also the recompense.


Im`pu*ra"tion (?), n. Defilement; obscuration. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Im*pure" (?), a. [L. impurus; pref. im- not + purus pure: cf. F. impur. See Pure.]

1. Not pure; not clean; dirty; foul; filthy; containing something which is unclean or unwholesome; mixed or impregnated extraneous substances; adulterated; as, impure water or air; impure drugs, food, etc.

2. Defiled by sin or guilt; unholy; unhallowed; -- said of persons or things.

3. Unchaste; lewd; unclean; obscene; as, impure language or ideas. "Impure desires." Cowper.

4. (Script.) Not purified according to the ceremonial law of Moses; unclean.

5. (Language) Not accurate; not idiomatic; as, impure Latin; an impure style.

Im*pure", v. t. To defile; to pollute. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Im*pure"ly, adv. In an impure manner.

Im*pure"ness, n. The quality or condition of being impure; impurity. Milton.

Im*pu"ri*ty (?), n.; pl. Impurities (#). [L. impuritas: cf. F. impureté.]

1. The condition or quality of being impure in any sense; defilement; foulness; adulteration.

Profaneness, impurity, or scandal, is not wit.


2. That which is, or which renders anything, impure; foul matter, action, language, etc.; a foreign ingredient.

Foul impurities reigned among the monkish clergy.


3. (Script.) Want of ceremonial purity; defilement.

Im*pur"ple (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Impurpled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Impurpling (?).] [Pref. im- in + purple. Cf. Empurple.] To color or tinge with purple; to make red or reddish; to purple; as, a field impurpled with blood.

Impurpled with celestial roses, smiled.


The silken fleece impurpled for the loom.


Im*put`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being imputable; imputableness.

Im*put"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. imputable.]

1. That may be imputed; capable of being imputed; chargeable; ascribable; attributable; referable.

A prince whose political vices, at least, were imputable to mental incapacity.


2. Accusable; culpable. [R.]

The fault lies at his door, and she is no wise imputable.


Im*put"a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being imputable.

Im*put"a*bly, adv. By imputation.

Im`pu*ta"tion (?), [L. imputatio an account, a charge: cf. F. imputation.]

1. The act of imputing or charging; attribution; ascription; also, anything imputed or charged.

Shylock. Antonio is a good man.
Bassanio. Have you heard any imputation to the contrary?


If I had a suit to Master Shallow, I would humor his men with the imputation of being near their master.


2. Charge or attribution of evil; censure; reproach; insinuation.

Let us be careful to guard ourselves against these groundless imputation of our enemies.


3. (Theol.) A setting of something to the account of; the attribution of personal guilt or personal righteousness of another; as, the imputation of the sin of Adam, or the righteousness of Christ.

4. Opinion; intimation; hint.

Im*put"a*tive (?), a. [L. imputativus: cf. F. imputatif.] Transferred by imputation; that may be imputed. -- Im*put"a*tive*ly, adv.

Actual righteousness as well as imputative.

Bp. Warburton.

Im*pute" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Imputed; p. pr. & vb. n. Imputing.] [F. imputer, L. imputare to bring into the reckoning, charge, impute; pref. im- in + putare to reckon, think. See Putative.]

1. To charge; to ascribe; to attribute; to set to the account of; to charge to one as the author, responsible originator, or possessor; -- generally in a bad sense.

Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault,
If memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise.


One vice of a darker shade was imputed to him - - envy.


2. (Theol.) To adjudge as one's own (the sin or righteousness) of another; as, the righteousness of Christ is imputed to us.

It was imputed to him for righteousness.

Rom. iv. 22.

They merit
Imputed shall absolve them who renounce
Their own, both righteous and unrighteous deeds.


3. To take account of; to consider; to regard. [R.]

If we impute this last humiliation as the cause of his death.


Syn. -- To ascribe; attribute; charge; reckon; consider; imply; insinuate; refer. See Ascribe.

Im*put"er (?), n. One who imputes.

Im`pu*tres"ci*ble (?), a. [Pref. im- + putrescible: cf. F. imputrescible.] Not putrescible.

Im"righ (?), n. [Scot.; Gael. eun- bhrigh chicken soup.] A peculiar strong soup or broth, made in Scotland. [Written also imrich.]

In- (?). [See In, prep. Cf. Em-, En-.] A prefix from Eng. prep. in, also from Lat. prep. in, meaning in, into, on, among; as, inbred, inborn, inroad; incline, inject, intrude. In words from the Latin, in- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial; as, illusion, irruption, imblue, immigrate, impart. In- is sometimes used with an simple intensive force.

In- (?). [L. in-; akin to E. un-. See Un-.] An inseparable prefix, or particle, meaning not, non-, un- as, inactive, incapable, inapt. In- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial.

-in. A suffix. See the Note under - ine.

In, prep. [AS. in; akin to D. & G. in, Icel. , Sw. & Dan. i, OIr. & L. in, Gr. 'en. √197. Cf. 1st In-, Inn.] The specific signification of in is situation or place with respect to surrounding, environment, encompassment, etc. It is used with verbs signifying being, resting, or moving within limits, or within circumstances or conditions of any kind conceived of as limiting, confining, or investing, either wholly or in part. In its different applications, it approaches some of the meanings of, and sometimes is interchangeable with, within, into, on, at, of, and among. It is used: --

1. With reference to space or place; as, he lives in Boston; he traveled in Italy; castles in the air.

The babe lying in a manger.

Luke ii. 16.

Thy sun sets weeping in the lowly west.


Situated in the forty-first degree of latitude.


Matter for censure in every page.


2. With reference to circumstances or conditions; as, he is in difficulties; she stood in a blaze of light. "Fettered in amorous chains." Shak.

Wrapt in sweet sounds, as in bright veils.


3. With reference to a whole which includes or comprises the part spoken of; as, the first in his family; the first regiment in the army.

Nine in ten of those who enter the ministry.


4. With reference to physical surrounding, personal states, etc., abstractly denoted; as, I am in doubt; the room is in darkness; to live in fear.

When shall we three meet again,
In thunder, lightning, or in rain?


5. With reference to character, reach, scope, or influence considered as establishing a limitation; as, to be in one's favor. "In sight of God's high throne." Milton.

Sounds inharmonious in themselves, and harsh.


6. With reference to movement or tendency toward a certain limit or environment; -- sometimes equivalent to into; as, to put seed in the ground; to fall in love; to end in death; to put our trust in God.

He would not plunge his brother in despair.


She had no jewels to deposit in their caskets.


7. With reference to a limit of time; as, in an hour; it happened in the last century; in all my life.

In as much as, or Inasmuch as, in the degree that; in like manner as; in consideration that; because that; since. See Synonym of Because, and cf. For as much as, under For, prep. -- In that, because; for the reason that. "Some things they do in that they are men . . . ; some things in that they are men misled and blinded with error." Hooker. -- In the name of, in behalf of; on the part of; by authority; as, it was done in the name of the people; -- often used in invocation, swearing, praying, and the like. -- To be in for it. (a) To be in favor of a thing; to be committed to a course. (b) To be unable to escape from a danger, penalty, etc. [Colloq.] -- To be (or keep) in with. (a) To be close or near; as, to keep a ship in with the land. (b) To be on terms of friendship, familiarity, or intimacy with; to secure and retain the favor of. [Colloq.]

Syn. -- Into; within; on; at. See At.

In, adv. 1. Not out; within; inside. In, the preposition, becomes an adverb by omission of its object, leaving it as the representative of an adverbial phrase, the context indicating what the omitted object is; as, he takes in the situation (i. e., he comprehends it in his mind); the Republicans were in (i. e., in office); in at one ear and out at the other (i. e., in or into the head); his side was in (i. e., in the turn at the bat); he came in (i. e., into the house).

Their vacation . . . falls in so pat with ours.


The sails of a vessel are said, in nautical language, to be in when they are furled, or when stowed.

In certain cases in has an adjectival sense; as, the in train (i. e., the incoming train); compare up grade, down grade, undertow, afterthought, etc.

2. (Law) With privilege or possession; -- used to denote a holding, possession, or seisin; as, in by descent; in by purchase; in of the seisin of her husband. Burrill.

In and in breeding. See under Breeding. -- In and out (Naut.), through and through; -- said of a through bolt in a ship's side. Knight. -- To be in, to be at home; as, Mrs. A. is in. -- To come in. See under Come.

In, n. [Usually in the plural.] 1. One who is in office; -- the opposite of out.

2. A reëntrant angle; a nook or corner.

Ins and outs, nooks and corners; twists and turns.

All the ins and outs of this neighborhood.

D. Jerrold.

<! p. 741 !>

In (?), v. t. To inclose; to take in; to harvest. [Obs.]

He that ears my land spares my team and gives me leave to in the crop.


In`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. in- not + ability: cf. F. inhabileté. See Able, and cf. Unable.] The quality or state of being unable; lack of ability; want of sufficient power, strength, resources, or capacity.

It is not from an inability to discover what they ought to do, that men err in practice.


Syn. -- Impotence; incapacity; incompetence; weakness; powerlessness; incapability. See Disability.

In*a"ble (?), v. t. See Enable.

In*a"ble*ment (?), n. See Enablement. [Obs.]

In*ab"sti*nence (?), n. [Pref. in- not + abstinence: cf. F. inabstinence.] Want of abstinence; indulgence. [Obs.] "The inabstinence of Eve." Milton.

In`ab*stract"ed (?), a. Not abstracted.

In`a*bu"sive*ly (?), adv. Without abuse.

In`ac*cess`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inaccessibilité.] The quality or state of being inaccessible; inaccessibleness. "The inaccessibility of the precipice." Bp. Butler.

In`ac*cess"i*ble (?), a. [L. inaccessibilis: cf. F. inaccessible. See In- not, and Accessible.] Not accessible; not to be reached, obtained, or approached; as, an inaccessible rock, fortress, document, prince, etc. -- In`ac*cess"i*ble*ness, n. -- In`ac*cess"i*bly, adv.

In`ac*cord"ant (?), a. Not accordant; discordant.

In*ac"cu*ra*cy (?), n.; pl. Inaccuracies (&?;).

1. The quality of being inaccurate; want of accuracy or exactness.

2. That which is inaccurate or incorrect; mistake; fault; defect; error; as, in inaccuracy in speech, copying, calculation, etc.

In*ac"cu*rate (?), a. Not accurate; not according to truth; inexact; incorrect; erroneous; as, in inaccurate man, narration, copy, judgment, calculation, etc.

The expression is plainly inaccurate.

Bp. Hurd.

Syn. -- Inexact; incorrect; erroneous; faulty; imperfect; incomplete; defective.

In*ac"cu*rate*ly, adv. In an inaccurate manner; incorrectly; inexactly.

In`ac*quaint"ance (?), a. Want of acquaintance. Good.

In*ac`qui*es"cent (?), a. Not acquiescent or acquiescing.

In*ac"tion (?), n. [Pref. in. not + action: cf. inaction.] Want of action or activity; forbearance from labor; idleness; rest; inertness. Berkeley.

In*ac"tive (?), a. [Pref. in- not + active: cf. F. inactif.]

1. Not active; having no power to move; that does not or can not produce results; inert; as, matter is, of itself, inactive.

2. Not disposed to action or effort; not diligent or industrious; not busy; idle; as, an inactive officer.

3. (Chem. & Opt.) Not active; inert; esp., not exhibiting any action or activity on polarized light; optically neutral; -- said of isomeric forms of certain substances, in distinction from other forms which are optically active; as, racemic acid is an inactive tartaric acid.

Syn. -- Inert; dull; sluggish; idle; indolent; slothful; lazy. See Inert.

In*ac"tive*ly, adv. In an inactive manner. Locke.

In`ac*tiv"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inactivité.]

1. The state or quality of being inactive; inertness; as, the inactivity of matter.

2. Idleness; habitual indisposition to action or exertion; want of energy; sluggishness.

The gloomy inactivity of despair.


In*ac"tose (?), n. (Chem.) A variety of sugar, found in certain plants. It is optically inactive.

In*ac"tu*ate (?), v. t. To put in action. [Obs.]

In*ac`tu*a"tion (?), n. Operation. [Obs.]

In*ad`ap*ta"tion (?), n. Want of adaptation; unsuitableness.

In*ad"e*qua*cy (?), n. [From Inadequate.] The quality or state of being inadequate or insufficient; defectiveness; insufficiency; inadequateness.

The inadequacy and consequent inefficacy of the alleged causes.

Dr. T. Dwight.

In*ad"e*quate (?), a. [Pref. in- not + adequate: cf. F. inadéquat.] Not adequate; unequal to the purpose; insufficient; deficient; as, inadequate resources, power, conceptions, representations, etc. Dryden.

-- In*ad"e*quate*ly, adv. -- In*ad"e*quate*ness, n.

In*ad`e*qua"tion (?), n. Want of exact correspondence. [Obs.] Puller.

In`ad*her"ent (?), a. 1. Not adhering.

2. (Bot.) Free; not connected with the other organs.

In`ad*he"sion (?), n. Want of adhesion.

In`ad*mis`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inadmissibilité.] The state or quality of being inadmissible, or not to be received.

In`ad*mis"si*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + admissible: cf. F. inadmissible.] Not admissible; not proper to be admitted, allowed, or received; as, inadmissible testimony; an inadmissible proposition, or explanation. -- In`ad*mis"si*bly, adv.

{ In`ad*vert"ence (?); pl. -ces (&?;), In`ad*vert"en*cy (?); pl. - cies (&?;), } n. [Cf. F. inadvertance.]

1. The quality of being inadvertent; lack of heedfulness or attentiveness; inattention; negligence; as, many mistakes proceed from inadvertence.

Inadvertency, or want of attendance to the sense and intention of our prayers.

Jer. Taylor.

2. An effect of inattention; a result of carelessness; an oversight, mistake, or fault from negligence.

The productions of a great genius, with many lapses an inadvertencies, are infinitely preferable to works of an inferior kind of author which are scrupulously exact.


Syn. -- Inattention; heedlessness; carelessness; negligence; thoughtlessness. See Inattention.

In`ad*vert"ent (?), a. [Cf. F. inadvertant. See 2d In-, and Advert.] Not turning the mind to a matter; heedless; careless; negligent; inattentive.

An inadvertent step may crush the snail
That crawls at evening in the public path.


-- In`ad*vert"ent*ly, adv.

In`ad*vis"a*ble (?), a. Not advisable. -- In`ad*vis"a*ble*ness, n.

In*af`fa*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inaffabilité.] Want of affability or sociability; reticence.

In*af"fa*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + affable.] Not affable; reserved in social intercourse.

In*af`fec*ta"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + affectation: cf. F. inaffectation.] Freedom from affectation; naturalness. [R.]

In`af*fect"ed (?), a. Unaffected. [Obs.] -- In`af*fect"ed*ly, adv. [Obs.]

In*aid"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being assisted; helpless. [R.] Shak.

In*al`ien*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being inalienable.

In*al"ien*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + alienable: cf. F. inaliénable.] Incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred to another; not alienable; as, in inalienable birthright.

In*al"ien*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being inalienable; inalienability.

In*al"ien*a*bly, adv. In a manner that forbids alienation; as, rights inalienably vested.

In*al`i*men"tal (?), a. Affording no aliment or nourishment. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*al`ter*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inaltérabilité.] The quality of being unalterable or unchangeable; permanence.

In*al"ter*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + alterable: cf. F. inaltérable.] Not alterable; incapable of being altered or changed; unalterable. -- In*al"ter*a*ble*ness, n. -- In*al"ter*a*bly, adv.

In*a"mi*a*ble (?), a. Unamiable. [Obs.] -- In*a"mi*a*ble*ness, n. [Obs.]

In`a*mis"si*ble (?), a. [L. inamissibilis: cf. F. inamissible.] Incapable of being lost. [R.] Hammond. -- In`a*mis"si*ble*ness, n. [R.]

In*a`mo*ra"ta (?), n. [It. innamorata, fem., innamorato, masc., p. p. of innamorare to inspire with love. See Enamor.] A woman in love; a mistress. "The fair inamorata." Sherburne.

In*am"o*rate (?), a. Enamored. Chapman. -- In*am"o*rate*ly, adv. [R.]

||In*a`mo*ra"to (?), n.; pl. Inamoratos (#). [See Inamorata.] A male lover.

In`a*mov"a*ble (?), a. Not amovable or removable. [R.] Palgrave.

In"-and-in" (?), n. An old game played with four dice. In signified a doublet, or two dice alike; in-and-in, either two doubles, or the four dice alike.

In and in, a. & adv. Applied to breeding from a male and female of the same parentage. See under Breeding.

In*ane" (?), a. [L. inanis.] Without contents; empty; void of sense or intelligence; purposeless; pointless; characterless; useless. "Vague and inane instincts." I. Taylor. -- In*ane"ly, adv.

In*ane", n. That which is void or empty. [R.]

The undistinguishable inane of infinite space.


In*an"gu*lar (?), a. Not angular. [Obs.]

{ In`a*nil"o*quent (?), In`a*nil"o*quous (?), } a. [L. inanis empty + loqui to speak.] Given to talking inanely; loquacious; garrulous. [R.]

In*an"i*mate (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in (or intensively) + animate.] To animate. [Obs.] Donne.

In*an"i*mate (?), a. [L. inanimatus; pref. in- not + animatus animate.] Not animate; destitute of life or spirit; lifeless; dead; inactive; dull; as, stones and earth are inanimate substances.

Grieving, if aught inanimate e'er grieves.


Syn. -- Lifeless; dead; inert; inactive; dull; soulless; spiritless. See Lifeless.

In*an"i*ma`ted (?), a. Destitute of life; lacking animation; unanimated. Pope.

In*an"i*mate*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being inanimate.

The deadness and inanimateness of the subject.

W. Montagu.

In*an`i*ma"tion (?), n. [See 2d Inanimate.] Want of animation; lifeless; dullness.

In*an`i*ma"tion, n. [See 1st Inanimate.] Infusion of life or vigor; animation; inspiration. [Obs.]

The inanimation of Christ living and breathing within us.

Bp. Hall.

In`a*ni"ti*ate (?), v. t. To produce inanition in; to exhaust for want of nourishment. [R.]

In`a*ni`ti*a"tion (?), n. Inanition. [R.]

In`a*ni"tion (?), n. [F. inanition, L. inanitio emptiness, fr. inanire to empty, fr. inanis empty. Cf. Inane.] The condition of being inane; emptiness; want of fullness, as in the vessels of the body; hence, specifically, exhaustion from want of food, either from partial or complete starvation, or from a disorder of the digestive apparatus, producing the same result.

Feeble from inanition, inert from weariness.


Repletion and inanition may both do harm in two contrary extremes.


In*an"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Inanities (#). [L. inanitas, fr. inanis empty: cf. F. inanité. See Inane.]

1. Inanition; void space; vacuity; emptiness.

2. Want of seriousness; aimlessness; frivolity.

3. An inane, useless thing or pursuit; a vanity; a silly object; -- chiefly in pl.; as, the inanities of the world.

In*an"ther*ate (?), a. (Bot.) Not bearing anthers; -- said of sterile stamens.

||In an"tis (?). [L.] (Arch.) Between antæ; -- said of a portico in classical style, where columns are set between two antæ, forming the angles of the building. See Anta.

In*ap"a*thy (?), n. Sensibility; feeling; -- opposed to apathy. [R.]

In`ap*peal"a*ble (?), a. Not admitting of appeal; not appealable. Coleridge.

In`ap*peas"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being appeased or satisfied; unappeasable.

In`ap*pel`la*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being inappellable; finality.

The inappellability of the councils.


In`ap*pel"la*ble (?), a. Inappealable; final.

{ In*ap"pe*tence (?), In*ap"pe*ten*cy (?), } n. [Pref. in- not + appetence: cf. F. inappétence.] Want of appetency; want of desire.

In*ap`pli*ca*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inapplicabilité.] The quality of being inapplicable; unfitness; inapplicableness.

In*ap"pli*ca*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + applicable.] Not applicable; incapable of being applied; not adapted; not suitable; as, the argument is inapplicable to the case. J. S. Mill.

Syn. -- Unsuitable; unsuited; unadapted; inappropriate; inapposite; irrelevant.

-- In*ap"pli*ca*ble*ness, n. -- In*ap"pli*ca*bly, adv.

In*ap`pli*ca"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + application: cf. F. inapplication.] Want of application, attention, or diligence; negligence; indolence.

In*ap"po*site (?), a. Not apposite; not fit or suitable; not pertinent. -- In*ap"po*site*ly, adv.

In`ap*pre"ci*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + appreciable: cf. F. inappréciable.] Not appreciable; too small to be perceived; incapable of being duly valued or estimated. Hallam.

In`ap*pre"ci*a"tion (?), n. Want of appreciation.

In*ap`pre*hen"si*ble (?), a. [L. inapprehensibilis: cf. F. inappréhensible.] Not apprehensible; unintelligible; inconceivable. Milton.

In*ap`pre*hen"sion (?), n. Want of apprehension.

In*ap`pre*hen"sive (?), a. Not apprehensive; regardless; unconcerned. Jer. Taylor.

In`ap*proach"a*ble (?), a. Not approachable; unapproachable; inaccessible; unequaled. -- In`ap*proach"a*bly, adv.

In`ap*pro"pri*ate (?), a. Not instrument (to); not appropriate; unbecoming; unsuitable; not specially fitted; -- followed by to or for. -- In`ap*pro"pri*ate*ly, adv. -- In`ap*pro"pri*ate*ness, n.

In*apt" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + apt: cf. F. inapte. Cf. Inept.] Unapt; not apt; unsuitable; inept. -- In*apt"ly, adv. -- In*apt"ness, n.

In*apt"i*tude (?), n. [In- + aptitude: cf. F. inaptitude. Cf. Ineptitude.] Want of aptitude.

In*a"quate (?), a. [L. inaquatus, p. p. of inaquare to make into water; pref. in- in + aqua water.] Embodied in, or changed into, water. [Obs.] Cranmer.

In`a*qua"tion (?), n. The state of being inaquate. [Obs.] Bp. Gardiner.

In*ar"a*ble (?), a. Not arable. [R.]

In*arch" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inarched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inarching.] To graft by uniting, as a scion, to a stock, without separating either from its root before the union is complete; -- also called to graft by approach. P. Miler.

In*arch"ing, n. A method of ingrafting. See Inarch.

In`ar*tic"u*late (?), a. [L. inarticulatus; pref. in- not + articulatus articulate.]

1. Not uttered with articulation or intelligible distinctness, as speech or words.

Music which is inarticulate poesy.


2. (Zoöl.) (a) Not jointed or articulated; having no distinct body segments; as, an inarticulate worm. (b) Without a hinge; -- said of an order (Inarticulata or Ecardines) of brachiopods.

3. Incapable of articulating. [R.]

The poor earl, who is inarticulate with palsy.


In`ar*tic"u*la`ted (?), a. Not articulated; not jointed or connected by a joint.

In`ar*tic"u*late*ly (?), adv. In an inarticulate manner. Hammond.

In`ar*tic"u*late*ness, n. The state or quality of being inarticulate.

In`ar*tic`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. inarticulation.] Inarticulateness. Chesterfield.

In*ar`ti*fi"cial (?), a. [Pref. in- not + artificial: cf. F. inartificiel.] Not artificial; not made or elaborated by art; natural; simple; artless; as, an inartificial argument; an inartificial character. -- In*ar`ti*fi"cial*ly, adv. -- In*ar`ti*fi"cial*ness, n.

In`as*much" (?), adv. [In + as + much.] In like degree; in like manner; seeing that; considering that; since; -- followed by as. See In as much as, under In, prep.

Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.

Matt. xxv. 45.

Syn. -- Because; since; for; as. See Because.

In`at*ten"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + attention: cf. F. inattention.] Want of attention, or failure to pay attention; disregard; heedlessness; neglect.

Novel lays attract our ravished ears;
But old, the mind inattention hears.


Syn. -- Inadvertence; heedlessness; negligence; carelessness; disregard; remissness; thoughtlessness; neglect. -- Inattention, Inadvertence. We miss seeing a thing through inadvertence when do not happen to look at it; through inattention when we give no heed to it, though directly before us. The latter is therefore the worse. Inadvertence may be an involuntary accident; inattention is culpable neglect. A versatile mind is often inadvertent; a careless or stupid one is inattentive.

<! p. 742 !>

In`at*ten"tive (?), a. [Cf. F. inattentif.] Not attentive; not fixing the mind on an object; heedless; careless; negligent; regardless; as, an inattentive spectator or hearer; an inattentive habit. I. Watts.

Syn. -- Careless; heedless; regardless; thoughtless; negligent; remiss; inadvertent.

-- In`at*ten"tive*ly, adv. -- In`at*ten"tive*ness, n.

In*au`di*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being inaudible; inaudibleness.

In*au"di*ble (?), a. [L. inaudibilis; pref. in- not + audire to hear: cf. F. unaudible. See In- not, and Audible.] Not audible; incapable of being heard; silent. -- In*au"di*ble*ness, n. -- In*au"di*bly, adv.

In*au"gur (?), v. t. [Cf. F. inaugurer. See Inaugurate.] To inaugurate. [Obs.] Latimer.

In*au"gu*ral (?), a. [Cf. F. inaugural.] Pertaining to, or performed or pronounced at, an inauguration; as, an inaugural address; the inaugural exercises.

In*au"gu*ral, n. An inaugural address. [U.S.]

In*au"gu*rate (?), a. [L. inauguratus, p. p. of inaugurare to take omens from the flight of birds (before entering upon any important undertaking); hence, to consecrate, inaugurate, or install, with such divination; pref. in- in + augurare, augurari, to augur. See Augur.] Invested with office; inaugurated. Drayton.

In*au"gu*rate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inaugurated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inaugurating (?).]

1. To introduce or induct into an office with suitable ceremonies or solemnities; to invest with power or authority in a formal manner; to install; as, to inaugurate a president; to inaugurate a king. Milton.

2. To cause to begin, esp. with formality or solemn ceremony; hence, to set in motion, action, or progress; to initiate; -- used especially of something of dignity or worth or public concern; as, to inaugurate a new era of things, new methods, etc.

As if kings did choose remarkable days to inaugurate their favors.

Sir H. Wotton.

3. To celebrate the completion of, or the first public use of; to dedicate, as a statue. [Colloq.]

4. To begin with good omens. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

In*au`gu*ra"tion (?), n. [L. inauguratio a beginning: cf. F. inauguration.]

1. The act of inuagurating, or inducting into office with solemnity; investiture by appropriate ceremonies.

At his regal inauguration, his old father resigned the kingdom to him.

Sir T. Browne.

2. The formal beginning or initiation of any movement, course of action, etc.; as, the inauguration of a new system, a new condition, etc.

In*au"gu*ra`tor (?), n. One who inaugurates.

In*au"gu*ra*to*ry (?), a. Suitable for, or pertaining to, inauguration. Johnson.

In*au"rate (?), a. [L. inauratus, p. p. inaurare to gild; pref. in- in + aurum gold.] Covered with gold; gilded.

In*au"rate (?), v. t. To cover with gold; to gild.

In`au*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. inauration.] The act or process of gilding or covering with gold.

In*aus"pi*cate (?), a. [L. inauspicatus; pref. in- not + auspicatus, p. p. auspicari. See Auspicate.] Inauspicious. [Obs.] Sir G. Buck.

In`aus*pi"cious (?), a. Not auspicious; ill-omened; unfortunate; unlucky; unfavorable. "Inauspicious stars." Shak. "Inauspicious love." Dryden.

-- In`aus*pi"cious*ly, adv. -- In`aus*pi"cious*ness, n.

In`au*thor"i*ta*tive (?), a. Without authority; not authoritative.

In"barge (?), v. t. & i. To embark; to go or put into a barge. [Obs.] Drayton.

In"beam`ing (?), n. Shining in. South.

In"be`ing (?), n. Inherence; inherent existence. I. Watts.

In*bind" (?), v. t. To inclose. [Obs.] Fairfax.

In"blown` (?), a. Blown in or into. [Obs.]

In"board` (?), a. & adv. 1. (Naut.) Inside the line of a vessel's bulwarks or hull; the opposite of outboard; as, an inboard cargo; haul the boom inboard.

2. (Mech.) From without inward; toward the inside; as, the inboard stroke of a steam engine piston, the inward or return stroke.

In"born` (?), a. Born in or with; implanted by nature; innate; as, inborn passions. Cowper.

Syn. -- Innate; inherent; natural.

{ In"break` (?), In"break`ing, } n. A breaking in; inroad; invasion.

In*breathe" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inbreathed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inbreathing.] To infuse by breathing; to inspire. Coleridge.

In"bred` (?), a. Bred within; innate; as, inbred worth. "Inbred sentiments." Burke.

In*breed" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inbred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inbreeding.] [Cf. Imbreed.]

1. To produce or generate within. Bp. Reynolds.

To inbreed and cherish . . . the seeds of virtue.


2. To breed in and in. See under Breed, v. i.

In"burn`ing (?), a. Burning within.

Her inburning wrath she gan abate.


In"burnt` (?), a. Burnt in; ineffaceable.

Her inburnt, shamefaced thoughts.

P. Fletcher.

In"burst` (?), n. A bursting in or into.

Inc (?), n. A Japanese measure of length equal to about two and one twelfth yards. [Written also ink.]

In"ca (?), n. (a) An emperor or monarch of Peru before, or at the time of, the Spanish conquest; any member of this royal dynasty, reputed to have been descendants of the sun. (b) pl. The people governed by the Incas, now represented by the Quichua tribe.

Inca dove (Zoöl.), a small dove (Scardafella inca), native of Arizona, Lower California, and Mexico.

In*cage" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incaging (?).] [Cf. Encage.] To confine in, or as in, a cage; to coop up. [Written also encage.] "Incaged birds." Shak.

In*cage"ment (?), n. Confinement in, or as in, cage. [Obs.] Shelton.

In*cal`cu*la*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being incalculable.

In*cal"cu*la*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + calculable: cf. F. incalculable.] Not capable of being calculated; beyond calculation; very great. -- In*cal"cu*la*ble*ness, n. -- In*cal"cu*la*bly, adv.

In`ca*les"cence (?), n. The state of being incalescent, or of growing warm. Sir T. Browne.

In`ca*les"cen*cy (?), n. Incalescence. Ray.

In`ca*les"cent (?), a. [L. incalescens, -entis, p. pr. of incalescere to grow hot. See 1st In-, and Calescence.] Growing warm; increasing in heat.

In*cam`er*a"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- in + L. camera chamber, LL., also, jurisdiction: cf. F. incamération, It. incamerazione.] (R. C. Ch.) The act or process of uniting lands, rights, or revenues, to the ecclesiastical chamber, i. e., to the pope's domain.

In"can (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Incas.

In`can*des"cence (?), n. [Cf. F. incandescence.] A white heat, or the glowing or luminous whiteness of a body caused by intense heat.

In`can*des"cent (?), a. [L. incandecens, -entis, p. pr. of incandescere to become warm or hot; pref. in- in + candescere to become of a glittering whiteness, to become red hot, incho. fr. candere to be of a glittering whiteness: cf. F. incandescent. See Candle.] White, glowing, or luminous, with intense heat; as, incandescent carbon or platinum; hence, clear; shining; brilliant.

Holy Scripture become resplendent; or, as one might say, incandescent throughout.

I. Taylor.

Incandescent lamp or light (Elec.), a kind of lamp in which the light is produced by a thin filament of conducting material, usually carbon, contained in a vacuum, and heated to incandescence by an electric current, as in the Edison lamp; -- called also incandescence lamp, and glowlamp.

In`ca*nes"cent (?), a. [L. incanescens, p. pr. incanescere to become gray.] Becoming hoary or gray; canescent.

In*ca"nous (?), a. [L. incanus; pref. in- in + canus hoary.] (Bot.) Hoary with white pubescence.

In`can*ta"tion (?), n. [L. incantatio, fr. incantare to chant a magic formula over one: cf. F. incantation. See Enchant.]

1. The act or process of using formulas sung or spoken, with occult ceremonies, for the purpose of raising spirits, producing enchantment, or affecting other magical results; enchantment. "Mysterious ceremony and incantation." Burke.

2. A formula of words used as above.

In*cant"a*to*ry (?), a. Dealing by enchantment; magical. Sir T. Browne.

In*cant"ing, a. Enchanting. [Obs.] Sir T. Herbert.

In*can"ton (?), v. t. To unite to, or form into, a canton or separate community. Addison.

In*ca`pa*bil"i*ty (?), n. 1. The quality of being incapable; incapacity. Suckling.

2. (Law) Want of legal qualifications, or of legal power; as, incapability of holding an office.

In*ca"pa*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + capable: cf. F. incapable, L. incapabilis incomprehensible.]

1. Wanting in ability or qualification for the purpose or end in view; not large enough to contain or hold; deficient in physical strength, mental or moral power, etc.; not capable; as, incapable of holding a certain quantity of liquid; incapable of endurance, of comprehension, of perseverance, of reform, etc.

2. Not capable of being brought to do or perform, because morally strong or well disposed; -- used with reference to some evil; as, incapable of wrong, dishonesty, or falsehood.

3. Not in a state to receive; not receptive; not susceptible; not able to admit; as, incapable of pain, or pleasure; incapable of stain or injury.

4. (Law) Unqualified or disqualified, in a legal sense; as, a man under thirty-five years of age is incapable of holding the office of president of the United States; a person convicted on impeachment is thereby made incapable of holding an office of profit or honor under the government.

5. (Mil.) As a term of disgrace, sometimes annexed to a sentence when an officer has been cashiered and rendered incapable of serving his country.

Incapable is often used elliptically.

Is not your father grown incapable of reasonable affairs?


Syn. -- Incompetent; unfit; unable; insufficient; inadequate; deficient; disqualified. See Incompetent.

In*ca"pa*ble, n. One who is morally or mentally weak or inefficient; an imbecile; a simpleton.

In*ca"pa*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being incapable; incapability.

In*ca"pa*bly, adv. In an incapable manner.

In`ca*pa"cious (?), a. [Pref. in- not + capacious: cf. L. incapax incapable.] Not capacious; narrow; small; weak or foolish; as, an incapacious soul. Bp. Burnet. -- In`ca*pa"cious*ness, n.

In`ca*pac"i*tate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incapacitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incapacitating (?).] [Pref. in- not + capacitate.]

1. To deprive of capacity or natural power; to disable; to render incapable or unfit; to disqualify; as, his age incapacitated him for war.

2. (Law) To deprive of legal or constitutional requisites, or of ability or competency for the performance of certain civil acts; to disqualify.

It absolutely incapacitated them from holding rank, office, function, or property.


In`ca*pac`i*ta"tion (?), n. The act of incapacitating or state of being incapacitated; incapacity; disqualification. Burke.

In`ca*pac"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Incapacities (&?;). [Cf. F. incapacité.]

1. Want of capacity; lack of physical or intellectual power; inability.

2. (Law) Want of legal ability or competency to do, give, transmit, or receive something; inability; disqualification; as, the inacapacity of minors to make binding contracts, etc.

Syn. -- Inability; incapability; incompetency; unfitness; disqualification; disability.

In*cap"su*late (?), v. t. (Physiol.) To inclose completely, as in a membrane.

In*cap`su*la"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The process of becoming, or the state or condition of being, incapsulated; as, incapsulation of the ovum in the uterus.

In*car"cer*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incarcerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incarcerating (?).] [Pref. in- in + L. carceratus, p. p. of carcerare to imprison, fr. carcer prison.]

1. To imprison; to confine in a jail or prison.

2. To confine; to shut up or inclose; to hem in.

Incarcerated hernia (Med.), hernia in which the constriction can not be easily reduced.

In*car"cer*ate (?), a. Imprisoned. Dr. H. More.

In*car`cer*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. incarcération.]

1. The act of confining, or the state of being confined; imprisonment. Glanvill.

2. (Med.) (a) Formerly, strangulation, as in hernia. (b) A constriction of the hernial sac, rendering it irreducible, but not great enough to cause strangulation.

In*car"cer*a`tor (?), n. One who incarcerates.

In*carn" (?), v. t. [Cf. F. incarner. See Incarnate.] To cover or invest with flesh. [R.] Wiseman.

In*carn", v. i. To develop flesh. [R.] Wiseman.

In*car"na*dine (?), a. [F. incarnadin, It. incarnatino; L. pref. in- in + caro, carnis, flesh. Cf. Carnation, Incarnate.] Flesh-colored; of a carnation or pale red color. [Obs.] Lovelace.

In*car"na*dine, v. t. To dye red or crimson.

Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
Clean from my hand? No; this my hand will rather
The multitudinous seas incarnadine,
Making the green one red.


In*car"nate (?), a. [Pref. in- not + carnate.] Not in the flesh; spiritual. [Obs.]

I fear nothing . . . that devil carnate or incarnate can fairly do.


In*car"nate, a. [L. incarnatus, p. p. of incarnare to incarnate, pref. in- in + caro, carnis, flesh. See Carnal.]

1. Invested with flesh; embodied in a human nature and form; united with, or having, a human body.

Here shalt thou sit incarnate.


He represents the emperor and his wife as two devils incarnate, sent into the world for the destruction of mankind.


2. Flesh-colored; rosy; red. [Obs.] Holland.

In*car"nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incarnated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incarnating (?).] To clothe with flesh; to embody in flesh; to invest, as spirits, ideals, etc., with a human from or nature.

This essence to incarnate and imbrute,
That to the height of deity aspired.


In*car"nate, v. i. To form flesh; to granulate, as a wound. [R.]

My uncle Toby's wound was nearly well -- 't was just beginning to incarnate.


In`car*na"tion (?), n. [F. incarnation, LL. incarnatio.]

1. The act of clothing with flesh, or the state of being so clothed; the act of taking, or being manifested in, a human body and nature.

2. (Theol.) The union of the second person of the Godhead with manhood in Christ.

3. An incarnate form; a personification; a manifestation; a reduction to apparent from; a striking exemplification in person or act.

She is a new incarnation of some of the illustrious dead.


The very incarnation of selfishness.

F. W. Robertson.

4. A rosy or red color; flesh color; carnation. [Obs.]

5. (Med.) The process of healing wounds and filling the part with new flesh; granulation.

In*car"na*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. incarnatif.] Causing new flesh to grow; healing; regenerative. -- n. An incarnative medicine.

In*car`ni*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [See Incarnation, and -fy.] The act of assuming, or state of being clothed with, flesh; incarnation.

In*case" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incasing.] [F. encaisser; pref. en- (L. in) + caisse case. See Case a box, and cf. Encase, Enchase.] To inclose in a case; to inclose; to cover or surround with something solid.

Rich plates of gold the folding doors incase.


In*case"ment (?), n. [Cf. Casement.]

1. The act or process of inclosing with a case, or the state of being incased.

2. That which forms a case, covering, or inclosure.

In*cask" (?), v. t. To cover with a casque or as with a casque. Sherwood.

In*cas"tel*la`ted (?), a. Confined or inclosed in a castle.

In*cas"telled (?), a. (Far.) Hoofbound. Crabb.

In*cat`e*na"tion (?), n. [LL. incatenatio; L. pref. in- in + catena chain. See Enchain.] The act of linking together; enchaining. [R.] Goldsmith.

In*cau"tion (?), n. Want of caution. Pope.

In*cau"tious (?), a. [Pref. in- not + cautious: cf. L. incautus.] Not cautious; not circumspect; not attending to the circumstances on which safety and interest depend; heedless; careless; as, an incautious step; an incautious remark.

<! p. 743 !>

You . . . incautious tread
On fire with faithless embers overspread.


His rhetorical expressions may easily captivate any incautious reader.


Syn. -- Unwary; indiscreet; inconsiderate; imprudent; impolitic; careless; heedless; thoughtless.

-- In*cau"tious*ly, adv. -- In*cau"tious*ness, n.

In"ca*va`ted (n"k*v`td), a. [L. incavatus, p. p. of incavare to make hollow: pref in- in + cavare to hollow out, fr. cavus hollow.] Made hollow; bent round or in.

In`ca*va"tion (n`k*v"shn), n. Act of making hollow; also, a hollow; an excavation; a depression.

In*caved" (n*kvd), a. [Pref. in- in + cave. Cf. Encave, Incavated.] Inclosed in a cave.

In*cav"erned (n*kv"rnd), a. Inclosed or shut up as in a cavern. Drayton.

In*ced"ing*ly (n*sd"ng*l), adv. [L. incedere to walk majestically.] Majestically. [R.] C. Bronté.

In`ce*leb"ri*ty (?), n. Want of celebrity or distinction; obscurity. [R.] Coleridge.

In*cend" (?), v. t. [L. incendere, incensum, to kindle, burn. See Incense to inflame.] To inflame; to excite. [Obs.] Marston.

In*cen"di*a*rism (?), n. [From Incendiary.] The act or practice of maliciously setting fires; arson.

In*cen"di*a*ry (?; 277), n.; pl. Incendiaries (#). [L. incendiarius: cf. F. incendiaire. See Incense to inflame.]

1. Any person who maliciously sets fire to a building or other valuable or other valuable property.

2. A person who excites or inflames factions, and promotes quarrels or sedition; an agitator; an exciter.

Several cities . . . drove them out as incendiaries.


In*cen"di*a*ry, a. [L. incendiarius, fr. incendium a fire, conflagration: cf. F. incendiaire. See Incense to inflame.]

1. Of or pertaining to incendiarism, or the malicious burning of valuable property; as, incendiary material; as incendiary crime.

2. Tending to excite or inflame factions, sedition, or quarrel; inflammatory; seditious. Paley.

Incendiary shell, a bombshell. See Carcass, 4.

In*cen"di*ous (?), a. [L. incendiosus burning, hot.] Promoting faction or contention; seditious; inflammatory. [Obs.] Bacon. -- In*cen"di*ous*ly, adv. [Obs.]

In*cen"sant (?), a. [See Incense to anger.] (Her.) A modern term applied to animals (as a boar) when borne as raging, or with furious aspect.

In`cen*sa"tion (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) The offering of incense. [R.] Encyc. Brit.

In*cense" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incensed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incensing.] [L. incensus, p. p. of incendere; pref. in- in + root of candere to glow. See Candle.]

1. To set on fire; to inflame; to kindle; to burn. [Obs.]

Twelve Trojan princes wait on thee, and labor to incense
Thy glorious heap of funeral.


2. To inflame with anger; to endkindle; to fire; to incite; to provoke; to heat; to madden.

The people are incensed him.


Syn. -- To enrage; exasperate; provoke; anger; irritate; heat; fire; instigate.

In"cense (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incensed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incensing.] [LL. incensare: cf. F. encenser. See Incense, n.]

1. To offer incense to. See Incense. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To perfume with, or as with, incense. "Incensed with wanton sweets." Marston.

In"cense (?), n. [OE. encens, F. encens, L. incensum, fr. incensus, p. p. of incendere to burn. See Incense to inflame.]

1. The perfume or odors exhaled from spices and gums when burned in celebrating religious rites or as an offering to some deity.

A thick cloud of incense went up.

Ezek. viii. 11.

2. The materials used for the purpose of producing a perfume when burned, as fragrant gums, spices, frankincense, etc.

Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon.

Lev. x. 1.

3. Also used figuratively.

Or heap the shrine of luxury and pride,
With incense kindled at the Muse's flame.


Incense tree, the name of several balsamic trees of the genus Bursera (or Icica) mostly tropical American. The gum resin is used for incense. In Jamaica the Chrysobalanus Icaco, a tree related to the plums, is called incense tree. -- Incense wood, the fragrant wood of the tropical American tree Bursera heptaphylla.

In"cense-breath`ing (?), a. Breathing or exhaling incense. "Incense-breathing morn." Gray.

In*censed" (?), a. 1. Angered; enraged.

2. (Her.) Represented as enraged, as any wild creature depicted with fire issuing from mouth and eyes.

In*cense"ment (?), n. Fury; rage; heat; exasperation; as, implacable incensement. Shak.

In*cen"ser (?), n. One who instigates or incites.

In*cen"sion (?), n. [L. incensio. See Incense to inflame.] The act of kindling, or the state of being kindled or on fire. Bacon.

In*cen"sive (?), a. Tending to excite or provoke; inflammatory. Barrow.

In*cen"sor (?), n. [L.] A kindler of anger or enmity; an inciter.

In*cen"so*ry (?; 277), n.; pl. Incensories (#). [LL. incensorium: cf. F. encensoir. See 2d Incense, and cf. Censer.] The vessel in which incense is burned and offered; a censer; a thurible. [R.] Evelyn.

In*cen"sur*a*ble (?; 135), a. [Pref. in- not + censurable: cf. F. incensurable.] Not censurable. Dr. T. Dwight. -- In*cen"sur*a*bly, adv.

In*cen"ter (?), n. (Geom.) The center of the circle inscribed in a triangle.

In*cen"tive (?), a. [L. incentivus, from incinere to strike up or set the tune; pref. in- + canere to sing. See Enchant, Chant.]

1. Inciting; encouraging or moving; rousing to action; stimulative.

Competency is the most incentive to industry.

Dr. H. More.

2. Serving to kindle or set on fire. [R.]

Part incentive reed
Provide, pernicious with one touch of fire.


In*cen"tive, n. [L. incentivum.] That which moves or influences the mind, or operates on the passions; that which incites, or has a tendency to incite, to determination or action; that which prompts to good or ill; motive; spur; as, the love of money, and the desire of promotion, are two powerful incentives to action.

The greatest obstacles, the greatest terrors that come in their way, are so far from making them quit the work they had begun, that they rather prove incentives to them to go on in it.


Syn. -- Motive; spur; stimulus; incitement; encouragement; inducement; influence.

In*cen"tive*ly, adv. Incitingly; encouragingly.

In*cep"tion (?), n. [L. inceptio, fr. incipere to begin; pref. in- in + capere to take. See Capable.]

1. Beginning; commencement; initiation. Bacon.

Marked with vivacity of inception, apathy of progress, and prematureness of decay.


2. Reception; a taking in. [R.] Poe.

In*cep"tive (?), a. Beginning; expressing or indicating beginning; as, an inceptive proposition; an inceptive verb, which expresses the beginning of action; -- called also inchoative. -- In*cep"tive*ly, adv.

In*cep"tive, n. An inceptive word, phrase, or clause.

In*cep"tor (?), n. [L.] 1. A beginner; one in the rudiments. Johnson.

2. One who is on the point of taking the degree of master of arts at an English university. Walton.

In`cer*a"tion (?), n. [L. incerare to smear with wax; pref. in- in + cerare to wax, fr. cera wax: cf. F. incération.] The act of smearing or covering with wax. B. Jonson.

In*cer"a*tive (?), a. Cleaving or sticking like wax. Cotgrave.

In*cer"tain (?), n. [Pref. in- not + certain: cf. F. incertain, L. incertus. See Certain.] Uncertain; doubtful; unsteady. -- In*cer"tain*ly, adv.

Very questionable and of uncertain truth.

Sir T. Browne.

In*cer"tain*ty (?), n. Uncertainty. [Obs.] Shak.

In*cer"ti*tude (?), n. [Cf. F. incertitude, LL. incertitudo, fr. L. incertus. See Incertain.] Uncertainty; doubtfulness; doubt.

The incertitude and instability of this life.


He fails . . . from mere incertitude or irresolution.

I. Taylor.

||In*cer"tum (?), a. Doubtful; not of definite form.

Opus incertum (Anc. Arch.), a kind of masonry employed in building walls, in which the stones were not squared nor laid in courses; rubblework.

In*ces"sa*ble (?), a. [L. incessabilis; pref. in- not + cessare to cease.] Unceasing; continual. [Obs.] Shelton. -- In*ces"sa*bly, adv. [Obs.]

In*ces"san*cy (?), n. [From Incessant.] The quality of being incessant; unintermitted continuance; unceasingness. Dr. T. Dwight.

In*ces"sant (?), a. [L. incessans, -antis; pref. in- not + cessare to cease: cf. F. incessant. See Cease.] Continuing or following without interruption; unceasing; unitermitted; uninterrupted; continual; as, incessant clamors; incessant pain, etc.

Against the castle gate,
. . . Which with incessant force and endless hate,
They batter'd day and night and entrance did await.


Syn. -- Unceasing; uninterrupted; unintermitted; unremitting; ceaseless; continual; constant; perpetual.

In*ces"sant*ly, adv. Unceasingly; continually. Shak.

In*ces"sion (?), n. [L. incedere, incessum, to walk.] Motion on foot; progress in walking. [Obs.]

The incession or local motion of animals.

Sir T. Browne.

In"cest (?), n. [F. inceste, L. incestum unchastity, incest, fr. incestus unchaste; pref. in- not + castus chaste. See Chaste.] The crime of cohabitation or sexual commerce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law. Shak.

Spiritual incest. (Eccl. Law) (a) The crime of cohabitation committed between persons who have a spiritual alliance by means of baptism or confirmation. (b) The act of a vicar, or other beneficiary, who holds two benefices, the one depending on the collation of the other.

In*cest"tu*ous (?; 135), a. [L. incestuosus: cf. F. incestueux.] Guilty of incest; involving, or pertaining to, the crime of incest; as, an incestuous person or connection. Shak.

Ere you reach to this incestuous love,
You must divine and human rights remove.


-- In*cest"tu*ous*ly, adv. -- In*cest"tu*ous*ness, n.

Inch (?), n. [Gael. inis.] An island; -- often used in the names of small islands off the coast of Scotland, as in Inchcolm, Inchkeith, etc. [Scot.]

Inch, n. [OE. inche, unche, AS. ynce, L. uncia the twelfth part, inch, ounce. See Ounce a weight.]

1. A measure of length, the twelfth part of a foot, commonly subdivided into halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths, etc., as among mechanics. It was also formerly divided into twelve parts, called lines, and originally into three parts, called barleycorns, its length supposed to have been determined from three grains of barley placed end to end lengthwise. It is also sometimes called a prime (′), composed of twelve seconds (′′), as in the duodecimal system of arithmetic.

12 seconds (′′) make 1 inch or prime. 12 inches or primes (′) make 1 foot.

B. Greenleaf.

The meter, the accepted scientific standard of length, equals 39.37 inches; the inch is equal to 2.54 centimeters. See Metric system, and Meter.

2. A small distance or degree, whether of time or space; hence, a critical moment.

Beldame, I think we watched you at an inch.


By inches, by slow degrees, gradually. -- Inch of candle. See under Candle. -- Inches of pressure, usually, the pressure indicated by so many inches of a mercury column, as on a steam gauge. -- Inch of water. See under Water. -- Miner's inch, (Hydraulic Mining), a unit for the measurement of water. See Inch of water, under Water.

Inch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inching.]

1. To drive by inches, or small degrees. [R.]

He gets too far into the soldier's grace
And inches out my master.


2. To deal out by inches; to give sparingly. [R.]

Inch, v. i. To advance or retire by inches or small degrees; to move slowly.

With slow paces measures back the field,
And inches to the walls.


Inch, a. Measuring an inch in any dimension, whether length, breadth, or thickness; -- used in composition; as, a two-inch cable; a four-inch plank.

Inch stuff, boards, etc., sawed one inch thick.

In*cham"ber (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inchambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inchambering.] [Pref. in- in + chamber: cf. OF. enchambrer.] To lodge in a chamber. [R.] Sherwood.

In*change`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Unchangeableness. [Obs.] Kenrick.

In*chant" (?), v. t. See Enchant.

In*char"i*ta*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. incharitable.] Uncharitable; unfeeling. [Obs.] Shak.

In*char"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incharité.] Want of charity. [Obs.] Evelyn.

In*chase" (?), v. t. See Enchase.

In*chas"ti*ty (?), n. [Pref. in- not + chastity: cf. F. inchasteté.] Unchastity. [Obs.] Milton.

Inched (?), a. Having or measuring (so many) inches; as, a four-inched bridge. Shak.

In*chest" (?), v. t. To put into a chest.

Inch"i*pin (?), n. See Inchpin.

Inch"meal` (?), n. [See Meal a part, and cf. Piecemeal.] A piece an inch long.

By inchmeal, by small degrees; by inches. Shak.

Inch"meal`, adv. Little by little; gradually.

In"cho*ate (?), a. [L. inchoatus, better incohatus, p. p. of incohare to begin.] Recently, or just, begun; beginning; partially but not fully in existence or operation; existing in its elements; incomplete. -- In"cho*ate*ly, adv.

Neither a substance perfect, nor a substance inchoate.


In"cho*ate (?), v. t. To begin. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

In`cho*a"tion (?), n. [L. inchoatio, incohatio.] Act of beginning; commencement; inception.

The setting on foot some of those arts, in those parts, would be looked on as the first inchoation of them.

Sir M. Hale.

It is now in actual progress, from the rudest inchoation to the most elaborate finishing.

I. Taylor.

In*cho"a*tive (?; 277), a. [L. inchoativus, incohativus: cf. F. inchoatif.] Expressing or pertaining to a beginning; inceptive; as, an inchoative verb. "Some inchoative or imperfect rays." W. Montagu. -- n. An inchoative verb. See Inceptive.

Inch"pin (?), n. [Written also inchipin, inche-pinne, inne-pinne.] [Cf. Gael. inne, innidh, bowel, entrail.] The sweetbread of a deer. Cotgrave.

Inch"worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The larva of any geometrid moth. See Geometrid.

In*cic"u*ra*ble (?), a. [L. incicur not tame; pref. in- not + cicur name.] Untamable. [R.]

In*cide" (?), v. t. [L. incidere; pref. in- in + caedere to cut. See Concise, and cf. Incise.] To cut; to separate and remove; to resolve or break up, as by medicines. [Obs.] Arbuthnot.

In"ci*dence (?), n. [Cf. F. incidence.]

1. A falling on or upon; an incident; an event. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

2. (Physics) The direction in which a body, or a ray of light or heat, falls on any surface.

In equal incidences there is a considerable inequality of refractions.

Sir I. Newton.

Angle of incidence, the angle which a ray of light, or the line of incidence of a body, falling on any surface, makes with a perpendicular to that surface; also formerly, the complement of this angle. -- Line of incidence, the line in the direction of which a surface is struck by a body, ray of light, and the like.

In"ci*den*cy (?), n. Incidence. [Obs.] Shak.

In"ci*dent (?), a. [L. incidens, -entis, p. pr. & of incidere to fall into or upon; pref. in- in, on + cadere to fall: cf. F. incident. See Cadence.]

1. Falling or striking upon, as a ray of light upon a reflecting surface.

2. Coming or happening accidentally; not in the usual course of things; not in connection with the main design; not according to expectation; casual; fortuitous.

As the ordinary course of common affairs is disposed of by general laws, so likewise men's rarer incident necessities and utilities should be with special equity considered.


3. Liable to happen; apt to occur; befalling; hence, naturally happening or appertaining.

All chances incident to man's frail life.


The studies incident to his profession.


4. (Law) Dependent upon, or appertaining to, another thing, called the principal.

Incident proposition (Logic), a proposition subordinate to another, and introduced by who, which, whose, whom, etc.; as, Julius, whose surname was Cæsar, overcame Pompey. I. Watts.

In"ci*dent, n. [Cf. F. incident.] 1. That which falls out or takes place; an event; casualty; occurrence.

<! p. 744 !>

2. That which happens aside from the main design; an accidental or subordinate action or event.

No person, no incident, in a play but must be of use to carry on the main design.


3. (Law) Something appertaining to, passing with, or depending on, another, called the principal. Tomlins.

Syn. -- Circumstance; event; fact; adventure; contingency; chance; accident; casualty. See Event.

In`ci*den"tal (?), a. Happening, as an occasional event, without regularity; coming without design; casual; accidental; hence, not of prime concern; subordinate; collateral; as, an incidental conversation; an incidental occurrence; incidental expenses.

By some, religious duties . . . appear to be regarded . . . as an incidental business.


Syn. -- Accidental; casual; fortuitous; contingent; chance; collateral. See Accidental.

-- In`ci*den"tal*ly, adv. -- In`ci*den"tal*ness, n.

I treat either or incidentally of colors.


In`ci*den"tal, n. An incident; that which is incidental; esp., in the plural, an aggregate of subordinate or incidental items not particularized; as, the expense of tuition and incidentals. Pope.

In"ci*dent*ly (?), adv. Incidentally. [Obs.]

In*cin"er*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being incinerated or reduced to ashes. Sir T. Browne.

In*cin"er*ate (?), [LL. incineratus, p. p. of incinerare to incinerate; L. pref. in- in + cinis, cineris, ashes.] Reduced to ashes by burning; thoroughly consumed. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*cin"er*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incinerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incinerating (?).] To burn to ashes; to consume; to burn. Bacon.

It is the fire only that incinerates bodies.


In*cin`er*a"tion (?), n. [LL. incineratio: cf. F. incinération.] The act of incinerating, or the state of being incinerated; cremation.

The phenix kind,
Of whose incineration,
There riseth a new creation.


{ In*cip"i*ence (?), In*cip"i*en*cy (?), } n. [L. incipientia.] Beginning; commencement; incipient state.

In*cip"i*ent (?), a. [L. incipiens, p. pr. of incipere to begin. See Inception.] Beginning to be, or to show itself; commencing; initial; as, the incipient stage of a fever; incipient light of day. -- In*cip"i*ent*ly, adv.

In*cir"cle (?), v. t. See Encircle.

In*cir"clet (?), n. [Cf. Encirclet.] A small circle. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

In*cir`cum*scrip"ti*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + circumscriptible: cf. LL. incircumscriptibilis.] Incapable of being circumscribed or limited. Cranmer.

In*cir`cum*scrip"tion (?), n. Condition or quality of being incircumscriptible or limitless. Jer. Taylor.

In*cir"cum*spect (?), a. [Pref. in- not + circumspect.] Not circumspect; heedless; careless; reckless; impolitic. Tyndale.

In*cir`cum*spec"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. incirconspection.] Want of circumspection. Sir T. Browne.

In*cise" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incising.] [L. incisus, p. p. of incidere to incise: cf. F. inciser. See Incide.]

1. To cut in or into with a sharp instrument; to carve; to engrave.

I on thy grave this epitaph incise.

T. Carew.

2. To cut, gash, or wound with a sharp instrument; to cut off.

In*cised" (?), a. 1. Cut in; carved; engraved.

2. (Bot.) Having deep and sharp notches, as a leaf or a petal.

In*cise"ly (?), adv. In an incised manner.

In*ci"sion (?), n. [L. incisio: cf. F. incision. See Incise.]

1. The act of incising, or cutting into a substance. Milton.

2. That which is produced by incising; the separation of the parts of any substance made by a cutting or pointed instrument; a cut; a gash.

3. Separation or solution of viscid matter by medicines. [Obs.]

In*ci"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. incisif.]

1. Having the quality of incising, cutting, or penetrating, as with a sharp instrument; cutting; hence, sharp; acute; sarcastic; biting. "An incisive, high voice." G. Eliot.

And her incisive smile accrediting
That treason of false witness in my blush.

Mrs. Browning.

2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the incisors; incisor; as, the incisive bones, the premaxillaries.

In*ci"sor (?; 277), n. [NL.] (Anat.) One of the teeth in front of the canines in either jaw; an incisive tooth. See Tooth.

In*ci"sor, a. Adapted for cutting; of or pertaining to the incisors; incisive; as, the incisor nerve; an incisor foramen; an incisor tooth.

In*ci"so*ry (?), a. Having the quality of cutting; incisor; incisive.

In*cis"ure (?; 277), n. [L. incisura: cf. F. incisure.] A cut; an incision; a gash. Derham.

In*cit"ant (?), a. [L. incitans, -antis, p. pr. of incitare. See Incite.] Inciting; stimulating.

In*cit"ant, n. That which incites; an inciting agent or cause; a stimulant. E. Darwin.

In`ci*ta"tion (?), n. [L. incitatio: cf. F. incitation.]

1. The act of inciting or moving to action.

2. That which incites to action; that which rouses or prompts; incitement; motive; incentive.

The noblest incitation to honest attempts.


In*cit"a*tive (?), n. A provocative; an incitant; a stimulant. [R.] Jervas.

In*cite" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incited (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inciting.] [L. incitare; pref. in- in + citare to rouse, stir up: cf. F. inciter. See Cite.] To move to action; to stir up; to rouse; to spur or urge on.

Anthiochus, when he incited Prusias to join in war, set before him the greatness of the Romans.


No blown ambition doth our arms incite.


Syn. -- Excite; stimulate; instigate; spur; goad; arouse; move; urge; rouse; provoke; encourage; prompt; animate. See Excite.

In*cite"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. incitement.]

1. The act of inciting.

2. That which incites the mind, or moves to action; motive; incentive; impulse. Burke.

From the long records of a distant age,
Derive incitements to renew thy rage.


Syn. -- Motive; incentive; spur; stimulus; impulse; encouragement.

In*cit"er (?), n. One who, or that which, incites.

In*cit"ing*ly, adv. So as to incite or stimulate.

In*ci`to-mo"tor (?), a. [L. incitus incited + E. motor.] (Physiol.) Inciting to motion; -- applied to that action which, in the case of muscular motion, commences in the nerve centers, and excites the muscles to contraction. Opposed to excito-motor.

In*ci`to-mo"to*ry (?), a. (Physiol.) Incitomotor.

In*civ"il (?), a. [L. incivilis; pref. in- not + civilis civil: cf. F. incivil.] Uncivil; rude. [Obs.] Shak.

In`ci*vil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Incivilities (#). [L. incivilitas: cf. F. incivilité.]

1. The quality or state of being uncivil; want of courtesy; rudeness of manner; impoliteness. Shak. Tillotson.

2. Any act of rudeness or ill breeding.

Uncomely jests, loud talking and jeering, which, in civil account, are called indecencies and incivilities.

Jer. Taylor.

3. Want of civilization; a state of rudeness or barbarism. [R.] Sir W. Raleigh.

Syn. -- Impoliteness; uncourteousness; unmannerliness; disrespect; rudeness; discourtesy.

In*civ`i*li*za"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + civilization.] The state of being uncivilized; want of civilization; barbarism.

In*civ"il*ly (?), adv. Uncivilly. [Obs.] Shak.

In*civ"ism (?), n. [Pref. in- not + civism: cf. F. incivisme.] Want of civism; want of patriotism or love to one's country; unfriendliness to one's state or government. [R.] Macaulay.

In`cla*ma"tion (?), n. [L. inclamatio. See 1st In-, and Claim.] Exclamation. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In*clasp" (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + clasp. Cf. Enclasp.] To clasp within; to hold fast to; to embrace or encircle. [Written also enclasp.]

The flattering ivy who did ever see
Inclasp the huge trunk of an aged tree.

F. Beaumont.

In*clau"dent (?), a. Not closing or shutting.

In"cla*va`ted (?), a. [LL. inclavatus; L. pref. in- in + clavare to fasten with nails, fr. clavus nail.] Set; fast; fixed. Dr. John Smith.

In*clave" (?), a. [See Inclavated.] (Her.) Resembling a series of dovetails; -- said of a line of division, such as the border of an ordinary.

In"cle (?), n. Same as Inkle.

In*clem"en*cy (?), n.; pl. Inclemencies (#). [L. inclementia: cf. F. inclémence.]

1. The state or quality of being inclement; want of clemency; want of mildness of temper; unmercifulness; severity.

The inclemency of the late pope.

Bp. Hall.

2. Physical severity or harshness (commonly in respect to the elements or weather); roughness; storminess; rigor; severe cold, wind, rain, or snow.

The inclemencies of morning air.


The rude inclemency of wintry skies.


Syn. -- Harshness; severity; cruelty; rigor; roughness; storminess; boisterousness.

In*clem"ent (?), a. [L. inclemens; pref. in- not + clemens mild: cf. F. inclément. See Clement.]

1. Not clement; destitute of a mild and kind temper; void of tenderness; unmerciful; severe; harsh.

2. Physically severe or harsh (generally restricted to the elements or weather); rough; boisterous; stormy; rigorously cold, etc.; as, inclement weather. Cowper.

The guard the wretched from the inclement sky.


Teach us further by what means to shun
The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow!


In*clem"ent*ly, adv. In an inclement manner.

In*clin"a*ble (?), a. [L. inclinabilis. See Incline.]

1. Leaning; tending.

Likely and inclinable to fall.


2. Having a propensity of will or feeling; leaning in disposition; disposed; propense; as, a mind inclinable to truth.

Whatsoever other sins he may be inclinable to.


The very constitution of a multitude is not so inclinable to save as to destroy.


In*clin"a*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being inclinable; inclination.

In`cli*na"tion (?), n. [L. inclinatio: cf. F. inclination.] 1. The act of inclining, or state of being inclined; a leaning; as, an inclination of the head.

2. A direction or tendency from the true vertical or horizontal direction; as, the inclination of a column, or of a road bed.

3. A tendency towards another body or point.

4. (Geom.) The angle made by two lines or planes; as, the inclination of the plane of the earth's equator to the plane of the ecliptic is about 23° 28′; the inclination of two rays of light.

5. A leaning or tendency of the mind, feelings, preferences, or will; propensity; a disposition more favorable to one thing than to another; favor; desire; love.

A mere inclination to a thing is not properly a willing of that thing.


How dost thou find the inclination of the people?


6. A person or thing loved or admired. Sir W. Temple.

7. (Pharm.) Decantation, or tipping for pouring.

Inclination compass, an inclinometer. - - Inclination of an orbit (Astron.), the angle which the orbit makes with the ecliptic. -- Inclination of the needle. See Dip of the needle, under Dip.

Syn. -- Bent; tendency; proneness; bias; proclivity; propensity; prepossession; predilection; attachment; desire; affection; love. See Bent, and cf. Disposition.

In*clin"a*to*ry (?; 277), a. Having the quality of leaning or inclining; as, the inclinatory needle. -- In*clin"a*to*ri*ly (#), adv. Sir T. Browne.

In*cline" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Inclined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inclining.] [OE. inclinen, enclinen, OF. encliner, incliner, F. incliner, L. inclinare; pref. in- in + clinare to bend, incline; akin to E. lean. See Lean to incline.]

1. To deviate from a line, direction, or course, toward an object; to lean; to tend; as, converging lines incline toward each other; a road inclines to the north or south.

2. Fig.: To lean or tend, in an intellectual or moral sense; to favor an opinion, a course of conduct, or a person; to have a propensity or inclination; to be disposed.

Their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech.

Judges ix. 3.

Power finds its balance, giddy motions cease
In both the scales, and each inclines to peace.


3. To bow; to incline the head. Chaucer.

Syn. -- To lean; slope; slant; tend; bend.

In*cline", v. t. 1. To cause to deviate from a line, position, or direction; to give a leaning, bend, or slope to; as, incline the column or post to the east; incline your head to the right.

Incline thine ear, O Lord, and hear.

Is. xxxvii. 17.

2. To impart a tendency or propensity to, as to the will or affections; to turn; to dispose; to influence.

Incline my heart unto thy testimonies.

Ps. cxix. 36.

Incline our hearts to keep this law.

Book of Com. Prayer.

3. To bend; to cause to stoop or bow; as, to incline the head or the body in acts of reverence or civility.

With due respect my body I inclined.


In*cline", n. An inclined plane; an ascent or descent; a grade or gradient; a slope.

In*clined" (?), p. p. & a. 1. Having a leaning or tendency towards, or away from, a thing; disposed or moved by wish, desire, or judgment; as, a man inclined to virtue. "Each pensively inclined." Cowper.

2. (Math.) Making an angle with some line or plane; -- said of a line or plane.

3. (Bot.) Bent out of a perpendicular position, or into a curve with the convex side uppermost.

Inclined plane. (Mech.) (a) A plane that makes an oblique angle with the plane of the horizon; a sloping plane. When used to produce pressure, or as a means of moving bodies, it is one of the mechanical powers, so called. (b) (Railroad & Canal) An inclined portion of track, on which trains or boats are raised or lowered from one level to another.

In*clin"er (?), n. One who, or that which, inclines; specifically, an inclined dial.

In*clin"ing, a. (Bot.) Same as Inclined, 3.

In*clin"ing, n. 1. Inclination; disposition.

On the first inclining towards sleep.


2. Party or side chosen; a following.

Both you of my inclining, and the rest.


In`clin*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Incline + -meter.] (Magnetism) An apparatus to determine the inclination of the earth's magnetic force to the plane of the horizon; -- called also inclination compass, and dip circle.

In*clip" (?), v. t. To clasp; to inclose.

Whate'er the ocean pales, or sky inclips.


In*clois"ter (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + cloister: cf. F. encloîtrer. Cf. Encloister.] To confine as in a cloister; to cloister. Lovelace.

In*close" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inclosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inclosing.] [See Enclose, and cf. Include.] [Written also enclose.]

1. To surround; to shut in; to confine on all sides; to include; to shut up; to encompass; as, to inclose a fort or an army with troops; to inclose a town with walls.

How many evils have inclosed me round!


2. To put within a case, envelope, or the like; to fold (a thing) within another or into the same parcel; as, to inclose a letter or a bank note.

The inclosed copies of the treaty.

Sir W. Temple.

3. To separate from common grounds by a fence; as, to inclose lands. Blackstone.

4. To put into harness; to harness. [Obs.]

They went to coach and their horse inclose.


In*clos"er (?), n. One who, or that which, incloses; one who fences off land from common grounds.

In*clo"sure (?; 135), n. [See Inclose, Enclosure.] [Written also enclosure.]

1. The act of inclosing; the state of being inclosed, shut up, or encompassed; the separation of land from common ground by a fence.

2. That which is inclosed or placed within something; a thing contained; a space inclosed or fenced up.

Within the inclosure there was a great store of houses.


3. That which incloses; a barrier or fence.

Breaking our inclosures every morn.

W. Browne.

In*cloud" (?), v. t. To envelop as in clouds; to darken; to obscure. Milton.

<! p. 745 !>

In*clude" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Included; p. pr. & vb. n. Including.] [L. includere, inclusum; pref. in- in + claudere to shut. See Close, and cf. Enclose.]

1. To confine within; to hold; to contain; to shut up; to inclose; as, the shell of a nut includes the kernel; a pearl is included in a shell.

2. To comprehend or comprise, as a genus the species, the whole a part, an argument or reason the inference; to contain; to embrace; as, this volume of Shakespeare includes his sonnets; he was included in the invitation to the family; to and including page twenty-five.

The whole included race, his purposed prey.


The loss of such a lord includes all harm.


3. To conclude; to end; to terminate. [Obs.]

Come, let us go; we will include all jars
With triumphs, mirth, and rare solemnity.


Syn. -- To contain; inclose; comprise; comprehend; embrace; involve.

In*clud"ed (?), a. Inclosed; confined.

Included stamens (Bot.), such as are shorter than the floral envelopes, or are concealed within them.

In*clud"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being included.

||In*clu"sa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. inclusus, p. p. of includere to shut in.] (Zoöl.) A tribe of bivalve mollusks, characterized by the closed state of the mantle which envelops the body. The ship borer (Teredo navalis) is an example.

In*clu"sion (?), n. [L. inclusio: cf. F. inclusion. See Include.]

1. The act of including, or the state of being included; limitation; restriction; as, the lines of inclusion of his policy. Sir W. Temple.

2. (Min.) A foreign substance, either liquid or solid, usually of minute size, inclosed in the mass of a mineral.

In*clu"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. inclusif.]

1. Inclosing; encircling; surrounding.

The inclusive verge
Of golden metal that must round my brow.


2. Comprehending the stated limit or extremes; as, from Monday to Saturday inclusive, that is, taking in both Monday and Saturday; -- opposed to exclusive.

In*clu"sive*ly, adv. In an inclusive manner.

In*coach" (?), v. t. To put a coach.

{ In`co*act" (?), In`co*act"ed (?), } a. [L. incoactus; pref. in- not + coactus forced. See Coact.] Not compelled; unconstrained. [Obs.] Coles.

In`co*ag"u*la*ble (?), a. Not coagulable.

In`co*a*les"cence (?), n. The state of not coalescing.

In*coct"ed (?), a. [Cf. Concoct.] Raw; indigestible. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In`co*er"ci*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + coercible: cf. F. incoercible.]

1. Not to be coerced; incapable of being compelled or forced.

2. (Physics) Not capable of being reduced to the form of a liquid by pressure; -- said of any gas above its critical point; -- also particularly of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, formerly regarded as incapable of liquefaction at any temperature or pressure.

3. (Physics) That can note be confined in, or excluded from, vessels, like ordinary fluids, gases, etc.; -- said of the imponderable fluids, heat, light, electricity, etc.

In`co*ex*ist"ence (?), n. The state of not coexisting. [Obs.] Locke.

In*cog" (?), adv. Incognito. [Colloq.]

Depend upon it -- he'll remain incog.


In*cog"i*ta*ble (?), a. [L. incogitabilis; pref. in- not + cogitabilis cogitable.] Not cogitable; inconceivable. Sir T. More.

{ In*cog"i*tance (?), In*cog"i*tan*cy (?), } n. [L. incogitantia.] Want of thought, or of the power of thinking; thoughtlessness; unreasonableness.

'T is folly and incogitancy to argue anything, one way or the other, from the designs of a sort of beings with whom we so little communicate.


In*cog"i*tant (?), a. [L. incogitans; pref. in- not + cogitans, p. pr. of cogitare to think. See Cogitate.] Thoughtless; inconsiderate. [R.] Milton.

Men are careless and incogitant.

J. Goodman.

In*cog"i*tant*ly, adv. In an incogitant manner.

In*cog"i*ta*tive (?), a. Not cogitative; not thinking; wanting the power of thought; as, a vegetable is an incogitative being. Locke.

In*cog`i*ta*tiv"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being incogitative; want of thought or of the power of thinking. Wollaston.

In*cog"ni*ta (?), n. [See Incognito.]

1. A woman who is unknown or in disguise.

2. The state of being in disguise; -- said of a woman.

In*cog"ni*tant (?), a. Ignorant. [Obs.]

In*cog"ni*to (?), a. or adv. [It. incognito, masc., incognita, fem., L. incognitus unknown; pref. in- not + cognitus known, p. p. of cognoscere: cf. F. incognito, fr. It. See Cognition.] Without being known; in disguise; in an assumed character, or under an assumed title; -- said esp. of great personages who sometimes adopt a disguise or an assumed character in order to avoid notice.

'T was long ago
Since gods come down incognito.


The prince royal of Persia came thither incognito.


In*cog"ni*to, n.; pl. Incognitos (#). [See Incognito, a.]

1. One unknown or in disguise, or under an assumed character or name.

2. The assumption of disguise or of a feigned character; the state of being in disguise or not recognized.

His incognito was endangered.

Sir W. Scott.

In*cog"ni*za*ble (?), a. Not cognizable; incapable of being recognized, known, or distinguished. H. Spenser.

The Lettish race, not a primitive stock of the Slavi, but a distinct branch, now become incognizable.


In*cog"ni*zance (?), n. Failure to cognize, apprehended, or notice.

This incognizance may be explained.

Sir W. Hamilton.

In*cog"ni*zant (?), a. Not cognizant; failing to apprehended or notice.

Of the several operations themselves, as acts of volition, we are wholly incognizant.

Sir W. Hamilton.

In`cog*nos"ci*ble (?), a. Incognizable. -- In`cog*nos"ci*bil"i*ty (#), n.

{ In`co*her"ence (?), In`co*her"en*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. incohérence.]

1. The quality or state of being incoherent; want of coherence; want of cohesion or adherence. Boyle.

2. Want of connection; incongruity; inconsistency; want of agreement or dependence of one part on another; as, the incoherence of arguments, facts, etc.

Incoherences in matter, and suppositions without proofs, put handsomely together, are apt to pass for strong reason.


3. That which is incoherent.

Crude incoherencies . . . and nauseous tautologies.


In`co*her"ent (?), a. [Pref. in- not + coherent: cf. F. incohérent.]

1. Not coherent; wanting cohesion; loose; unconnected; physically disconnected; not fixed to each; -- said of material substances. Woodward.

2. Wanting coherence or agreement; incongruous; inconsistent; having no dependence of one part on another; logically disconnected. "The same rambling, incoherent manner." Bp. Warburton.

In`co*her`en*tif"ic (?), a. [E. incoherent + L. facere to make.] Causing incoherence. [R.]

In`co*her"ent*ly (?), adv. In an incoherent manner; without due connection of parts.

In`co*her"ent*ness, n. Incoherence.

In`co*in"ci*dence (?), n. The quality of being incoincident; want of coincidence. [R.]

In`co*in"ci*dent (?), a. Not coincident; not agreeing in time, in place, or principle.

In`co*lu"mi*ty (?), n. [L. incolumitas, fr. incolumis uninjured, safe; perh. fr. in intens. + (doubtful) columis safe.] Safety; security. [Obs.] Howell.

In*com"ber (?), v. t. See Encumber.

In`com*bine" (?), v. i. To be incapable of combining; to disagree; to differ. [Obs.] Milton.

In`com*bus`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incombustilité.] The quality of being incombustible.

In`com*bus"ti*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + combustible: cf. F. incombustible.] Not combustible; not capable of being burned, decomposed, or consumed by fire; uninflammable; as, asbestus is an incombustible substance; carbon dioxide is an incombustible gas.

Incombustible cloth, a tissue of amianthus or asbestus; also, a fabric imbued with an incombustible substance.

-- In`com*bus"ti*ble*ness, n. -- In`com*bus"ti*bly, adv.

In"come (?), n. 1. A coming in; entrance; admittance; ingress; infusion. [Obs.] Shak.

More abundant incomes of light and strength from God.

Bp. Rust.

At mine income I louted low.


2. That which is caused to enter; inspiration; influence; hence, courage or zeal imparted. [R.]

I would then make in and steep
My income in their blood.


3. That gain which proceeds from labor, business, property, or capital of any kind, as the produce of a farm, the rent of houses, the proceeds of professional business, the profits of commerce or of occupation, or the interest of money or stock in funds, etc.; revenue; receipts; salary; especially, the annual receipts of a private person, or a corporation, from property; as, a large income.

No fields afford
So large an income to the village lord.


4. (Physiol.) That which is taken into the body as food; the ingesta; -- sometimes restricted to the nutritive, or digestible, portion of the food. See Food. Opposed to output.

Income bond, a bond issued on the income of the corporation or company issuing it, and the interest of which is to be paid from the earnings of the company before any dividends are made to stockholders; -- issued chiefly or exclusively by railroad companies. -- Income tax, a tax upon a person's incomes, emoluments, profits, etc., or upon the excess beyond a certain amount.

Syn. -- Gain; profit; proceeds; salary; revenue; receipts; interest; emolument; produce.

In"com`er (?), n. 1. One who comes in.

Outgoers and incomers.

Lew Wallace.

2. One who succeeds another, as a tenant of land, houses, etc. [Eng.]

In"com`ing, a. 1. Coming in; accruing.

A full incoming profit on the product of his labor.


2. Coming in, succeeding, or following, as occupant or possessor; as, in incoming tenant.

In"com`ing, n. 1. The act of coming in; arrival.

The incomings and outgoings of the trains.


2. Income; gain. [R.]

Many incomings are subject to great fluctuations.


In*com"i*ty (?), n. Want of comity; incivility; rudeness. [R.]

||In com*men"dam (?). [See Commendam.] (Law) See Commendam, and Partnership in Commendam, under Partnership.

In`com*men`su*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incommensurabilité.] The quality or state of being incommensurable. Reid.

In`com*men"su*ra*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + commensurable: cf. F. incommensurable.] Not commensurable; having no common measure or standard of comparison; as, quantities are incommensurable when no third quantity can be found that is an aliquot part of both; the side and diagonal of a square are incommensurable with each other; the diameter and circumference of a circle are incommensurable.

They are quantities incommensurable.


-- In`com*men"su*ra*ble*ness, n. -- In`com*men"su*ra*bly, adv.

In`com*men"su*ra*ble (?), n. One of two or more quantities which have no common measure.

In`com*men"su*rate (?), a. 1. Not commensurate; not admitting of a common measure; incommensurable.

2. Not of equal of sufficient measure or extent; not adequate; as, our means are incommensurate to our wants.

Syn. -- Inadequate; insufficient; disproportionate.

-- In`com*men"su*rate*ly, adv. -- In`com*men"su*rate*ness, n.

In`com*mis"ci*ble (?), a. [L. incommiscibilis; pref. in- not + commiscibilis that can be mingled.] Not commiscible; not mixable.

In`com*mix"ture (?; 135), n. A state of being unmixed; separateness. Sir T. Browne.

In*com"mo*date (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incommodated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incommodating (?).] [L. incommodare. See Incommode.] To incommode. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In*com`mo*da"tion (?), n. The state of being incommoded; inconvenience. [Obs.]

In`com*mode" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incommoded; p. pr. & vb. n. Incommoding.] [F. incommoder, L. incommodare inconvenient; pref. in- not + commodus convenient. See Commodious.] To give inconvenience or trouble to; to disturb or molest; to discommode; to worry; to put out; as, we are incommoded by want of room.

Syn. -- To annoy; disturb; trouble; molest; disaccomodate; inconvenience; disquiet; vex; plague.

In`com*mode", n. An inconvenience. [R.] Strype.

In`com*mode"ment (?), n. The act of incommoded. [Obs.] Cheyne.

In`com*mo"di*ous (?), a. [Pref. in- not + commodious: cf. LL. incommodious, L. incommodus, F. incommode.] Tending to incommode; not commodious; not affording ease or advantage; unsuitable; giving trouble; inconvenient; annoying; as, an incommodious seat; an incommodious arrangement. -- In`com*mo"di*ous*ly, adv. -- In`com*mo"di*ous*ness, n.

In`com*mo"di*ty (?), n.; pl. Incommodities (#). [L. incommoditas: cf. F. incommodité. See Incommodious.] Inconvenience; trouble; annoyance; disadvantage; encumbrance. [Archaic] Bunyan.

A great incommodity to the body.

Jer. Taylor.

Buried him under a bulk of incommodities.


In`com*mu`ni*ca*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incommunicabilité.] The quality or state of being incommunicable, or incapable of being imparted.

In`com*mu"ni*ca*ble (?), a. [L. incommunicabilis: cf. F. incommunicable. See In- not, and Communicable.] Not communicable; incapable of being communicated, shared, told, or imparted, to others.

Health and understanding are incommunicable.


Those incommunicable relations of the divine love.


-- In`com*mu"ni*ca*ble*ness, n. -- In`com*mu"ni*ca*bly, adv.

In`com*mu"ni*ca`ted (?), a. Not communicated or imparted. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

In`com*mu"ni*ca`ting, a. Having no communion or intercourse with each other. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

In`com*mu"ni*ca*tive (?), a. Not communicative; not free or apt to impart to others in conversation; reserved; silent; as, the messenger was incommunicative; hence, not disposed to hold fellowship or intercourse with others; exclusive.

The Chinese . . . an incommunicative nation.

C. Buchanan.

-- In`com*mu"ni*ca*tive*ly, adv. -- In`com*mu"ni*ca*tive*ness, n. Lamb.

His usual incommunicativeness.

G. Eliot.

In`com*mu`ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. incommutabilitas: cf. F. incommutabilité.] The quality or state of being incommutable.

In`com*mut"a*ble (?), a. [L. incommutabilis: cf. F. incommutable. See In- not, and Commutable.] Not commutable; not capable of being exchanged with, or substituted for, another. Cudworth. -- In`com*mut"a*ble*ness, n. -- In`com*mut"a*bly, adv.

{ In`com*pact" (?), In`com*pact"ed, } a. Not compact; not having the parts firmly united; not solid; incoherent; loose; discrete. Boyle.

In*com"pa*ra*ble (?), a. [L. incomparabilis: cf. F. incomparable. See In- not, and Comparable.] Not comparable; admitting of no comparison with others; unapproachably eminent; without a peer or equal; matchless; peerless; transcendent.

A merchant of incomparable wealth.


A new hypothesis . . . which hath the incomparable Sir Isaac Newton for a patron.

Bp. Warburton.

-- In*com"pa*ra*ble*ness, n. -- In*com"pa*ra*bly, adv.

Delights incomparably all those corporeal things.

Bp. Wilkins.

In`com*pared" (?), a. Peerless; incomparable. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*com"pass (?), v. t. See Encompass.

In`com*pas"sion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + compassion: cf. F. incompassion.] Want of compassion or pity. [Obs.] Bp. Sanderson.

In`com*pas"sion*ate (?), a. Not compassionate; void of pity or of tenderness; remorseless. -- In`com*pas"sion*ate*ly, adv. -- In`com*pas"sion*ate*ness, n.

In`com*pat`i*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. -ties (&?;). [Cf. F. incompatibilité.] The quality or state of being incompatible; inconsistency; irreconcilableness.

In`com*pat"i*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + compatible: cf. F. incompatible.] [It was formerly sometimes written incompetible.]

1. Not compatible; so differing as to be incapable of harmonious combination or coexistence; inconsistent in thought or being; irreconcilably disagreeing; as, persons of incompatible tempers; incompatible colors, desires, ambition.

A strength and obduracy of character incompatible with his meek and innocent nature.


<! p. 746 !>

2. (Chem.) Incapable of being together without mutual reaction or decomposition, as certain medicines.

Incompatible terms (Logic), terms which can not be combined in thought.

Syn. -- Inconsistent; incongruous; dissimilar; irreconcilable; unsuitable; disagreeing; inharmonious; discordant; repugnant; contradictory. See Inconsistent.

In`com*pat"i*ble (?), n. (Med. & Chem.) An incompatible substance; esp., in pl., things which can not be placed or used together because of a change of chemical composition or of opposing medicinal qualities; as, the incompatibles of iron.

In`com*pat"i*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being incompatible; incompatibility.

In`com*pat"i*bly, adv. In an incompatible manner; inconsistently; incongruously.

{ In*com"pe*tence (?), In*com"pe*tency (?), } n. [Cf. F. incompétence.]

1. The quality or state of being incompetent; want of physical, intellectual, or moral ability; insufficiency; inadequacy; as, the incompetency of a child for hard labor, or of an idiot for intellectual efforts. "Some inherent incompetency." Gladstone.

2. (Law) Want of competency or legal fitness; incapacity; disqualification, as of a person to be heard as a witness, or to act as a juror, or of a judge to try a cause.

Syn. -- Inability; insufficiency; inadequacy; disqualification; incapability; unfitness.

In*com"pe*tent (?), a. [L. incompetens: cf. F. incompétent. See In- not, and Competent.]

1. Not competent; wanting in adequate strength, power, capacity, means, qualifications, or the like; incapable; unable; inadequate; unfit.

Incompetent to perform the duties of the place.


2. (Law) Wanting the legal or constitutional qualifications; inadmissible; as, a person professedly wanting in religious belief is an incompetent witness in a court of law or equity; incompetent evidence.

Richard III. had a resolution, out of hatred to his brethren, to disable their issues, upon false and incompetent pretexts, the one of attainder, the other of illegitimation.


3. Not lying within one's competency, capacity, or authorized power; not permissible.

Syn. -- Incapable; unable; inadequate; insufficient; inefficient; disqualified; unfit; improper. -- Incompetent, Incapable. Incompetent is a relative term, denoting a want of the requisite qualifications for performing a given act, service, etc.; incapable is absolute in its meaning, denoting want of power, either natural or moral. We speak of a man as incompetent to a certain task, of an incompetent judge, etc. We say of an idiot that he is incapable of learning to read; and of a man distinguished for his honor, that he is incapable of a mean action.

In*com"pe*tent*ly, adv. In an competent manner; inadequately; unsuitably.

In`com*pet`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. See Incompatibility.

In`com*pet"i*ble (?), a. See Incompatible.

In`com*plete" (?), a. [L. incompletus: cf. F. incomplet. See In- not, and Complete.]

1. Not complete; not filled up; not finished; not having all its parts, or not having them all adjusted; imperfect; defective.

A most imperfect and incomplete divine.


2. (Bot.) Wanting any of the usual floral organs; -- said of a flower.

Incomplete equation (Alg.), an equation some of whose terms are wanting; or one in which the coefficient of some one or more of the powers of the unknown quantity is equal to 0.

In`com*plete"ly, adv. In an incomplete manner.

In`com*plete"ness, n. The state of being incomplete; imperfectness; defectiveness. Boyle.

In`com*ple"tion (?), n. Want of completion; incompleteness. Smart.

In`com*plex" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + complex: cf. F. incomplexe.] Not complex; uncompounded; simple. Barrow.

In`com*pli"a*ble (?), a. Not compliable; not conformable.

In`com*pli"ance (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being incompliant; unyielding temper; obstinacy.

Self-conceit produces peevishness and incompliance of humor in things lawful and indifferent.


2. Refusal or failure to comply. Strype.

In`com*pli"ant (?), a. Not compliant; unyielding to request, solicitation, or command; stubborn. -- In`com*pli"ant*ly, adv.

In`com*posed" (?), a. Disordered; disturbed. [Obs.] Milton. -- In`com*po"sed*ly (#), adv. [Obs.] -- In`com*pos"ed*ness, n. [Obs.]

In`com*pos"ite (?), a. [L. incompositus. See Composite.] Not composite; uncompounded; simple.

Incomposite numbers. See Prime numbers, under Prime.

In`com*pos"si*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + compossible: cf. F. incompossible.] Not capable of joint existence; incompatible; inconsistent. [Obs.]

Ambition and faith . . . are . . . incompossible.

Jer. Taylor.

-- In`com*pos`si*bil"i*ty (#), n. [Obs.]

In*com`pre*hense" (?), a. [L. incomprehensus.] Incomprehensible. [Obs.] "Incomprehense in virtue." Marston.

In*com`pre*hen`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incompréhensibilité.] The quality of being incomprehensible, or beyond the reach of human intellect; incomprehensibleness; inconceivability; inexplicability.

The constant, universal sense of all antiquity unanimously confessing an incomprehensibility in many of the articles of the Christian faith.


In*com`pre*hen"si*ble (?), a. [L. incomprehensibilis: cf. F. incompréhensible. See In- not, and Comprehensible.]

1. Not capable of being contained within limits.

An infinite and incomprehensible substance.


2. Not capable of being comprehended or understood; beyond the reach of the human intellect; inconceivable.

And all her numbered stars that seem to roll
Spaces incomprehensible.


-- In*com`pre*hen"si*ble*ness, n. -- In*com`pre*hen"si*bly, adv.

In*com`pre*hen"sion (?), n. Want of comprehension or understanding. "These mazes and incomprehensions." Bacon.

In*com`pre*hen"sive (?), a. Not comprehensive; not capable of including or of understanding; not extensive; limited. -- In*com`pre*hen"sive*ly, a. Sir W. Hamilton. -- In*com`pre*hen"sive*ness, n. T. Warton.

In`com*press`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incompressibilité.] The quality of being incompressible, or incapable of reduction in volume by pressure; -- formerly supposed to be a property of liquids.

The incompressibility of water is not absolute.


In`com*press"i*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + compressible: cf. F. incompressible.] Not compressible; incapable of being reduced by force or pressure into a smaller compass or volume; resisting compression; as, many liquids and solids appear to be almost incompressible. -- In`com*press"i*ble*ness, n.

In`com*put"a*ble (?), a. Not computable.

In`con*ceal"a*ble (?), a. Not concealable. "Inconcealable imperfections." Sir T. Browne.

In`con*ceiv`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being inconceivable; inconceivableness.

The inconceivability of the Infinite.


In`con*ceiv"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + conceivable: cf. F. inconcevable.] Not conceivable; incapable of being conceived by the mind; not explicable by the human intellect, or by any known principles or agencies; incomprehensible; as, it is inconceivable to us how the will acts in producing muscular motion.

It is inconceivable to me that a spiritual substance should represent an extended figure.


-- In`con*ceiv"a*ble*ness, n. -- In`con*ceiv"a*bly, adv.

The inconceivableness of a quality existing without any subject to possess it.

A. Tucker.

In`con*cep"ti*ble (?), a. Inconceivable. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

In`con*cern"ing (?), a. Unimportant; trifling. [Obs.] "Trifling and inconcerning matters." Fuller.

In`con*cinne" (?), a. [See Inconcinnous.] Dissimilar; incongruous; unsuitable. [Obs.] Cudworth.

In`con*cin"ni*ty (?), n. [L. inconcinnitas.] Want of concinnity or congruousness; unsuitableness.

There is an inconcinnity in admitting these words.


In`con*cin"nous (?), a. [L. inconcinnus. See In- not, and Concinnity.] Not concinnous; unsuitable; discordant. [Obs.] Cudworth.

In`con*clud"ent (?), a. Not inferring a conclusion or consequence; not conclusive. [Obs.]

In`con*clud"ing, a. Inferring no consequence. [Obs.]

In`con*clu"sive (?), a. Not conclusive; leading to no conclusion; not closing or settling a point in debate, or a doubtful question; as, evidence is inconclusive when it does not exhibit the truth of a disputed case in such a manner as to satisfy the mind, and put an end to debate or doubt.

Arguments . . . inconclusive and impertinent.


-- In`con*clu"sive*ly, adv. -- In`con*clu"sive*ness, n.

In`con*coct" (?), a. [L. pref. in- not + concoctus, p. p. of concoquere. See Concoct.] Inconcocted. [Obs.]

In`con*coct"ed, a. [Pref. in- not + concocted.] Imperfectly digested, matured, or ripened. [Obs.] Bacon.

In`con*coc"tion (?), n. The state of being undigested; unripeness; immaturity. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*con"crete (?), a. [L. inconcretus incorporeal.] Not concrete. [R.] L. Andrews.

In`con*cur"ring, a. Not concurring; disagreeing. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

In`con*cus"si*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + L. concussibilis that can be shaken. See Concussion.] Not concussible; that cannot be shaken.

{ In`con*den`sa*bil"i*ty (?), In`con*den`si*bil"i*ty (?), } n. The quality or state of being incondensable.

{ In`con*den"sa*ble (?), In`con*den"si*ble, } a. Not condensable; incapable of being made more dense or compact, or reduced to liquid form.

In"con*dite (?; 277), a. [L. inconditus; pref. in- not + conditus, p. p. of condere to put or join together. See Condition.] Badly put together; inartificial; rude; unpolished; irregular. "Carol incondite rhymes." J. Philips.

In`con*di"tion*al (?), a. [Pref. in- not + conditional: cf. F. inconditionnel.] Unconditional. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

In`con*di"tion*ate (?), a. [Pref. in- not + conditionate: cf. F. inconditionné.] Not conditioned; not limited; absolute. [Obs.] Boyle.

In`con*form" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + conform.] Unconformable. [Obs.] Gauden.

In`con*form"a*ble (?), a. Unconformable. [Obs.]

In`con*form"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inconformité.] Want of conformity; nonconformity. [Obs.]

In`con*fused" (?), a. Not confused; distinct. [Obs.]

In`con*fu"sion (?) n. Freedom from confusion; distinctness. [Obs.] Bacon.

In`con*fut"a*ble (?), a. Not confutable. -- In`con*fut"a*bly, adv. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

In`con*geal"a*ble (?), a. [L. incongelabilis. See Congeal.] Not congealable; incapable of being congealed. -- In`con*geal"a*ble*ness, n.

In`con*gen"ial (?), a. Not congenial; uncongenial. [R.] -- In`con*ge`ni*al"i*ty (#). [R.]

In*con"gru*ence (?), n. [L. incongruentia.] Want of congruence; incongruity. Boyle.

In*con"gru*ent (?), a. [L. incongruens. See In- not, and Congruent.] Incongruous. Sir T. Elyot.

In`con*gru"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Incongruities (#). [Pref. in- not + congruity: cf. F. incongruité.]

1. The quality or state of being incongruous; want of congruity; unsuitableness; inconsistency; impropriety.

The fathers make use of this acknowledgment of the incongruity of images to the Deity, from thence to prove the incongruity of the worship of them.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

2. Disagreement of parts; want of symmetry or of harmony. [Obs.]

3. That which is incongruous; want of congruity.

In*con"gru*ous (?), a. [L. incongruus. See In- not, and Congruous.] Not congruous; reciprocally disagreeing; not capable of harmonizing or readily assimilating; inharmonious; inappropriate; unsuitable; not fitting; inconsistent; improper; as, an incongruous remark; incongruous behavior, action, dress, etc. "Incongruous mixtures of opinions." I. Taylor. "Made up of incongruous parts." Macaulay.

Incongruous denotes that kind of absence of harmony or suitableness of which the taste and experience of men takes cognizance.

C. J. Smith.

Incongruous numbers (Arith.), two numbers, which, with respect to a third, are such that their difference can not be divided by it without a remainder, the two numbers being said to be incongruous with respect to the third; as, twenty and twenty-five are incongruous with respect to four.

Syn. -- Inconsistent; unsuitable; inharmonious; disagreeing; absurd; inappropriate; unfit; improper. See Inconsistent.

-- In*con"gru*ous*ly, adv. -- In*con"gru*ous*ness, n.

In`con*nect"ed (?), a. Not connected; disconnected. [R.] Bp. Warburton.

In`con*nec"tion (?), n. Disconnection.

In`con*nex"ed*ly (?), adv. [Pref. in- not + connexed (p. p. of connex) + - ly.] Not connectedly; without connection. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

In*con"scion*a*ble (?), a. Unconscionable. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*con"scious (?), a. Unconscious. [Obs.]

In`con*sec"u*tive*ness (?), n. The state or quality of not being consecutive. J. H. Newman.

In*con"se*quence (?), n. [L. inconsequentia: cf. F. inconséquence.] The quality or state of being inconsequent; want of just or logical inference or argument; inconclusiveness. Bp. Stillingfleet.

Strange, that you should not see the inconsequence of your own reasoning!

Bp. Hurd.

In*con"se*quent (?), a. [L. inconsequens: cf. F. inconséquent. See In- not, and Consequent.] Not following from the premises; not regularly inferred; invalid; not characterized by logical method; illogical; arbitrary; inconsistent; of no consequence.

Loose and inconsequent conjectures.

Sir T. Browne.

In*con`se*quen"tial (?), a. Not regularly following from the premises; hence, irrelevant; unimportant; of no consequence. Chesterfield. -- In*con`se*quen"tial*ly (#), adv.

In*con`se*quen`ti*al"i*ty (?), n. The state of being inconsequential.

In*con"se*quent*ness (?), n. Inconsequence.

In`con*sid"er*a*ble (?), a. Not considerable; unworthy of consideration or notice; unimportant; small; trivial; as, an inconsiderable distance; an inconsiderable quantity, degree, value, or sum. "The baser scum and inconsiderable dregs of Rome." Stepney. -- In`con*sid"er*a*ble*ness, n. -- In`con*sid"er*a*bly, adv.

In`con*sid"er*a*cy (?), n. Inconsiderateness; thoughtlessness. [Obs.] Chesterfield.

In`con*sid"er*ate (?), a. [L. inconsideratus. See In- not, and Considerate.]

1. Not considerate; not attentive to safety or to propriety; not regarding the rights or feelings of others; hasty; careless; thoughtless; heedless; as, the young are generally inconsiderate; inconsiderate conduct.

It is a very unhappy token of our corruption, that there should be any so inconsiderate among us as to sacrifice morality to politics.


2. Inconsiderable. [Obs.] E. Terry.

Syn. -- Thoughtless; inattentive; inadvertent; heedless; negligent; improvident; careless; imprudent; indiscreet; incautious; injudicious; rash; hasty.

In`con*sid"er*ate*ly, adv. In an inconsiderate manner.

In`con*sid"er*ate*ness, n. The quality or state of being inconsiderate. Tillotson.

In`con*sid`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. inconsideratio: cf. F. inconsidération.] Want of due consideration; inattention to consequences; inconsiderateness.

Blindness of mind, inconsideration, precipitation.

Jer. Taylor.

Not gross, willful, deliberate, crimes; but rather the effects of inconsideration.


In`con*sist"ence (?), n. Inconsistency.

In`con*sist"en*cy (?), n.; pl. Inconsistencies (#). [Cf. F. inconsistance.]

1. The quality or state of being inconsistent; discordance in respect to sentiment or action; such contrariety between two things that both can not exist or be true together; disagreement; incompatibility.

There is a perfect inconsistency between that which is of debt and that which is of free gift.


2. Absurdity in argument ore narration; incoherence or irreconcilability in the parts of a statement, argument, or narration; that which is inconsistent.

If a man would register all his opinions upon love, politics, religion, and learning, what a bundle of inconsistencies and contradictions would appear at last!


3. Want of stability or uniformity; unsteadiness; changeableness; variableness.

Mutability of temper, and inconsistency with ourselves, is the greatest weakness of human nature.


In`con*sist"ent (?), a. [Pref. in- not + consistent: cf. F. inconsistant.]

1. Not consistent; showing inconsistency; irreconcilable; discordant; at variance, esp. as regards character, sentiment, or action; incompatible; incongruous; contradictory.

<! p. 747 !>

Compositions of this nature . . . show that wisdom and virtue are far from being inconsistent with politeness and good humor.


2. Not exhibiting uniformity of sentiment, steadiness to principle, etc.; unequal; fickle; changeable.

Ah, how unjust to nature, and himself,
Is thoughtless, thankless, inconsistent man.


Syn. -- Incompatible; incongruous; irreconcilable; discordant; repugnant; contradictory. -- Inconsistent, Incongruous, Incompatible. Things are incongruous when they are not suited to each other, so that their union is unbecoming; inconsistent when they are opposed to each other, so as render it improper or wrong; incompatible when they can not coexist, and it is therefore impossible to unite them. Habitual levity of mind is incongruous with the profession of a clergyman; it is inconsistent with his ordination vows; it is incompatible with his permanent usefulness. Incongruity attaches to the modes and qualities of things; incompatibility attaches to their essential attributes; inconsistency attaches to the actions, sentiments, etc., of men.

In`con*sist"ent*ly (?), adv. In an inconsistent manner.

In`con*sist"ent*ness, n. Inconsistency. [R.]

In`con*sist"ing (?), a. Inconsistent. [Obs.]

In`con*sol"a*ble (?), a. [L. inconsolabilis: cf. F. inconsolable. See In- not, and Console.] Not consolable; incapable of being consoled; grieved beyond susceptibility of comfort; disconsolate. Dryden.

With inconsolable distress she griev'd,
And from her cheek the rose of beauty fled.


-- In`con*sol"a*ble*ness, n. -- In`con*sol"a*bly, adv.

{ In*con"so*nance (?), In*con"so*nan*cy (?), } n. Want of consonance or harmony of sound, action, or thought; disagreement.

In*con"so*nant (?), a. [L. inconsonans. See In- not, and Consonant.] Not consonant or agreeing; inconsistent; discordant. -- In*con"so*nant*ly, adv.

In`con*spic"u*ous (?), a. [L. inconspicuus. See In- not, and Conspicuous.] Not conspicuous or noticeable; hardly discernible. -- In`con*spic"u*ous*ly, adv. -- In`con*spic"u*ous*ness, n. Boyle.

In*con"stance (?), n. [F. See Inconstancy.] Inconstancy. Chaucer.

In*con"stan*cy (?), n. [L. inconstantia.] The quality or state of being inconstant; want of constancy; mutability; fickleness; variableness.

For unto knight there was no greater shame,
Than lightness and inconstancie in love.


In*con"stant (?), a. [L. inconstans: cf. F. inconstant. See In- not, and Constant.] Not constant; not stable or uniform; subject to change of character, appearance, opinion, inclination, or purpose, etc.; not firm; unsteady; fickle; changeable; variable; -- said of persons or things; as, inconstant in love or friendship. "The inconstant moon." Shak.

While we, inquiring phantoms of a day,
Inconstant as the shadows we survey!


Syn. -- Mutable; fickle; volatile; unsteady; unstable; changeable; variable; wavering; fluctuating.

In*con"stant*ly, adv. In an inconstant manner.

In`con*sum"a*ble (?), a. Not consumable; incapable of being consumed, wasted, or spent. Paley. -- In`con*sum"a*bly, adv.

In`con*sum"mate (?), a. [L. inconsummatus. See In- not, and Consummate.] Not consummated; not finished; incomplete. Sir M. Hale. -- In`con*sum"mate*ness, n.

In`con*sump"ti*ble (?), a. [L. inconsumptibilis.] Inconsumable. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

In`con*tam"i*nate (?), a. [L. incontaminatus. See In- not, and not, and Contaminate.] Not contaminated; pure. Moore. -- In`con*tam"i*nate*ness, n.

In*con`ten*ta"tion (?), n. [See In- not, and Content.] Discontent. [Obs.] Goodwin.

In`con*test`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being incontestable.

In`con*test"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + contestable: cf. F. incontestable.] Not contestable; not to be disputed; that cannot be called in question or controverted; incontrovertible; indisputable; as, incontestable evidence, truth, or facts. Locke.

Syn. -- Incontrovertible; indisputable; irrefragable; undeniable; unquestionable; intuitable; certain.

-- In`con*test"a*ble*ness, n. -- In`con*test"a*bly, adv.

In`con*test"ed, a. Not contested. Addison.

In`con*tig"u*ous (?), a. [L. incontiguus that can not be touched. See In- not, and Contiguous.] Not contiguous; not adjoining or in contact; separate. Boyle. -- In`con*tig"u*ous*ly, adv.

{ In*con"ti*nence (?), In*con"ti*nen*cy (?), } n. [L. incontinentia: cf. F. incontinence.]

1. Incapacity to hold; hence, incapacity to hold back or restrain; the quality or state of being incontinent; want of continence; failure to restrain the passions or appetites; indulgence of lust; lewdness.

That Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.

1 Cor. vii. 5.

From the rash hand of bold incontinence.


2. (Med.) The inability of any of the animal organs to restrain the natural evacuations, so that the discharges are involuntary; as, incontinence of urine.

In*con"ti*nent (?), a. [L. incontinens: cf. F. incontinent. See In- not, and Continent.]

1. Not continent; uncontrolled; not restraining the passions or appetites, particularly the sexual appetite; indulging unlawful lust; unchaste; lewd.

2. (Med.) Unable to restrain natural evacuations.

In*con"ti*nent, n. One who is unchaste. B. Jonson.

In*con"ti*nent, adv. [Cf. F. incontinent.] Incontinently; instantly; immediately. [Obs.]

He says he will return incontinent.


In*con"ti*nent*ly, adv. 1. In an incontinent manner; without restraint, or without due restraint; -- used esp. of the passions or appetites.

2. Immediately; at once; forthwith. [Archaic]

Immediately he sent word to Athens that he would incontinently come hither with a host of men.


In`con*tract"ed (?), a. Uncontracted. [Obs.] Blackwall.

In`con*trol"la*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + controllable: cf. F. incontrôlable.] Not controllable; uncontrollable. -- In`con*trol"la*bly, adv. South.

In*con`tro*ver`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or condition of being incontrovertible.

In*con`tro*ver"ti*ble (?), a. Not controvertible; too clear or certain to admit of dispute; indisputable. Sir T. Browne. -- In*con`tro*ver"ti*ble*ness, n. -- In*con`tro*ver"ti*bly, adv.

In`con*ven"ience (?), n. [L. inconvenientia inconsistency: cf. OF. inconvenience.]

1. The quality or condition of being inconvenient; want of convenience; unfitness; unsuitableness; inexpediency; awkwardness; as, the inconvenience of the arrangement.

They plead against the inconvenience, not the unlawfulness, . . . of ceremonies in burial.


2. That which gives trouble, embarrassment, or uneasiness; disadvantage; anything that disturbs quiet, impedes prosperity, or increases the difficulty of action or success; as, one inconvenience of life is poverty.

A place upon the top of Mount Athos above all clouds of rain, or other inconvenience.

Sir W. Raleigh.

Man is liable to a great many inconveniences.


Syn. -- Incommodiousness; awkwardness; disadvantage; disquiet; uneasiness; disturbance; annoyance.

In`con*ven"ience, v. t. To put to inconvenience; to incommode; as, to inconvenience a neighbor.

In`con*ven"ien*cy (?), n. Inconvenience.

In`con*ven"ient (?), a. [L. inconveniens unbefitting: cf. F. inconvénient. See In- not, and Convenient.]

1. Not becoming or suitable; unfit; inexpedient.

2. Not convenient; giving trouble, uneasiness, or annoyance; hindering progress or success; uncomfortable; disadvantageous; incommodious; inopportune; as, an inconvenient house, garment, arrangement, or time.

Syn. -- Unsuitable; uncomfortable; disaccommodating; awkward; unseasonable; inopportune; incommodious; disadvantageous; troublesome; cumbersome; embarrassing; objectionable.

In`con*ven"ient*ly, adv. In an inconvenient manner; incommodiously; unsuitably; unseasonably.

In`con*vers"a*ble (?), a. Incommunicative; unsocial; reserved. [Obs.]

In*con"ver*sant (?), a. Not conversant; not acquainted; not versed; unfamiliar.

In`con*vert"ed (?), a. Not turned or changed about. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

In`con*vert`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. inconvertibilitas.] The quality or state of being inconvertible; not capable of being exchanged for, or converted into, something else; as, the inconvertibility of an irredeemable currency, or of lead, into gold.

In`con*vert"i*ble (?), a. [L. inconvertibilis: cf. F. inconvertible. See In- not, and Convertible.] Not convertible; not capable of being transmuted, changed into, or exchanged for, something else; as, one metal is inconvertible into another; bank notes are sometimes inconvertible into specie. Walsh.

In`con*vert"i*ble*ness, n. Inconvertibility.

In`con*vert"i*bly, adv. In an inconvertible manner.

In`con*vin"ci*ble (?), a. [L. inconvincibilis. See In- not, and Convince.] Not convincible; incapable of being convinced.

None are so inconvincible as your half-witted people.

Gov. of the Tongue.

In`con*vin"ci*bly, adv. In a manner not admitting of being convinced.

In*co"ny (?), a. [Cf. Conny, Canny.] Unlearned; artless; pretty; delicate. [Obs.]

Most sweet jests! most incony vulgar wit!


In`co*ör"di*nate (?), a. Not coördinate.

In`co*ör`di*na"tion (?), n. Want of coördination; lack of harmonious adjustment or action.

Incoördination of muscular movement (Physiol.), irregularity in movements resulting from inharmonious action of the muscles in consequence of loss of voluntary control over them.

In*cor"o*nate (?), a. [Pref. in- in + coronate.] Crowned. [R.] Longfellow.

In*cor"po*ral (?), a. [L. incorporalis. See In- not, and Corporal, and cf. Incorporeal.] Immaterial; incorporeal; spiritual. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

In*cor`po*ral"i*ty (?), n. [L. incorporalitas: cf. F. incorporalité.] Incorporeality. [Obs.] Bailey.

In*cor"po*ral*ly (?), adv. Incorporeally. [Obs.]

In*cor"po*rate (?), a. [L. incorporatus. See In- not, and Corporate.]

1. Not consisting of matter; not having a material body; incorporeal; spiritual.

Moses forbore to speak of angles, and things invisible, and incorporate.

Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Not incorporated; not existing as a corporation; as, an incorporate banking association.

In*cor"po*rate, a. [L. incorporatus, p. p. of incorporare to incorporate; pref. in- in + corporare to make into a body. See Corporate.] Corporate; incorporated; made one body, or united in one body; associated; mixed together; combined; embodied.

As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds
Had been incorporate.


A fifteenth part of silver incorporate with gold.


In*cor"po*rate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incorporated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incorporating (?).]

1. To form into a body; to combine, as different ingredients, into one consistent mass.

By your leaves, you shall not stay alone,
Till holy church incorporate two in one.


2. To unite with a material body; to give a material form to; to embody.

The idolaters, who worshiped their images as gods, supposed some spirit to be incorporated therein.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

3. To unite with, or introduce into, a mass already formed; as, to incorporate copper with silver; -- used with with and into.

4. To unite intimately; to blend; to assimilate; to combine into a structure or organization, whether material or mental; as, to incorporate provinces into the realm; to incorporate another's ideas into one's work.

The Romans did not subdue a country to put the inhabitants to fire and sword, but to incorporate them into their own community.


5. To form into a legal body, or body politic; to constitute into a corporation recognized by law, with special functions, rights, duties and liabilities; as, to incorporate a bank, a railroad company, a city or town, etc.

In*cor"po*rate (?), v. i. To unite in one body so as to make a part of it; to be mixed or blended; -- usually followed by with.

Painters' colors and ashes do better incorporate will oil.


He never suffers wrong so long to grow,
And to incorporate with right so far
As it might come to seem the same in show.


In*cor"po*ra`ted (?), a. United in one body; formed into a corporation; made a legal entity.

In*cor`po*ra"tion (?), n. [L. incorporatio: cf. F. incorporation.]

1. The act of incorporating, or the state of being incorporated.

2. The union of different ingredients in one mass; mixture; combination; synthesis.

3. The union of something with a body already existing; association; intimate union; assimilation; as, the incorporation of conquered countries into the Roman republic.

4. (Law) (a) The act of creating a corporation. (b) A body incorporated; a corporation.

In*cor"po*ra*tive (?), a. Incorporating or tending to incorporate; as, the incorporative languages (as of the Basques, North American Indians, etc. ) which run a whole phrase into one word.

History demonstrates that incorporative unions are solid and permanent; but that a federal union is weak.

W. Belsham.

In*cor"po*ra`tor (?), n. One of a number of persons who gets a company incorporated; one of the original members of a corporation.

In`cor*po"re*al (?), a. [Pref. in- not + corporeal: cf. L. incorporeus. Cf. Incorporal.]

1. Not corporeal; not having a material body or form; not consisting of matter; immaterial.

Thus incorporeal spirits to smaller forms
Reduced their shapes immense.


Sense and perception must necessarily proceed from some incorporeal substance within us.


2. (Law) Existing only in contemplation of law; not capable of actual visible seizin or possession; not being an object of sense; intangible; -- opposed to corporeal.

Incorporeal hereditament. See under Hereditament.

Syn. -- Immaterial; unsubstantial; bodiless; spiritual.

In`cor*po"re*al*ism (?), n. Existence without a body or material form; immateriality. Cudworth.

In`cor*po"re*al*ist, n. One who believes in incorporealism. Cudworth.

In`cor*po`re*al"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being incorporeal or bodiless; immateriality; incorporealism. G. Eliot.

In`cor*po"re*al*ly (?), adv. In an incorporeal manner. Bacon.

In*cor`po*re"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. in- not + corporeity: cf. F. incorporéite.] The quality of being incorporeal; immateriality. Berkeley.

In*corpse" (?), v. t. To incorporate. [R.] Shak.

In`cor*rect" (?), a. [L. incorrectus: cf. F. incorrect. See In- not, and Correct.]

1. Not correct; not according to a copy or model, or to established rules; inaccurate; faulty.

The piece, you think, is incorrect.


2. Not in accordance with the truth; inaccurate; not exact; as, an incorrect statement or calculation.

3. Not accordant with duty or morality; not duly regulated or subordinated; unbecoming; improper; as, incorrect conduct.

It shows a will most incorrect to heaven.


The wit of the last age was yet more incorrect than their language.


Syn. -- Inaccurate; erroneous; wrong; faulty.

In`cor*rec"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + correction: cf. F. incorrection.] Want of correction, restraint, or discipline. [Obs.] Arnway.

In`cor*rect"ly (?), adv. Not correctly; inaccurately; not exactly; as, a writing incorrectly copied; testimony incorrectly stated.

In`cor*rect"ness, n. The quality of being incorrect; want of conformity to truth or to a standard; inaccuracy; inexactness; as, incorrectness may consist in defect or in redundance.

{ In*cor`re*spond"ence (?), In*cor`re*spond"en*cy (?), } n. Want of correspondence; disagreement; disproportion. [R.]

In*cor`re*spond"ing, a. Not corresponding; disagreeing. [R.] Coleridge.

In*cor`ri*gi*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incorrigibilité.] The state or quality of being incorrigible.

The ingratitude, the incorrigibility, the strange perverseness . . . of mankind.


In*cor"ri*gi*ble (?), a. [L. incorrigibilis: cf. F. incorrigible. See In- not, and Corrigible.] Not corrigible; incapable of being corrected or amended; bad beyond correction; irreclaimable; as, incorrigible error. "Incorrigible fools." Dryden.

In*cor"ri*gi*ble (?), n. One who is incorrigible; especially, a hardened criminal; as, the perpetual imprisonment of incorrigibles.

<! p. 748 !>

In*cor"ri*gi*ble*ness (?), n. Incorrigibility. Dr. H. More.

In*cor"ri*gi*bly, adv. In an incorrigible manner.

In`cor*rod"i*ble (?), a. Incapable of being corroded, consumed, or eaten away.

In`cor*rupt" (?), a. [L. incorruptus. See In- not, and Corrupt.]

1. Not affected with corruption or decay; unimpaired; not marred or spoiled.

2. Not defiled or depraved; pure; sound; untainted; above the influence of bribes; upright; honest. Milton.

Your Christian principles . . . which will preserve you incorrupt as individuals.

Bp. Hurd.

In`cor*rupt"ed (?), a. Uncorrupted. [Obs.]

Breathed into their incorrupted breasts.

Sir J. Davies.

In`cor*rupt`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. incorruptibilitas: cf. F. incorruptibilité.] The quality of being incorruptible; incapability of corruption. Holland.

In`cor*rupt"i*ble (?), a. [L. incorruptibilis: cf. F. incorruptible. See In- not, and Corrupt.]

1. Not corruptible; incapable of corruption, decay, or dissolution; as, gold is incorruptible.

Our bodies shall be changed into incorruptible and immortal substances.


2. Incapable of being bribed or morally corrupted; inflexibly just and upright.

In`cor*rupt"i*ble, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a religious sect which arose in Alexandria, in the reign of the Emperor Justinian, and which believed that the body of Christ was incorruptible, and that he suffered hunger, thirst, pain, only in appearance.

In`cor*rupt"i*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being incorruptible. Boyle.

In`cor*rupt"i*bly, adv. In an incorruptible manner.

In`cor*rup"tion (?), n. [L. incorruptio: cf. F. incorruption. See In- not, and Corruption.] The condition or quality of being incorrupt or incorruptible; absence of, or exemption from, corruption.

It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption.

1 Cor. xv. 42.

The same preservation, or, rather, incorruption, we have observed in the flesh of turkeys, capons, etc.

Sir T. Browne.

In`cor*rupt"ive (?), a. [L. incorruptivus.] Incorruptible; not liable to decay. Akenside.

In`cor*rupt"ly (?), adv. Without corruption.

To demean themselves incorruptly.


In`cor*rupt"ness, n. 1. Freedom or exemption from decay or corruption.

2. Probity; integrity; honesty. Woodward.

In*cras"sate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incrassated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incrassating.] [L. incrassatus, p. p. of incrassare; pref. in- in + crassus thick.] To make thick or thicker; to thicken; especially, in pharmacy, to thicken (a liquid) by the mixture of another substance, or by evaporating the thinner parts.

Acids dissolve or attenuate; alkalies precipitate or incrassate.

Sir I. Newton.

Liquors which time hath incrassated into jellies.

Sir T. Browne.

In*cras"sate, v. i. To become thick or thicker.

{ In*cras"sate (?), In*cras"sa*ted (?), } a. [L. incrassatus, p. p.]

1. Made thick or thicker; thickened; inspissated.

2. (Bot.) Thickened; becoming thicker. Martyn.

3. (Zoöl.) Swelled out on some particular part, as the antennæ of certain insects.

In`cras*sa"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. incrassation.]

1. The act or process of thickening or making thick; the process of becoming thick or thicker.

2. The state of being incrassated or made thick; inspissation. Sir T. Browne.

In*cras"sa*tive (?), a. Having the quality of thickening; tending to thicken. Harvey.

In*cras"sa*tive, n. A substance which has the power to thicken; formerly, a medicine supposed to thicken the humors. Harvey.

In*creas"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being increased. Sherwood. -- In*creas"a*ble*ness, n.

An indefinite increasableness of some of our ideas.

Bp. Law.

In*crease" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Increased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Increasing.] [OE. incresen, encresen, enrescen, OF. encreistre, fr. L. increscere; pref. in- in + crescere to grow. See Crescent, and cf. Decrease.]

1. To become greater or more in size, quantity, number, degree, value, intensity, power, authority, reputation, wealth; to grow; to augment; to advance; -- opposed to decrease.

The waters increased and bare up the ark.

Gen. vii. 17.

He must increase, but I must decrease.

John iii. 30.

The heavens forbid
But that our loves and comforts should increase,
Even as our days do grow!


2. To multiply by the production of young; to be fertile, fruitful, or prolific.

Fishes are more numerous or increasing than beasts or birds, as appears by their numerous spawn.

Sir M. Hale.

3. (Astron.) To become more nearly full; to show more of the surface; to wax; as, the moon increases.

Increasing function (Math.), a function whose value increases when that of the variable increases, and decreases when the latter is diminished.

Syn. -- To enlarge; extend; multiply; expand; develop; heighten; amplify; raise; enhance; spread; aggravate; magnify; augment; advance. -- To Increase, Enlarge, Extend. Enlarge implies to make larger or broader in size. Extend marks the progress of enlargement so as to have wider boundaries. Increase denotes enlargement by growth and internal vitality, as in the case of plants. A kingdom is enlarged by the addition of new territories; the mind is enlarged by knowledge. A kingdom is extended when its boundaries are carried to a greater distance from the center. A man's riches, honors, knowledge, etc., are increased by accessions which are made from time to time.

In*crease" (?), v. t. To augment or make greater in bulk, quantity, extent, value, or amount, etc.; to add to; to extend; to lengthen; to enhance; to aggravate; as, to increase one's possessions, influence.

I will increase the famine.

Ezek. v. 16.

Make denials
Increase your services.


In"crease (?; 277), n. [OE. encres, encresse. See Increase, v. i.]

1. Addition or enlargement in size, extent, quantity, number, intensity, value, substance, etc.; augmentation; growth.

As if increase of appetite had grown
By what it fed on.


For things of tender kind for pleasure made
Shoot up with swift increase, and sudden are decay'd.


2. That which is added to the original stock by augmentation or growth; produce; profit; interest.

Take thou no usury of him, or increase.

Lev. xxv. 36.

Let them not live to taste this land's increase.


3. Progeny; issue; offspring.

All the increase of thy house shall die in the flower of their age.

1 Sam. ii. 33.

4. Generation. [Obs.] "Organs of increase." Shak.

5. (Astron.) The period of increasing light, or luminous phase; the waxing; -- said of the moon.

Seeds, hair, nails, hedges, and herbs will grow soonest if set or cut in the increase of the moon.


Increase twist, the twixt of a rifle groove in which the angle of twist increases from the breech to the muzzle.

Syn. -- Enlargement; extension; growth; development; increment; addition; accession; production.

In*crease"ful (?), a. Full of increase; abundant in produce. "Increaseful crops." [R.] Shak.

In*crease"ment (?), n. Increase. [R.] Bacon.

In*creas"er (?), n. One who, or that, increases.

In*creas"ing*ly, adv. More and more.

In`cre*ate" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Increated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Increating.] [Pref. in- in + create.] To create within. [R.]

{ In"cre*ate (?), In"cre*a`ted (?), } a. [L. increatus. See In- not, and Create.] Uncreated; self-existent. [R.]

Bright effluence of bright essence increate.


In*cred`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. incredibilitas: cf. F. incrédibilité.]

1. The quality or state of being incredible; incredibleness. Dryden.

2. That which is incredible. Johnson.

In*cred"i*ble (?), a. [L. incredibilis: cf. OF. incredible. See In- not, and Credible.] Not credible; surpassing belief; too extraordinary and improbable to admit of belief; unlikely; marvelous; fabulous.

Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead?

Acts xxvi. 8.

In*cred"i*ble*ness, n. Incredibility.

In*cred"i*bly, adv. In an incredible manner.

In*cred"it*ed (?), a. Uncredited. [Obs.]

In`cre*du"li*ty (?), n. [L. incredulitas: cf. F. incrédulité.] The state or quality of being incredulous; a withholding or refusal of belief; skepticism; unbelief; disbelief.

Of every species of incredulity, religious unbelief is the most irrational.


In*cred"u*lous (?; 135), a. [L. incredulus. See In- not, and Credulous.]

1. Not credulous; indisposed to admit or accept that which is related as true, skeptical; unbelieving. Bacon.

A fantastical incredulous fool.

Bp. Wilkins.

2. Indicating, or caused by, disbelief or incredulity. "An incredulous smile." Longfellow.

3. Incredible; not easy to be believed. [R.] Shak.

In*cred"u*lous*ly, adv. In an incredulous manner; with incredulity.

In*cred"u*lous*ness, n. Incredulity.

In*crem"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + L. cremabilis combustible, fr. cremare to burn.] Incapable of being burnt; incombustibe. Sir T. Browne.

In"cre*mate (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + cremate.] To consume or reduce to ashes by burning, as a dead body; to cremate.

In`cre*ma"tion (?), n. Burning; esp., the act of burning a dead body; cremation.

In"cre*ment (?), n. [L. incrementum: cf. F. incrément. See Increase.]

1. The act or process of increasing; growth in bulk, guantity, number, value, or amount; augmentation; enlargement.

The seminary that furnisheth matter for the formation and increment of animal and vegetable bodies.


A nation, to be great, ought to be compressed in its increment by nations more civilized than itself.


2. Matter added; increase; produce; production; -- opposed to decrement. "Large increment." J. Philips.

3. (Math.) The increase of a variable quantity or fraction from its present value to its next ascending value; the finite quantity, generally variable, by which a variable quantity is increased.

4. (Rhet.) An amplification without strict climax, as in the following passage:

Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, . . . think on these things.

Phil. iv. 8.

Infinitesimal increment (Math.), an infinitesimally small variation considered in Differential Calculus. See Calculus. -- Method of increments (Math.), a calculus founded on the properties of the successive values of variable quantities and their differences or increments. It differs from the method of fluxions in treating these differences as finite, instead of infinitely small, and is equivalent to the calculus of finite differences.

In`cre*men"tal (?), a. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or resulting from, the process of growth; as, the incremental lines in the dentine of teeth.

In"cre*pate (?), v. t. [L. increpatus, p. p. of increpare to upbraid; pref. in- in, against + crepare to talk noisily.] To chide; to rebuke; to reprove. [Obs.]

In`cre*pa"tion (?), n. [L. increpatio.] A chiding; rebuke; reproof. [Obs.] Hammond.

In*cres"cent (?), a. [L. increscens, -entis, p. pr. of increscere. See Increase.]

1. Increasing; growing; augmenting; swelling; enlarging.

Between the incresent and decrescent moon.


2. (Her.) Increasing; on the increase; -- said of the moon represented as the new moon, with the points turned toward the dexter side.

In*crest" (?), v. t. To adorn with a crest. [R.] Drummond.

In*crim"i*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incriminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incriminating.] [LL. incriminatus, p. p. of incriminare; in- in + criminare, criminari, to accuse one of a crime. See Criminate.] To accuse; to charge with a crime or fault; to criminate.

In*crim`i*na"tion (?), n. The act of incriminating; crimination.

In*crim"i*na*to*ry (?), a. Of or pertaining to crimination; tending to incriminate; criminatory.

In`cru*en"tal (?), a. [L. incruentus. See In- not, and Cruentous.] Unbloody; not attended with blood; as, an incruental sacrifice. [Obs.] Brevint.

In*crust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incrusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Incrusting.] [L. incrustare; pref. in- in + crustare to cover with a crust: cf. F. incruster. See Crust.] [Written also encrust.]

1. To cover or line with a crust, or hard coat; to form a crust on the surface of; as, iron incrusted with rust; a vessel incrusted with salt; a sweetmeat incrusted with sugar.

And by the frost refin'd the whiter snow,
Incrusted hard.


2. (Fine Arts) To inlay into, as a piece of carving or other ornamental object.

In*crus"tate (?), a. [L. incrustatus, p. p. See Incrust.] Incrusted. Bacon.

In*crus"tate (?), v. t. To incrust. [R.] Cheyne.

In`crus*ta"tion (?), n. [L. incrustatio: cf. F. incrustation. See Incrust.]

1. The act of incrusting, or the state of being incrusted.

2. A crust or hard coating of anything upon or within a body, as a deposit of lime, sediment, etc., from water on the inner surface of a steam boiler.

3. (Arch.) A covering or inlaying of marble, mosaic, etc., attached to the masonry by cramp irons or cement.

4. (Fine Arts) Anything inlaid or imbedded.

In*crust"ment (?), n. Incrustation. [R.]

In*crys"tal*li`za*ble (?), a. Not crystallizable; incapable of being formed into crystals.

In"cu*bate (?), v. i. & t. [imp. & p. p. Incubated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incubating (?).] [L. incubatus, p. p. incubare to lie on; pref. in- in, on + cubare to lie down. Cf. Cubit, Incumbent.] To sit, as on eggs for hatching; to brood; to brood upon, or keep warm, as eggs, for the purpose of hatching.

In`cu*ba"tion (?), n. [L. incubatio: cf. F. incubation.]

1. A sitting on eggs for the purpose of hatching young; a brooding on, or keeping warm, (eggs) to develop the life within, by any process. Ray.

2. (Med.) The development of a disease from its causes, or its period of incubation. (See below.)

3. A sleeping in a consecrated place for the purpose of dreaming oracular dreams. Tylor.

Period of incubation, or Stage of incubation (Med.), the period which elapses between exposure to the causes of a disease and the attack resulting from it; the time of development of the supposed germs or spores.

In"cu*ba*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to incubation, or to the period of incubation.

In"cu*ba`tor (?), n. That which incubates, especially, an apparatus by means of which eggs are hatched by artificial heat.

In*cu"ba*to*ry (?), a. Serving for incubation.

In*cube" (?), v. t. To fix firmly, as in cube; to secure or place firmly. [Obs.] Milton.

In*cu"bi*ture (?; 135), n. [Cf. L. incubitus.] Incubation. [Obs.] J. Ellis.

In"cu*bous (?), a. [From L. incubare to lie on.] (Bot.) Having the leaves so placed that the upper part of each one covers the base of the leaf next above it, as in hepatic mosses of the genus Frullania. See Succubous.

In"cu*bus (?), n.; pl. E. Incubuses (#), L. Incubi (#). [L., the nightmare. Cf. Incubate.]

1. A demon; a fiend; a lascivious spirit, supposed to have sexual intercourse with women by night. Tylor.

The devils who appeared in the female form were generally called succubi; those who appeared like men incubi, though this distinction was not always preserved.


2. (Med.) The nightmare. See Nightmare.

Such as are troubled with incubus, or witch- ridden, as we call it.


3. Any oppressive encumbrance or burden; anything that prevents the free use of the faculties.

Debt and usury is the incubus which weighs most heavily on the agricultural resources of Turkey.

J. L. Farley.

In*cul"cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inculcated; p. pr. & vb. n. Inculcating (?).] [L. inculcatus, p. p. of inculcare to tread on; pref. in- in, on + calcare to tread, fr. calx the heel; perh. akin to E. heel. Cf. 2d Calk, Heel.] To teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions; to urge on the mind; as, Christ inculcates on his followers humility.

The most obvious and necessary duties of life they have not yet had authority enough to enforce and inculcate upon men's minds.

S. Clarke.

Syn. -- To instill; infuse; implant; engraft; impress.

In`cul*ca"tion (?), n. [L. inculcatio: cf. F. inculcation.] A teaching and impressing by frequent repetitions. Bp. Hall.

<! p. 749 !>

In*cul"ca*tor (?), n. [L.] One who inculcates. Boyle.

In*culk" (?). v. t. [Cf. F. inculquer. See Inculcate.] To inculcate. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

In*culp" (?), v. t. [Cf. inculper. See Inculpate.] To inculpate. [Obs.] Shelton.

In*cul"pa*ble (?), a. [L. inculpabilis: cf. F. incupable.] Faultless; blameless; innocent. South.

An innocent and incupable piece of ignorance.


In*cul"pa*ble*ness, n. Blamelessness; faultlessness.

In*cul"pa*bly, adv. Blamelessly. South.

In*cul"pate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inculpated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inculpating (?).] [LL. inculpatus, p. p. of inculpare to blame; pref. in- in + culpa fault. See Culpable.] [A word of recent introduction.] To blame; to impute guilt to; to accuse; to involve or implicate in guilt.

That risk could only exculpate her and not inculpate them -- the probabilities protected them so perfectly.

H. James.

In`cul*pa"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. inculpation.] Blame; censure; crimination. Jefferson.

In*cul"pa*to*ry (?), a. Imputing blame; criminatory; compromising; implicating.

In*cult" (?), a. [L. incultus; pref. in- not + cultus, p. p. of colere to cultivate: cf. F. inculte.] Untilled; uncultivated; crude; rude; uncivilized.

Germany then, says Tacitus, was incult and horrid, now full of magnificent cities.


His style is diffuse and incult.

M. W. Shelley.

In*cul"ti*va`ted (?), a. Uncultivated. [Obs.] Sir T. Herbert.

In*cul`ti*va"tion (?), n. Want of cultivation. [Obs.] Berington.

In*cul"ture (?; 135), n. [Pref. in- not + culture: cf. F. inculture.] Want or neglect of cultivation or culture. [Obs.] Feltham.

In*cum"ben*cy (?), n.; pl. Incumbencies (#). [From Incumbent.]

1. The state of being incumbent; a lying or resting on something.

2. That which is physically incumbent; that which lies as a burden; a weight. Evelyn.

3. That which is morally incumbent, or is imposed, as a rule, a duty, obligation, or responsibility. "The incumbencies of a family." Donne.

4. The state of holding a benefice; the full possession and exercise of any office.

These fines are only to be paid to the bishop during his incumbency.


In*cum"bent (?), a. [L. incumbens, -entis, p. pr. of incumbere to lie down upon, press upon; pref. in- in, on + cumbere (in comp.); akin to cubare to lie down. See Incubate.]

1. Lying; resting; reclining; recumbent; superimposed; superincumbent.

Two incumbent figures, gracefully leaning upon it.

Sir H. Wotton.

To move the incumbent load they try.


2. Lying, resting, or imposed, as a duty or obligation; obligatory; always with on or upon.

All men, truly zealous, will perform those good works that are incumbent on all Christians.


3. (Bot.) Leaning or resting; -- said of anthers when lying on the inner side of the filament, or of cotyledons when the radicle lies against the back of one of them. Gray.

4. (Zoöl.) Bent downwards so that the ends touch, or rest on, something else; as, the incumbent toe of a bird.

In*cum"bent, n. A person who is in present possession of a benefice or of any office.

The incumbent lieth at the mercy of his patron.


In*cum"bent*ly, adv. In an incumbent manner; so as to be incumbent.

In*cum"ber (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incumbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incumbering.] See Encumber.

In`cum*bi"tion (?), n. Incubation. [R.] Sterne.

In*cum"brance (?), n. [See Encumbrance.] [Written also encumbrance.]

1. A burdensome and troublesome load; anything that impedes motion or action, or renders it difficult or laborious; clog; impediment; hindrance; check. Cowper.

2. (Law) A burden or charge upon property; a claim or lien upon an estate, which may diminish its value.

In*cum"bran*cer (?), n. (Law) One who holds an incumbrance, or some legal claim, lien, or charge on an estate. Kent.

In*cum"brous (?), a. [Cf. OF. encombros.] Cumbersome; troublesome. [Written also encombrous.] [Obs.] Chaucer.

||In`cu*nab"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Incunabula (#). [L. incunabula cradle, birthplace, origin. See 1st In-, and Cunabula.] A work of art or of human industry, of an early epoch; especially, a book printed before a. d. 1500.

In*cur" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incurred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incurring (?).] [L. incurrere to run into or toward; pref. in- in + currere to run. See Current.]

1. To meet or fall in with, as something inconvenient, harmful, or onerous; to put one's self in the way of; to expose one's self to; to become liable or subject to; to bring down upon one's self; to encounter; to contract; as, to incur debt, danger, displeasure, penalty, responsibility, etc.

I know not what I shall incur to pass it,
Having no warrant.


2. To render liable or subject to; to occasion. [Obs.]

Lest you incur me much more damage in my fame than you have done me pleasure in preserving my life.


In*cur", v. i. To pass; to enter. [Obs.]

Light is discerned by itself because by itself it incurs into the eye.


In*cur`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. incurabilité incurability, LL. incurabilitas negligence.] The state of being incurable; irremediableness. Harvey.

In*cur"a*ble (?), a. [F. incurable, L. incurabilis. See In- not, and Curable.]

1. Not capable of being cured; beyond the power of skill or medicine to remedy; as, an incurable disease.

A scirrhus is not absolutely incurable.


2. Not admitting or capable of remedy or correction; irremediable; remediless; as, incurable evils.

Rancorous and incurable hostility.


They were laboring under a profound, and, as it might have seemed, an almost incurable ignorance.

Sir J. Stephen.

Syn. -- Irremediable; remediless; irrecoverable; irretrievable; irreparable; hopeless.

In*cur"a*ble, n. A person diseased beyond cure.

In*cur"a*ble*ness, n. The state of being incurable; incurability. Boyle.

In*cur"a*bly, adv. In a manner that renders cure impracticable or impossible; irremediably. "Incurably diseased." Bp. Hall. "Incurably wicked." Blair.

In*cu`ri*os"i*ty (?), n. [L. incuriositas: cf. F. incurosité.] Want of curiosity or interest; inattentiveness; indifference. Sir H. Wotton.

In*cu"ri*ous (?), a. [L. incuriosus: cf. F. incurieux. See In- not, and Curious.] Not curious or inquisitive; without care for or interest in; inattentive; careless; negligent; heedless.

Carelessnesses and incurious deportments toward their children.

Jer. Taylor.

In*cu"ri*ous*ly, adv. In an curious manner.

In*cu"ri*ous*ness, n. Unconcernedness; incuriosity.

Sordid incuriousness and slovenly neglect.

Bp. Hall.

In*cur"rence (?), n. [See Incur.] The act of incurring, bringing on, or subjecting one's self to (something troublesome or burdensome); as, the incurrence of guilt, debt, responsibility, etc.

In*cur"rent (?), a. [L. incurrens, p. pr. incurere, incursum, to run in; in- + currere to run.] (Zoöl.) Characterized by a current which flows inward; as, the incurrent orifice of lamellibranch Mollusca.

In*cur"sion (?), n. [L. incursio: cf. F. incursion. See Incur.]

1. A running into; hence, an entering into a territory with hostile intention; a temporary invasion; a predatory or harassing inroad; a raid.

The Scythian, whose incursions wild
Have wasted Sogdiana.


The incursions of the Goths disordered the affairs of the Roman Empire.


2. Attack; occurrence. [Obs.]

Sins of daily incursion.


Syn. -- Invasion; inroad; raid; foray; sally; attack; onset; irruption. See Invasion.

In*cur"sive (?), a. Making an incursion; invasive; aggressive; hostile.

In*cur"tain (?), v. t. To curtain. [Obs.]

In*cur"vate (?), a. [L. incurvatus, p. p. of incurvare to crook; pref. in- in + curvus bent. See Curve, and cf. Incurve.] Curved; bent; crooked. Derham.

In*cur"vate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incurvated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Incurvating.] To turn from a straight line or course; to bend; to crook. Cheyne.

In`cur*va"tion (?), n. [L. incurvatio: cf. F. incurvation.]

1. The act of bending, or curving.

2. The state of being bent or curved; curvature.

An incurvation of the rays.


3. The act of bowing, or bending the body, in respect or reverence. "The incurvations of the knee." Bp. Hall.

In*curve" (n*kûv"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incurved (-kûvd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Incurving.] [See Incurvate.] To bend; to curve; to make crooked.

In*curved" (n*kûvd"), a. [Pref. in- in + curved.] (Bot.) Bending gradually toward the axis or center, as branches or petals.

In*cur"vi*ty (n*kû"v*t), n. [From L. incurvus bent. See Incurvate.] A state of being bent or curved; incurvation; a bending inwards. Sir T. Browne.

||In"cus (?), n. [L., anvil.]

1. An anvil.

2. (Anat.) One of the small bones in the tympanum of the ear; the anvil bone. See Ear.

3. (Zoöl.) The central portion of the armature of the pharynx in the Rotifera.

In*cuse" (?), a. [See Incuse, v. t.] (Numismatics) Cut or stamped in, or hollowed out by engraving. "Irregular incuse square." Dr. W. Smith.

{ In*cuse" (?), In*cuss" (?), } v. t. [L. incussus, p. p. of incutere to strike. See 1st In-, and Concuss.] To form, or mold, by striking or stamping, as a coin or medal.

In*cute" (?), v. t. [See Incuse.] To strike or stamp in. [Obs.] Becon.

In*cyst" (?), v. t. See Encyst.

In*cyst"ed, a. See Encysted.

Ind (?), n. India. [Poetical] Shak. Milton.

In"da*gate (?), v. t. [L. indagatus, p. p. of indagare to seek.] To seek or search out. [Obs.]

In`da*ga"tion (?), n. [L. indagatio: cf. F. indagation.] Search; inquiry; investigation. [Obs.]

In"da*ga*tive (?), a. Searching; exploring; investigating. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

In"da*ga`tor (?), n. [L.] A searcher; an explorer; an investigator. [Obs.]

Searched into by such skillful indagators of nature.


In*dam"age (?; 48), v. t. See Endamage. [R.]

In*dam"aged (?), a. Not damaged. [Obs.] Milton.

In*dart" (?), v. t. To pierce, as with a dart.

In"da*zol (?), n. [Indol + azote.] (Chem.) A nitrogenous compound, C7H6N2, analogous to indol, and produced from a diazo derivative of cinnamic acid.

Inde (?), a. Azure-colored; of a bright blue color. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

In*dear" (?), v. t. See Endear.

In*debt" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indebted; p. pr. & vb. n. Indebting.] [OE. endetten, F. endetter; pref. en- (L. in) + F. dette debt. See Debt.] To bring into debt; to place under obligation; -- chiefly used in the participle indebted.

Thy fortune hath indebted thee to none.


In*debt"ed, a. 1. Brought into debt; being under obligation; held to payment or requital; beholden.

By owing, owes not, but still pays, at once
Indebted and discharged.


2. Placed under obligation for something received, for which restitution or gratitude is due; as, we are indebted to our parents for their care of us in infancy; indebted to friends for help and encouragement. Cowper.

In*debt"ed*ness, n. 1. The state of being indebted.

2. The sum owed; debts, collectively.

In*debt"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. endettement.] Indebtedness. [R.] Bp. Hall.

In*de"cence (?), n. See Indecency. [Obs.] "An indecence of barbarity." Bp. Burnet.

In*de"cen*cy (?), n.; pl. Indecencies (#). [L. indecentia unseemliness: cf. F. indécence.]

1. The quality or state of being indecent; want of decency, modesty, or good manners; obscenity.

2. That which is indecent; an indecent word or act; an offense against delicacy.

They who, by speech or writing, present to the ear or the eye of modesty any of the indecencies I allude to, are pests of society.


Syn. -- Indelicacy; indecorum; immodesty; impurity; obscenity. See Indecorum.

In*de"cent (?), a. [L. indecens unseemly, unbecoming: cf. F. indécent. See In- not, and Decent.] Not decent; unfit to be seen or heard; offensive to modesty and delicacy; as, indecent language. Cowper.

Syn. -- Unbecoming; indecorous; indelicate; unseemly; immodest; gross; shameful; impure; improper; obscene; filthy.

In*de"cent*ly, adv. In an indecent manner.

In`de*cid"u*ate (?), a. 1. Indeciduous.

2. (Anat.) Having no decidua; nondeciduate.

In`de*cid"u*ous (?), a. Not deciduous or falling, as the leaves of trees in autumn; lasting; evergreen; persistent; permanent; perennial.

The indeciduous and unshaven locks of Apollo.

Sir T. Browne.

In*dec"i*ma*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + LL. decimare to tithe: cf. F. indécimable. See Decimate.] Not decimable, or liable to be decimated; not liable to the payment of tithes. Cowell.

In`de*ci"pher*a*ble (?), a. Not decipherable; incapable of being deciphered, explained, or solved. -- In`de*ci"pher*a*bly, adv.

In`de*ci"sion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + decision: cf. F. indécision.] Want of decision; want of settled purpose, or of firmness; indetermination; wavering of mind; irresolution; vacillation; hesitation.

The term indecision . . . implies an idea very nicely different from irresolution; yet it has a tendency to produce it.


Indecision . . . is the natural accomplice of violence.


In`de*ci"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. indécisif.]

1. Not decisive; not bringing to a final or ultimate issue; as, an indecisive battle, argument, answer.

The campaign had everywhere been indecisive.


2. Undetermined; prone to indecision; irresolute; unsettled; wavering; vacillating; hesitating; as, an indecisive state of mind; an indecisive character.

In`de*ci"sive*ly, adv. Without decision.

In`de*ci"sive*ness, n. The state of being indecisive; unsettled state.

In`de*clin"a*ble (?), a. [L. indeclinabilis: cf. F. indéclinable. See In- not, and Decline.] (Gram.) Not declinable; not varied by inflective terminations; as, nihil (nothing), in Latin, is an indeclinable noun. -- n. An indeclinable word.

In`de*clin"a*bly, adv. 1. Without variation.

2. (Gram.) Without variation of termination.

In*de`com*pos"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + decomposable: cf. F. indécomposable.] Not decomposable; incapable or difficult of decomposition; not resolvable into its constituents or elements.

In*de`com*pos"a*ble*ness, n. Incapableness of decomposition; stability; permanence; durability.

In`de*co"rous (?; 277), a. [L. indecorous. See In- not, and Decorous.] Not decorous; violating good manners; contrary to good breeding or etiquette; unbecoming; improper; out of place; as, indecorous conduct.

It was useless and indecorous to attempt anything more by mere struggle.


Syn. -- Unbecoming; unseemly; unbefitting; rude; coarse; impolite; uncivil; ill-bred.

In`de*co"rous*ly, adv. In an indecorous manner.

In`de*co"rous*ness, n. The quality of being indecorous; want of decorum.

In`de*co"rum (?), n. [Pref. in- not + decorum: cf. L. indecorous unbecoming.]

1. Want of decorum; impropriety of behavior; that in behavior or manners which violates the established rules of civility, custom, or etiquette; indecorousness.

2. An indecorous or unbecoming action. Young.

Syn. -- Indecorum is sometimes synonymous with indecency; but indecency, more frequently than indecorum, is applied to words or actions which refer to what nature and propriety require to be concealed or suppressed. Indecency is the stronger word; indecorum refers to any transgression of etiquette or civility, especially in public.

In*deed" (?), adv. [Prep. in + deed.] In reality; in truth; in fact; verily; truly; -- used in a variety of senses. Esp.: (a) Denoting emphasis; as, indeed it is so. (b) Denoting concession or admission; as, indeed, you are right. (c) Denoting surprise; as, indeed, is it you? Its meaning is not intrinsic or fixed, but depends largely on the form of expression which it accompanies.

<! p. 750 !>

The carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

Rom. viii. 7.

I were a beast indeed to do you wrong.


There is, indeed, no great pleasure in visiting these magazines of war.


In`de*fat`i*ga*bil"i*ty (n`d*ft`*g*bl"*t&y breve;), n. The state of being indefatigable.

In`de*fat"i*ga*ble (n`d*ft"*g*b'l), a. [L. indefatigabilis: cf. OF. indefatigable. See In- not, and Defatigable, and cf. Infatigable.] Incapable of being fatigued; not readily exhausted; unremitting in labor or effort; untiring; unwearying; not yielding to fatigue; as, indefatigable exertions, perseverance, application. "A constant, indefatigable attendance." South.

Upborne with indefatigable wings.


Syn. -- Unwearied; untiring; persevering; persistent.

In`de*fat"i*ga*ble*ness, n. Indefatigable quality; unweariedness; persistency. Parnell.

In`de*fat"i*ga*bly, adv. Without weariness; without yielding to fatigue; persistently. Dryden.

In`de*fat`i*ga"tion (?), n. Indefatigableness; unweariedness. [Obs.] J. Gregory.

In`de*fea`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being indefeasible.

In`de*fea`si*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + defeasible: cf. OF. indefaisable.] Not to be defeated; not defeasible; incapable of being annulled or made void; as, an indefeasible or title.

That the king had a divine and an indefeasible right to the regal power.


In`de*fect`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indéfectibilité.] The quality of being indefectible. Barrow.

In`de*fect"i*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + defectible: cf. F. indéfectible.] Not defectible; unfailing; not liable to defect, failure, or decay.

An indefectible treasure in the heavens.


A state of indefectible virtue and happiness.

S. Clarke.

In`de*fect"ive (?), a. Not defective; perfect; complete. "Absolute, indefective obedience." South.

In`de*fei"si*ble (?), a. Indefeasible. [Obs.]

In`de*fen`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of not being defensible. Walsh.

In`de*fen"si*ble (?), [Pref. in- not + defensible: cf. OF. indefensible, indefensable.] Not defensible; not capable of being defended, maintained, vindicated, or justified; unjustifiable; untenable; as, an indefensible fortress, position, cause, etc.

Men find that something can be said in favor of what, on the very proposal, they thought utterly indefensible.


In`de*fen"si*bly, adv. In an indefensible manner.

In`de*fen"sive (?), a. Defenseless. [Obs.]

The sword awes the indefensive villager.

Sir T. Herbert.

In`de*fi"cien*cy, n. The state or quality of not being deficient. [Obs.] Strype.

In`de*fi"cient (?), a. [L. indeficiens. See In- not, and Deficient.] Not deficient; full. [Obs.]

Brighter than the sun, and indeficient as the light of heaven.

Jer. Taylor.

In`de*fin"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being defined or described; inexplicable. Bp. Reynolds.

In`de*fin"a*bly, adv. In an indefinable manner.

In*def"i*nite (?), a. [L. indefinitus. See In- not, and Definite.]

1. Not definite; not limited, defined, or specified; not explicit; not determined or fixed upon; not precise; uncertain; vague; confused; obscure; as, an indefinite time, plan, etc.

It were to be wished that . . . men would leave off that indefinite way of vouching, "the chymists say this," or "the chymists affirm that."


The time of this last is left indefinite.


2. Having no determined or certain limits; large and unmeasured, though not infinite; unlimited; as, indefinite space; the indefinite extension of a straight line.

Though it is not infinite, it may be indefinite; though it is not boundless in itself, it may be so to human comprehension.


3. Boundless; infinite. [R.]

Indefinite and omnipresent God,
Inhabiting eternity.

W. Thompson (1745).

4. (Bot.) Too numerous or variable to make a particular enumeration important; -- said of the parts of a flower, and the like. Also, indeterminate.

Indefinite article (Gram.), the word a or an, used with nouns to denote any one of a common or general class. -- Indefinite inflorescence. (Bot.) See Indeterminate inflorescence, under Indeterminate. -- Indefinite proposition (Logic), a statement whose subject is a common term, with nothing to indicate distribution or nondistribution; as, Man is mortal. -- Indefinite term (Logic), a negative term; as, the not- good.

Syn. -- Inexplicit; vague; uncertain; unsettled; indeterminate; loose; equivocal; inexact; approximate.

In*def"i*nite*ly, adv. In an indefinite manner or degree; without any settled limitation; vaguely; not with certainty or exactness; as, to use a word indefinitely.

If the world be indefinitely extended, that is, so far as no human intellect can fancy any bound of it.


In*def"i*nite*ness, n. The quality of being indefinite.

In`de*fin"i*tude (?), n. Indefiniteness; vagueness; also, number or quantity not limited by our understanding, though yet finite. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

In`de*his"cence (?), n. [Cf. F. indéhiscence.] (Bot.) The property or state of being indehiscent.

In`de*his"cent (?), a. [Pref. in- not + dehiscent: cf. F. indéhiscent.] (Bot.) Remaining closed at maturity, or not opening along regular lines, as the acorn, or a cocoanut.

In`de*lec"ta*ble (?), a. Not delectable; unpleasant; disagreeable. [R.] Richardson.

In`de*lib"er*ate (?), a. [L. indeliberatus. See In- not, and Deliberate.] Done without deliberation; unpremeditated. [Obs.] -- In`de*lib"er*ate*ly, adv. [Obs.]

In`de*lib"er*a`ted (?), a. Indeliberate. [Obs.]

In*del`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indélébilité.] The quality of being indelible. Bp. Horsley.

In*del"i*ble (?), a. [L. indelebilis; pref. in- not + delebilis capable of being destroyed: cf. F. indélébile. See In- not, and Deleble.] [Formerly written also indeleble, which accords with the etymology of the word.]

1. That can not be removed, washed away, blotted out, or effaced; incapable of being canceled, lost, or forgotten; as, indelible characters; an indelible stain; an indelible impression on the memory.

2. That can not be annulled; indestructible. [R.]

They are endued with indelible power from above.


Indelible colors, fast colors which do not fade or tarnish by exposure. -- Indelible ink, an ink not obliterated by washing; esp., a solution of silver nitrate.

Syn. -- Fixed; fast; permanent; ineffaceable.

-- In*del"i*ble*ness, n. -- In*del"i*bly, adv.

Indelibly stamped and impressed.

J. Ellis.

In*del"i*ca*cy (?), n.; pl. Indelicacies (#). [From Indelicate.] The quality of being indelicate; want of delicacy, or of a nice sense of, or regard for, purity, propriety, or refinement in manners, language, etc.; rudeness; coarseness; also, that which is offensive to refined taste or purity of mind.

The indelicacy of English comedy.


Your papers would be chargeable with worse than indelicacy; they would be immoral.


In*del"i*cate (?), a. [Pref. in- not + delicate: cf. F. indélicat.] Not delicate; wanting delicacy; offensive to good manners, or to purity of mind; coarse; rude; as, an indelicate word or suggestion; indelicate behavior. Macaulay. -- In*del"i*cate*ly, adv.

Syn. -- Indecorous; unbecoming; unseemly; rude; coarse; broad; impolite; gross; indecent; offensive; improper; unchaste; impure; unrefined.

In*dem`ni*fi*ca"tion (?), n. 1. The act or process of indemnifying, preserving, or securing against loss, damage, or penalty; reimbursement of loss, damage, or penalty; the state of being indemnified.

Indemnification is capable of some estimate; dignity has no standard.


2. That which indemnifies.

No reward with the name of an indemnification.

De Quincey.

In*dem"ni*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indemnified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indemnifying (?).] [L. indemnis unhurt (in- not + damnum hurt, damage) + -fy. Cf. Damn, Damnify.]

1. To save harmless; to secure against loss or damage; to insure.

The states must at last engage to the merchants here that they will indemnify them from all that shall fall out.

Sir W. Temple.

2. To make restitution or compensation for, as for that which is lost; to make whole; to reimburse; to compensate. Beattie.

In*dem"ni*ty (?), n.; pl. Indemnities (#). [L. indemnitas, fr. indemnis uninjured: cf. F. indemnité. See Indemnify.]

1. Security; insurance; exemption from loss or damage, past or to come; immunity from penalty, or the punishment of past offenses; amnesty.

Having first obtained a promise of indemnity for the riot they had committed.

Sir W. Scott.

2. Indemnification, compensation, or remuneration for loss, damage, or injury sustained.

They were told to expect, upon the fall of Walpole, a large and lucrative indemnity for their pretended wrongs.

Ld. Mahon.

Insurance is a contract of indemnity. Arnould. The owner of private property taken for public use is entitled to compensation or indemnity. Kent.

Act of indemnity (Law), an act or law passed in order to relieve persons, especially in an official station, from some penalty to which they are liable in consequence of acting illegally, or, in case of ministers, in consequence of exceeding the limits of their strict constitutional powers. These acts also sometimes provide compensation for losses or damage, either incurred in the service of the government, or resulting from some public measure.

In`de*mon`stra*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being indemonstrable.

In`de*mon"stra*ble (?), a. [L. indemonstrabilis. See In- not, and Demonstrable.] Incapable of being demonstrated. -- In`de*mon"stra*ble*ness, n.

In*den`i*za"tion (?), n. The act of naturalizing; endenization. [R.] Evelyn.

In*den"ize (?), v. t. To naturalize. [R.]

In*den"i*zen (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indenizened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indenizening.] To invest with the privileges of a denizen; to naturalize. [R.]

Words indenizened, and commonly used as English.

B. Jonson.

In*dent" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indented; p. pr. & vb. n. Indenting.] [OE. endenten to notch, fit in, OF. endenter, LL. indentare, fr. L. in + dens, dentis, tooth. See Tooth, and cf. Indenture.]

1. To notch; to jag; to cut into points like a row of teeth; as, to indent the edge of paper.

2. To dent; to stamp or to press in; to impress; as, indent a smooth surface with a hammer; to indent wax with a stamp.

3. [Cf. Indenture.] To bind out by indenture or contract; to indenture; to apprentice; as, to indent a young man to a shoemaker; to indent a servant.

4. (Print.) To begin (a line or lines) at a greater or less distance from the margin; as, to indent the first line of a paragraph one em; to indent the second paragraph two ems more than the first. See Indentation, and Indention.

5. (Mil.) To make an order upon; to draw upon, as for military stores. [India] Wilhelm.

In*dent", v. i. 1. To be cut, notched, or dented.

2. To crook or turn; to wind in and out; to zigzag.

3. To contract; to bargain or covenant. Shak.

To indent and drive bargains with the Almighty.


In*dent" (?), n. 1. A cut or notch in the margin of anything, or a recess like a notch. Shak.

2. A stamp; an impression. [Obs.]

3. A certificate, or intended certificate, issued by the government of the United States at the close of the Revolution, for the principal or interest of the public debt. D. Ramsay. A. Hamilton.

4. (Mil.) A requisition or order for supplies, sent to the commissariat of an army. [India] Wilhelm.

In`den*ta"tion (?), n. 1. The act of indenting or state of being indented.

2. A notch or recess, in the margin or border of anything; as, the indentations of a leaf, of the coast, etc.

3. A recess or sharp depression in any surface.

4. (Print.) (a) The act of beginning a line or series of lines at a little distance within the flush line of the column or page, as in the common way of beginning the first line of a paragraph. (b) The measure of the distance; as, an indentation of one em, or of two ems.

Hanging, or Reverse, indentation, indentation of all the lines of a paragraph except the first, which is a full line.

In*dent"ed (?), a. 1. Cut in the edge into points or inequalities, like teeth; jagged; notched; stamped in; dented on the surface.

2. Having an uneven, irregular border; sinuous; undulating. Milton. Shak.

3. (Her.) Notched like the part of a saw consisting of the teeth; serrated; as, an indented border or ordinary.

4. Bound out by an indenture; apprenticed; indentured; as, an indented servant.

5. (Zoöl.) Notched along the margin with a different color, as the feathers of some birds.

Indented line (Fort.), a line with alternate long and short faces, with salient and receding angles, each face giving a flanking fire along the front of the next.

In*dent"ed*ly, adv. With indentations.

In*dent"ing (?), n. Indentation; an impression like that made by a tooth.

In*den"tion (?), n. (Print.) Same as Indentation, 4.

In*dent"ment (?), n. Indenture. [Obs.]

In*den"ture (?; 135), n. [OE. endenture, OF. endenture, LL. indentura a deed in duplicate, with indented edges. See the Note below. See Indent.]

1. The act of indenting, or state of being indented.

2. (Law) A mutual agreement in writing between two or more parties, whereof each party has usually a counterpart or duplicate; sometimes in the pl., a short form for indentures of apprenticeship, the contract by which a youth is bound apprentice to a master.

The law is the best expositor of the gospel; they are like a pair of indentures: they answer in every part.

C. Leslie.

Indentures were originally duplicates, laid together and indented by a notched cut or line, or else written on the same piece of parchment and separated by a notched line so that the two papers or parchments corresponded to each other. But indenting has gradually become a mere form, and is often neglected, while the writings or counterparts retain the name of indentures.

In*den"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indentured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indenturing.]

1. To indent; to make hollows, notches, or wrinkles in; to furrow.

Though age may creep on, and indenture the brow.


2. To bind by indentures or written contract; as, to indenture an apprentice.

In*den"ture, v. i. To run or wind in and out; to be cut or notched; to indent. Heywood.

In`de*pend"ence (?), n. [Cf. F. indépendance.]

1. The state or quality of being independent; freedom from dependence; exemption from reliance on, or control by, others; self-subsistence or maintenance; direction of one's own affairs without interference.

Let fortune do her worst, . . . as long as she never makes us lose our honesty and our independence.


2. Sufficient means for a comfortable livelihood.

Declaration of Independence (Amer. Hist.), the declaration of the Congress of the Thirteen United States of America, on the 4th of July, 1776, by which they formally declared that these colonies were free and independent States, not subject to the government of Great Britain.

In`de*pend"en*cy, n. 1. Independence.

"Give me," I cried (enough for me),
"My bread, and independency!"


2. (Eccl.) Doctrine and polity of the Independents.

In`de*pend"ent (?), a. [Pref. in- not + dependent: cf. F. indépendant.]

1. Not dependent; free; not subject to control by others; not relying on others; not subordinate; as, few men are wholly independent.

A dry, but independent crust.


2. Affording a comfortable livelihood; as, an independent property.

3. Not subject to bias or influence; not obsequious; self-directing; as, a man of an independent mind.

4. Expressing or indicating the feeling of independence; free; easy; bold; unconstrained; as, an independent air or manner.

5. Separate from; exclusive; irrespective.

That obligation in general, under which we conceive ourselves bound to obey a law, independent of those resources which the law provides for its own enforcement.

R. P. Ward.

6. (Eccl.) Belonging or pertaining to, or holding to the doctrines or methods of, the Independents.

7. (Math.) Not dependent upon another quantity in respect to value or rate of variation; -- said of quantities or functions.

8. (U. S. Politics) Not bound by party; exercising a free choice in voting with either or any party.

Independent company (Mil.), one not incorporated in any regiment. -- Independent seconds watch, a stop watch having a second hand driven by a separate set of wheels, springs, etc., for timing to a fraction of a second. -- Independent variable. (Math.) See Dependent variable, under Dependent.

Syn. -- Free; uncontrolled; separate; uncoerced; self- reliant; bold; unconstrained; unrestricted.

<! p. 751 !>

In`de*pend"ent (?), n. 1. (Eccl.) One who believes that an organized Christian church is complete in itself, competent to self- government, and independent of all ecclesiastical authority.

In England the name is often applied (commonly in the pl.) to the Congregationalists.

2. (Politics) One who does not acknowledge an obligation to support a party's candidate under all circumstances; one who exercises liberty in voting.

In`de*pend"ent*ism (?), n. Independency; the church system of Independents. Bp. Gauden.

In`de*pend"ent*ly, adv. In an independent manner; without control.

In`de*pos"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being deposed. [R.]

Princes indeposable by the pope.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

In*dep"ra*vate (?), a. [L. indepravatus.] Undepraved. [R.] Davies (Holy Roode).

In*dep"re*ca*ble (?), a. [L. indeprecabilis. See In- not, and Deprecate.] Incapable or undeserving of being deprecated. Cockeram.

In*dep`re*hen"si*ble (?), a. [L. indeprehensibilis. See In- not, and Deprehensible.] Incapable of being found out. Bp. Morton.

In`de*priv"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being deprived, or of being taken away.

In`de*scrib"a*ble, a. Incapable of being described. -- In`de*scrib"a*bly, adv.

In`de*scrip"tive (?), a. Not descriptive.

In`de*sert" (?), n. Ill desert. [R.] Addison.

In*des"i*nent (?), a. [L. indesinens. See In- not, and Desinent.] Not ceasing; perpetual. [Obs.] Baxter. -- In*des"i*nent*ly, adv. [Obs.] Ray.

In`de*sir"a*ble (?), a. Undesirable.

In`de*struc`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indestructibilité.] The quality of being indestructible.

In`de*struc"ti*ble, a. [Pref. in- not + destructible: cf. F. indestructible.] Not destructible; incapable of decomposition or of being destroyed. -- In`de*struc"ti*ble*ness, n. -- In`de*struc"ti*bly, adv.

In`de*ter"mi*na*ble (?), a. [L. indeterminabilis: cf. F. indéterminable. See In- not, and Determine.] Not determinable; impossible to be determined; not to be definitely known, ascertained, defined, or limited. -- In`de*ter"mi*na*bly, adv.

In`de*ter"mi*na*ble, n. An indeterminable thing or quantity. Sir T. Browne.

In`de*ter"mi*nate (?), a. [L. indeterminatus.] Not determinate; not certain or fixed; indefinite; not precise; as, an indeterminate number of years. Paley.

Indeterminate analysis (Math.), that branch of analysis which has for its object the solution of indeterminate problems. -- Indeterminate coefficients (Math.), coefficients arbitrarily assumed for convenience of calculation, or to facilitate some artifice of analysis. Their values are subsequently determined. -- Indeterminate equation (Math.), an equation in which the unknown quantities admit of an infinite number of values, or sets of values. A group of equations is indeterminate when it contains more unknown quantities than there are equations. -- Indeterminate inflorescence (Bot.), a mode of inflorescence in which the flowers all arise from axillary buds, the terminal bud going on to grow and sometimes continuing the stem indefinitely; -- called also acropetal, botryose, centripetal, ∧ indefinite inflorescence. Gray. -- Indeterminate problem (Math.), a problem which admits of an infinite number of solutions, or one in which there are fewer imposed conditions than there are unknown or required results. -- Indeterminate quantity (Math.), a quantity which has no fixed value, but which may be varied in accordance with any proposed condition. -- Indeterminate series (Math.), a series whose terms proceed by the powers of an indeterminate quantity, sometimes also with indeterminate exponents, or indeterminate coefficients.

-- In`de*ter"mi*nate*ly adv. -- In`de*ter"mi*nate*ness, n.

In`de*ter`mi*na"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + determination: cf. indétermination.]

1. Want of determination; an unsettled or wavering state, as of the mind. Jer. Taylor.

2. Want of fixed or stated direction. Abp. Bramhall.

In`de*ter"mined (?), a. Undetermined.

In`de*vir"gin*ate (?), a. [See In- not, Devirginate.] Not devirginate. [Obs.] Chapman.

In*de*vote" (?), a. [L. indevotus: cf. F. indévot. Cf. Indevout.] Not devoted. [Obs.] Bentley. Clarendon.

In`de*vo"tion (?), n. [L. indevotio: cf. F. indévotion.] Want of devotion; impiety; irreligion. "An age of indevotion." Jer. Taylor.

In*de*vout" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + devout. Cf. Indevote.] Not devout. -- In*de*vout"ly, adv.

In*dew" (?), v. t. To indue. [Obs.] Spenser.

In"dex (?), n.; pl. E. Indexes (#), L. Indices (#)(&?;). [L.: cf. F. index. See Indicate, Diction.]

1. That which points out; that which shows, indicates, manifests, or discloses.

Tastes are the indexes of the different qualities of plants.


2. That which guides, points out, informs, or directs; a pointer or a hand that directs to anything, as the hand of a watch, a movable finger on a gauge, scale, or other graduated instrument. In printing, a sign [] used to direct particular attention to a note or paragraph; -- called also fist.

3. A table for facilitating reference to topics, names, and the like, in a book; -- usually alphabetical in arrangement, and printed at the end of the volume.

4. A prologue indicating what follows. [Obs.] Shak.

5. (Anat.) The second digit, that next to the pollex, in the manus, or hand; the forefinger; index finger.

6. (Math.) The figure or letter which shows the power or root of a quantity; the exponent. [In this sense the plural is always indices.]

Index error, the error in the reading of a mathematical instrument arising from the zero of the index not being in complete adjustment with that of the limb, or with its theoretically perfect position in the instrument; a correction to be applied to the instrument readings equal to the error of the zero adjustment. -- Index expurgatorius. [L.] See Index prohibitorius (below). -- Index finger. See Index, 5. -- Index glass, the mirror on the index of a quadrant, sextant, etc. -- Index hand, the pointer or hand of a clock, watch, or other registering machine; a hand that points to something. -- Index of a logarithm (Math.), the integral part of the logarithm, and always one less than the number of integral figures in the given number. It is also called the characteristic. -- Index of refraction, or Refractive index (Opt.), the number which expresses the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction. Thus the index of refraction for sulphur is 2, because, when light passes out of air into sulphur, the sine of the angle of incidence is double the sine of the angle of refraction. -- Index plate, a graduated circular plate, or one with circular rows of holes differently spaced; used in machines for graduating circles, cutting gear teeth, etc. -- Index prohibitorius [L.], or Prohibitory index (R. C. Ch.), a catalogue of books which are forbidden by the church to be read; the index expurgatorius [L.], or expurgatory index, is a catalogue of books from which passages marked as against faith or morals must be removed before Catholics can read them. These catalogues are published with additions, from time to time, by the Congregation of the Index, composed of cardinals, theologians, etc., under the sanction of the pope. Hook. -- Index rerum [L.], a tabulated and alphabetized notebook, for systematic preservation of items, quotations, etc.

In"dex (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indexed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indexing.] To provide with an index or table of references; to put into an index; as, to index a book, or its contents.

In"dex*er (?), n. One who makes an index.

In*dex"ic*al (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or like, an index; having the form of an index.

In*dex"ic*al*ly, adv. In the manner of an index.

In`dex*ter"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. in- not + dexterity: cf. F. indextérité.] Want of dexterity or readiness, especially in the use of the hands; clumsiness; awkwardness. Harvey.

In"di*a (?), n. [See Indian.] A country in Southern Asia; the two peninsulas of Hither and Farther India; in a restricted sense, Hither India, or Hindostan.

India ink, a nearly black pigment brought chiefly from China, used for water colors. It is in rolls, or in square, and consists of lampblack or ivory black and animal glue. Called also China ink. The true India ink is sepia. See Sepia. -- India matting, floor matting made in China, India, etc., from grass and reeds; -- also called Canton, or China, matting. -- India paper, a variety of Chinese paper, of smooth but not glossy surface, used for printing from engravings, woodcuts, etc. -- India proof (Engraving), a proof impression from an engraved plate, taken on India paper. - - India rubber. See Caoutchouc. -- India-rubber tree (Bot.), any tree yielding caoutchouc, but especially the East Indian Ficus elastica, often cultivated for its large, shining, elliptical leaves.

In*di"a*dem, v. t. To place or set in a diadem, as a gem or gems.

In"di*a*man (?), n.; pl. Indiamen (&?;). A large vessel in the India trade. Macaulay.

In"di*an (?; 277), a. [From India, and this fr. Indus, the name of a river in Asia, L. Indus, Gr. &?;, OPers. Hindu, name of the land on the Indus, Skr. sindhu river, the Indus. Cf. Hindoo.]

1. Of or pertaining to India proper; also to the East Indies, or, sometimes, to the West Indies.

2. Of or pertaining to the aborigines, or Indians, of America; as, Indian wars; the Indian tomahawk.

3. Made of maize or Indian corn; as, Indian corn, Indian meal, Indian bread, and the like. [U.S.]

Indian bay (Bot.), a lauraceous tree (Persea Indica). -- Indian bean (Bot.), a name of the catalpa. -- Indian berry. (Bot.) Same as Cocculus indicus. -- Indian bread. (Bot.) Same as Cassava. -- Indian club, a wooden club, which is swung by the hand for gymnastic exercise. -- Indian cordage, cordage made of the fibers of cocoanut husk. -- Indian corn (Bot.), a plant of the genus Zea (Z. Mays); the maize, a native of America. See Corn, and Maize. -- Indian cress (Bot.), nasturtium. See Nasturtium, 2. -- Indian cucumber (Bot.), a plant of the genus Medeola (M. Virginica), a common in woods in the United States. The white rootstock has a taste like cucumbers. -- Indian currant (Bot.), a plant of the genus Symphoricarpus (S. vulgaris), bearing small red berries. -- Indian dye, the puccoon. -- Indian fig. (Bot.) (a) The banyan. See Banyan. (b) The prickly pear. -- Indian file, single file; arrangement of persons in a row following one after another, the usual way among Indians of traversing woods, especially when on the war path. -- Indian fire, a pyrotechnic composition of sulphur, niter, and realgar, burning with a brilliant white light. -- Indian grass (Bot.), a coarse, high grass (Chrysopogon nutans), common in the southern portions of the United States; wood grass. Gray. -- Indian hemp. (Bot.) (a) A plant of the genus Apocynum (A. cannabinum), having a milky juice, and a tough, fibrous bark, whence the name. The root it used in medicine and is both emetic and cathartic in properties. (b) The variety of common hemp (Cannabis Indica), from which hasheesh is obtained. -- Indian mallow (Bot.), the velvet leaf (Abutilon Avicennæ). See Abutilon. -- Indian meal, ground corn or maize. [U.S.] -- Indian millet (Bot.), a tall annual grass (Sorghum vulgare), having many varieties, among which are broom corn, Guinea corn, durra, and the Chinese sugar cane. It is called also Guinea corn. See Durra. -- Indian ox (Zoöl.), the zebu. - - Indian paint. See Bloodroot. -- Indian paper. See India paper, under India. -- Indian physic (Bot.), a plant of two species of the genus Gillenia (G. trifoliata, and G. stipulacea), common in the United States, the roots of which are used in medicine as a mild emetic; -- called also American ipecac, and bowman's root. Gray. -- Indian pink. (Bot.) (a) The Cypress vine (Ipomœa Quamoclit); -- so called in the West Indies. (b) See China pink, under China. -- Indian pipe (Bot.), a low, fleshy herb (Monotropa uniflora), growing in clusters in dark woods, and having scalelike leaves, and a solitary nodding flower. The whole plant is waxy white, but turns black in drying. -- Indian plantain (Bot.), a name given to several species of the genus Cacalia, tall herbs with composite white flowers, common through the United States in rich woods. Gray. -- Indian poke (Bot.), a plant usually known as the white hellebore (Veratrum viride). -- Indian pudding, a pudding of which the chief ingredients are Indian meal, milk, and molasses. -- Indian purple. (a) A dull purple color. (b) The pigment of the same name, intensely blue and black. -- Indian red. (a) A purplish red earth or pigment composed of a silicate of iron and alumina, with magnesia. It comes from the Persian Gulf. Called also Persian red. (b) See Almagra. -- Indian rice (Bot.), a reedlike water grass. See Rice. -- Indian shot (Bot.), a plant of the genus Canna (C. Indica). The hard black seeds are as large as swan shot. See Canna. -- Indian summer, in the United States, a period of warm and pleasant weather occurring late in autumn. See under Summer. -- Indian tobacco (Bot.), a species of Lobelia. See Lobelia. -- Indian turnip (Bot.), an American plant of the genus Arisæma. A. triphyllum has a wrinkled farinaceous root resembling a small turnip, but with a very acrid juice. See Jack in the Pulpit, and Wake-robin. -- Indian wheat, maize or Indian corn. -- Indian yellow. (a) An intense rich yellow color, deeper than gamboge but less pure than cadmium. (b) See Euxanthin.

In"di*an (?; 277), n. 1. A native or inhabitant of India.

2. One of the aboriginal inhabitants of America; -- so called originally from the supposed identity of America with India.

In`di*an*eer" (?), n. (Naut.) An Indiaman.

In"di*a rub"ber (?). See Caoutchouc.

In"dic*al (?), a. [From L. index, indicis, an index.] Indexical. [R.] Fuller.

In"di*can (?), n. [See Indigo.]

1. (Chem.) A glucoside obtained from woad (indigo plant) and other plants, as a yellow or light brown sirup. It has a nauseous bitter taste, and decomposes on drying. By the action of acids, ferments, etc., it breaks down into sugar and indigo. It is the source of natural indigo.

2. (Physiol. Chem.) An indigo-forming substance, found in urine, and other animal fluids, and convertible into red and blue indigo (urrhodin and uroglaucin). Chemically, it is indoxyl sulphate of potash, C8H6NSO4K, and is derived from the indol formed in the alimentary canal. Called also uroxanthin.

In"di*cant (?), a. [L. indicans, p. pr. indicare. See Indicate.] Serving to point out, as a remedy; indicating.

In"di*cant, n. That which indicates or points out; as, an indicant of the remedy for a disease.

In"di*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indicating (?).] [L. indicatus, p. p. of indicare to indicate; pref. in- in + dicare to proclaim; akin to dicere to say. See Diction, and cf. Indict, Indite.]

1. To point out; to discover; to direct to a knowledge of; to show; to make known.

That turns and turns to indicate
From what point blows the weather.


2. (Med.) To show or manifest by symptoms; to point to as the proper remedies; as, great prostration of strength indicates the use of stimulants.

3. (Mach.) To investigate the condition or power of, as of steam engine, by means of an indicator.

Syn. -- To show; mark; signify; denote; discover; evidence; evince; manifest; declare; specify; explain; exhibit; present; reveal; disclose; display.

In"di*ca`ted (?), a. Shown; denoted; registered; measured.

Indicated power. See Indicated horse power, under Horse power.

In`di*ca"tion (?), n. [L. indicatio: cf. F. indication.]

1. Act of pointing out or indicating.

2. That which serves to indicate or point out; mark; token; sign; symptom; evidence.

The frequent stops they make in the most convenient places are plain indications of their weariness.


3. Discovery made; information. Bentley.

4. Explanation; display. [Obs.] Bacon.

5. (Med.) Any symptom or occurrence in a disease, which serves to direct to suitable remedies.

Syn. -- Proof; demonstration; sign; token; mark; evidence; signal.

In*dic"a*tive (?), a. [L. indicativus: cf. F. indicatif.]

1. Pointing out; bringing to notice; giving intimation or knowledge of something not visible or obvious.

That truth is productive of utility, and utility indicative of truth, may be thus proved.

Bp. Warburton.

2. (Fine Arts) Suggestive; representing the whole by a part, as a fleet by a ship, a forest by a tree, etc.

Indicative mood (Gram.), that mood or form of the verb which indicates, that is, which simply affirms or denies or inquires; as, he writes; he is not writing; has the mail arrived?

In*dic"a*tive, n. (Gram.) The indicative mood.

In*dic"a*tive*ly, adv. In an indicative manner; in a way to show or signify.

In"di*ca`tor (n"d*k`tr), n. [L.: cf. F. indicateur.]

1. One who, or that which, shows or points out; as, a fare indicator in a street car.

2. (Mach.) A pressure gauge; a water gauge, as for a steam boiler; an apparatus or instrument for showing the working of a machine or moving part; as: (a) (Steam Engine) An instrument which draws a diagram showing the varying pressure in the cylinder of an engine or pump at every point of the stroke. It consists of a small cylinder communicating with the engine cylinder and fitted with a piston which the varying pressure drives upward more or less against the resistance of a spring. A lever imparts motion to a pencil which traces the diagram on a card wrapped around a vertical drum which is turned back and forth by a string connected with the piston rod of the engine. See Indicator card (below). (b) A telltale connected with a hoisting machine, to show, at the surface, the position of the cage in the shaft of a mine, etc.

<! p. 752 !>

3. (Mech.) The part of an instrument by which an effect is indicated, as an index or pointer.

4. (Zoöl.) Any bird of the genus Indicator and allied genera. See Honey guide, under Honey.

5. (Chem.) That which indicates the condition of acidity, alkalinity, or the deficiency, excess, or sufficiency of a standard reagent, by causing an appearance, disappearance, or change of color, as in titration or volumetric analysis.

The common indicators are litmus, tropæolin, phenol phthalein, potassic permanganate, etc.

Indicator card, the figure drawn by an engine indicator, by means of which the working of the engine can be investigated and its power calculated. The Illustration shows one form of indicator card, from a steam engine, together with scales by which the pressure of the steam above or below that of the atmosphere, corresponding to any position of the engine piston in its stroke, can be measured. Called also indicator diagram. - - Indicator telegraph, a telegraph in which the signals are the deflections of a magnetic needle, as in the trans- Atlantic system.

In"di*ca*to*ry (n"d*k*t*r; 277), a. Serving to show or make known; showing; indicative; signifying; implying.

In`di*ca"trix (?), n. [NL.] (Geom. of Three Dimensions) A certain conic section supposed to be drawn in the tangent plane to any surface, and used to determine the accidents of curvature of the surface at the point of contact. The curve is similar to the intersection of the surface with a parallel to the tangent plane and indefinitely near it. It is an ellipse when the curvature is synclastic, and an hyperbola when the curvature is anticlastic.

||In`di*ca"vit (?), n. [L., he has indicated.] (Eng. Law) A writ of prohibition against proceeding in the spiritual court in certain cases, when the suit belongs to the common-law courts. Wharton (Law Dict. ).

In"dice (?), n. [F. indice indication, index. See Index.] Index; indication. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

In"di*ces (?), n. pl. See Index.

||In*di"ci*a (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of indicium, fr. index an index.] (Law) Discriminating marks; signs; tokens; indications; appearances. Burrill.

In*dic"i*ble (?), a. [F.] Unspeakable. [Obs.]

In*dic"o*lite (?), n. [L. indicum indigo + -lite: cf. F. indicolithe.] (Min.) A variety of tourmaline of an indigo-blue color.

In*dict" (-dt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indicted (- dt"d); p. pr. & vb. n. Indicting.] [OE. enditen. See Indite.]

1. To write; to compose; to dictate; to indite. [Obs.]

2. To appoint publicly or by authority; to proclaim or announce. [Obs.]

I am told shall have no Lent indicted this year.


3. (Law) To charge with a crime, in due form of law, by the finding or presentment of a grand jury; to find an indictment against; as, to indict a man for arson. It is the peculiar province of a grand jury to indict, as it is of a house of representatives to impeach.

In*dict"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being, or liable to be, indicted; subject to indictment; as, an indictable offender or offense.

In`dict*ee" (?), n. (Law) A person indicted.

In*dict"er (?), n. One who indicts.

In*dic"tion (?), n. [L. indictio: cf. F. indiction. See Indict, Indite.]

1. Declaration; proclamation; public notice or appointment. [Obs.] "Indiction of a war." Bacon.

Secular princes did use to indict, or permit the indiction of, synods of bishops.

Jer. Taylor.

2. A cycle of fifteen years.

This mode of reckoning time is said to have been introduced by Constantine the Great, in connection with the payment of tribute. It was adopted at various times by the Greek emperors of Constantinople, the popes, and the parliaments of France. Through the influence of the popes, it was extensively used in the ecclesiastical chronology of the Middle Ages. The number of indictions was reckoned at first from 312 a. d., but since the twelfth century it has been reckoned from the birth of Christ. The papal indiction is the only one ever used at the present day. To find the indiction and year of the indiction by the first method, subtract 312 from the given year a. d., and divide by 15; by the second method, add 3 to the given year a. d., and the divide by 15. In either case, the quotient is the number of the current indiction, and the remainder the year of the indiction. See Cycle of indiction, under Cycle.

In*dic"tive (?), a. [L. indictivus. See Indict.] Proclaimed; declared; public. Kennet.

In*dict"ment (?), n. [Cf. Inditement.]

1. The act of indicting, or the state of being indicted.

2. (Law) The formal statement of an offense, as framed by the prosecuting authority of the State, and found by the grand jury.

To the validity of an indictment a finding by the grand jury is essential, while an information rests only on presentation by the prosecuting authority.

3. An accusation in general; a formal accusation.

Bill of indictment. See under Bill.

In*dict"or (?), n. (Law) One who indicts. Bacon.

In"dies (?), n. pl. A name designating the East Indies, also the West Indies.

Our king has all the Indies in his arms.


In*dif"fer*ence (?), n. [L. indifferentia similarity, want of difference: cf. F. indifférence.]

1. The quality or state of being indifferent, or not making a difference; want of sufficient importance to constitute a difference; absence of weight; insignificance.

2. Passableness; mediocrity.

3. Impartiality; freedom from prejudice, prepossession, or bias.

He . . . is far from such indifference and equity as ought and must be in judges which he saith I assign.

Sir T. More.

4. Absence of anxiety or interest in respect to what is presented to the mind; unconcernedness; as, entire indifference to all that occurs.

Indifference can not but be criminal, when it is conversant about objects which are so far from being of an indifferent nature, that they are highest importance.


Syn. -- Carelessness; negligence; unconcern; apathy; insensibility; coldness; lukewarmness.

In*dif"fer*en*cy (?), n. Absence of interest in, or influence from, anything; unconcernedness; equilibrium; indifferentism; indifference. Gladstone.

To give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this cause.


Moral liberty . . . does not, after all, consist in a power of indifferency, or in a power of choosing without regard to motives.


In*dif"fer*ent (?), a. [F. indifférent, L. indifferens. See In- not, and Different.]

1. Not making a difference; having no influence or preponderating weight; involving no preference, concern, or attention; of no account; without significance or importance.

Dangers are to me indifferent.


Everything in the world is indifferent but sin.

Jer. Taylor.

His slightest and most indifferent acts . . . were odious in the clergyman's sight.


2. Neither particularly good, not very bad; of a middle state or quality; passable; mediocre.

The staterooms are in indifferent order.

Sir W. Scott.

3. Not inclined to one side, party, or choice more than to another; neutral; impartial.

Indifferent in his choice to sleep or die.


4. Feeling no interest, anxiety, or care, respecting anything; unconcerned; inattentive; apathetic; heedless; as, to be indifferent to the welfare of one's family.

It was a law of Solon, that any person who, in the civil commotions of the republic, remained neuter, or an indifferent spectator of the contending parties, should be condemned to perpetual banishment.


5. (Law) Free from bias or prejudice; impartial; unbiased; disinterested.

In choice of committees for ripening business for the counsel, it is better to choose indifferent persons than to make an indifferency by putting in those that are strong on both sides.


Indifferent tissue (Anat.), the primitive, embryonic, undifferentiated tissue, before conversion into connective, muscular, nervous, or other definite tissue.

In*dif"fer*ent, adv. To a moderate degree; passably; tolerably. [Obs.] "News indifferent good." Shak.

In*dif"fer*ent*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. indifférentisme.]

1. State of indifference; want of interest or earnestness; especially, a systematic apathy regarding what is true or false in religion or philosophy; agnosticism.

The indifferentism which equalizes all religions and gives equal rights to truth and error.

Cardinal Manning.

2. (Metaph.) Same as Identism.

3. (R. C. Ch.) A heresy consisting in an unconcern for any particular creed, provided the morals be right and good. Gregory XVI.

In*dif"fer*ent*ist, n. One governed by indifferentism.

In*dif"fer*ent*ly, adv. In an indifferent manner; without distinction or preference; impartially; without concern, wish, affection, or aversion; tolerably; passably.

That they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion, and virtue.

Book of Com. Prayer [Eng. Ed. ]

Set honor in one eye and death i' the other,
And I will look on both indifferently.


I hope it may indifferently entertain your lordship at an unbending hour.


In`di*ful"vin (?), n. [Indican + L. fulvus reddish yellow.] (Chem.) A reddish resinous substance, obtained from indican.

In`di*fus"cin (?), n. [Indican + L. fuscus dusky.] (Chem.) A brown amorphous powder, obtained from indican.

In"di*geen (?), n. Same as Indigene. Darwin.

In"di*gence (?), n. [L. indigentia: cf. F. indigence. See Indigent.] The condition of being indigent; want of estate, or means of comfortable subsistence; penury; poverty; as, helpless indigence. Cowper.

Syn. -- Poverty; penury; destitution; want; need; privation; lack. See Poverty.

In"di*gen*cy (?), n. Indigence.

New indigencies founded upon new desires.


In"di*gene (?), n. [L. indigena: cf. F. indigène. See Indigenous.] One born in a country; an aboriginal animal or plant; an autochthon. Evelyn. Tylor.

In*dig"e*nous (?), a. [L. indigenus, indigena, fr. OL. indu (fr. in in) + the root of L. gignere to beget, bear. See In, and Gender.]

1. Native; produced, growing, or living, naturally in a country or climate; not exotic; not imported.

Negroes were all transported from Africa and are not indigenous or proper natives of America.

Sir T. Browne.

In America, cotton, being indigenous, is cheap.

Lion Playas.

2. Native; inherent; innate.

Joy and hope are emotions indigenous to the human mind.

I. Taylor.

In"di*gent (?), a. [L. indigent, L. indigens, p. p. of indigere to stand in need of, fr. OL. indu (fr. in- in) + L. egere to be needy, to need.]

1. Wanting; void; free; destitute; -- used with of. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. Destitute of property or means of comfortable subsistence; needy; poor; in want; necessitous.

Indigent faint souls past corporal toil.


Charity consists in relieving the indigent.


In"di*gent*ly, adv. In an indigent manner.

In`di*gest" (?), a. [L. indigestus unarranged. See Indigested.] Crude; unformed; unorganized; undigested. [Obs.] "A chaos rude and indigest." W. Browne. "Monsters and things indigest." Shak.

In`di*gest", n. Something indigested. [Obs.] Shak.

In`di*gest"ed, a. [Pref. in- not + digested.]

1. Not digested; undigested. "Indigested food." Dryden.

2. Not resolved; not regularly disposed and arranged; not methodical; crude; as, an indigested array of facts.

In hot reformations . . . the whole is generally crude, harsh, and indigested.


This, like an indigested meteor, appeared and disappeared almost at the same time.


3. (Med.) (a) Not in a state suitable for healing; -- said of wounds. (b) Not ripened or suppurated; -- said of an abscess or its contents.

4. Not softened by heat, hot water, or steam.

In`di*gest"ed*ness, n. The state or quality of being undigested; crudeness. Bp. Burnet.

In*di*gest`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being indigestible; indigestibleness.

In`di*gest"i*ble (?), a. [L. indigestibilis: cf. F. indigestible. See In- not, and Digest.]

1. Not digestible; not readily soluble in the digestive juices; not easily convertible into products fitted for absorption.

2. Not digestible in the mind; distressful; intolerable; as, an indigestible simile. T. Warton.

-- In`di*gest"i*ble*ness, n. -- In`di*gest"i*bly, adv.

In`di*ges"tion (?; 106), n. [L. indigestio: cf. F. indigestion. See In- not, and Digest.] Lack of proper digestive action; a failure of the normal changes which food should undergo in the alimentary canal; dyspepsia; incomplete or difficult digestion.

In*dig"i*tate (?), v. i. [Pref. in- in + L. digitus finger.] To communicate ideas by the fingers; to show or compute by the fingers. [Obs.]

In*dig"i*tate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indigitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indigitating (?).] To point out with the finger; to indicate. [Obs.]

The depressing this finger, . . . in the right hand indigitates six hundred.

Sir T. Browne.

In*dig`i*ta"tion (?), n. The act of pointing out as with the finger; indication. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

In`di*glu"cin (?), n. [Indican + glucin.] (Chem.) The variety of sugar (glucose) obtained from the glucoside indican. It is unfermentable, but reduces Fehling's solution.

In*dign" (?), a. [L. indignus; pref. in- not + dignus worthy: cf. F. indigne. See Dignity.] Unworthy; undeserving; disgraceful; degrading. Chaucer.

Counts it scorn to draw
Comfort indign from any meaner thing.


{ In*dig"nance (?), In*dig"nan*cy (?), } n. Indignation. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*dig"nant (?), a. [L. indignans, -antis, p. pr. of indignari to be indignant, disdain. See Indign.] Affected with indignation; wrathful; passionate; irate; feeling wrath, as when a person is exasperated by unworthy or unjust treatment, by a mean action, or by a degrading accusation.

He strides indignant, and with haughty cries
To single fight the fairy prince defies.


In*dig"nant*ly, adv. In an indignant manner.

In`dig*na"tion (?), n. [F. indignation, L. indignatio. See Indign.]

1. The feeling excited by that which is unworthy, base, or disgraceful; anger mingled with contempt, disgust, or abhorrence. Shak.

Indignation expresses a strong and elevated disapprobation of mind, which is also inspired by something flagitious in the conduct of another.


When Haman saw Mordecai in the king's gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai.

Esther v. 9.

2. The effect of anger; punishment. Shak.

Hide thyself . . . until the indignation be overpast.

Is. xxvi. 20.

Syn. -- Anger; ire wrath; fury; rage. See Anger.

In*dig"ni*fy (?), v. t. [L. indignus unworthy + -fy.] To treat disdainfully or with indignity; to contemn. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*dig"ni*ty (?), n.; pl. Indignities (#). [L. indignitas: cf. F. indignité. See Indign.] Any action toward another which manifests contempt for him; an offense against personal dignity; unmerited contemptuous treatment; contumely; incivility or injury, accompanied with insult.

How might a prince of my great hopes forget
So great indignities you laid upon me?


A person of so great place and worth constrained to endure so foul indignities.


In*dign"ly (?), adv. Unworthily. [Obs.]

In"di*go (?), n.; pl. Indigoes (#). [F. indigo, Sp. indigo, indico, L. indicum indigo, fr. Indicus Indian. See Indian.]

1. A kind of deep blue, one of the seven prismatic colors.

<! p. 753 !>

2. (Chem.) A blue dyestuff obtained from several plants belonging to very different genera and orders; as, the woad, Isatis tinctoria, Indigofera tinctoria, I. Anil, Nereum tinctorium, etc. It is a dark blue earthy substance, tasteless and odorless, with a copper-violet luster when rubbed. Indigo does not exist in the plants as such, but is obtained by decomposition of the glycoside indican.

Commercial indigo contains the essential coloring principle indigo blue or indigotine, with several other dyes; as, indigo red, indigo brown, etc., and various impurities. Indigo is insoluble in ordinary reagents, with the exception of strong sulphuric acid.

Chinese indigo (Bot.), Isatis indigotica, a kind of woad. -- Wild indigo (Bot.), the American herb Baptisia tinctoria which yields a poor quality of indigo, as do several other species of the same genus.

In"di*go (?), a. Having the color of, pertaining to, or derived from, indigo.

Indigo berry (Bot.), the fruit of the West Indian shrub Randia aculeata, used as a blue dye. -- Indigo bird (Zoöl.), a small North American finch (Cyanospiza cyanea). The male is indigo blue in color. Called also indigo bunting. -- Indigo blue. (a) The essential coloring material of commercial indigo, from which it is obtained as a dark blue earthy powder, with a reddish luster, C16H10N2O2, which may be crystallized by sublimation. Indigo blue is also made from artificial amido cinnamic acid, and from artificial isatine; and these methods are of great commercial importance. Called also indigotin. (b) A dark, dull blue color like the indigo of commerce. -- Indigo brown (Chem.), a brown resinous substance found in crude indigo. -- Indigo copper (Min.), covellite. -- Indigo green, a green obtained from indigo. -- Indigo plant (Bot.), a leguminous plant of several species (genus Indigofera), from which indigo is prepared. The different varieties are natives of Asia, Africa, and America. Several species are cultivated, of which the most important are the I. tinctoria, or common indigo plant, the I. Anil, a larger species, and the I. disperma. -- Indigo purple, a purple obtained from indigo. -- Indigo red, a dyestuff, isomeric with indigo blue, obtained from crude indigo as a dark brown amorphous powder. -- Indigo snake (Zoöl.), the gopher snake. -- Indigo white, a white crystalline powder obtained by reduction from indigo blue, and by oxidation easily changed back to it; -- called also indigogen. -- Indigo yellow, a substance obtained from indigo.

||In`di*gof"e*ra (?), n. [NL., from E. indigo + L. ferre to bear.] (Bot.) A genus of leguminous plants having many species, mostly in tropical countries, several of them yielding indigo, esp. Indigofera tinctoria, and I. Anil.

In"di*go*gen (?), n. [Indigo + -gen.]

1. (Chem.) See Indigo white, under Indigo.

2. (Physiol. Chem.) Same as Indican, 2.

In`di*gom"e*ter (?), n. [Indigo + -meter.] An instrument for ascertaining the strength of an indigo solution, as in volumetric analysis. Ure.

In`di*gom"e*try (?), n. The art or method of determining the coloring power of indigo.

In`di*got"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. indigotique.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, indigo; as, indigotic acid, which is also called anilic or nitrosalicylic acid.

In"di*go*tin (?), n. (Chem.) See Indigo blue, under Indigo.

In`dig*ru"bin (?), n. [Indigo + L. ruber red.] (Physiol. Chem.) Same as Urrhodin.

In`di*hu"min (?), n. [Indican + humin.] (Chem.) A brown amorphous substance resembling humin, and obtained from indican.

In*dil"a*to*ry (?), a. Not dilatory. [Obs.]

In*dil"i*gence (?), n. [L. indiligentia: cf. F. indiligence.] Want of diligence. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

In*dil"i*gent (?), a. [L. indiligens: cf. F. indiligent. See Diligent.] Not diligent; idle; slothful. [Obs.] Feltham. -- In*dil"i*gent*ly, adv. [Obs.]

In`di*min"ish*a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being diminished. [R.] Milton.

In"din (?), n. [From Indigo.] (Chem.) A dark red crystalline substance, isomeric with and resembling indigo blue, and obtained from isatide and dioxindol.

In`di*rect" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + direct: cf. F. indirect.]

1. Not direct; not straight or rectilinear; deviating from a direct line or course; circuitous; as, an indirect road.

2. Not tending to an aim, purpose, or result by the plainest course, or by obvious means, but obliquely or consequentially; by remote means; as, an indirect accusation, attack, answer, or proposal.

By what bypaths and indirect, crooked ways
I met this crown.


3. Not straightforward or upright; unfair; dishonest; tending to mislead or deceive.

Indirect dealing will be discovered one time or other.


4. Not resulting directly from an act or cause, but more or less remotely connected with or growing out of it; as, indirect results, damages, or claims.

5. (Logic & Math.) Not reaching the end aimed at by the most plain and direct method; as, an indirect proof, demonstration, etc.

Indirect claims, claims for remote or consequential damage. Such claims were presented to and thrown out by the commissioners who arbitrated the damage inflicted on the United States by the Confederate States cruisers built and supplied by Great Britain. -- Indirect demonstration, a mode of demonstration in which proof is given by showing that any other supposition involves an absurdity (reductio ad absurdum), or an impossibility; thus, one quantity may be proved equal to another by showing that it can be neither greater nor less. -- Indirect discourse. (Gram.) See Direct discourse, under Direct. -- Indirect evidence, evidence or testimony which is circumstantial or inferential, but without witness; -- opposed to direct evidence. -- Indirect tax, a tax, such as customs, excises, etc., exacted directly from the merchant, but paid indirectly by the consumer in the higher price demanded for the articles of merchandise.

In`di*rect"ed, a. Not directed; aimless. [Obs.]

In`di*rec"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. indirection.] Oblique course or means; dishonest practices; indirectness. "By indirections find directions out." Shak.

In`di*rect"ly (?), adv. In an direct manner; not in a straight line or course; not in express terms; obliquely; not by direct means; hence, unfairly; wrongly.

To tax it indirectly by taxing their expense.

A. Smith.

Your crown and kingdom indirectly held.


In`di*rect"ness, n. 1. The quality or state of being indirect; obliquity; deviousness; crookedness.

2. Deviation from an upright or straightforward course; unfairness; dishonesty. W. Montagu.

In`di*re"tin (?), n. [Indian + Gr. &?; resin.] (Chem.) A dark brown resinous substance obtained from indican.

In`di*ru"bin (?), n. [Indigo + L. ruber red.] (Chem.) A substance isomeric with, and resembling, indigo blue, and accompanying it as a side product, in its artificial production.

In`dis*cern"i*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + discernible: cf. F. indiscernable.] Not to be discerned; imperceptible; not discoverable or visible.

Secret and indiscernible ways.

Jer. Taylor.

-- In`dis*cern"i*ble*ness, n. -- In`dis*cern"i*bly, adv.

{ In`dis*cerp`i*bil"i*ty (?), In`dis*cerp`ti*bil"i*ty (?) }, n. The state or quality of being indiscerpible. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

{ In`dis*cerp"i*ble (?), In`dis*cerp"ti*ble (?) }, a. Not discerpible; inseparable. [Obs.] Bp. Butler. -- In`dis*cerp"i*ble*ness, n., In`dis*cerp"ti*ble*ness, n. [Obs.] -- In`dis*cerp"ti*bly, adv. [Obs.]

In*dis"ci*plin*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + disciplinable: cf. F. indisciplinable.] Not disciplinable; undisciplinable. [R.]

In*dis"ci*pline (?), n. [L. indisplina: cf. F. indiscipline. See In- not, and Discipline.] Want of discipline or instruction. [R.]

In`dis*cov"er*a*ble (?), a. Not discoverable; undiscoverable. J. Conybeare.

In`dis*cov"er*y (?), n. Want of discovery. [Obs.]

In`dis*creet" (?), a. [OE. indiscret, F. indiscret, fr. L. indiscretus unseparated, indiscreet. See In- not, and Discreet, and cf. Indiscrete.] Not discreet; wanting in discretion.

So drunken, and so indiscreet an officer.


Syn. -- Imprudent; injudicious; inconsiderate; rash; hasty; incautious; heedless; undiscerning; foolish.

-- In`dis*creet"ly, adv. -- In`dis*creet"ness, n.

In`dis*crete" (?), a. [L. indiscretus unseparated. See Indiscreet.]

1. Indiscreet. [Obs.] Boyle.

2. Not discrete or separated; compact; homogenous.

An indiscrete mass of confused matter.


In`dis*cre"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + discretion: cf. F. indiscrétion.]

1. The quality or state of being indiscreet; want of discretion; imprudence.

2. An indiscreet act; indiscreet behavior.

Past indiscretion is a venial crime.


In`dis*crim"i*nate (?), a. Not discriminate; wanting discrimination; undistinguishing; not making any distinction; confused; promiscuous. "Blind or indiscriminate forgiveness." I. Taylor.

The indiscriminate defense of right and wrong.


-- In`dis*crim"i*nate*ly, adv. Cowper.

In`dis*crim"i*na`ting (?), a. Not discriminating. -- In`dis*crim"i*na`ting*ly, adv.

In`dis*crim`i*na"tion (?), n. Want of discrimination or distinction; impartiality. Jefferson.

In`dis*crim"i*na*tive (?), a. Making no distinction; not discriminating.

In`dis*cussed" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + discuss: cf. L. indiscussus.] Not discussed. [Obs.] Donne.

In`dis*pen`sa*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indispensabilité.] Indispensableness.

In`dis*pen"sa*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + dispensable: cf. F. indispensable.]

1. Not dispensable; impossible to be omitted, remitted, or spared; absolutely necessary or requisite.

2. (Eccl.) Not admitting dispensation; not subject to release or exemption. [R.]

The law was moral and indispensable.

Bp. Burnet.

3. Unavoidable; inevitable. [Obs.] Fuller.

In`dis*pen"sa*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being indispensable, or absolutely necessary. S. Clarke.

In`dis*pen"sa*bly, adv. In an indispensable manner. "Indispensably necessary." Bp. Warburton.

In`dis*persed" (?), a. Not dispersed. [R.]

In`dis*pose" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indisposed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indisposing.] [OE. indispos indisposed, feeble, or F. indisposé indisposed. See In- not, and Dispose.]

1. To render unfit or unsuited; to disqualify.

2. To disorder slightly as regards health; to make somewhat. Shak.

It made him rather indisposed than sick.


3. To disincline; to render averse or unfavorable; as, a love of pleasure indisposes the mind to severe study; the pride and selfishness of men indispose them to religious duties.

The king was sufficiently indisposed towards the persons, or the principles, of Calvin's disciples.


In`dis*pos"ed*ness (?), n. The condition or quality of being indisposed. [R.] Bp. Hall.

In*dis`po*si"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. indisposition.]

1. The state of being indisposed; disinclination; as, the indisposition of two substances to combine.

A general indisposition towards believing.


2. A slight disorder or illness.

Rather as an indisposition in health than as any set sickness.


In*dis`pu*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indisputabilité.] Indisputableness.

In*dis"pu*ta*ble (?; 277), a. [Pref. in- not + disputable: cf. F. indisputable.] Not disputable; incontrovertible; too evident to admit of dispute.

Syn. -- Incontestable; unquestionable; incontrovertible; undeniable; irrefragable; certain; positive; undoubted; sure; infallible.

-- In*dis"pu*ta*ble*ness, n. -- In*dis"pu*ta*bly, adv.

In`dis*put"ed (?), a. Undisputed.

In*dis"si*pa*ble (?), a. Incapable o&?; being dissipated.

In*dis`so*lu*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indissolubilité.] The quality or state of being indissoluble.

In*dis"so*lu*ble (?), a. [L. indissolubilis: cf. F. indissoluble. See In- not, and Dissoluble, and cf. Indissolvable.]

1. Not dissoluble; not capable of being dissolved, melted, or liquefied; insoluble; as, few substances are indissoluble by heat, but many are indissoluble in water. Boyle.

2. Incapable of being rightfully broken or dissolved; perpetually binding or obligatory; firm; stable, as, an indissoluble league or covenant.

To the which my duties
Are with a most indissoluble tie
Forever knit.


In*dis"so*lu*ble*ness, n. Indissolubility. Sir M. Hale.

In*dis"so*lu*bly, adv. In an indissoluble manner.

On they move, indissolubly firm.


In`dis*solv"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + dissolvable. Cf. Indissoluble.] Not dissolvable; incapable of being dissolved or separated; incapable of separation; perpetually firm and binding; indissoluble; as, an indissolvable bond of union. Bp. Warburton.

In`dis*solv"a*ble*ness, n. Indissolubleness.

In*dis"tan*cy (?), n. Want of distance or separation; nearness. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.

In`dis*tinct" (n`ds*tkt"), a. [L. indistinctus: cf. F. indistinct. See In- not, and Distinct.]

1. Not distinct or distinguishable; not separate in such a manner as to be perceptible by itself; as, the indistinct parts of a substance. "Indistinct as water is in water." Shak.

2. Obscure to the mind or senses; not clear; not definite; confused; imperfect; faint; as, indistinct vision; an indistinct sound; an indistinct idea or recollection.

When we come to parts too small four our senses, our ideas of these little bodies become obscure and indistinct.

I. Watts.

Their views, indeed, are indistinct and dim.


Syn. -- Undefined; indistinguishable; obscure; indefinite; vague; ambiguous; uncertain; confused.

In`dis*tinc"ti*ble (?), a. Indistinguishable. [Obs.] T. Warton.

In`dis*tinc"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. indistinction.] Want of distinction or distinguishableness; confusion; uncertainty; indiscrimination.

The indistinction of many of the same name . . . hath made some doubt.

Sir T. Browne.

An indistinction of all persons, or equality of all orders, is far from being agreeable to the will of God.


In`dis*tinc"tive (?), a. Having nothing distinctive; common. -- In`dis*tinc"tive*ness, n.

In`dis*tinct"ly (?), adv. In an indistinct manner; not clearly; confusedly; dimly; as, certain ideas are indistinctly comprehended.

In its sides it was bounded distinctly, but on its ends confusedly and indistinctly.

Sir I. Newton.

In`dis*tinct"ness, n. The quality or condition of being indistinct; want of definiteness; dimness; confusion; as, the indistinctness of a picture, or of comprehension; indistinctness of vision.

In`dis*tin"guish*a*ble (?), a. Not distinguishable; not capable of being perceived, known, or discriminated as separate and distinct; hence, not capable of being perceived or known; as, in the distance the flagship was indisguishable; the two copies were indisguishable in form or color; the difference between them was indisguishable.

In`dis*tin"guish*a*bly, adv. In a indistinguishable manner. Sir W. Scott.

In`dis*tin"guished (?), a. Indistinct. [R.] "That indistinguished mass." Sir T. Browne.

In`dis*tin"guish*ing (?), a. Making no difference; indiscriminative; impartial; as, indistinguishing liberalities. [Obs.] Johnson.

In`dis*turb"ance (?), n. Freedom from disturbance; calmness; repose; apathy; indifference.

In*ditch" (?), v. t. To bury in, or cast into, a ditch. Bp. Hall.

In*dite" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indited; p. pr. & vb. n. Inditing.] [OE. enditen to indite, indict, OF. enditer to indicate, show, dictate, write, inform, and endicter to accuse; both fr. LL. indictare to show, to accuse, fr. L. indicere to proclaim, announce; pref. in- in + dicere to say. The word was influenced also by L. indicare to indicate, and by dictare to dictate. See Diction, and cf. Indict, Indicate, Dictate.]

1. To compose; to write; to be author of; to dictate; to prompt.

My heart is inditing a good matter.

Ps. xlv. 1.

Could a common grief have indited such expressions?


Hear how learned Greece her useful rules indites.


2. To invite or ask. [Obs.]

She will indite him to some supper.


3. To indict; to accuse; to censure. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*dite", v. i. To compose; to write, as a poem.

Wounded I sing, tormented I indite.


In*dite"ment (?), n. [Cf. Indictment.] The act of inditing. Craig.

In*dit"er (?), n. One who indites. Smart.

In"di*um (?), n. [NL. See Indigo.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element, discovered in certain ores of zinc, by means of its characteristic spectrum of two indigo blue lines; hence, its name. In appearance it resembles zinc, being white or lead gray, soft, malleable and easily fusible, but in its chemical relation it resembles aluminium or gallium. Symbol In. Atomic weight, 113.4.

<! p. 754 !>

In`di*vert"i*ble (n`d*vrt"*b'l), a. Not to be diverted or turned aside. [R.] Lamb.

In`di*vid"a*ble (?), a. Indivisible. [R.] Shak.

In`di*vid"ed, a. Undivided. [R.] Bp. Patrick.

In`di*vid"u*al (?; 135), a. [L. individuus indivisible; pref. in- not + dividuus divisible, fr. dividere to divide: cf. F. individuel. See Divide.]

1. Not divided, or not to be divided; existing as one entity, or distinct being or object; single; one; as, an individual man, animal, or city.

Mind has a being of its own, distinct from that of all other things, and is pure, unmingled, individual substance.

A. Tucker.

United as one individual soul.


2. Of or pertaining to one only; peculiar to, or characteristic of, a single person or thing; distinctive; as, individual traits of character; individual exertions; individual peculiarities.

In`di*vid"u*al, n. 1. A single person, animal, or thing of any kind; a thing or being incapable of separation or division, without losing its identity; especially, a human being; a person. Cowper.

An object which is in the strict and primary sense one, and can not be logically divided, is called an individual.


That individuals die, his will ordains.


2. (Zoöl.) (a) An independent, or partially independent, zooid of a compound animal. (b) The product of a single egg, whether it remains a single animal or becomes compound by budding or fission.

In`di*vid"u*al*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. individualisme.]

1. The quality of being individual; individuality; personality.

2. An excessive or exclusive regard to one's personal interest; self-interest; selfishness.

The selfishness of the small proprietor has been described by the best writers as individualism.

Ed. Rev.

In`di*vid`u*al*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the individual or individualism. London Athenæum.

In`di*vid`u*al"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Individualities (#). [Cf. F. individualité.]

1. The quality or state of being individual or constituting an individual; separate or distinct existence; oneness; unity. Arbuthnot.

They possess separate individualities.

H. Spencer.

2. The character or property appropriate or peculiar to an individual; that quality which distinguishes one person or thing from another; the sum of characteristic traits; distinctive character; as, he is a person of marked individuality.

In`di*vid`u*al*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. individualization.] The act of individualizing; the state of being individualized; individuation.

In`di*vid"u*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Individualized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Individualizing (?).] [Cf. F. individualiser.] To mark as an individual, or to distinguish from others by peculiar properties; to invest with individuality.

The peculiarities which individualize and distinguish the humor of Addison.

N. Drake.

In`di*vid"u*al*i`zer (?), n. One who individualizes.

In`di*vid"u*al*ly, adv. 1. In an individual manner or relation; as individuals; separately; each by itself. "Individually or collectively." Burke.

How should that subsist solitarily by itself which hath no substance, but individually the very same whereby others subsist with it?


2. In an inseparable manner; inseparably; incommunicably; indivisibly; as, individually the same.

[Omniscience], an attribute individually proper to the Godhead.


In`di*vid"u*ate (?), a. [See Individual.] Undivided. [Obs.]

In`di*vid"u*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Individuated (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Individuating.] To distinguish from others of the species; to endow with individuality; to divide into individuals; to discriminate.

The soul, as the prime individuating principle, and the said reserved portion of matter as an essential and radical part of the individuation, shall . . . make up and restore the same individual person.


Life is individuated into infinite numbers, that have their distinct sense and pleasure.

Dr. H. More.

In`di*vid`u*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. individuation.] The act of individuating or state of being individuated; individualization. H. Spencer.

In`di*vid"u*a`tor (?), n. One who, or that which, individuates. Sir K. Digby.

In`di*vi*du"i*ty (?), n. [L. individuitas.] Separate existence; individuality; oneness. Fuller.

In`di*vin"i*ty (?), n. [Pref. in- not + divinity: cf. F. indivinité.] Want or absence of divine power or of divinity. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

In`di*vis`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. indivisibilité.] The state or property of being indivisible or inseparable; inseparability. Locke.

In`di*vis"i*ble (?), a. [L. indivisibilis: cf. F. indivisible. See In- not, and Divisible.]

1. Not divisible; incapable of being divided, separated, or broken; not separable into parts. "One indivisible point of time." Dryden.

2. (Math.) Not capable of exact division, as one quantity by another; incommensurable.

In`di*vis"i*ble, n. 1. That which is indivisible.

By atom, nobody will imagine we intend to express a perfect indivisible, but only the least sort of natural bodies.


2. (Geom.) An infinitely small quantity which is assumed to admit of no further division.

Method of indivisibles, a kind of calculus, formerly in use, in which lines were considered as made up of an infinite number of points; surfaces, as made up of an infinite number of lines; and volumes, as made up of an infinite number of surfaces.

In`di*vis"i*ble*ness (?), n. The state of being indivisible; indivisibility. W. Montagu.

In`di*vis"i*bly, adv. In an indivisible manner.

In`di*vi"sion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + division: cf. F. indivision, LL. indivisio.] A state of being not divided; oneness. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In"do- (?). [From L. Indus East Indian.] A prefix signifying Indian (i. e., East Indian); of or pertaining of India.

In`do*an"i*line (?), n. [Indigo + aniline.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of artificial blue dyes, in appearance resembling indigo, for which they are often used as substitutes.

In`do-Brit"on (?), n. [Indo- + Briton.] A person born in India, of mixed Indian and British blood; a half-caste. Malcom.

In`do-Chi*nese" (?), a. [Indo- + Chinese.] Of or pertaining to Indo-China (i. e., Farther India, or India beyond the Ganges).

In*doc`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state of being indocible; indocibleness; indocility.

In*doc"i*ble (?), a. [L. indocibilis. See In- not, and Docible.] Incapable of being taught, or not easily instructed; dull in intellect; intractable; unteachable; indocile. Bp. Hall. -- In*doc"i*ble*ness, n.

In*doc"ile (?), a. [L. indocilis: cf. F. indocile. See In- not, and Docile.] Not teachable; indisposed to be taught, trained, or disciplined; not easily instructed or governed; dull; intractable.

In`do*cil"i*ty (?), n. [L. indocilitas: cf. F. indocilité.] The quality or state of being indocile; dullness of intellect; unteachableness; intractableness.

The stiffness and indocility of the Pharisees.

W. Montagu.

In*doc"tri*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indoctrinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indoctrinating.] [Pref. in- in + L. doctrina doctrine: cf. F. endoctriner.] To instruct in the rudiments or principles of learning, or of a branch of learning; to imbue with learning; to instruct in, or imbue with, principles or doctrines; to teach; -- often followed by in.

A master that . . . took much delight in indoctrinating his young, unexperienced favorite.


In*doc`tri*na"tion (?), n. The act of indoctrinating, or the condition of being indoctrinated; instruction in the rudiments and principles of any science or system of belief; information. Sir T. Browne.

In`do-Eng"lish (?), a. [Indo- + English.] Of or relating to the English who are born or reside in India; Anglo-Indian.

In`do-Eu`ro*pe"an (?), a. Aryan; - - applied to the languages of India and Europe which are derived from the prehistoric Aryan language; also, pertaining to the people or nations who speak these languages; as, the Indo-European or Aryan family.

The common origin of the Indo-European nations.


In"do*gen (?), n. [Indigo + - gen.] (Chem.) A complex, nitrogenous radical, C8H5NO, regarded as the essential nucleus of indigo.

In"do*gen*ide (?), n. (Chem.) Any one of the derivatives of indogen, which contain that group as a nucleus.

In`do-Ger*man"ic (?), a. [Indo- + Germanic.]

1. Same as Aryan, and Indo- European.

2. Pertaining to or denoting the Teutonic family of languages as related to the Sanskrit, or derived from the ancient Aryan language.

In"do*in (?), n. (Chem.) A substance resembling indigo blue, obtained artificially from certain isatogen compounds.

In"dol (n"dl), n. [Indigo + -ol of phenol.] (Physiol. Chem.) A white, crystalline substance, C8H7N, obtained from blue indigo, and almost all indigo derivatives, by a process of reduction. It is also formed from albuminous matter, together with skatol, by putrefaction, and by fusion with caustic potash, and is present in human excrement, as well as in the intestinal canal of some herbivora.

In"do*lence (?), n. [L. indolentia freedom from pain: cf. F. indolence.]

1. Freedom from that which pains, or harasses, as toil, care, grief, etc. [Obs.]

I have ease, if it may not rather be called indolence.

Bp. Hough.

2. The quality or condition of being indolent; inaction, or want of exertion of body or mind, proceeding from love of ease or aversion to toil; habitual idleness; indisposition to labor; laziness; sloth; inactivity.

Life spent in indolence, and therefore sad.


As there is a great truth wrapped up in "diligence," what a lie, on the other hand, lurks at the root of our present use of the word "indolence"! This is from "in" and "doleo," not to grieve; and indolence is thus a state in which we have no grief or pain; so that the word, as we now employ it, seems to affirm that indulgence in sloth and ease is that which would constitute for us the absence of all pain.


In"do*len*cy (?), n. Indolence. [Obs.] Holland.

In"do*lent (?), a. [Pref. in- not + L. dolens, -entis, p. pr. of dolere to feel pain: cf. F. indolent. See Dolorous.]

1. Free from toil, pain, or trouble. [Obs.]

2. Indulging in ease; avoiding labor and exertion; habitually idle; lazy; inactive; as, an indolent man.

To waste long nights in indolent repose.


3. (Med.) Causing little or no pain or annoyance; as, an indolent tumor.

Syn. -- Idle; lazy; slothful; sluggish; listless; inactive; inert. See Idle.

In"do*lent*ly, adv. In an indolent manner.

Calm and serene you indolently sit.


||In"do*les (?), n. [L. Cf. Adolescence.] Natural disposition; natural quality or abilities.

In"do*lin (?), n. [See Indol.] (Chem.) A dark resinous substance, polymeric with indol, and obtained by the reduction of indigo white.

In*dom"a*ble (?), a. [L. indomabilis; pref. in- not + domabilis tamable.] Indomitable. [Obs.]

In*dom"i*ta*ble (?), a. [L. indomitabilis; pref. in- not + domitare, intens. fr. domare to tame. See Tame.] Not to be subdued; untamable; invincible; as, an indomitable will, courage, animal.

In*dom"ite (?), a. [L. indomitus.] Not tamed; untamed; savage; wild. [Obs.] J. Salkeld.

In*domp"ta*ble (?), a. [F. indomptable, L. indomitabilis.] Indomitable. [Obs.] Tooke.

In"door` (?), a. Done or being within doors; within a house or institution; domestic; as, indoor work.

In"doors` (?), adv. Within the house; -- usually separated, in doors.

In`do*phe"nol (?), n. [Indigo + phenol.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of artificial blue dyestuffs, resembling indigo in appearance, and obtained by the action of phenol on certain nitrogenous derivatives of quinone. Simple indophenol proper has not yet been isolated.

In*dors"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being indorsed; transferable; convertible.

In`dor*sa"tion (?), n. Indorsement. [Obs.]

In*dorse" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indorsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indorsing.] [LL. indorsare. See Endorse.] [Written also endorse.]

1. To cover the back of; to load or burden. [Obs.]

Elephants indorsed with towers.


2. To write upon the back or outside of a paper or letter, as a direction, heading, memorandum, or address.

3. (Law & Com.) To write one's name, alone or with other words, upon the back of (a paper), for the purpose of transferring it, or to secure the payment of a note, draft, or the like; to guarantee the payment, fulfillment, performance, or validity of, or to certify something upon the back of (a check, draft, writ, warrant of arrest, etc.).

4. To give one's name or support to; to sanction; to aid by approval; to approve; as, to indorse an opinion.

To indorse in blank, to write one's name on the back of a note or bill, leaving a blank to be filled by the holder.

In*dorsed" (?), a. (Her.) See Addorsed.

In`dor*see" (?), n. The person to whom a note or bill is indorsed, or assigned by indorsement.

In*dorse"ment (?), n. [From Indorse; cf. Endorsement.] [Written also endorsement.]

1. The act of writing on the back of a note, bill, or other written instrument.

2. That which is written on the back of a note, bill, or other paper, as a name, an order for, or a receipt of, payment, or the return of an officer, etc.; a writing, usually upon the back, but sometimes on the face, of a negotiable instrument, by which the property therein is assigned and transferred. Story. Byles. Burrill.

3. Sanction, support, or approval; as, the indorsement of a rumor, an opinion, a course, conduct.

Blank indorsement. See under Blank.

{ In*dors"er (?), In*dors"or (?), } n. The person who indorses. [Written also endorser.]

In*dow" (?), v. t. See Endow.

In*dow"ment (?), n. See Endowment.

In*dox"yl (?), n. [Indigo + hydroxyl.] (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance, C8H7NO, isomeric with oxindol, obtained as an oily liquid.

In`dox*yl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to, or producing, indoxyl; as, indoxylic acid.

In"draught` (?), n. 1. An opening from the sea into the land; an inlet. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

2. A draught of air or flow of water setting inward.

In"drawn` (?), a. Drawn in.

In*drench" (?), v. t. To overwhelm with water; to drench; to drown. [Obs.] Shak.

{ In"dris (?), In"dri (?), } n. (Zoöl.) Any lemurine animal of the genus Indris.

Several species are known, all of them natives of Madagascar, as the diadem indris (I. diadema), which has a white ruff around the forehead; the woolly indris (I. laniger); and the short-tailed or black indris (I. brevicaudatus), which is black, varied with gray.

In*du"bi*ous (?), a. [L. indubius. See In- not, and Dubious.]

1. Not dubious or doubtful; certain.

2. Not doubting; unsuspecting. "Indubious confidence." Harvey.

In*du"bi*ta*ble (?), a. [L. indubitabilis: cf. F. indubitable. See In- not, and Dubitable.] Not dubitable or doubtful; too evident to admit of doubt; unquestionable; evident; apparently certain; as, an indubitable conclusion. -- n. That which is indubitable.

Syn. -- Unquestionable; evident; incontrovertible; incontestable; undeniable; irrefragable.

In*du"bi*ta*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being indubitable.

In*du"bi*ta*bly, adv. Undoubtedly; unquestionably; in a manner to remove all doubt.

Oracles indubitably clear and infallibly certain.


In*du"bi*tate (?), a. [L. indubitatus; pref. in- not + dubitatus, p. p. of dubitare to doubt.] Not questioned or doubtful; evident; certain. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*du"bi*tate (?), v. t. [L. indubitatus, p. p. of indubitare; pref. in- in + dubitare to doubt.] To bring into doubt; to cause to be doubted. [Obs.]

To conceal, or indubitate, his exigency.

Sir T. Browne.

In*duce" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Induced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inducing (?).] [L. inducere, inductum; pref. in- in + ducere to lead. See Duke, and cf. Induct.]

1. To lead in; to introduce. [Obs.]

The poet may be seen inducing his personages in the first Iliad.


<! p. 755 !>

2. To draw on; to overspread. [A Latinism] Cowper.

3. To lead on; to influence; to prevail on; to incite; to move by persuasion or influence. Shak.

He is not obliged by your offer to do it, . . . though he may be induced, persuaded, prevailed upon, tempted.


Let not the covetous desire of growing rich induce you to ruin your reputation.


4. To bring on; to effect; to cause; as, a fever induced by fatigue or exposure.

Sour things induces a contraction in the nerves.


5. (Physics) To produce, or cause, by proximity without contact or transmission, as a particular electric or magnetic condition in a body, by the approach of another body in an opposite electric or magnetic state.

6. (Logic) To generalize or conclude as an inference from all the particulars; -- the opposite of deduce.

Syn. -- To move; instigate; urge; impel; incite; press; influence; actuate.

In*duce"ment (?), n. [From Induce.]

1. The act of inducing, or the state of being induced.

2. That which induces; a motive or consideration that leads one to action or induces one to act; as, reward is an inducement to toil. "Mark the inducement." Shak.

3. (Law) Matter stated by way of explanatory preamble or introduction to the main allegations of a pleading; a leading to.

Syn. -- Motive; reason; influence. See Motive.

In*du"cer (?), n. One who, or that which, induces or incites.

In*du"ci*ble (?), a. 1. Capable of being induced, caused, or made to take place.

2. Obtainable by induction; derivable; inferable.

In*duct" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inducted; p. pr. & vb. n. Inducting.] [L. inductus, p. p. of inducere. See Induce.]

1. To bring in; to introduce; to usher in.

The independent orator inducting himself without further ceremony into the pulpit.

Sir W. Scott.

2. To introduce, as to a benefice or office; to put in actual possession of the temporal rights of an ecclesiastical living, or of any other office, with the customary forms and ceremonies.

The prior, when inducted into that dignity, took an oath not to alienate any of their lands.

Bp. Burnet.

In*duc"te*ous (?), a. (Elec.) Rendered electro-polar by induction, or brought into the opposite electrical state by the influence of inductive bodies.

In*duc"tile (?), a. [Pref. in- not + ductile: cf. F. inductile.] Not ductile; incapable of being drawn into threads, as a metal; inelastic; tough.

In`duc*til"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being inductile.

In*duc"tion (?), n. [L. inductio: cf. F. induction. See Induct.]

1. The act or process of inducting or bringing in; introduction; entrance; beginning; commencement.

I know not you; nor am I well pleased to make this time, as the affair now stands, the induction of your acquaintance.

Beau. & Fl.

These promises are fair, the parties sure,
And our induction dull of prosperous hope.


2. An introduction or introductory scene, as to a play; a preface; a prologue. [Obs.]

This is but an induction: I will draw
The curtains of the tragedy hereafter.


3. (Philos.) The act or process of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal; also, the result or inference so reached.

Induction is an inference drawn from all the particulars.

Sir W. Hamilton.

Induction is the process by which we conclude that what is true of certain individuals of a class, is true of the whole class, or that what is true at certain times will be true in similar circumstances at all times.

J. S. Mill.

4. The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or of an official into a office, with appropriate acts or ceremonies; the giving actual possession of an ecclesiastical living or its temporalities.

5. (Math.) A process of demonstration in which a general truth is gathered from an examination of particular cases, one of which is known to be true, the examination being so conducted that each case is made to depend on the preceding one; -- called also successive induction.

6. (Physics) The property by which one body, having electrical or magnetic polarity, causes or induces it in another body without direct contact; an impress of electrical or magnetic force or condition from one body on another without actual contact.

Electro-dynamic induction, the action by which a variable or interrupted current of electricity excites another current in a neighboring conductor forming a closed circuit. -- Electro-magnetic induction, the influence by which an electric current produces magnetic polarity in certain bodies near or around which it passes. -- Electro-static induction, the action by which a body possessing a charge of statical electricity develops a charge of statical electricity of the opposite character in a neighboring body. -- Induction coil, an apparatus producing induced currents of great intensity. It consists of a coil or helix of stout insulated copper wire, surrounded by another coil of very fine insulated wire, in which a momentary current is induced, when a current (as from a voltaic battery), passing through the inner coil, is made, broken, or varied. The inner coil has within it a core of soft iron, and is connected at its terminals with a condenser; -- called also inductorium, and Ruhmkorff's coil. -- Induction pipe, port, or valve, a pipe, passageway, or valve, for leading or admitting a fluid to a receiver, as steam to an engine cylinder, or water to a pump. -- Magnetic induction, the action by which magnetic polarity is developed in a body susceptible to magnetic effects when brought under the influence of a magnet. -- Magneto-electric induction, the influence by which a magnet excites electric currents in closed circuits.

Logical induction, (Philos.), an act or method of reasoning from all the parts separately to the whole which they constitute, or into which they may be united collectively; the operation of discovering and proving general propositions; the scientific method. -- Philosophical induction, the inference, or the act of inferring, that what has been observed or established in respect to a part, individual, or species, may, on the ground of analogy, be affirmed or received of the whole to which it belongs. This last is the inductive method of Bacon. It ascends from the parts to the whole, and forms, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience and experiment. It relates to actual existences, as in physical science or the concerns of life. Logical induction is founded on the necessary laws of thought; philosophical induction, on the interpretation of the indications or analogy of nature.

Syn. -- Deduction. -- Induction, Deduction. In induction we observe a sufficient number of individual facts, and, on the ground of analogy, extend what is true of them to others of the same class, thus arriving at general principles or laws. This is the kind of reasoning in physical science. In deduction we begin with a general truth, which is already proven or provisionally assumed, and seek to connect it with some particular case by means of a middle term, or class of objects, known to be equally connected with both. Thus, we bring down the general into the particular, affirming of the latter the distinctive qualities of the former. This is the syllogistic method. By induction Franklin established the identity of lightning and electricity; by deduction he inferred that dwellings might be protected by lightning rods.

In*duc"tion*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or proceeding by, induction; inductive.

In*duct"ive (?), a. [LL. inductivus: cf. F. inductif. See Induce.]

1. Leading or drawing; persuasive; tempting; -- usually followed by to.

A brutish vice,
Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve.


2. Tending to induce or cause. [R.]

They may be . . . inductive of credibility.

Sir M. Hale.

3. Leading to inferences; proceeding by, derived from, or using, induction; as, inductive reasoning.

4. (Physics) (a) Operating by induction; as, an inductive electrical machine. (b) Facilitating induction; susceptible of being acted upon by induction; as, certain substances have a great inductive capacity.

Inductive embarrassment (Physics), the retardation in signaling on an electric wire, produced by lateral induction. -- Inductive philosophy or method. See Philosophical induction, under Induction. -- Inductive sciences, those sciences which admit of, and employ, the inductive method, as astronomy, botany, chemistry, etc.

In*duct"ive*ly, adv. By induction or inference.

In`duc*tom"e*ter (?), n. [Induction + -meter.] (Elec.) An instrument for measuring or ascertaining the degree or rate of electrical induction.

In*duct"or (?), n. [L., one who stirs up or rouses. See Induce.]

1. The person who inducts another into an office or benefice.

2. (Elec.) That portion of an electrical apparatus, in which is the inducing charge or current.

In`duc*to"ri*um (?), n.; pl. E. Inductoriums (#), L. Inductoria (#). [NL., fr. E. induction.] (Elec.) An induction coil.

{ In*duc"tric (?), In*duc"tric*al (?), } a. (Elec.) Acting by, or in a state of, induction; relating to electrical induction.

In*due" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Induing.] [Written also endue.] [L. induere to put on, clothe, fr. OL. indu (fr. in- in) + a root seen also in L. exuere to put off, divest, exuviae the skin of an animal, slough, induviae clothes. Cf. Endue to invest.]

1. To put on, as clothes; to draw on.

The baron had indued a pair of jack boots.

Sir W. Scott.

2. To clothe; to invest; hence, to endow; to furnish; to supply with moral or mental qualities.

Indu'd with robes of various hue she flies.


Indued with intellectual sense and souls.


In*due"ment (?), n. [From Indue; cf. Indument, Enduement.] The act of induing, or state of being indued; investment; endowment. W. Montagu.

In*dulge" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indulged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indulging (?).] [L. indulgere to be kind or tender to one; cf. OIr. dilgud, equiv. to L. remissio, OIr. dligeth, equiv. to L. lex, Goth. dulgs debt.]

1. To be complacent toward; to give way to; not to oppose or restrain; (a) when said of a habit, desire, etc.: to give free course to; to give one's self up to; as, to indulge sloth, pride, selfishness, or inclinations; (b) when said of a person: to yield to the desire of; to gratify by compliance; to humor; to withhold restraint from; as, to indulge children in their caprices or willfulness; to indulge one's self with a rest or in pleasure.

Hope in another life implies that we indulge ourselves in the gratifications of this very sparingly.


2. To grant as by favor; to bestow in concession, or in compliance with a wish or request.

Persuading us that something must be indulged to public manners.

Jer. Taylor.

Yet, yet a moment, one dim ray of light
Indulge, dread Chaos, and eternal Night!


It is remarked by Johnson, that if the matter of indulgence is a single thing, it has with before it; if it is a habit, it has in; as, he indulged himself with a glass of wine or a new book; he indulges himself in idleness or intemperance. See Gratify.

In*dulge", v. i. To indulge one's self; to gratify one's tastes or desires; esp., to give one's self up (to); to practice a forbidden or questionable act without restraint; -- followed by in, but formerly, also, by to. "Willing to indulge in easy vices." Johnson.

In*dulge"ment (?), n. Indulgence. [R.] Wood.

In*dul"gence (?), n. [L. indulgentia: cf. F. indulgence.]

1. The act of indulging or humoring; the quality of being indulgent; forbearance of restrain or control.

If I were a judge, that word indulgence should never issue from my lips.


They err, that through indulgence to others, or fondness to any sin in themselves, substitute for repentance anything less.


2. An indulgent act; favor granted; gratification.

If all these gracious indulgences are without any effect on us, we must perish in our own folly.


3. (R. C. Ch.) Remission of the temporal punishment due to sins, after the guilt of sin has been remitted by sincere repentance; absolution from the censures and public penances of the church. It is a payment of the debt of justice to God by the application of the merits of Christ and his saints to the contrite soul through the church. It is therefore believed to diminish or destroy for sins the punishment of purgatory.

In*dul"gence (?), v. t. To grant an indulgence to.

In*dul"gen*cy (?), n. Indulgence. Dryden.

In*dul"gent (?), a. [L. indulgens, -entis, p. pr. of indulgere: cf. F. indulgent. See Indulge.] Prone to indulge; yielding to the wishes, humor, or appetites of those under one's care; compliant; not opposing or restraining; tolerant; mild; favorable; not severe; as, an indulgent parent. Shak.

The indulgent censure of posterity.


The feeble old, indulgent of their ease.


In`dul*gen"tial (?), a. Relating to the indulgences of the Roman Catholic Church. Brevint.

In*dul"gent*ly (?), adv. In an indulgent manner; mildly; favorably. Dryden.

In*dul"ger, n. One who indulges. W. Montagu.

In*dul"gi*ate (?), v. t. To indulge. [R.] Sandys.

In"du*line (?), n. [Perh. fr. indigo.] (Chem.) (a) Any one of a large series of aniline dyes, colored blue or violet, and represented by aniline violet. (b) A dark green amorphous dyestuff, produced by the oxidation of aniline in the presence of copper or vanadium salts; -- called also aniline black.

{ In*dult" (?), In*dul"to (?), } n. [L. indultum indulgence, favor, fr. indultus, p. p. of indulgere: cf. It. indulto, F. indult. See Indulge.]

1. A privilege or exemption; an indulgence; a dispensation granted by the pope.

2. (Spain) A duty levied on all importations.

In"du*ment (?), n. [L. indumentum a covering. See Indue, and cf. Induement.] (Zoöl.) Plumage; feathers.

In*du"pli*cate (?), a. (Bot.) (a) Having the edges bent abruptly toward the axis; -- said of the parts of the calyx or corolla in æstivation. (b) Having the edges rolled inward and then arranged about the axis without overlapping; - - said of leaves in vernation.

In*du"pli*ca*tive (?), a. (Bot.) (a) Having induplicate sepals or petals in æstivation. (b) Having induplicate leaves in vernation.

In*dur"ance (?), n. [Obs.] See Endurance.

In"du*rate (?), a. [L. induratus, p. p. of indurare to harden. See Endure.]

1. Hardened; not soft; indurated. Tyndale.

2. Without sensibility; unfeeling; obdurate.

In"du*rate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Indurated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indurating (?).]

1. To make hard; as, extreme heat indurates clay; some fossils are indurated by exposure to the air.

2. To make unfeeling; to deprive of sensibility; to render obdurate.

In"du*rate, v. i. To grow hard; to harden, or become hard; as, clay indurates by drying, and by heat.

In"du*ra`ted (?), a. Hardened; as, indurated clay; an indurated heart. Goldsmith.

In`du*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. induration, L. induratio hardness of heart.]

1. The act of hardening, or the process of growing hard.

2. State of being indurated, or of having become hard.

3. Hardness of character, manner, sensibility, etc.; obduracy; stiffness; want of pliancy or feeling.

A certain induration of character had arisen from long habits of business.


In*du"sial (?), a. [See Indusium.] Of, pertaining to, or containing, the petrified cases of the larvæ of certain insects.

Indusial limestone (Geol.), a fresh- water limestone, largely composed of the agglomerated cases of caddice worms, or larvæ of caddice flies (Phryganea). It is found in Miocene strata of Auvergne, France, and some other localities.

{ In*du"si*ate (?), In*du"si*a`ted (?), } a. (Bot.) Furnished with an indusium.

||In*du"si*um (?), n.; pl. Indusia (-). [L., an under garment, fr. induere to put on: cf. F. indusie the covering of the seed spots of ferns.] (Bot.) (a) A collection of hairs united so as to form a sort of cup, and inclosing the stigma of a flower. (b) The immediate covering of the fruit dots or sori in many ferns, usually a very thin scale attached by the middle or side to a veinlet. (c) A peculiar covering found in certain fungi.

In*dus"tri*al (?), a. [Cf. F. industriel, LL. industrialis. See Industry.] Consisting in industry; pertaining to industry, or the arts and products of industry; concerning those employed in labor, especially in manual labor, and their wages, duties, and rights.

The great ideas of industrial development and economic social amelioration.

M. Arnold.

<! p. 756 !>

Industrial exhibition, a public exhibition of the various industrial products of a country, or of various countries. -- Industrial school, a school for teaching one or more branches of industry; also, a school for educating neglected children, and training them to habits of industry.

In*dus"tri*al*ism (?), n. 1. Devotion to industrial pursuits; labor; industry. J. S. Mill.

2. The principles or policy applicable to industrial pursuits or organized labor.

Industrialism must not confounded with industriousness.

H. Spencer.

In*dus"tri*al*ly, adv. With reference to industry.

In*dus"tri*ous (?), a. [L. industrius, industriosus: cf. F. industrieux. See Industry.]

1. Given to industry; characterized by diligence; constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied; busy; assiduous; not slothful or idle; -- commonly implying devotion to lawful and useful labor.

Frugal and industrious men are commonly friendly to the established government.

Sir W. Temple.

2. Steadily and perseveringly active in a particular pursuit or aim; as, he was negligent in business, but industrious in pleasure; an industrious mischief maker.

Industrious to seek out the truth of all things.


-- In*dus"tri*ous*ly, adv. -- In*dus"tri*ous*ness, n.

In"dus*try (?), n.; pl. Industries (#). [L. industria, cf. industrius diligent; of uncertain origin: cf. F. industrie.]

1. Habitual diligence in any employment or pursuit, either bodily or mental; steady attention to business; assiduity; -- opposed to sloth and idleness; as, industry pays debts, while idleness or despair will increase them.

We are more industrious than our forefathers, because in the present times the funds destined for the maintenance of industry are much greater in proportion to those which are likely to be employed in the maintenance of idleness, than they were two or three centuries ago.

A. Smith.

2. Any department or branch of art, occupation, or business; especially, one which employs much labor and capital and is a distinct branch of trade; as, the sugar industry; the iron industry; the cotton industry.

3. (Polit. Econ.) Human exertion of any kind employed for the creation of value, and regarded by some as a species of capital or wealth; labor.

Syn. -- Diligence; assiduity; perseverance; activity; laboriousness; attention. See Diligence.

In*du"tive (?), a. [L. indutus, p. p. of induere to put on. See Indue.] (Bot.) Covered; -- applied to seeds which have the usual integumentary covering.

||In*du"vi*æ (?), n. pl. [L., clothes, fr. induere to put on. See Indue.] (Bot.) Persistent portions of a calyx or corolla; also, leaves which do not disarticulate from the stem, and hence remain for a long time.

In*du"vi*ate (?), a. (Bot.) Covered with induviæ, as the upper part of the trunk of a palm tree.

In"dwell` (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Indwelt (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Indwelling.] To dwell in; to abide within; to remain in possession.

The Holy Ghost became a dove, not as a symbol, but as a constantly indwelt form.


In"dwell`er (?) n. An inhabitant. Spenser.

In"dwell`ing, n. Residence within, as in the heart.

The personal indwelling of the Spirit in believers.


-ine (?; 104). 1. (Chem.) A suffix, indicating that those substances of whose names it is a part are basic, and alkaloidal in their nature.

All organic bases, and basic substances (especially nitrogenous substances), are systematically written with the termination -ine; as, quinine, morphine, guanidine, etc. All indifferent and neutral substances, as proteids, glycerides, glucosides, etc., should commonly be spelled with -in; as, gelatin, amygdalin, etc. This rue has no application to those numerous commercial or popular names with the termination -ine; as, gasoline, vaseline, etc.

2. (Organ. Chem.) A suffix, used to indicate hydrocarbons of the second degree of unsaturation; i. e., members of the acetyline series; as, hexine, heptine, etc.

In*earth" (?), v. t. To inter. [R.] Southey.

In*e"bri*ant (?), a. [L. inebrians, p. pr. of inebriare. See Inebriate.] Intoxicating.

In*e"bri*ant, n. Anything that intoxicates, as opium, alcohol, etc.; an intoxicant. Smart.

In*e"bri*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inebriated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inebriating (?).] [L. inebriatus, p. p. of inebriare; pref. in- in + ebriare to make drunk, fr. ebrius drunk. See Ebriety.]

1. To make drunk; to intoxicate.

The cups
That cheer but not inebriate.


2. Fig.: To disorder the senses of; to exhilarate or elate as if by spirituous drink; to deprive of sense and judgment; also, to stupefy.

The inebriating effect of popular applause.


In*e"bri*ate, v. i. To become drunk. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*e"bri*ate (?), a. [L. inebriatus, p. p.] Intoxicated; drunk; habitually given to drink; stupefied.

Thus spake Peter, as a man inebriate and made drunken with the sweetness of this vision, not knowing what he said.


In*e"bri*ate, n. One who is drunk or intoxicated; esp., an habitual drunkard; as, an asylum for inebriates.

Some inebriates have their paroxysms of inebriety.

E. Darwin.

In*e`bri*a"tion (?), n. [L. inebriatio.] The condition of being inebriated; intoxication; figuratively, deprivation of sense and judgment by anything that exhilarates, as success. Sir T. Browne.

Preserve him from the inebriation of prosperity.


Syn. -- See Drunkenness.

In`e*bri"e*ty (?), n. [See Inebriate, Ebriety.] Drunkenness; inebriation. E. Darwin.

In*e"bri*ous (?), a. Intoxicated, or partially so; intoxicating. [R.] T. Brown.

In*ed"it*ed (?), a. Not edited; unpublished; as, an inedited manuscript. T. Warton.

||I`née" (?), n. [F.] An arrow poison, made from an apocynaceous plant (Strophanthus hispidus) of the Gaboon country; -- called also onaye.

In*ef`fa*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. ineffabilitas: cf. F. ineffabilité.] The quality or state of being ineffable; ineffableness; unspeakableness.

In*ef"fa*ble (?), a. [L. ineffabilis: cf. F. ineffable. See In- not, and Effable, Fame.] Incapable of being expressed in words; unspeakable; unutterable; indescribable; as, the ineffable joys of heaven.

Contentment with our lot . . . will diffuse ineffable contentment over the soul.


In*ef"fa*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being ineffable or unutterable; unspeakableness.

In*ef"fa*bly, adv. In a manner not to be expressed in words; unspeakably. Milton.

In`ef*face"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + effaceable: cf. F. ineffaçable.] Incapable of being effaced; indelible; ineradicable.

In`ef*face"a*bly, adv. So as not to be effaceable.

In`ef*fect"i*ble (?), a. Ineffectual; impracticable. [R.] Bp. Hall.

In`ef*fect"ive (?), a. [Pref. in- not + effective: cf. F. ineffectif.] Not effective; ineffectual; futile; inefficient; useless; as, an ineffective appeal.

The word of God, without the spirit, [is] a dead and ineffective letter.

Jer. Taylor.

In`ef*fect"ive*ly, adv. In an ineffective manner; without effect; inefficiently; ineffectually.

In`ef*fect"ive*ness, n. Quality of being ineffective.

In`ef*fec"tu*al (?; 135), a. Not producing the proper effect; without effect; inefficient; weak; useless; futile; unavailing; as, an ineffectual attempt; an ineffectual expedient. Pope.

The peony root has been much commended, . . . and yet has been by many found ineffectual.


Syn. -- Inefficient; useless; inefficacious; vain; fruitless; unavailing; futile. See Useless, Inefficacious.

In`ef*fec`tu*al"i*ty (?), n. Ineffectualness. [R.]

In`ef*fec"tu*al*ly, adv. Without effect; in vain.

Hereford . . . had been besieged for about two months ineffectually by the Scots.


In`ef*fec"tu*al*ness, n. Want of effect, or of power to produce it; inefficacy.

The ineffectualness of some men's devotion.


In*ef`fer*ves"cence (?), n. Want of effervescence. Kirwan.

In*ef`fer*ves"cent (?), a. Not effervescing, or not susceptible of effervescence; quiescent.

In*ef`fer*ves`ci*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being ineffervescible.

In*ef`fer*ves"ci*ble (?), a. Not capable or susceptible of effervescence.

In*ef`fi*ca"cious (?), a. [Pref. in- not + efficacious: cf. F. inefficace, L. inefficax.] Not efficacious; not having power to produce the effect desired; inadequate; incompetent; inefficient; impotent. Boyle.

The authority of Parliament must become inefficacious . . . to restrain the growth of disorders.


Ineffectual, says Johnson, rather denotes an actual failure, and inefficacious an habitual impotence to any effect. But the distinction is not always observed, nor can it be; for we can not always know whether means are inefficacious till experiment has proved them ineffectual. Inefficacious is therefore sometimes synonymous with ineffectual.

In*ef`fi*ca"cious*ly, adv. Without efficacy or effect.

In*ef`fi*ca"cious*ness, n. Want of effect, or of power to produce the effect; inefficacy.

In*ef"fi*ca*cy (?), n. [L. inefficacia. See In- not, and Efficacy.] Want of power to produce the desired or proper effect; inefficiency; ineffectualness; futility; uselessness; fruitlessness; as, the inefficacy of medicines or means.

The seeming inefficacy of censures.

Bp. Hall.

The inefficacy was soon proved, like that of many similar medicines.

James Gregory.

In`ef*fi"cien*cy (?), n. The quality of being inefficient; want of power or energy sufficient for the desired effect; inefficacy; incapacity; as, he was discharged from his position for inefficiency.

In`ef*fi"cient (?), a. 1. Not efficient; not producing the effect intended or desired; inefficacious; as, inefficient means or measures.

2. Incapable of, or indisposed to, effective action; habitually slack or remiss; effecting little or nothing; as, inefficient workmen; an inefficient administrator.

In`ef*fi"cient*ly, adv. In an inefficient manner.

In`e*lab"o*rate (?), a. [L. inelaboratus. See In- not, and Elaborate.] Not elaborate; not wrought with care; unpolished; crude; unfinished.

In`e*las"tic (?), a. Not elastic.

In`e*las*tic"i*ty (?), n. Want of elasticity.

{ In*el"e*gance (?), In*el"e*gan*cy (?), } n.; pl. Inelegances (#), Inelegancies (#). [L. inelegantia: cf. F. inélégance.]

1. The quality of being inelegant; want of elegance or grace; want of refinement, beauty, or polish in language, composition, or manners.

The notorious inelegance of her figure.

T. Hook.

2. Anything inelegant; as, inelegance of style in literary composition.

In*el"e*gant (?), a. [L. inelegans: cf. F. inélégant. See In- not, and Elegant.] Not elegant; deficient in beauty, polish, refinement, grave, or ornament; wanting in anything which correct taste requires.

What order so contrived as not to mix
Tastes, not well joined, inelegant.


It renders style often obscure, always embarrassed and inelegant.


In*el"e*gant*ly, adv. In an inelegant manner.

In*el`i*gi*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inéligibilité.] The state or quality of being ineligible.

In*el"i*gi*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + eligible: cf. F. inéligible.] Not eligible; not qualified to be chosen for an office; not worthy to be chosen or preferred; not expedient or desirable. Burke.

In*el"li*gi*bly (?), adv. In an ineligible manner.

In*e"lo*quent (?), a. [L. ineloquens: cf. F. inéloquent. See In- not, and Eloquent.] Not eloquent; not fluent, graceful, or pathetic; not persuasive; as, ineloquent language.

Nor are thy lips ungraceful, sire of men,
Nor tongue ineloquent.


In*e"lo*quent*ly, adv. Without eloquence.

In`e*luc"ta*ble (?), a. [L. ineluctabilis; pref. in- not + eluctabilis to be surmounted, fr. eluctari to struggle out of, to surmount: cf. F. inéluctable. See Eluctate.] Not to be overcome by struggling; irresistible; inevitable. Bp. Pearson.

The ineluctable conditions of matter.


In`e*lud"i*ble (?), a. Incapable of being eluded or evaded; unvoidable.

Most pressing reasons and ineludible demonstrations.


In*em"bry*o*nate (?), a. (Biol.) Not embryonate.

In`e*nar"ra*ble (?), a. [L. inenarrabilis; pref. in- not + enarrabilis that may be related; fr. enarrare to relate: cf. F. inénarrable. See Enarration.] Incapable of being narrated; indescribable; ineffable. [Obs.] "Inenarrable goodness." Bp. Fisher.

In*ept" (?), a. [L. ineptus; prefix. in- not + aptus apt, fit: cf. F. inepte. Cf. Inapt.]

1. Not apt or fit; unfit; unsuitable; improper; unbecoming.

The Aristotelian philosophy is inept for new discoveries.


2. Silly; useless; nonsensical; absurd; foolish.

To view attention as a special act of intelligence, and to distinguish it from consciousness, is utterly inept.

Sir W. Hamilton.

In*ept"i*tude (?), n. [L. ineptitudo.]

1. The quality of being inept; unfitness; inaptitude; unsuitableness.

That ineptitude for society, which is frequently the fault of us scholars.


2. Absurdity; nonsense; foolishness.

In*ept"ly, adv. Unfitly; unsuitably; awkwardly.

None of them are made foolishly or ineptly.

Dr. H. More.

In*ept"ness, n. Unfitness; ineptitude.

The feebleness and miserable ineptness of infancy.

Dr. H. More.

In*e"qua*ble (?), a. Unequable. [R.] Bailey.

In*e"qual (?), a. [L. inaequalis. See In- not, and Equal.] Unequal; uneven; various. [Obs.] Chaucer.

In`e*qual"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Inequalities (#). [L. inaequalitas.]

1. The quality of being unequal; difference, or want of equality, in any respect; lack of uniformity; disproportion; unevenness; disparity; diversity; as, an inequality in size, stature, numbers, power, distances, motions, rank, property, etc.

There is so great an inequality in the length of our legs and arms as makes it impossible for us to walk on all four.


Notwithstanding which inequality of number, it was resolved in a council of war to fight the Dutch fleet.


Sympathy is rarely strong where there is a great inequality of condition.


2. Unevenness; want of levelness; the alternate rising and falling of a surface; as, the inequalities of the surface of the earth, or of a marble slab, etc.

The country is cut into so many hills and inequalities as renders it defensible.


3. Variableness; changeableness; inconstancy; lack of smoothness or equability; deviation; unsteadiness, as of the weather, feelings, etc.

Inequality of air is ever an enemy to health.


4. Disproportion to any office or purpose; inadequacy; competency; as, the inequality of terrestrial things to the wants of a rational soul. South.

5. (Alg.) An expression consisting of two unequal quantities, with the sign of inequality (> or <) between them; as, the inequality 2 < 3, or 4 > 1.

6. (Astron.) An irregularity, or a deviation, in the motion of a planet or satellite from its uniform mean motion; the amount of such deviation.

In`e*qua"tion (?), n. (Math.) An inequality.

In*e`qui*dis"tant (?), a. Not equally distant; not equidistant.

In*e`qui*lat"er*al (?), a. 1. Having unequal sides; unsymmetrical; unequal- sided.

2. (Zoöl.) Having the two ends unequal, as in the clam, quahaug, and most lamellibranch shells.

In*e`qui*lo"bate (?), a. [Pref. in- not + equi- + lobate.] (Biol.) Unequally lobed; cut into lobes of different shapes or sizes.

In*eq"ui*ta*ble (?), a. Not equitable; not just. Burke.

In*eq"ui*tate (?), v. t. [L. inequitatus, p. p. inequitare to ride over. See 1st In-, and Equitant.] To ride over or through. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

In*eq"ui*ty (?), n. Want of equity; injustice; wrong. "Some form of inequity." H. Spencer.

{ In*e"qui*valve (?), In*e`qui*val"vu*lar (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Having unequal valves, as the shell of an oyster.

In`e*rad"i*ca*ble (?), a. Incapable of being eradicated or rooted out.

The bad seed thus sown was ineradicable.

Ld. Lytton.

In`e*rad"i*ca*bly, adv. So as not to be eradicable.

{ In`er*get"ic (?), In`er*get"ic*al (?), } a. [Pref. in- not + energetic, - ical.] Having no energy; sluggish. [R.] Boyle.

In`er*get"ic*al*ly, adv. Without energy. [R.]

{ In*erm" (?), In*er"mous (?), } a. (Bot.) Same as Inermis.

||In*er"mis (?), a. [L. inermis, inermus; pref. in- not + arma arms: cf. F. inerme.] (Bot.) Unarmed; destitute of prickles or thorns, as a leaf. Gray.

In*er`ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. Freedom or exemption from error; infallibility. Eikon Basilike.

In*er"ra*ble (?), a. [L. inerrabilis. See In- not, and Err.] Incapable of erring; infallible; unerring. "Inerabble and requisite conditions." Sir T. Browne. "Not an inerrable text." Gladstone.

<! p. 757 !>

In*er"ra*ble*ness (n*r"r*b'l*ns), n. Exemption from error; inerrability; infallibility. Hammond.

In*er"ra*bly, adv. With security from error; infallibly; unerringly.

In*er"ran*cy (?), n. Exemption from error.

The absolute inerrancy of the Bible.

The Century.

In`er*rat"ic (n`r*rt"k), a. Not erratic or wandering; fixed; settled; established.

In*err"ing*ly (?), adv. Without error, mistake, or deviation; unerringly. Glanvill.

In*ert" (?), a. [L. iners, inertis, unskilled, idle; pref. in- + ars art: cf. F. inerte. See Art.]

1. Destitute of the power of moving itself, or of active resistance to motion; as, matter is inert.

2. Indisposed to move or act; very slow to act; sluggish; dull; inactive; indolent; lifeless.

The inert and desponding party of the court.


It present becomes extravagant, then imbecile, and at length utterly inert.

I. Taylor.

3. Not having or manifesting active properties; not affecting other substances when brought in contact with them; powerless for an expected or desired effect.

Syn. -- Inactive; dull; passive; indolent; sluggish; slothful; lazy; lifeless; irresolute; stupid; senseless; insensible. -- Inert, Inactive, Sluggish. A man may be inactive from mere want of stimulus to effort; but one who is inert has something in his constitution or his habits which operates like a weight holding him back from exertion. Sluggish is still stronger, implying some defect of temperament which directly impedes action. Inert and inactive are negative, sluggish is positive.

Even the favored isles . . .
Can boast but little virtue; and, inert
Through plenty, lose in morals what they gain
In manners -- victims of luxurious ease.


Doomed to lose four months in inactive obscurity.


Sluggish Idleness, the nurse of sin,
Upon a slothful ass he chose to ride.


In*er"ti*a (?), n. [L., idleness, fr. iners idle. See Inert.]

1. (Physics) That property of matter by which it tends when at rest to remain so, and when in motion to continue in motion, and in the same straight line or direction, unless acted on by some external force; -- sometimes called vis inertiæ.

2. Inertness; indisposition to motion, exertion, or action; want of energy; sluggishness.

Men . . . have immense irresolution and inertia.


3. (Med.) Want of activity; sluggishness; -- said especially of the uterus, when, in labor, its contractions have nearly or wholly ceased.

Center of inertia. (Mech.) See under Center.

In*er"tion (?), n. Want of activity or exertion; inertness; quietude. [R.]

These vicissitudes of exertion and inertion of the arterial system constitute the paroxysms of remittent fever.

E. Darwin.

In*ert"i*tude (?), n. [See Inert.] Inertness; inertia. [R.] Good.

In*ert"ly, adv. Without activity; sluggishly. Pope.

In*ert"ness, n. 1. Want of activity or exertion; habitual indisposition to action or motion; sluggishness; apathy; insensibility. Glanvill.

Laziness and inertness of mind.


2. Absence of the power of self-motion; inertia.

In*er"u*dite (?), a. [L. ineruditus. See In- not, and Erudite.] Not erudite; unlearned; ignorant.

In`es*cap"a*ble (?), a. Not escapable.

In*es"cate (?), v. t. [L. inescatus, p. p. of inescare; in- in + esca bait.] To allure; to lay a bait for. [Obs.]

To inescate and beguile young women!


In`es*ca"tion (?), n. [L. inescatio.] The act of baiting; allurement. [Obs.] Hallywell.

In`es*cutch"eon (?), n. (Her.) A small escutcheon borne within a shield.

||In` es"se (?). [L.] In being; actually existing; - - distinguished from in posse, or in potentia, which denote that a thing is not, but may be.

In`es*sen"tial (?), a. [Pref. in- not + essential: cf. F. inessentiel.]

1. Having no essence or being. H. Brooke.

The womb of inessential Naught.


2. Not essential; unessential.

In*es"ti*ma*ble (?), a. [L. inaestimabilis: cf. F. inestimable. See In- not, and Estimate.] Incapable of being estimated or computed; especially, too valuable or excellent to be measured or fully appreciated; above all price; as, inestimable rights or privileges.

But above all, for thine inestimable love.

Bk. of Com. Prayer.

Science is too inestimable for expression by a money standard.

Lyon Playfair.

Syn. -- Incalculable; invaluable; priceless.

In*es"ti*ma*bly, adv. In a manner, or to a degree, above estimation; as, things inestimably excellent.

In`e*va"si*ble (?), a. Incapable of being evaded; inevitable; unavoidable.

In*ev"i*dence (?), n. [Cf. F. inévidence.] Want of evidence; obscurity. [Obs.] Barrow.

In*ev"i*dent (?), a. [Cf. F. inévident.] Not evident; not clear or obvious; obscure.

In*ev`i*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inévitabilité.] Impossibility to be avoided or shunned; inevitableness. Shelford.

In*ev"i*ta*ble (?), a. [L. inevitabilis: cf. F. inévitable. See In- not, and Evitable.]

1. Not evitable; incapable of being shunned; unavoidable; certain. "The inevitable hour." Gray.

It was inevitable; it was necessary; it was planted in the nature of things.


2. Irresistible. "Inevitable charms." Dryden.

In*ev"i*ta*ble*ness (?), n. The state of being unavoidable; certainty to happen. Prideaux.

In*ev"i*ta*bly, adv. Without possibility of escape or evasion; unavoidably; certainly.

Inevitably thou shalt die.


How inevitably does immoderate laughter end in a sigh!


In`ex*act" (?), a. [Pref. in- not + exact: cf. F. inexact.] Not exact; not precisely correct or true; inaccurate.

In`ex*act"i*tude (?), n. Inexactness; uncertainty; as, geographical inexactitude.

In`ex*act"ly, adv. In a manner not exact or precise; inaccurately. R. A. Proctor.

In`ex*act"ness, n. Incorrectness; want of exactness.

In`ex*cit`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being inexcitable; insusceptibility to excitement.

In`ex*cit"a*ble (?), a. [L. inexcitabilis from which one cannot be aroused. See In- not, and Excite.] Not susceptible of excitement; dull; lifeless; torpid.

In`ex*cus"a*ble (?), a. [L. inexcusabilis: cf. F. inexcusable. See Excuse.] Not excusable; not admitting excuse or justification; as, inexcusable folly.

Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest; for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.

Rom. ii. 1.

In`ex*cus"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being inexcusable; enormity beyond forgiveness. South.

In`ex*cus"a*bly, adv. With a degree of guilt or folly beyond excuse or justification.

Inexcusably obstinate and perverse.


In*ex"e*cra*ble (?), a. That can not be execrated enough. [R.]

In*ex"e*cu`ta*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + executable: cf. F. inexécutable.] Incapable of being executed or performed; impracticable; infeasible.

In*ex`e*cu"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- not + execution: cf. F. inexécution.] Neglect of execution; nonperformance; as, the inexecution of a treaty. Spence.

In`ex*er"tion (?), n. Want of exertion; want of effort; defect of action; indolence; laziness.

In`ex*hal"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being exhaled. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

In`ex*haust"ed (?), a. [Pref. in- not + exhausted: cf. F. inexhaustus.] Not exhausted; not emptied; not spent; not having lost all strength or resources; unexhausted. Dryden.

In`ex*haust"ed*ly, adv. Without exhaustion.

In`ex*haust`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being inexhaustible; abundance.

In`ex*haust"i*ble (?), a. Incapable of being exhausted, emptied, or used up; unfailing; not to be wasted or spent; as, inexhaustible stores of provisions; an inexhaustible stock of elegant words. Dryden.

An inexhaustible store of anecdotes.


-- In`ex*haust"i*ble*ness, n. -- In`ex*haust"i*bly, adv.

In`ex*haust"ive (?), a. Inexhaustible. Thomson.

In`ex*ist" (?), v. i. [Pref. in- in + exist.] To exist within; to dwell within. [Obs.]

Substances inexisting within the divine mind.

A. Tucker.

In`ex*ist"ant (?), a. [Cf. F. inexistant. See 1st Inexistent.] Inexistent; not existing. [Obs.] Gudworth.

In`ex*ist"ence (?), n. [Pref. in- in + existence.] [Obs.] (a) Inherence; subsistence. Bp. Hall. (b) That which exists within; a constituent. A. Tucker.

In`ex*ist"ence, n. [Pref. in- in + existence: cf. F. inexistence.] Want of being or existence.

In`ex*ist"ent (?), a. [Pref. in- in + existent: cf. F. inexistant.] Not having being; not existing.

In`ex*ist"ent, a. [Pref. in- in + existent.] Inherent; innate; indwelling. Boyle.

In*ex`o*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. inexorabilitas: cf. F. inexorabilité.] The quality of being inexorable, or unyielding to entreaty. Paley.

In*ex"o*ra*ble (?), a. [L. inexorabilis: cf. F. inexorable. See In- not, and Exorable, Adore.] Not to be persuaded or moved by entreaty or prayer; firm; determined; unyielding; unchangeable; inflexible; relentless; as, an inexorable prince or tyrant; an inexorable judge. "Inexorable equality of laws." Gibbon. "Death's inexorable doom." Dryden.

You are more inhuman, more inexorable,
O, ten times more than tigers of Hyrcania.


In*ex"o*ra*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being inexorable. Chillingworth.

In*ex"o*ra*bly, adv. In an inexorable manner; inflexibly. "Inexorably firm." Thomson.

In`ex*pan"si*ble (?), a. Incapable of expansion, enlargement, or extension. Tyndall.

In`ex*pect"a*ble (?), a. Not to be expected or anticipated. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In"ex*pect"ant (?), a. Not expectant. C. Bronté.

In*ex`pec*ta"tion (?), n. Absence of expectation. Feltham.

In`ex*pect"ed (?), a. [Pref. in- not + expected: cf. L. inexspectatus.] Unexpected. [Obs.]

In`ex*pect"ed*ly, adv. Unexpectedly. [Obs.]

In`ex*pect"ed*ness, n. Unexpectedness. [Obs.]

{ In`ex*pe"di*ence (?), In`ex*pe"di*en*cy (?), } n. The quality or state of being inexpedient; want of fitness; unsuitableness to the end or object; impropriety; as, the inexpedience of some measures.

It is not the rigor but the inexpediency of laws and acts of authority which makes them tyrannical.


In`ex*pe"di*ent (?), a. Not expedient; not tending to promote a purpose; not tending to the end desired; inadvisable; unfit; improper; unsuitable to time and place; as, what is expedient at one time may be inexpedient at another.

If it was not unlawful, yet it was highly inexpedient to use those ceremonies.

Bp. Burnet.

Syn. -- Unwise; impolitic; imprudent; indiscreet; unprofitable; inadvisable; disadvantageous.

In`ex*pe"di*ent*ly (?), adv. Not expediently; unfitly.

In`ex*pen"sive (?), a. Not expensive; cheap.

In`ex*pe"ri*ence (?), n. [L. inexperientia, cf. F. inexpérience. See In- not, and Experience.] Absence or want of experience; lack of personal and experimental knowledge; as, the inexperience of youth.

Failings which are incident to youth and inexperience.


Prejudice and self-sufficiency naturally proceed from inexperience of the world, and ignorance of mankind.


In`ex*pe"ri*enced (?), a. Not having experience; unskilled. "Inexperienced youth." Cowper.

In`ex*pert" (?), a. [L. inexpertus inexperienced: cf. F. inexpert. See In- not, and Expert.]

1. Destitute of experience or of much experience. [Obs.] Milton.

2. Not expert; not skilled; destitute of knowledge or dexterity derived from practice. Akenside.

In`ex*pert"ness, n. Want of expertness or skill.

In*ex"pi*a*ble (?), a. [L. inexpiabilis: cf. F. inexpiable. See In- not, and Expiable.]

1. Admitting of no expiation, atonement, or satisfaction; as, an inexpiable crime or offense. Pomfret.

2. Incapable of being mollified or appeased; relentless; implacable. [Archaic] "Inexpiable hate." Milton.

They are at inexpiable war with all establishments.


In*ex"pi*a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being inexpiable.

In*ex"pi*a*bly, adv. In an inexpiable manner of degree; to a degree that admits of no atonement.

In*ex"pi*ate (?), a. [L. inexpiatus. See In- not, and Expiate.] Not appeased or placated. [Obs.]

To rest inexpiate were much too rude a part.


In`ex*plain"a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + explainable; cf. L. inexplanabilis.] Incapable of being explained; inexplicable.

In*ex"ple*a*bly (?), adv. [Cf. L. inexplebilis; pref. in- not + explere to fill up. See Expletion.] Insatiably. [Obs.] Sandys.

In*ex`pli*ca*bil"i*ty, n. [Cf. F. inexplicabilité.] The quality or state of being inexplicable. H. Spencer.

In*ex"pli*ca*ble (?), a. [L. inexplicabilis: cf. F. inexplicable. See In- not, and Explicable.] Not explicable; not explainable; incapable of being explained, interpreted, or accounted for; as, an inexplicable mystery. "An inexplicable scratching." Cowper.

Their reason is disturbed; their views become vast and perplexed, to others inexplicable, to themselves uncertain.


In*ex"pli*ca*ble*ness, n. A state of being inexplicable; inexplicability.

In*ex"pli*ca*bly, adv. In an inexplicable manner.

In`ex*plic"it (?), a. [L. inexplicitus: cf. F. inexplicite. See In- not, and Explicit.] Not explicit; not clearly stated; indefinite; vague.

In`ex*plor"a*ble (?), a. Incapable of being explored, searched out, or discovered. Sir G. Buck.

In`ex*plo"sive (?), a. Not explosive.

In`ex*po"sure (?; 135), n. A state of not being exposed.

In`ex*press"i*ble (?), a. Not capable of expression or utterance in language; ineffable; unspeakable; indescribable; unutterable; as, inexpressible grief or pleasure. "Inexpressible grandeur." Blair.

In orbs
Of circuit inexpressible they stood.


In`ex*press"i*bles (?), n. pl. Breeches; trousers. [Colloq. or Slang] Ld. Lytton.

In`ex*press"i*bly, adv. In an inexpressible manner or degree; unspeakably; unutterably. Spectator.

In`ex*press"ive (?), a. 1. Inexpressible. [R.]

2. Without expression or meaning; not expressive; dull; unintelligent; as, an inexpressive countenance.

In`ex*press"ive*ness, n. The state or quality of being inexpressive.

In`ex*pug"na*ble (?), a. [L. inexpugnabilis: cf. F. inexpugnable. See In- not, and Expugnable.] Incapable of being subdued by force; impregnable; unconquerable. Burke.

A fortress, inexpugnable by the arts of war.


In`ex*pug"na*bly, adv. So as to be inexpugnable; in an inexpugnable manner. Dr. H. More.

In`ex*su"per*a*ble (?), a. [L. inexsuperabilis; pref. in- not + exsuperabilis that may be surmounted. See In- not, Ex-, and Superable.] Not capable of being passed over; insuperable; insurmountable.

In`ex*tend"ed (?), a. Not extended.

In`ex*ten"si*ble (?), a. Not capable of being extended; not elastic; as, inextensible fibers.

In`ex*ten"sion (?), n. Want of extension; unextended state.

In`ex*ter"mi*na*ble (?), a. [L. inexterminabilis. See In- not, and Exterminate.] Incapable of extermination. Rush.

In`ex*tinct" (?), a. [L. inextinctus, inexstinctus. See Extinct.] Not quenched; not extinct.

In`ex*tin"gui*ble (?), a. [L. inexstinguibilis: cf. F, inextinguible. See Inextinct.] Inextinguishable. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

In`ex*tin"guish*a*ble (?), a. Not capable of being extinguished; extinguishable; unquenchable; as, inextinguishable flame, light, thirst, desire, feuds. "Inextinguishable rage." Milton.

In`ex*tin"guish*a*bly, adv. So as not to be extinguished; in an inextinguishable manner.

In`ex*tir"pa*ble (?), a. [L. inexstirpabilis: cf. F. inextirpable. See In- not, and Extirpate.] Not capable of being extirpated or rooted out; ineradicable.

In*ex"tri*ca*ble (?), a. [L. inextricabilis: cf. F. inextricable. See In- not, and Extricate.]

1. Incapable of being extricated, untied, or disentangled; hopelessly intricate, confused, or obscure; as, an inextricable knot or difficulty; inextricable confusion.

Lost in the wild, inextricable maze.


2. Inevitable. [R.] "Fate inextricable." Milton.

<! p. 758 !>

In*ex"tri*ca*ble*ness (?), n. The state of being inextricable.

In*ex"tri*ca*bly, adv. In an inextricable manner.

In*eye" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ineyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ineyeing.] [Pref. in- in + eye.] To ingraft, as a tree or plant, by the insertion of a bud or eye; to inoculate.

The arts of grafting and ineying.

J. Philips.

In*fab"ri*ca`ted (?), a. Not fabricated; unwrought; not artificial; natural. [Obs.]

In*fal"li*bil*ist (?), n. One who accepts or maintains the dogma of papal infallibility.

In*fal`li*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. infaillibilité.] The quality or state of being infallible, or exempt from error; inerrability.

Infallibility is the highest perfection of the knowing faculty.


Papal infallibility (R. C. Ch.), the dogma that the pope can not, when acting in his official character of supreme pontiff, err in defining a doctrine of Christian faith or rule of morals, to be held by the church. This was decreed by the Ecumenical Council at the Vatican, July 18, 1870.

In*fal"li*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + fallible: cf. F. infallible.]

1. Not fallible; not capable of erring; entirely exempt from liability to mistake; unerring; inerrable. Dryden.

2. Not liable to fail, deceive, or disappoint; indubitable; sure; certain; as, infallible evidence; infallible success; an infallible remedy.

To whom also he showed himself alive, after his passion, by many infallible proofs.

Acts i. 3.

3. (R. C. Ch.) Incapable of error in defining doctrines touching faith or morals. See Papal infallibility, under Infallibility.

In*fal"li*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being infallible; infallibility. Bp. Hall.

In*fal"li*bly, adv. In an infallible manner; certainly; unfailingly; unerringly. Blair.

In*fame" (?), v. t. [L. infamare, fr. infamis infamous: cf. F. infamer, It. infamare. See Infamous.] To defame; to make infamous. [Obs.] Milton.

Livia is infamed for the poisoning of her husband.


In"fa*mize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infamized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infamizing (?).] To make infamous; to defame. [R.] Coleridge.

In"fa*mous (?), a. [Pref. in- not + famous: cf. L. infamis. See Infamy.]

1. Of very bad report; having a reputation of the worst kind; held in abhorrence; guilty of something that exposes to infamy; base; notoriously vile; detestable; as, an infamous traitor; an infamous perjurer.

False errant knight, infamous, and forsworn.


2. Causing or producing infamy; deserving detestation; scandalous to the last degree; as, an infamous act; infamous vices; infamous corruption. Macaulay.

3. (Law) Branded with infamy by conviction of a crime; as, at common law, an infamous person can not be a witness.

4. Having a bad name as being the place where an odious crime was committed, or as being associated with something detestable; hence, unlucky; perilous; dangerous. "Infamous woods." P. Fletcher.

Infamous hills, and sandy perilous wilds.


The piny shade
More infamous by cursed Lycaon made.


Syn. -- Detestable; odious; scandalous; disgraceful; base; vile; shameful; ignominious.

In"fa*mous*ly, adv. In an infamous manner or degree; scandalously; disgracefully; shamefully.

The sealed fountain of royal bounty which had been infamously monopolized and huckstered.


In"fa*mous*ness, n. The state or quality of being infamous; infamy.

In"fa*my (?), n.; pl. Infamies (#). [L. infamia, fr. infamis infamous; pref. in- not + fama fame: cf. F. infamie. See Fame.]

1. Total loss of reputation; public disgrace; dishonor; ignominy; indignity.

The afflicted queen would not yield, and said she would not . . . submit to such infamy.

Bp. Burnet.

2. A quality which exposes to disgrace; extreme baseness or vileness; as, the infamy of an action.

3. (Law) That loss of character, or public disgrace, which a convict incurs, and by which he is at common law rendered incompetent as a witness.

In"fan*cy (?), n. [L. infantia: cf. F. enfance. See Infant.]

1. The state or period of being an infant; the first part of life; early childhood.

The babe yet lies in smiling infancy.


Their love in early infancy began.


2. The first age of anything; the beginning or early period of existence; as, the infancy of an art.

The infancy and the grandeur of Rome.


3. (Law) The state or condition of one under age, or under the age of twenty-one years; nonage; minority.

In*fan"dous (?), a. [L. infandus; pref. in- not + fari to speak.] Too odious to be expressed or mentioned. [Obs.] Howell.

In*fang"thef (?), n. [AS. in-fangen- þeóf; in in, into + fangen taken (p. p. of fn to take) + þeóf thief.] (O. Eng. Law) The privilege granted to lords of certain manors to judge thieves taken within the seigniory of such lords. Cowell.

In"fant (?), n. [L. infans; pref. in- not + fari to speak: cf. F. enfant, whence OE. enfaunt. See Fame, and cf. Infante, Infanta.] 1. A child in the first period of life, beginning at his birth; a young babe; sometimes, a child several years of age.

And tender cries of infants pierce the ear.

C. Pitt.

2. (Law) A person who is not of full age, or who has not attained the age of legal capacity; a person under the age of twenty-one years; a minor.

An infant under seven years of age is not penally responsible; between seven and fourteen years of age, he may be convicted of a malicious offense if malice be proved. He becomes of age on the day preceding his twenty-first birthday, previous to which time an infant has no capacity to contract.

3. Same as Infante. [Obs.] Spenser.

In"fant (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to infancy, or the first period of life; tender; not mature; as, infant strength.

2. Intended for young children; as, an infant school.

In"fant, v. t. [Cf. F. enfanter.] To bear or bring forth, as a child; hence, to produce, in general. [Obs.]

This worthy motto, "No bishop, no king," is . . . infanted out of the same fears.


||In*fan"ta (?), n. [Sp. & Pg., fem. of infante. See Infante.] A title borne by every one of the daughters of the kings of Spain and Portugal, except the eldest.

||In*fan"te (?), n. [Sp. & Pg. See Infant.] A title given to every one of sons of the kings of Spain and Portugal, except the eldest or heir apparent.

In"fant*hood (?), n. Infancy. [R.]

In*fan"ti*ci`dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to infanticide; engaged in, or guilty of, child murder.

In*fan"ti*cide (?), n. [L. infanticidium child murder; infans, -antis, child + caedere to kill: cf. F. infanticide. See Infant, and Homicide.] The murder of an infant born alive; the murder or killing of a newly born or young child; child murder.

In*fan"ti*cide, n. [L. infanticida: cf. F. infanticide.] One who commits the crime of infanticide; one who kills an infant.

In"fan*tile (?; 277), a. [L. infantilis: cf. F. infantile. See Infant.] Of or pertaining to infancy, or to an infant; similar to, or characteristic of, an infant; childish; as, infantile behavior.

In"fan*tine (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. enfantin.] Infantile; childish.

A degree of credulity next infantine.


In"fant*like` (?), a. Like an infant. Shak.

In"fant*ly, a. Like an infant. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

In"fan*try (?), n. [F. infanterie, It. infanteria, fr. infante infant, child, boy servant, foot soldier, fr. L. infans, - antis, child; foot soldiers being formerly the servants and followers of knights. See Infant.]

1. A body of children. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

2. (Mil.) A body of soldiers serving on foot; foot soldiers, in distinction from cavalry.

In*farce" (?), v. t. [L. infarcire: pref. in- in + farcire, fartum and farctum, to stuff, cram.] To stuff; to swell. [Obs.]

The body is infarced with . . . watery humors.

Sir T. Elyot.

In*farc"tion (?), n. [See Infarce.] The act of stuffing or filling; an overloading and obstruction of any organ or vessel of the body; constipation.

In"fare` (?), n. [AS. infær entrance.] A house-warming; especially, a reception, party, or entertainment given by a newly married couple, or by the husband upon receiving the wife to his house. [Written also infair.] [Scot., & Local, U. S.]

In*fash"ion*a*ble, a. Unfashionable. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

In*fat"i*ga*ble (?), a. [L. infatigabilis: cf. F. infatigable.] Indefatigable. [Obs.] Daniel.

In*fat"u*ate (?; 135), a. [L. infatuatus, p. p. of infatuare to infatuate; pref. in- in + fatuus foolish. See Fatuous.] Infatuated. Bp. Hall.

In*fat"u*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infatuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infatuating.]

1. To make foolish; to affect with folly; to weaken the intellectual powers of, or to deprive of sound judgment.

The judgment of God will be very visible in infatuating a people . . . ripe and prepared for destruction.


2. To inspire with a foolish and extravagant passion; as, to be infatuated with gaming.

The people are . . . infatuated with the notion.


In*fat"u*a`ted (?), a. Overcome by some foolish passion or desire; affected by infatuation.

In*fat`u*a"tion (?), n. [LL. infatuatio: cf. F. infatuation.] The act of infatuating; the state of being infatuated; folly; that which infatuates.

The infatuations of the sensual and frivolous part of mankind are amazing; but the infatuations of the learned and sophistical are incomparably more so.

I. Taylor.

Such is the infatuation of self- love.


In*faust" (?), a. [L. infaustus; pref. in- not + faustus fortunate, lucky.] Not favorable; unlucky; unpropitious; sinister. [R.] Ld. Lytton.

In*faust"ing (?), n. The act of making unlucky; misfortune; bad luck. [Obs.] Bacon.

In*fea`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state of being infeasible; impracticability.

In*fea"si*ble (?), a. Not capable of being done or accomplished; impracticable. Glanvill.

In*fea"si*ble*ness, n. The state of quality of being infeasible; infeasibility. W. Montagu.

In*fect" (?), a. [L. infectus: cf. F. infect. See Infect, v. t.] Infected. Cf. Enfect. [Obs.] Shak.

In*fect", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infected; p. pr. & vb. n. Infecting.] [L. infectus, p. p. of inficere to put or dip into, to stain, infect; pref. in- in + facere to make; cf. F. infecter. See Fact.]

1. To taint with morbid matter or any pestilential or noxious substance or effluvium by which disease is produced; as, to infect a lancet; to infect an apartment.

2. To affect with infectious disease; to communicate infection to; as, infected with the plague.

Them that were left alive being infected with this disease.

Sir T. North.

3. To communicate to or affect with, as qualities or emotions, esp. bad qualities; to corrupt; to contaminate; to taint by the communication of anything noxious or pernicious. Cowper.

Infected Ston's daughters with like heat.


4. (Law) To contaminate with illegality or to expose to penalty.

Syn. -- To poison; vitiate; pollute; defile.

In*fect"er (?), n. One who, or that which, infects.

In*fect"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being infected.

In*fec"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. infection, L. infectio a dyeing.]

1. The act or process of infecting.

There was a strict order against coming to those pits, and that was only to prevent infection.

De Foe.

2. That which infects, or causes the communicated disease; any effluvium, miasm, or pestilential matter by which an infectious disease is caused.

And that which was still worse, they that did thus break out spread the infection further by their wandering about with the distemper upon them.

De Foe.

3. The state of being infected; contamination by morbific particles; the result of infecting influence; a prevailing disease; epidemic.

The danger was really very great, the infection being so very violent in London.

De Foe.

4. That which taints or corrupts morally; as, the infection of vicious principles.

It was her chance to light
Amidst the gross infections of those times.


5. (Law) Contamination by illegality, as in cases of contraband goods; implication.

6. Sympathetic communication of like qualities or emotions; influence.

Through all her train the soft infection ran.


Mankind are gay or serious by infection.


Syn. -- Infection, Contagion. -- Infection is often used in a definite and limited sense of the transmission of affections without direct contact of individuals or immediate application or introduction of the morbific agent, in contradistinction to contagion, which then implies transmission by direct contact. Quain. See Contagious.

In*fec"tious (?), a. [Cf. F. infectieux.]

1. Having qualities that may infect; communicable or caused by infection; pestilential; epidemic; as, an infectious fever; infectious clothing; infectious air; infectious vices.

Where the infectious pestilence.


2. Corrupting, or tending to corrupt or contaminate; vitiating; demoralizing.

It [the court] is necessary for the polishing of manners . . . but it is infectious even to the best morals to live always in it.


3. (Law) Contaminating with illegality; exposing to seizure and forfeiture.

Contraband articles are said to be of an infectious nature.


4. Capable of being easily diffused or spread; sympathetic; readily communicated; as, infectious mirth.

The laughter was so genuine as to be infectious.

W. Black.

Syn. -- See Contagious.

In*fec"tious*ly, adv. In an infectious manner. Shak.

In*fec"tious*ness, n. The quality of being infectious.

In*fect"ive (?), a. [L. infectivus pertaining to dyeing.] Infectious. Beau. & Fl.

True love . . . hath an infective power.

Sir P. Sidney.

In*fec"und (?), a. [L. infecundus: cf. F. infécond. See In- not, and Fecund.] Unfruitful; not producing young; barren; infertile. [Obs.] Evelyn.

In`fe*cun"di*ty (?), n. [L. infecunditas: cf. F. infécondité.] Want of fecundity or fruitfulness; barrenness; sterility; unproductiveness.

In`fe*cun"dous (?), a. [See Infecund.] Infertile; barren; unprofitable; unproductive. [Obs.] Glanvill.

In*fee"ble (?), v. t. See Enfeeble.

In`fe*lic"i*tous (?), a. Not felicitous; unhappy; unfortunate; not fortunate or appropriate in application; not well said, expressed, or done; as, an infelicitous condition; an infelicitous remark; an infelicitous description; infelicitous words.

In`fe*lic"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Infelicities (#). [L. infelicitas: cf. F. infélicité. See In- not, and Felicity.]

1. The state or quality of being infelicitous; unhappiness; misery; wretchedness; misfortune; want of suitableness or appropriateness. I. Watts.

Whatever is the ignorance and infelicity of the present state, we were made wise and happy.


2. That (as an act, word, expression, etc.) which is infelicitous; as, infelicities of speech.

In`fe*lo"ni*ous (?), a. Not felonious, malignant, or criminal. G. Eliot.

In"felt` (?), a. [Pref. in- in + felt.] Felt inwardly; heartfelt. [R.]

The baron stood afar off, or knelt in submissive, acknowledged, infelt inferiority.


In`feo*da"tion (?), n. (Law) See Infeudation.

In*feoff" (?), v. t. (Law) See Enfeoff.

In*feoff"ment (?), n. (Law) See Enfeoffment.

In*fer" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inferred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inferring.] [L. inferre to bring into, bring forward, occasion, infer; pref. in- in + ferre to carry, bring: cf. F. inférer. See 1 st Bear.]

1. To bring on; to induce; to occasion. [Obs.] Harvey.

2. To offer, as violence. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. To bring forward, or employ as an argument; to adduce; to allege; to offer. [Obs.]

Full well hath Clifford played the orator,
Inferring arguments of mighty force.


4. To derive by deduction or by induction; to conclude or surmise from facts or premises; to accept or derive, as a consequence, conclusion, or probability; to imply; as, I inferred his determination from his silence.

To infer is nothing but by virtue of one proposition laid down as true, to draw in another as true.


Such opportunities always infer obligations.


5. To show; to manifest; to prove. [Obs.]

The first part is not the proof of the second, but rather contrariwise, the second inferreth well the first.

Sir T. More.

This doth infer the zeal I had to see him.


<! p. 759 !>

In*fer"a*ble (n*fr"*b'l or n*fr"-; 277), a. Capable of being inferred or deduced from premises. [Written also inferrible.] H. Spencer.

A sufficient argument . . . is inferable from these premises.


In"fer*ence (?), n. [From Infer.]

1. The act or process of inferring by deduction or induction.

Though it may chance to be right in the conclusions, it is yet unjust and mistaken in the method of inference.


2. That which inferred; a truth or proposition drawn from another which is admitted or supposed to be true; a conclusion; a deduction. Milton.

These inferences, or conclusions, are the effects of reasoning, and the three propositions, taken all together, are called syllogism, or argument.

I. Watts.

Syn. -- Conclusion; deduction; consequence. -- Inference, Conclusion. An inference is literally that which is brought in; and hence, a deduction or induction from premises, -- something which follows as certainly or probably true. A conclusion is stronger than an inference; it shuts us up to the result, and terminates inquiry. We infer what is particular or probable; we conclude what is certain. In a chain of reasoning we have many inferences, which lead to the ultimate conclusion. "An inference is a proposition which is perceived to be true, because of its connection with some known fact." "When something is simply affirmed to be true, it is called a proposition; after it has been found to be true by several reasons or arguments, it is called a conclusion." I. Taylor.

In`fer*en"tial (?), a. Deduced or deducible by inference. "Inferential proofs." J. S. Mill.

In`fer*en"tial*ly, adv. By way of inference.

||In*fe"ri*æ (?), n. pl. [L., fr. inferus underneath.] (Rom. Antiq.) Sacrifices offered to the souls of deceased heroes or friends.

In*fe"ri*or (?), a. [L., compar. of inferus that is below, underneath, the lower; akin to E. under: cf. F. inférieur. See Under.]

1. Lower in place, rank, excellence, etc.; less important or valuable; subordinate; underneath; beneath.

A thousand inferior and particular propositions.

I. Watts.

The body, or, as some love to call it, our inferior nature.


Whether they are equal or inferior to my other poems, an author is the most improper judge.


2. Poor or mediocre; as, an inferior quality of goods.

3. (Astron.) (a) Nearer the sun than the earth is; as, the inferior or interior planets; an inferior conjunction of Mercury or Venus. (b) Below the horizon; as, the inferior part of a meridian.

4. (Bot.) (a) Situated below some other organ; -- said of a calyx when free from the ovary, and therefore below it, or of an ovary with an adherent and therefore inferior calyx. (b) On the side of a flower which is next the bract; anterior.

5. (Min.) Junior or subordinate in rank; as, an inferior officer.

Inferior court (Law), a court subject to the jurisdiction of another court known as the superior, or higher, court. -- Inferior letter, Inferior figure (Print.), a small letter or figure standing at the bottom of the line (opposed to superior letter or figure), as in A2, Bn, 2 and n are inferior characters. -- Inferior tide, the tide corresponding to the moon's transit of the meridian, when below the horizon.

In*fe"ri*or, n. A person lower in station, rank, intellect, etc., than another.

A great person gets more by obliging his inferior than by disdaining him.


In*fe`ri*or"i*ty (?), [Cf. F. infériorité.] The state of being inferior; a lower state or condition; as, inferiority of rank, of talents, of age, of worth.

A deep sense of our own great inferiority.


In*fe"ri*or*ly (?), adv. In an inferior manner, or on the inferior part.

In*fer"nal (?), a. [F. infernal, L. infernalis, fr. infernus that which lies beneath, the lower. See Inferior.]

1. Of or pertaining to or suitable for the lower regions, inhabited, according to the ancients, by the dead; pertaining to Pluto's realm of the dead, the Tartarus of the ancients.

The Elysian fields, the infernal monarchy.


2. Of or pertaining to, resembling, or inhabiting, hell; suitable for hell, or to the character of the inhabitants of hell; hellish; diabolical; as, infernal spirits, or conduct.

The instruments or abettors in such infernal dealings.


Infernal machine, a machine or apparatus maliciously designed to explode, and destroy life or property. - - Infernal stone (lapis infernalis), lunar caustic; formerly so called. The name was also applied to caustic potash.

Syn. -- Tartarean; Stygian; hellish; devilish; diabolical; satanic; fiendish; malicious.

In*fer"nal, n. An inhabitant of the infernal regions; also, the place itself. [Obs.] Drayton.

In*fer"nal*ly, adv. In an infernal manner; diabolically. "Infernally false." Bp. Hacket.

In`fe*ro*bran"chi*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Inferobranchiata.

In`fe*ro*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Inferobranchiate.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of marine gastropod mollusks, in which the gills are between the foot and the mantle.

In`fe*ro*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [L. inferus lower + E. branchiate.] (Zoöl.) Having the gills on the sides of the body, under the margin of the mantle; belonging to the Inferobranchiata.

In*fer"ri*ble (?), a. Inferable.

In*fer"tile (?), a. [L. infertilis: cf. F. infertile. See In- not, and Fertile.] Not fertile; not productive; barren; sterile; as, an infertile soil.

In*fer"tile*ly, adv. In an infertile manner.

In`fer*til"i*ty (?), n. [L. infertilitas: cf. F. infertilité.] The state or quality of being infertile; unproductiveness; barrenness.

The infertility or noxiousness of the soil.

Sir M. Hale.

In*fest" (?), a. [L. infestus. See Infest, v. t.] Mischievous; hurtful; harassing. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*fest", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infested; p. pr. & vb. n. Infesting.] [L. infestare, fr. infestus disturbed, hostile, troublesome; in in, against + the root of defendere: cf. F. infester. See Defend.] To trouble greatly by numbers or by frequency of presence; to disturb; to annoy; to frequent and molest or harass; as, fleas infest dogs and cats; a sea infested with pirates.

To poison vermin that infest his plants.


These, said the genius, are envy, avarice, superstition, love, with the like cares and passions that infest human life.


And the cares, that infest the day,
Shall fold their tents, like the Arabs,
And as silently steal away.


In`fes*ta"tion (?), n. [L. infestatio: cf. F. infestation.] The act of infesting or state of being infested; molestation; vexation; annoyance. Bacon.

Free from the infestation of enemies.


In*fest"er (?), n. One who, or that which, infests.

In*fest"ive (?), a. [L. infestivus. See In- not, and Festive.] Having no mirth; not festive or merry; dull; cheerless; gloomy; forlorn. [R.]

In`fes*tiv"i*ty (?), n. Want of festivity, cheerfulness, or mirth; dullness; cheerlessness. [R.]

In*fes"tu*ous (?; 135), a. [L. infestus. See Infest, a.] Mischievous; harmful; dangerous. [Obs.] "Infestuous as serpents." Bacon.

In`feu*da"tion (?), n. [LL. infeudatio, fr. infeudare to enfeoff: cf. F. inféodation. See Feud a fief.]

1. (Law) The act of putting one in possession of an estate in fee. Sir M. Hale.

2. The granting of tithes to laymen. Blackstone.

In*fib`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. infibulare, infibulatum, to clasp, buckle, or button together; pref. in- in + fibula clasp, buckle: cf. F. infibulation.]

1. The act of clasping, or fastening, as with a buckle or padlock.

2. The act of attaching a ring, clasp, or frame, to the genital organs in such a manner as to prevent copulation.

In"fi*del (?), a. [L. infidelis; pref. in- not + fidelis faithful, fr. fides faith: cf. F. infidèle. See Fidelity.] Not holding the faith; -- applied esp. to one who does not believe in the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the supernatural origin of Christianity.

The infidel writer is a great enemy to society.

V. Knox.

In"fi*del, n. One who does not believe in the prevailing religious faith; especially, one who does not believe in the divine origin and authority of Christianity; a Mohammedan; a heathen; a freethinker.

Infidel is used by English writers to translate the equivalent word used Mohammedans in speaking of Christians and other disbelievers in Mohammedanism.

Syn. -- Infidel, Unbeliever, Freethinker, Deist, Atheist, Sceptic, Agnostic. An infidel, in common usage, is one who denies Christianity and the truth of the Scriptures. Some have endeavored to widen the sense of infidel so as to embrace atheism and every form of unbelief; but this use does not generally prevail. A freethinker is now only another name for an infidel. An unbeliever is not necessarily a disbeliever or infidel, because he may still be inquiring after evidence to satisfy his mind; the word, however, is more commonly used in the extreme sense. A deist believes in one God and a divine providence, but rejects revelation. An atheist denies the being of God. A sceptic is one whose faith in the credibility of evidence is weakened or destroyed, so that religion, to the same extent, has no practical hold on his mind. An agnostic remains in a state of suspended judgment, neither affirming nor denying the existence of a personal Deity.

In`fi*del"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Infidelities (&?;). [L. infidelitas: cf. F. infidélité.]

1. Want of faith or belief in some religious system; especially, a want of faith in, or disbelief of, the inspiration of the Scriptures, of the divine origin of Christianity.

There is, indeed, no doubt but that vanity is one of the principal causes of infidelity.

V. Knox.

2. Unfaithfulness to the marriage vow or contract; violation of the marriage covenant by adultery.

3. Breach of trust; unfaithfulness to a charge, or to moral obligation; treachery; deceit; as, the infidelity of a servant. "The infidelity of friends." Sir W. Temple.

In*field" (?), v. t. To inclose, as a field. [R.]

In"field` (?), n. 1. Arable and manured land kept continually under crop; -- distinguished from outfield. [Scotland] Jamieson.

2. (Baseball) The diamond; -- opposed to outfield. See Diamond, n., 5.

In*file" (?), v. t. To arrange in a file or rank; to place in order. [Obs.] Holland.

In*film" (?), v. t. To cover with a film; to coat thinly; as, to infilm one metal with another in the process of gilding; to infilm the glass of a mirror. [R.]

In*fil"ter (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Infiltered; p. pr. & vb. n. Infiltering.] [Cf. Infiltrate.] To filter or sift in.

In*fil"trate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Infiltrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infiltrating (?).] [Pref. in- + filtrate: cf. F, s'infiltrer. Cf. Infilter.] To enter by penetrating the pores or interstices of a substance; to filter into or through something.

The water infiltrates through the porous rock.


In*fil"trate, v. t. To penetrate gradually; -- sometimes used reflexively. J. S. Mill.

In`fil*tra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. infiltration.]

1. The act or process of infiltrating, as of water into a porous substance, or of a fluid into the cells of an organ or part of the body.

2. The substance which has entered the pores or cavities of a body. Addison.

Calcareous infiltrations filling the cavities.


Fatty infiltration. (Med.) See under Fatty. -- Infiltration gallery, a filter gallery.

In*fil"tra*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to infiltration. Kane.

In"fi*nite (?), a. [L. infinitus: cf. F. infini. See In- not, and Finite.]

1. Unlimited or boundless, in time or space; as, infinite duration or distance.

Whatever is finite, as finite, will admit of no comparative relation with infinity; for whatever is less than infinite is still infinitely distant from infinity; and lower than infinite distance the lowest or least can not sink.

H. Brooke.

2. Without limit in power, capacity, knowledge, or excellence; boundless; immeasurably or inconceivably great; perfect; as, the infinite wisdom and goodness of God; - - opposed to finite.

Great is our Lord, and of great power; his understanding is infinite.

Ps. cxlvii. 5.

O God, how infinite thou art!

I. Watts.

3. Indefinitely large or extensive; great; vast; immense; gigantic; prodigious.

Infinite riches in a little room.


Which infinite calamity shall cause
To human life.


4. (Math.) Greater than any assignable quantity of the same kind; -- said of certain quantities.

5. (Mus.) Capable of endless repetition; -- said of certain forms of the canon, called also perpetual fugues, so constructed that their ends lead to their beginnings, and the performance may be incessantly repeated. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

Syn. -- Boundless; immeasurable; illimitable; interminable; limitless; unlimited; endless; eternal.

In"fi*nite, n. 1. That which is infinite; boundless space or duration; infinity; boundlessness.

Not till the weight is heaved from off the air, and the thunders roll down the horizon, will the serene light of God flow upon us, and the blue infinite embrace us again.

J. Martineau.

2. (Math.) An infinite quantity or magnitude.

3. An infinity; an incalculable or very great number.

Glittering chains, embroidered richly o'er
With infinite of pearls and finest gold.


4. The Infinite Being; God; the Almighty.

In"fi*nite*ly, adv. 1. Without bounds or limits; beyond or below assignable limits; as, an infinitely large or infinitely small quantity.

2. Very; exceedingly; vastly; highly; extremely. "Infinitely pleased." Dryden.

In"fi*nite*ness, n. The state or quality of being infinite; infinity; greatness; immensity. Jer. Taylor.

In`fin*i*tes"i*mal (?), a. [Cf. F. infinitésimal, fr. infinitésime infinitely small, fr. L. infinitus. See Infinite, a.] Infinitely or indefinitely small; less than any assignable quantity or value; very small.

Infinitesimal calculus, the different and the integral calculus, when developed according to the method used by Leibnitz, who regarded the increments given to variables as infinitesimal.

In`fin*i*tes"i*mal, n. (Math.) An infinitely small quantity; that which is less than any assignable quantity.

In`fin*i*tes"i*mal*ly, adv. By infinitesimals; in infinitely small quantities; in an infinitesimal degree.

In*fin`i*ti"val (?), a. Pertaining to the infinite mood. "Infinitival stems." Fitzed. Hall.

In*fin"i*tive (?), n. [L. infinitivus: cf. F. infinitif. See Infinite.] Unlimited; not bounded or restricted; undefined.

Infinitive mood (Gram.), that form of the verb which merely names the action, and performs the office of a verbal noun. Some grammarians make two forms in English: (a) The simple form, as, speak, go, hear, before which to is commonly placed, as, to speak; to go; to hear. (b) The form of the imperfect participle, called the infinitive in -ing; as, going is as easy as standing.

With the auxiliary verbs may, can, must, might, could, would, and should, the simple infinitive is expressed without to; as, you may speak; they must hear, etc. The infinitive usually omits to with the verbs let, dare, do, bid, make, see, hear, need, etc.; as, let me go; you dare not tell; make him work; hear him talk, etc.

In Anglo-Saxon, the simple infinitive was not preceded by to (the sign of modern simple infinitive), but it had a dative form (sometimes called the gerundial infinitive) which was preceded by to, and was chiefly employed in expressing purpose. See Gerund, 2.

The gerundial ending (-anne) not only took the same form as the simple infinitive (-an), but it was confounded with the present participle in -ende, or -inde (later - inge).

In*fin"i*tive, n. (Gram.) An infinitive form of the verb; a verb in the infinitive mood; the infinitive mood.

In*fin"i*tive, adv. (Gram.) In the manner of an infinitive mood.

||In`fi*ni"to (?), a. [It.] (Mus.) Infinite; perpetual, as a canon whose end leads back to the beginning. See Infinite, a., 5.

In*fin"i*tude (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being infinite, or without limits; infiniteness.

2. Infinite extent; unlimited space; immensity; infinity. "I am who fill infinitude." Milton.

As pleasing to the fancy, as speculations of eternity or infinitude are to the understanding.


3. Boundless number; countless multitude. "An infinitude of distinctions." Addison.

In*fin"i*tu`ple (?), a. [Cf. Quadruple.] Multiplied an infinite number of times. [R.] Wollaston.

In*fin"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Infinities (#). [L. infinitas; pref. in- not + finis boundary, limit, end: cf. F. infinité. See Finite.]

1. Unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity; eternity; boundlessness; immensity. Sir T. More.

There can not be more infinities than one; for one of them would limit the other.

Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Unlimited capacity, energy, excellence, or knowledge; as, the infinity of God and his perfections. Hooker.

3. Endless or indefinite number; great multitude; as an infinity of beauties. Broome.

<! p. 760 !>

4. (Math.) A quantity greater than any assignable quantity of the same kind.

Mathematically considered, infinity is always a limit of a variable quantity, resulting from a particular supposition made upon the varying element which enters it. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.).

5. (Geom.) That part of a line, or of a plane, or of space, which is infinitely distant. In modern geometry, parallel lines or planes are sometimes treated as lines or planes meeting at infinity.

Circle at infinity, an imaginary circle at infinity, through which, in geometry of three dimensions, every sphere is imagined to pass. -- Circular points at infinity. See under Circular.

In*firm" (n*frm"), a. [L. infirmus: cf. F. infirme. See In- not, and Firm, a.] 1. Not firm or sound; weak; feeble; as, an infirm body; an infirm constitution.

A poor, infirm, weak, and despised old man.


2. Weak of mind or will; irresolute; vacillating. "An infirm judgment." Burke.

Infirm of purpose!


3. Not solid or stable; insecure; precarious.

He who fixes on false principles treads or infirm ground.


Syn. -- Debilitated; sickly; feeble; decrepit; weak; enfeebled; irresolute; vacillating; imbecile.

In*firm", v. t. [L. infirmare : cf. F. infirmer.] To weaken; to enfeeble. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

In`fir*ma"ri*an (n`fr*m"r*an), n. A person dwelling in, or having charge of, an infirmary, esp. in a monastic institution.

In*firm"a*ry (n*frm"*r), n.; pl. Infirmaries (- rz). [Cf. OE. fermerie, OF. enfermerie, F. infirmerie, LL. infirmaria. See Infirm.] A hospital, or place where the infirm or sick are lodged and nursed gratuitously, or where out-patients are treated.

In*firm"a*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. infirmatif.] Weakening; annulling, or tending to make void. [Obs.]

In*firm"a*to*ry (?), n. An infirmary. [Obs.]

In*firm"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Infirmities (#). [L. infirmitas : cf. F. infirmite. See Infirm, a.] 1. The state of being infirm; feebleness; an imperfection or weakness; esp., an unsound, unhealthy, or debilitated state; a disease; a malady; as, infirmity of body or mind.

'T is the infirmity of his age.


2. A personal frailty or failing; foible; eccentricity; a weakness or defect.

Will you be cured of your infirmity ?


A friend should bear his friend's infirmities.


The house has also its infirmities.


Syn. -- Debility; imbecility; weakness; feebleness; failing; foible; defect; disease; malady. See Debility.

In*firm"ly, adv. In an infirm manner.

In*firm"ness, n. Infirmity; feebleness. Boyle.

In*fix" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infixed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infixing.] [L. infixus, p. p of infigere to infix; pref. in- in + figere to fix: cf. F. infixer. See Fix.] 1. To set; to fasten or fix by piercing or thrusting in; as, to infix a sting, spear, or dart. Shak.

The fatal dart a ready passage found,
And deep within her heart infixed the wound.


2. To implant or fix; to instill; to inculcate, as principles, thoughts, or instructions; as, to infix good principles in the mind, or ideas in the memory.

In"fix (?), n. Something infixed. [R.] Welsford.

In*flame" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inflamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inflaming.] [OE. enflamen, OF. enflamer, F. enflammer, L. inflammare, inflammatum; pref. in- in + flammare to flame, fr. flamma flame. See Flame.] 1. To set on fire; to kindle; to cause to burn, flame, or glow.

We should have made retreat
By light of the inflamed fleet.


2. Fig.: To kindle or intensify, as passion or appetite; to excite to an excessive or unnatural action or heat; as, to inflame desire.

Though more, it seems,
Inflamed with lust than rage.


But, O inflame and fire our hearts.


3. To provoke to anger or rage; to exasperate; to irritate; to incense; to enrage.

It will inflame you; it will make you mad.


4. (Med.) To put in a state of inflammation; to produce morbid heat, congestion, or swelling, of; as, to inflame the eyes by overwork.

5. To exaggerate; to enlarge upon. [Obs.]

A friend exaggerates a man's virtues, an enemy inflames his crimes.


Syn. -- To provoke; fire; kindle; irritate; exasperate; incense; enrage; anger; excite; arouse.

In*flame", v. i. To grow morbidly hot, congested, or painful; to become angry or incensed. Wiseman.

In*flamed" (?), p. a. 1. Set on fire; enkindled; heated; congested; provoked; exasperated.

2. (Her.) Represented as burning, or as adorned with tongues of flame.

In*flam"er (?n-flm\'b6?r), n. The person or thing that inflames. Addison.

In*flam"ma*bil"l*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inflammabilite.] Susceptibility of taking fire readily; the state or quality of being inflammable.

In*flam"ma*ble (?), a. [CF. F. inflammable.] 1. Capable of being easily set fire; easily enkindled; combustible; as, inflammable oils or spirits.

2. Excitable; irritable; irascible; easily provoked; as, an inflammable temper.

Inflammable air, the old chemical name for hydrogen.

In*flam"ma*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being inflammable; inflammability. Boyle.

In*flam"ma*bly (n*flm"m*bl), adv. In an inflammable manner.

In*flam*ma"tion (n*flm*m"shn), n. [L. inflammatio: cf. F. inflammation. See Inflame.] 1. The act of inflaming, kindling, or setting on fire; also, the state of being inflamed. "The inflammation of fat." Wilkins.

2. (Med.) A morbid condition of any part of the body, consisting in congestion of the blood vessels, with obstruction of the blood current, and growth of morbid tissue. It is manifested outwardly by redness and swelling, attended with heat and pain.

3. Violent excitement; heat; passion; animosity; turbulence; as, an inflammation of the mind, of the body politic, or of parties. Hooker.

In*flam"ma*tive (?), a. Inflammatory.

In*flam"ma*to*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. inflammatoire.] 1. Tending to inflame, kindle, or irritate.

2. Tending to excite anger, animosity, tumult, or sedition; seditious; as, inflammatory libels, writings, speeches, or publications. Burke.

3. (Med.) Accompanied with, or tending to cause, preternatural heat and excitement of arterial action; as, an inflammatory disease.

Inflammatory crust. (Med.) Same as Buffy coat, under Buffy. -- Inflammatory fever, a variety of fever due to inflammation.

In*flat"a*ble (?), a. That may be inflated.

In*flate" (?), p. a. [L. inflatus, p. p. of inflare to inflate; pref. in- in + flare to blow. See Blow to puff wind.] Blown in; inflated. Chaucer.

In*flate", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inflated; p. pr. & vb. n. Inflating.] 1. To swell or distend with air or gas; to dilate; to expand; to enlarge; as, to inflate a bladder; to inflate the lungs.

When passion's tumults in the bosom rise,
Inflate the features, and enrage the eyes.

J. Scott of Amwell.

2. Fig.: To swell; to puff up; to elate; as, to inflate one with pride or vanity.

Inflate themselves with some insane delight.


3. To cause to become unduly expanded or increased; as, to inflate the currency.

In*flate", v. i. To expand; to fill; to distend.

In*flat"ed (?), a. 1. Filled, as with air or gas; blown up; distended; as, a balloon inflated with gas.

2. Turgid; swelling; puffed up; bombastic; pompous; as, an inflated style.

Inflated and astrut with self- conceit.


3. (Bot.) Hollow and distended, as a perianth, corolla, nectary, or pericarp. Martyn.

4. Distended or enlarged fictitiously; as, inflated prices, etc.

In*flat"er (?), n. One who, or that which, inflates; as, the inflaters of the stock exchange.

In*flat"ing*ly, adv. In a manner tending to inflate.

In*fla"tion (?), n. [L. inflatio: cf. F. inflation.] 1. The act or process of inflating, or the state of being inflated, as with air or gas; distention; expansion; enlargement. Boyle.

2. The state of being puffed up, as with pride; conceit; vanity. B. Jonson.

3. Undue expansion or increase, from overissue; -- said of currency. [U.S.]

In*fla"tion*ist, n. One who favors an increased or very large issue of paper money. [U.S.]

||In*fla"tus (?), n. [L. See Inflate, v. t.] A blowing or breathing into; inflation; inspiration.

The divine breath that blows the nostrils out
To ineffable inflatus.

Mrs. Browning.

In*flect" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inflected; p. pr. & vb. n. Inflecting.] [L. inflectere, inflexum; pref. in- in + flectere to bend. See Flexible, and cf. Inflex.] 1. To turn from a direct line or course; to bend; to incline, to deflect; to curve; to bow.

Are they [the rays of the sun] not reflected, refracted, and inflected by one and the same principle ?

Sir I. Newton.

2. (Gram.) To vary, as a noun or a verb in its terminations; to decline, as a noun or adjective, or to conjugate, as a verb.

3. To modulate, as the voice.

In*flect"ed, a. 1. Bent; turned; deflected.

2. (Gram.) Having inflections; capable of, or subject to, inflection; inflective.

Inflected cycloid (Geom.), a prolate cycloid. See Cycloid.

In*flec"tion (?), n. [L. inflexio : cf. F. inflexion. See Inflect.] [Written also inflecxion.] 1. The act of inflecting, or the state of being inflected.

2. A bend; a fold; a curve; a turn; a twist.

3. A slide, modulation, or accent of the voice; as, the rising and the falling inflection.

4. (Gram.) The variation or change which words undergo to mark case, gender, number, comparison, tense, person, mood, voice, etc.

5. (Mus.) (a) Any change or modification in the pitch or tone of the voice. (b) A departure from the monotone, or reciting note, in chanting.

6. (Opt.) Same as Diffraction.

Point of inflection (Geom.), the point on opposite sides of which a curve bends in contrary ways.

In*flec"tion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to inflection; having, or characterized by, inflection. Max Müller.

In*flect"ive (?), a. 1. Capable of, or pertaining to, inflection; deflecting; as, the inflective quality of the air. Derham.

2. (Gram.) Inflectional; characterized by variation, or change in form, to mark case, tense, etc.; subject to inflection.

Inflective language (Philol.), a language like the Greek or Latin, consisting largely of stems with variable terminations or suffixes which were once independent words. English is both agglutinative, as, manlike, headache, and inflective, as, he, his, him. Cf. Agglutinative.

In*flesh" (?), v. t. To incarnate.

In*flex" (?), v. t. [Cf. Flex, Inflect.] To bend; to cause to become curved; to make crooked; to deflect. J. Philips.

In*flexed" (?), a. 1. Turned; bent. Feltham.

2. (Bot.) Bent or turned abruptly inwards, or toward the axis, as the petals of a flower.

In*flex"i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inflexibilité.] The quality or state of being inflexible, or not capable of being bent or changed; unyielding stiffness; inflexibleness; rigidity; firmness of will or purpose; unbending pertinacity; steadfastness; resoluteness; unchangeableness; obstinacy.

The inflexibility of mechanism.

A. Baxter.

That grave inflexibility of soul.


The purity and inflexibility of their faith.

T. Warton.

In*flex"i*ble (?), a. [L. inflexiblis: cf. F. inflexible. See In- not, and Flexible.] 1. Not capable of being bent; stiff; rigid; firm; unyielding.

2. Firm in will or purpose; not to be turned, changed, or altered; resolute; determined; unyieding; inexorable; stubborn.

"Inflexibleas steel."


A man of upright and inflexible temper . . . can overcome all private fear.


3. Incapable of change; unalterable; immutable.

The nature of things is inflexible.

I. Watts.

Syn. -- -- Unbending; unyielding; rigid; inexorable; pertinacious; obstinate; stubborn; unrelenting.

In*flex"i*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being inflexible; inflexibility; rigidity; firmness.

In*flex"i*bly, adv. In an inflexible manner.

In*flex"ion (?), n. Inflection.

In*flex"ive (?), a. 1. Inflective.

"Inflexive endings."

W. E. Jelf.

2. Inflexible. [R.] "Foes inflexive." Chapman.

In*flex"ure (?), n. An inflection; a bend or fold. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

In*flict" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inflicted; p. pr. & vb. n. Inflicting.] [L. inflictus, p. p. of infligere to strike on, to inflict; pref. in- in, on + fligere to strike. Cf. Flail.] To give, cause, or produce by striking, or as if by striking; to apply forcibly; to lay or impose; to send; to cause to bear, feel, or suffer; as, to inflict blows; to inflict a wound with a dagger; to inflict severe pain by ingratitude; to inflict punishment on an offender; to inflict the penalty of death on a criminal.

What heart could wish, what hand inflict, this dire disgrace?


The persecution and the pain
That man inflicts on all inferior kinds.


In*flict"er (?), n. One who inflicts.

God is the sole and immediate inflicter of such strokes.


In*flic"tion (?), n. [L. inflictio: cf. F. infliction.] 1. The act of inflicting or imposing; as, the infliction of torment, or of punishment.

2. That which is inflicted or imposed, as punishment, disgrace, calamity, etc.

His severest inflictions are in themselves acts of justice and righteousness.


In*flict"ive (?), a. [Cf. F. inflictif.] Causing infliction; acting as an infliction. Whitehead.

In`flo*res"cence (?), n. [L. inflorescens, p. pr. of inflorescere to begin to blossom; pref. in- in + florescere to begin to blossom: cf. F. inflorescence. See Florescent.] 1. A flowering; the putting forth and unfolding of blossoms.

2. (Bot.) (a) The mode of flowering, or the general arrangement and disposition of the flowers with reference to the axis, and to each other. (b) An axis on which all the buds are flower buds.

Inflorescence affords an excellent characteristic mark in distinguishing the species of plants.


Centrifugal inflorescence, determinate inflorescence. -- Centripetal inflorescence, indeterminate inflorescence. See under Determinate, and Indeterminate.

In*flow" (?), v. i. To flow in. Wiseman.

In"flu*ence (n"fl*ens), n. [F. influence, fr. L. influens, -entis, p. pr. See Influent, and cf. Influenza.] 1. A flowing in or upon; influx. [Obs.]

God hath his influence into the very essence of all things.


2. Hence, in general, the bringing about of an effect, physical or moral, by a gradual process; controlling power quietly exerted; agency, force, or tendency of any kind which affects, modifies, or sways; as, the influence which the sun exerts on animal and vegetable life; the influence of education on the mind; the influence, according to astrologers, of the stars over affairs.

Astrologers call the evil influences of the stars, evil aspects.


Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?

Job xxxviii. 31.

She said : "Ah, dearest lord! what evil star
On you hath frown'd, and poured, his influence bad?"


3. Power or authority arising from elevated station, excelence of character or intellect, wealth, etc.; reputation; acknowledged ascendency; as, he is a man of influence in the community.

Such influence hath your excellency.

Sir P. Sidney.

4. (Elec.) Induction.

Syn. -- Control; persuasion; ascendency; sway; power; authority; supremacy; mastery; management; restraint; character; reputation; prestige.

In"flu*ence, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Influenced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Influencing (?).] To control or move by power, physical or moral; to affect by gentle action; to exert an influence upon; to modify, bias, or sway; to move; to persuade; to induce.

These experiments succeed after the same manner in vacuo as in the open air, and therefore are not influenced by the weight or pressure of the atmosphere.

Sir I. Newton.

This standing revelation . . . is sufficient to influence their faith and practice, if they attend.


The principle which influenced their obedience has lost its efficacy.


<! p. 761 !>

In"flu*en*cer (n"fl*en*sr), n. One who, or that which, influences.

In"flu*en*cive (-sv), a. Tending to influence; influential.

In"flu*ent (-ent), a. [L. influens, -entis, p. pr. of influere, influxum, to flow in; pref. in- in + fluere to flow. See Fluid.] 1. Flowing in. "With influent tide." Cowper. "Influent odors." Mrs. Browning.

2. Exerting influence; influential. [Obs.]

I find no office by name assigned unto Dr. Cox, who was virtually influent upon all, and most active.


In`flu*en"tial (n`fl*n"shal), a. [See Influence.] Exerting or possessing influence or power; potent; efficacious; effective; strong; having authority or ascendency; as, an influential man, station, argument, etc.

A very influential Gascon prefix.


In`flu*en"tial*ly, adv. In an influential manner.

In`flu*en"za (?), n. [It. influenza influence, an epidemic formerly attributed by astrologers to the influence of the heavenly bodies, influenza. See Influence.] (Med.) An epidemic affection characterized by acute nasal catarrh, or by inflammation of the throat or the bronchi, and usually accompanied by fever.

In"flux` (?), n. [L. influxus, fr. influere, influxum, to flow in: cf. F. influx. See Influent.] 1. The act of flowing in; as, an influx of light.

2. A coming in; infusion; intromission; introduction; importation in abundance; also, that which flows or comes in; as, a great influx of goods into a country, or an influx of gold and silver.

The influx of food into the Celtic region, however, was far from keeping pace with the influx of consumers.


The general influx of Greek into modern languages.


3. Influence; power. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

In*flux"ion (?), n. [L. influxio : cf. F. influxion.] A flowing in; infusion. [R.] Bacon.

In*flux"ious (?), a. Influential. [Obs.]

In*flux"ive (?), a. Having a tendency to flow in; having influence; influential. [R.] Holdsworth.

In*flux"ive*ly, adv. By influxion. [R.]

In*fold" (?n-f?ld\'b6), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infolded; p. pr. & vb. n. Infolding.] [Pref. in- in + fold.] [Written also enfold.] 1. To wrap up or cover with folds; to envelop; to inwrap; to inclose; to involve.

Gilded tombs do worms infold.


Infold his limbs in bands.


2. To clasp with the arms; to embrace.

Noble Banquo, . . . let me infold thee,
And hold thee to my heart.


In*fold"ment (?), n. The act of infolding; the state of being infolded.

In*fo"li*ate (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + L. folium leaf.] To cover or overspread with, or as with, leaves. [R.] Howell.

In*form" (?), a. [L. informis; pref. in- not + forma form, shape: cf. F. informe] Without regular form; shapeless; ugly; deformed. Cotton.

In*form", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Informed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Informing.] [OE. enformen, OF. enformer, F. informer. L. informare; pref. in- in + formare to form, share, fr. forma form. See Form.] 1. To give form or share to; to give vital or organizing power to; to give life to; to imbue and actuate with vitality; to animate; to mold; to figure; to fashion. "The informing Word." Coleridge.

Let others better mold the running mass
Of metals, and inform the breathing brass.


Breath informs this fleeting frame.


Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part.


2. To communicate knowledge to; to make known to; to acquaint; to advise; to instruct; to tell; to notify; to enlighten; -- usually followed by of.

For he would learn their business secretly,
And then inform his master hastily.


I am informed thoroughly of the cause.


3. To communicate a knowledge of facts to, by way of accusation; to warn against anybody.

Tertullus . . . informed the governor against Paul.

Acts xxiv. 1.

Syn. -- To acquaint; apprise; tell; teach; instruct; enlighten; animate; fashion.

In*form", v. t. 1. To take form; to become visible or manifest; to appear. [Obs.]

It is the bloody business which informs
Thus to mine eyes.


2. To give intelligence or information; to tell. Shak.

He might either teach in the same manner, or inform how he had been taught.

Monthly Rev.

To inform against, to communicate facts by way of accusation against; to denounce; as, two persons came to the magistrate, and informed against A.

In*form"al (?), a. [Pref. in- not + formal.] 1. Not in the regular, usual, or established form; not according to official, conventional, prescribed, or customary forms or rules; irregular; hence, without ceremony; as, an informal writing, proceeding, or visit.

2. Deranged in mind; out of one's senses. [Obs.]

These poor informal women.


In`for*mal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Informalities (&?;). 1. The state of being informal; want of regular, prescribed, or customary form; as, the informality of legal proceedings.

2. An informal, unconventional, or unofficial act or proceeding; something which is not in proper or prescribed form or does not conform to the established rule.

In*form"al*ly (?), adv. In an informal manner.

In*form"ant (?), n. [L. informans, -antis, p. pr. of informare. See Inform, v. t.] 1. One who, or that which, informs, animates, or vivifies. [Obs.] Glanvill.

2. One who imparts information or instruction.

3. One who offers an accusation; an informer. See Informer. [Obs. or R.]

It was the last evidence of the kind; the informant
was hanged.


In`for*ma"tion (?), n. [F., fr. L. informatio representation, conception. See Inform, v. t.] 1. The act of informing, or communicating knowledge or intelligence.

The active informations of the intellect.


2. News, advice, or knowledge, communicated by others or obtained by personal study and investigation; intelligence; knowledge derived from reading, observation, or instruction.

Larger opportunities of information.


He should get some information in the subject he intends to handle.


3. (Law) A proceeding in the nature of a prosecution for some offense against the government, instituted and prosecuted, really or nominally, by some authorized public officer on behalf of the government. It differs from an indictment in criminal cases chiefly in not being based on the finding of a grand jury. See Indictment.

In*form"a*tive (?), a. Having power to inform, animate, or vivify. Dr. H. More.

In*form"a*to*ry (?), a. Full of, or conveying, information; instructive. [R.] London Spectator.

In*formed" (?n-f?rmd\'b6), a. Unformed or ill-formed; deformed; shapeless. [Obs.] Spenser.

Informed stars. See under Unformed.

In*form"er (?), n. [From Inform, v.] 1. One who informs, animates, or inspires. [Obs.] Thomson.

Nature, informer of the poet's art.


2. One who informs, or imparts knowledge or news.

3. (Law) One who informs a magistrate of violations of law; one who informs against another for violation of some law or penal statute.

Common informer (Law), one who habitually gives information of the violation of penal statutes, with a view to a prosecution therefor. Bouvier. Wharton.

In*for"mi*da*ble (?), a. [L. informidabilis. See In- not, and Formidable.] Not formidable; not to be feared or dreaded. [Obs.] "Foe not informidable." Milton.

In*form"i*ty (?), n. [L. informitas. See Inform, a.] Want of regular form; shapelessness. [Obs.]

In*form"ous (?), a. [See Inform, a.] Of irregular form; shapeless. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

In*for"tu*nate (?), a. [L. infortunatus.] Unlucky; unfortunate. [Obs.] Shak.

"A most infortunate chance."


-- In*for"tu*nate*ly, adv. [Obs.]

In*for"tune (?), n. [L. infortunium. See In- not, and Fortune.] Misfortune. [Obs.] Chaucer.

In*for"tuned (?), a. Unfortunate. [Obs.]

I, woeful wretch and infortuned wight.


In*found" (?), v. t. [L. infundere to pour in. See Infuse.] To pour in; to infuse. [Obs.] Sir T. More.

||In*"fra (?), adv. [L. Cf. Inferior.] Below; beneath; under; after; -- often used as a prefix.

In`fra-ax"il*la*ry (?), a. [Infra + axillary.] (Bot.) Situated below the axil, as a bud.

In`fra*bran"chi*al (?), a. [Infra + branchial.] (Zoöl.) Below the gills; -- applied to the ventral portion of the pallial chamber in the lamellibranchs.

In`fra*cla*vic"u*lar (?), a. [Infra + clavicular.] (Anat.) Below the clavicle; as, the infraclavicular fossa.

In*fract" (?n-frkt\'b6), a. [L. infractus; pref. in- not + fractus. p. p. of frangere to break.] Not broken or fractured; unharmed; whole. [Obs.] Chapman.

In*fract", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infracted; p. pr. & vb. n. Infracting.] [L. infractus, p. p. of of infringere. See Infringe.] To break; to infringe. [R.] Thomson.

In*fract"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being broken.[R.]

In*frac"tion (?), n. [L. infractio: cf. F. infraction.] The act of infracting or breaking; breach; violation; nonobservance; infringement; as, an infraction of a treaty, compact, rule, or law. I. Watts.

In*fract"or (?), n. [Cf. F. infracteur.] One who infracts or infringes; a violator; a breaker.

In*fra"grant (?), a. Not fragrant.

In`fra*hy"oid (?), a. [Infra + hyoid.] (Anat.) Same as Hyosternal (a).

In`fra*la"bi*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Below the lower lip; -- said of certain scales of reptiles and fishes.

In`fra*lap*sa"ri*an (?), n. [Infra + lapse: cf. F. infralapsaire. See Lapse.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of that class of Calvinists who consider the decree of election as contemplating the apostasy as past and the elect as being at the time of election in a fallen and guilty state; -- opposed to Supralapsarian. The former considered the election of grace as a remedy for an existing evil; the latter regarded the fall as a part of God's original purpose in regard to men.

In`fra*lap*sa"ri*an, a. (Theol.) Of or pertaining to the Infralapsarians, or to their doctrine.

In`fra*lap*sa"ri*an*ism (?), n. (Theor.) The doctrine, belief, or principles of the Infralapsarians.

In`fra*mar"gin*al (?), a. [Infra + marginal.] Below the margin; submarginal; as, an inframarginal convolution of the brain.

In`fra*max"il*la*ry (?), a. [Infra + maxillary.] (Anat.) (a) Under the lower jaw; submaxillary; as, the inframaxillary nerve. (b) Of or pertaining to the lower iaw.

In`fra*me"di*an (?), a. [Infra + median.] (Zoölogical Geog.) Of or pertaining to the interval or zone along the sea bottom, at the depth of between fifty and one hundred fathoms. E. Forbes.

In`fra*mun"dane (?), a. [Infra + mundane.] Lying or situated beneath the world.

In*fran"chise (?), v. t. See Enfranchise.

In*fran`gi*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being infrangible; infrangibleness.

In*fran"gi*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + grangible: cf. F. infrangible.] 1. Not capable of being broken or separated into parts; as, infrangible atoms.

[He] link'd their fetlocks with a golden band


2. Not to be infringed or violated.

In*fran"gi*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being infrangible; infrangibility.

In`fra*oc"u*lar (?), a. [Infra + ocular.] (Zoöl.) Situated below the eyes, as the antenna of certain insects.

In`fra*or"bit*al (?), a. [Infra + orbital.] (Anat.) Below the orbit; as, the infraorbital foramen; the infraorbital nerve.

In`fra*pose" (?), v. t. [Infra + pose.] To place under or beneath. [R.]

In`fra*po*si"tion (?), n. [Infra + position.] A situation or position beneath. Kane.

In`fra*scap"u*lar (?), a. [Infra + scapular.] (Anat.) Beneath the scapula, or shoulder blade; subscapular.

In`fra*spi"nal (?), a. [Infra + spinal.] (Anat.) (a) Below the vertebral column, subvertebral. (b) Below the spine; infraspinate; infraspinous.

{ In`fra*spi"nate (?), In`fra*spi*nous (?), } a. [Infra + spinate, spinous.] (Anat.) Below the spine; infraspinal; esp., below the spine of the scapula; as, the infraspinous fossa; the infraspinate muscle.

In`fra*sta*pe"di*al (?), a. [Infra + stapedial.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a part of the columella of the ear, which in many animals projects below the connection with the stapes. -- n. The infrastapedial part of the columella.

In`fra*ster"nal (?), a. [Infra + sternal.] (Anat.) Below the sternum; as, the infrasternal depression, or pit of the stomach.

In`fra*tem"po*ral (?), a. [Infra + temporal.] (Anat.) Below the temple; below the temporal bone.

In`fra*ter"ri*to"ri*al (?), a. [Infra + territorial.] Within the territory of a state. Story.

In`fra*troch"le*ar (?), a. [Infra + trochlear.] (Anat.) Below a trochlea, or pulley; -- applied esp. to one of the subdivisions of the trigeminal nerve.

{ In*fre"quence (?), In*fre"quen*cy (?), } n. [L. infrequentia scantiness : cf. F. infrequence.] 1. The state of rarely occuring; uncommonness; rareness; as, the infrequence of his visits.

2. The state of not being frequented; solitude; isolation; retirement; seclusion. [R.]

The solitude and infrequency of the place.

Bp. Hall.

In*fre"quent (?), a. [L. infrequens : cf. F. infrequent. See In- not, and Frequent.] Seldom happening or occurring; rare; uncommon; unusual.

The act whereof is at this day infrequent or out of use
among all sorts of men.

Sir T. Elyot.

In*fre"quent*ly (?), adv. Not frequently; rarely.

In*frig"i*date (?), v. t. [L. infrigidatus, p. p. of infrigidare to chill. See 1st In-, and Frigid.] To chill; to make cold; to cool. [Obs.] Boyle.

In*frig`i*da"tion (?), n. [L. infrigidatio.] The act of chilling or causing to become cold; a chilling; coldness; congelation. [Obs.] Boyle.

In*fringe" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infringed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infringing (?).] [L. infringere; pref. in- in + frangere to break. See Fraction, and cf. Infract .] 1. To break; to violate; to transgress; to neglect to fulfill or obey; as, to infringe a law or contract.

If the first that did the edict infringe,
Had answered for his deed.


The peace . . . was infringed by Appius Claudius.


2. To hinder; to destroy; as, to infringe efficacy; to infringe delight or power. [Obs.] Hooker.

In*fringe", v. i. 1. To break, violate, or transgress some contract, rule, or law; to injure; to offend.

2. To encroach; to trespass; -- followed by on or upon; as, to infringe upon the rights of another.

In*fringe"ment (?), n. 1. The act of infringing; breach; violation; nonfulfillment; as, the infringement of a treaty, compact, law, or constitution.

The punishing of this infringement is proper to that
jurisdiction against which the contempt is.


2. An encroachment on a patent, copyright, or other special privilege; a trespass.

In*frin"ger (?), n. One who infringes or violates; a violator. Strype.

In*fruc"tu*ose" (?), a. [L. infructuosus. See In- not, and Fruit.] Not producing fruit; unfruitful; unprofitable. [R.] T. Adams.

In*fru"gal (?), a. Not frugal; wasteful; as, an infrugal expense of time. J. Goodman.

In`fru*gif"er*ous (?), a. Not bearing fruit; not fructiferous.

In`fu*cate (?), v. t. [L. infucatus painted; pref. in- in + fucare to paint, dye. See Fucate.] To stain; to paint; to daub.

In`fu*ca"tion (?), n. The act of painting or staining, especially of painting the face.

||In"fu*la (?), n.; pl. Infule (#). [L.] A sort of fillet worn by dignitaries, priests, and others among the ancient Romans. It was generally white.

In"fu*mate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infumated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infumating.] [L. infumatus, p. p. of infumare to infumate; pref. in- in + fumare to smoke, fr. fumus smoke.] To dry by exposing to smoke; to expose to smoke.

In"fu*ma`ted (?), a. (Zoöl.) Clouded; having a cloudy appearance.

In`fu*ma"tion (?), n. Act of drying in smoke.

In*fumed" (?), a. Dried in smoke; smoked.

<! p. 762 !>

{ In`fun*dib"u*lar (?), In`fun*dib"u*late (?), } a. [See Infundibulum.] Having the form of a funnel; pertaining to an infundibulum.

Infundibulate Bryozoa (Zoöl.), a group of marine Bryozoa having a circular arrangement of the tentacles upon the disk.

In`fun*dib"u*li*form (?), a. [L. infundibulum funnel + -form: cf. F. infundibuliforme.] 1. Having the form of a funnel or cone; funnel-shaped.

2. (Bot.) Same as Funnelform.

||In`fun*dib"u*lum (?), n.; pl. L. Infundibula (#), E. Infundibulums (#). [L., a funnel, from infundere to pour in or into. See Infuse.] 1. (Anat.) A funnel-shaped or dilated organ or part; as, the infundibulum of the brain, a hollow, conical process, connecting the floor of the third ventricle with the pituitary body; the infundibula of the lungs, the enlarged terminations of the bronchial tubes.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) A central cavity in the Ctenophora, into which the gastric sac leads. (b) The siphon of Cephalopoda. See Cephalopoda.

In*fu"ner*al (?), v. t. To inter with funeral rites; to bury. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.

In`fur*ca"tion (?), n. [Pref. in- in + L. furca fork.] A forked expansion or divergence; a bifurcation; a branching. Craig.

In*fu"ri*ate (?), a. [It. infuriato, p. p. of infuriare. See Infuriate, v. t.] Enraged; raging; furiously angry; infuriated. Milton.

Inflamed beyond the most infuriate wrath.


In*fu"ri*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infuriated (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Infuriating] [It. infuriato, p. p. of infuriare; pref. in- (L. in) + furia fury, L. furia. See Fury.] To render furious; to enrage; to exasperate.

Those curls of entangled snakes with which Erinys is said to have infuriated Athemas and Ino.

Dr. H. More.

In*fu"ri*a`ted (?), a. Enraged; furious.

In*fus"cate (?), v. t. [L. infuscatus, p. p. of infuscare; pref. in- in + fuscare to make dark, fr. fuscus dark.] To darken; to make black; to obscure.

In*fus"ca*ted (?), a. (Zoöl.) Darkened with a blackish tinge.

In`fus*ca"tion (?), n. The act of darkening, or state of being dark; darkness; obscurity. Johnson.

In*fuse" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Infusing.] [L. infusus, p. p. of infundere to pour in or into; pref. in- in + fundere to pour: cf. F. infuser. See Found to cast.] 1. To pour in, as a liquid; to pour (into or upon); to shed.

That strong Circean liquor cease to infuse.


2. To instill, as principles or qualities; to introduce.

That souls of animals infuse themselves Into the trunks of men.


Why should he desire to have qualities infused into his son which himself never possessed?


3. To inspire; to inspirit or animate; to fill; -- followed by with.

Infuse his breast with magnanimity.


Infusing him with self and vain conceit.


4. To steep in water or other fluid without boiling, for the propose of extracting medicinal qualities; to soak.

One scruple of dried leaves is infused in ten ounces of warm water.


5. To make an infusion with, as an ingredient; to tincture; to saturate. [R.] Bacon.

In*fuse, n. Infusion. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*fus"er (?), n. One who, or that which, infuses.

In*fu`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. [From Infuse.] Capability of being infused, poured in, or instilled.

In*fu`si*bil"i*ty, n. [Pref. in- not + fusibility: cf. F. infusibilité.] Incapability or difficulty of being fused, melted, or dissolved; as, the infusibility of carbon.

In*fu"si*ble (?), a. [From Infuse, v.] Capable of being infused.

Doctrines being infusible into all.


In*fu"si*ble, a. [Pref. in- not + fusible: cf. F. infusible.] Not fusible; incapable or difficult of fusion, or of being dissolved or melted. Sir T. Browne.

The best crucibles are made of Limoges earth, which seems absolutely infusible.

Lavoisier (Trans. ).

In*fu"si*ble*ness, n. Infusibility.

In*fu"sion (?), n. [L. infusio a pouring in: cf. F. infusion. See Infuse, v. t.] 1. The act of infusing, pouring in, or instilling; instillation; as, the infusion of good principles into the mind; the infusion of ardor or zeal.

Our language has received innumerable elegancies and improvements from that infusion of Hebraisms.


2. That which is infused; suggestion; inspiration.

His folly and his wisdom are of his own growth, not the echo or infusion of other men.


3. The act of plunging or dipping into a fluid; immersion. [Obs.] "Baptism by infusion." Jortin.

4. (Pharmacy) (a) The act or process of steeping or soaking any substance in water in order to extract its virtues. (b) The liquid extract obtained by this process.

Sips meek infusion of a milder herb.


In*fu"sion*ism (?), n. The doctrine that the soul is preexistent to the body, and is infused into it at conception or birth; -- opposed to traducianism and creationism.

In*fu"sive (?), a. Having the power of infusion; inspiring; influencing.

The infusive force of Spirit on man.


||In`fu*so"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL.; -- so called because found in infusions which are left exposed to the air for a time. See Infuse.] (Zoöl.) One of the classes of Protozoa, including a large number of species, all of minute size.

They are found in all seas, lakes, ponds, and streams, as well as in infusions of organic matter exposed to the air. They are distinguished by having vibrating lashes or cilia, with which they obtain their food and swim about. They are devided into the orders Flagellata, Ciliata, and Tentaculifera. See these words in the Vocabulary.

Formely the term Infusoria was applied to all microscopic organisms found in water, including many minute plants, belonging to the diatoms, as well as minute animals belonging to various classes, as the Rotifera, which are worms; and the Rhizopoda, which constitute a distinct class of Protozoa. Fossil Infusoria are mostly the siliceous shells of diatoms; sometimes they are siliceous skeletons of Radiolaria, or the calcareous shells of Foraminifera.

In`fu*so"ri*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Infusoria; composed of, or containing, Infusoria; as, infusorial earth.

Infusorial earth (Geol.), a deposit of fine, usually white, siliceous material, composed mainly of the shells of the microscopic plants called diatoms. It is used in polishing powder, and in the manufacture of dynamite.

In`fu*so"ri*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Infusoria.

In*fu"so*ry (?), a. (Zoöl.) Infusorial.

In*fu"so*ry (?), n.; pl. Infusories (&?;). (Zoöl.) One of the Infusoria; -- usually in the pl.

-ing (?). 1. [For OE. -and, - end, -ind, AS. -ende; akin to Goth. -and-, L. -ant-, -ent-, Gr. &?;.] A suffix used to from present participles; as, singing, playing.

2. [OE. -ing, AS. -ing, - ung.] A suffix used to form nouns from verbs, and signifying the act of; the result of the act; as, riding, dying, feeling. It has also a secondary collective force; as, shipping, clothing.

The Old English ending of the present participle and verbal noun became confused, both becoming -ing.

3. [AS. -ing.] A suffix formerly used to form diminutives; as, lording, farthing.

Ing (?), n. [AS. ing.] A pasture or meadow; generally one lying low, near a river. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

In`gan*na"tion (?), n. [LL. ingannare to decieve.] Cheat; deception. [Obs.] Sir T. Brown.

In"gate` (&?;), n. 1. Entrance; ingress. [Obs.]

Which hath in charge the ingate of the year.


2. (Founding) The aperture in a mold for pouring in the metal; the gate. Simmonds.

In"gath`er*ing (?), n. The act or business of gathering or collecting anything; especially, the gathering of the fruits of the earth; harvest.

Thou shalt keep . . . the feast of ingathering.

Ex. xxii. 16.

In*gel"a*ble (?), a. Not congealable.

In*gem"i*nate (?), a. [L. ingeminatus, p. p.] Redoubled; repeated. Jer. Taylor.

In*gem"i*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingeminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ingeminating (?).] [L. ingeminatus, p. p. of ingeminare to double; pref. in- in + geminare. See Geminate.] To redouble or repeat; to reiterate. Clarendon.

. . . She yet ingeminates
The last of sounds, and what she hears relates.


In*gem`i*na"tion (?), n. Repetition; reduplication; reiteration. De Quincey.

That Sacred ingemination, Amen, Amen.


Happiness with an echo or ingemination.


||In*ge"na (?), n. (Zoöl.) The gorilla.

In*gen"der (?), v. t. See Engender.

In*gen`er*a*bil"l*ty (?), n. Incapacity of being engendered or produced. Cudworth.

In*gen"er*a*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + generable: cf. F. ingenerable.] Incapable of being engendered or produced; original. Holland.

In*gen"er*a*bly, adv. In an ingenerable manner.

In*gen"er*ate (?), a. [L. ingeneratus, p. p. of ingenerare. See engender] Generated within; inborn; innate; as, ingenerate powers of body. W. Wotton.

Those virtues were rather feigned and affected . . . than true qualities ingenerate in his judgment.


In*gen"er*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingenerat (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ingenerating (?).] To generate or produce within; to beget; to engender; to occasion; to cause. Mede.

Those noble habits are ingenerated in the soul.

Sir M. Hale.

In*gen`er*a"tion (?), n. Act of ingenerating.

In*ge"ni*ate (?), v. t. & i. [See Ingenious.] To invent; to contrive. [Obs.] Daniel.

In"ge*nie (?), n. [Obs.] See Ingeny.

In*ge`ni*os"i*ty (?), n. [LL. ingeniositas.] Ingenuity; skill; cunning. [Obs.] Cudworth.

In*gen"ious (?), a. [L. ingeniosus, fr. ingenium innate or natural quality, natural capacity, genius: cf. F. ingénieux. See Engine.] 1. Possessed of genius, or the faculty of invention; skillful or promp to invent; having an aptitude to contrive, or to form new combinations; as, an ingenious author, mechanic.

A man . . . very wise and ingenious in feats of war.


Thou, king, send out
For torturers ingenious.


The more ingenious men are, the more apt are they to trouble themselves.

Sir W. Temple.

2. Proceeding from, pertaining to, or characterized by, genius or ingenuity; of curious design, structure, or mechanism; as, an ingenious model, or machine; an ingenious scheme, contrivance, etc.

Thus men go wrong with an ingenious skill.


3. Witty; shrewd; adroit; keen; sagacious; as, an ingenious reply.

4. Mental; intellectual. [Obs.]

A course of learning and ingenious studies.


In*gen"ious*ly (?), adv. In an ingenious manner; with ingenuity; skillfully; wittily; cleverly.

"Too ingeniously politic."

Sir W. Temple.

In*gen"ious*ness, n. The quality or state of being ingenious; ingenuity.

{ In*gen"ite, In*gen"it } (?), a. [L. ingenitus, p. p. of ingignere to instill by birth or nature; pref. in- + gignere to beget.] Innate; inborn; inbred; inherent; native; ingenerate. [Obs.]

It is natural or ingenite, which comes by some defect of the organs and overmuch brain.


In`ge*nu"i*ty (?), n. [L. ingenuitas ingenuousness: cf. F. ingénuité. See Ingenuous.] 1. The quality or power of ready invention; quickness or acuteness in forming new combinations; ingeniousness; skill in devising or combining.

All the means which human ingenuity has contrived.


2. Curiousness, or cleverness in design or contrivance; as, the ingenuity of a plan, or of mechanism.

He gives . . .
To artist ingenuity and skill.


3. Openness of heart; ingenuousness. [Obs.]

The stings and remorses of natural ingenuity, a principle that men scarcely ever shake off, as long as they carry anything of human nature about them.


Syn. -- Inventiveness; ingeniousness; skill; cunning; cleverness; genius. -- Ingenuity, Cleverness. Ingenuity is a form of genius, and cleverness of talent. The former implies invention, the letter a peculiar dexterity and readiness of execution. Sir James Mackintosh remarks that the English overdo in the use of the word clever and cleverness, applying them loosely to almost every form of intellectual ability.

In*gen"u*ous (?), a. [L. ingenuus inborn, innate, freeborn, noble, frank; pref. in- in + the root of gignere to beget. See Genius, and cf. Ingenious.] 1. Of honorable extraction; freeborn; noble; as, ingenuous blood of birth.

2. Noble; generous; magnanimous; honorable; upright; high-minded; as, an ingenuous ardor or zeal.

If an ingenuous detestation of falsehood be but carefully and early instilled, that is the true and genuine method to obviate dishonesty.


3. Free from reserve, disguise, equivocation, or dissimulation; open; frank; as, an ingenuous man; an ingenuous declaration, confession, etc.

Sensible in myself . . . what a burden it is for me, who would be ingenuous, to be loaded with courtesies which he hath not the least hope to requite or deserve.


4. Ingenious. [Obs.] Shak.

(Formerly) printers did not discriminate between . . . ingenuous and ingenious, and these words were used or rather printed interchangeably almost to the beginning of the eighteenth century. G. P. Marsh.

Syn. -- Open; frank; unreserved; artless; plain; sincere; candid; fair; noble; generous. -- Ingenuous, Open, Frank. One who is open speaks out at once what is uppermost in his mind; one who is frank does it from a natural boldness, or dislike of self-restraint; one who is ingenuous is actuated by a native simplicity and artlessness, which make him willing to confess faults, and make known his sentiments without reserve. See Candid.

In*gen"u*ous*ly, adv. In an ingenuous manner; openly; fairly; candidly; artlessly.

Being required to explain himself, he ingenuously confessed.


In*gen"u*ous*ness, n. 1. The state or quality of being ingenuous; openness of heart; frankness.

2. Ingenuity. [Obs.] Fuller.

In"ge*ny (?), n. [L. ingenium. See Ingenious.] Natural gift or talent; ability; wit; ingenuity. [Obs.] [Written also ingenie.] Becon.

In*ger"mi*nate (?), v. t. To cause to germinate.

In*gest" (?), v. t. [L. ingenium, p. p. of ingerere to put in; pref. in- in + gerere to bear.] To take into, or as into, the stomach or alimentary canal. Sir T. Browne.

||In*ges"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Ingest.] (Physiol.) That which is introduced into the body by the stomach or alimentary canal; -- opposed to egesta.

In*ges"tion (?), n. [L. ingestio: cf. F. ingestion.] (Physiol.) The act of taking or putting into the stomach; as, the ingestion of milk or other food.

||In*ghal"la (?), n. (Zoöl.) The reedbuck of South Africa. [Written also ingali.]

In*girt" (?), v. t. [See Ingirt.] To encircle; to gird; to engirt.

The wreath is ivy that ingirts our beams.


In*girt", a. Surrounded; encircled. Fenton.

In"gle ("g'l), n. [Gael. & Ir. aingeali fire; cf. L. igniculusi spark, dim. of ignis fire. Cf. Ignite.] Flame; blaze; a fire; a fireplace. [Obs. or Scot.] Burns.

Ingle nook, the chimney corner. -- Ingle side, Ingle cheek, the fireside.

In"gle, n. [Written also engle, enghle: cf. Gael. & Ir. aingeal an angel. Cf. Engle.] A paramour; a favourite; a sweetheart; an engle. [Obs.] Toone.

<! p. 763 !>

In"gle (?), v. t. To cajole or coax; to wheedle. See Engle. [Obs.]

In*glo"bate (?), a. In the form of a globe or sphere; -- applied to nebulous matter collected into a sphere by the force of gravitation.

In*globe" (?), v. t. To infix, as in a globe; to fix or secure firmly. [Obs.] Milton.

In*glo"ri*ous (?), a. [L. inglorious; pref. in- not + gloria glory, fame: cf. F. inglorieux. See Glory.]

1. Not glorious; not bringing honor or glory; not accompanied with fame, honor, or celebrity; obscure; humble; as, an inglorious life of ease. Shak.

My next desire is, void of care and strife,
To lead a soft, secure, inglorious life.


Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.


2. Shameful; disgraceful; ignominious; as, inglorious flight, defeat, etc.

Inglorious shelter in an alien land.

J. Philips.

In*glo"ri*ous*ly, adv. In an inglorious manner; dishonorably; with shame; ignominiously; obscurely.

In*glo"ri*ous*ness, n. The state of being inglorious.

In*glut" (?), v. t. To glut. [R.] Ascham.

In*glu"vi*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the ingluvies or crop of birds.

||In*glu"vi*es (?), n. [L.] (Anat.) The crop, or craw, of birds.

In*glu"vi*ous (?), a. Gluttonous. [Obs.] Blount.

In"-go`ing (?), n. The act of going in; entrance.

In"-go`ing, a. Going; entering, as upon an office or a possession; as, an in-going tenant.

In*gorge" (?), v. t. & i. See Engorge. Milton.

In"got (?), n. [Prob. from AS. in in + geótan to pour: cf. F. linglot, LL. lingotus a mass of gold or silver, extended in the manner of a tongue, and G. einguss, LG. & OE. ingot ingot, a mold for casting metals in. See Found to cast, and cf. Linget, Lingot, Nugget.]

1. That in which metal is cast; a mold. [Obs.]

And from the fire he took up his matter
And in the ingot put it with merry cheer.


2. A bar or wedge of steel, gold, or other malleable metal, cast in a mold; a mass of unwrought cast metal.

Wrought ingots from Besoara's mine.

Sir W. Jones.

Ingot mold, a box or mold in which ingots are cast. -- Ingot iron. See Decarbonized steel, under Decarbonize.

In*grace" (?), v. t. [Pref. in- in + grace.] To ingratiate. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.

In*gra"cious (?), a. [Pref. in- not + gracious.] Ungracious; unkind. [Obs.] Holland.

In*graff" (?), v. t. See Ingraft. [Obs.]

In*graft" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingrafted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ingrafting.] [Written also engraft.]

1. To insert, as a scion of one tree, shrub, or plant in another for propagation; as, to ingraft a peach scion on a plum tree; figuratively, to insert or introduce in such a way as to make a part of something.

This fellow would ingraft a foreign name
Upon our stock.


A custom . . . ingrafted into the monarchy of Rome.


2. To subject to the process of grafting; to furnish with grafts or scions; to graft; as, to ingraft a tree.

In*graft"er (?), n. A person who ingrafts.

In*graft"ment (?), n. 1. The act of ingrafting.

2. The thing ingrafted; a scion.

In"grain` (?; 277), a. [Pref. in- in + grain kermes. See Engrain, Grain.]

1. Dyed with grain, or kermes. [Obs.]

2. Dyed before manufacture, -- said of the material of a textile fabric; hence, in general, thoroughly inwrought; forming an essential part of the substance.

Ingrain carpet, a double or two-ply carpet. -- Triple ingrain carpet, a three- ply carpet.

In"grain`, n. An ingrain fabric, as a carpet.

In"grain` (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingrained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ingraining.] [Written also engrain.]

1. To dye with or in grain or kermes.

2. To dye in the grain, or before manufacture.

3. To work into the natural texture or into the mental or moral constitution of; to stain; to saturate; to imbue; to infix deeply.

Our fields ingrained with blood.


Cruelty and jealousy seem to be ingrained in a man who has these vices at all.


In*grap"ple (?), v. t. & i. To seize; to clutch; to grapple. [Obs.] Drayton.

In"grate` (?; 277), a. [L. ingratus. See Ingrateful.] Ingrateful. [Obs. or Poetic] Bacon.

In"grate`, n. An ungrateful person. Milton.

In"grate`ful (?), a. [L. ingratus ingrateful (pref. in- not + gratus beloved, dear, grateful) + -ful: cf. F. ingrat. See Grateful.]

1. Ungrateful; thankless; unappreciative. Milton.

He proved extremely false and ingrateful to me.


2. Unpleasing to the sense; distasteful; offensive.

He gives . . . no ingrateful food.


-- In"grate`ful*ly, adv. -- In"grate`ful*ness, n.

In"grate`ly (?), adv. Ungratefully. [Obs.]

In*gra"ti*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingratiated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ingratiating (?).] [Pref. in- in + L. gratia. See Grace.]

1. To introduce or commend to the favor of another; to bring into favor; to insinuate; -- used reflexively, and followed by with before the person whose favor is sought.

Lysimachus . . . ingratiated himself both with Philip and his pupil.


2. To recommend; to render easy or agreeable; -- followed by to. [Obs.] Dr. J. Scott.

What difficulty would it [the love of Christ] not ingratiate to us?


In*gra"ti*ate, v. i. To gain favor. [R.] Sir W. Temple.

In*grat"i*tude (?), n. [F. ingratitude, L. ingratitudo. See Ingrate.] Want of gratitude; insensibility to, forgetfulness of, or ill return for, kindness or favors received; unthankfulness; ungratefulness.

Ingratitude, thou marble-hearted fiend.


Ingratitude is abhorred both by God and man.


In*grave" (?), v. t. To engrave. [R.] "Whose gleaming rind ingrav'n." Tennyson.

In*grave", v. t. [Pref. in- in + grave. Cf. Engrave.] To bury. [Obs.] Heywood.

In*grav"i*date (?), v. t. [L. ingravidatus, p. p. of ingravidare to impregnate. See 1st In-, and Gravidated.] To impregnate. [Obs.] Fuller.

In*grav`i*da"tion (?), n. The state of being pregnant or impregnated. [Obs.]

In*great" (?), v. t. To make great; to enlarge; to magnify. [Obs.] Fotherby.

{ In*gre"di*ence (?), In*gre"di*en*cy (?), } n. [See Ingredient.]

1. Entrance; ingress. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

2. The quality or state of being an ingredient or component part. Boyle.

In*gre"di*ent (?), n. [F. ingrédient, L. ingrediens, -entis, entering into, p. pr. of ingredi, p. p. ingressus, to go into, to enter; pref. in- in + gradi to walk, go. See Grade.] That which enters into a compound, or is a component part of any combination or mixture; an element; a constituent.

By way of analysis we may proceed from compounds to ingredients.

Sir I. Newton.

Water is the chief ingredient in all the animal fluids and solids.


In*gre"di*ent, a. Entering as, or forming, an ingredient or component part.

Acts where no sin is ingredient.

Jer. Taylor.

In"gress (?), n. [L. ingressus, fr. ingredi. See Ingredient.]

1. The act of entering; entrance; as, the ingress of air into the lungs.

2. Power or liberty of entrance or access; means of entering; as, all ingress was prohibited.

3. (Astron.) The entrance of the moon into the shadow of the earth in eclipses, the sun's entrance into a sign, etc.

In"gress (?), v. i. To go in; to enter. [R.]

In*gres"sion (?), n. [L. ingressio: cf. F. ingression.] Act of entering; entrance. Sir K. Digby.

In*grieve (?), v. t. To render more grievous; to aggravate. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

In*groove" (?), v. t. To groove in; to join in or with a groove. Tennyson.

In*gross" (?), v. t. See Engross.

In"grow`ing (?), a. Growing or appearing to grow into some other substance.

Ingrowing nail, one whose edges are becoming imbedded in the adjacent flesh.

In"growth` (?), n. A growth or development inward. J. LeConte.

||In"guen (?), n. [L. inguen, inguinis.] (Anat.) The groin.

In*guilt"y (?), a. Not guilty. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

In"gui*nal (?), a. [L. inguinalis, fr. inguen, inguinis, the groin: cf. F. inguinal.] (Astron. & Med.) Of or pertaining to, or in the region of, the inguen or groin; as, an inguinal canal or ligament; inguinal hernia.

Inguinal ring. See Abdominal ring, under Abdominal.

In*gulf" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ingulfed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ingulfing.] [Cf. Engulf.] [Written also engulf.] To swallow up or overwhelm in, or as in, a gulf; to cast into a gulf. See Engulf.

A river large . . .
Passed underneath ingulfed.


In*gulf"ment (?), n. The act of ingulfing, or the state of being ingulfed.

In*gur"gi*tate (?), v. t. [L. ingurgitatus, p. p. of ingurgitare to pour in; pref. in- in + gurges whirlpool, gulf.]

1. To swallow, devour, or drink greedily or in large quantity; to guzzle. Cleveland.

2. To swallow up, as in a gulf. Fotherby.

In*gur"gi*tate, v. i. To guzzle; to swill. Burton.

In*gur`gi*ta"tion (?), n. [L. ingurgitatio: cf. F. ingurgitation.] The act of swallowing greedily or immoderately; that which is so swallowed. E. Darwin.

He drowned his stomach and senses with a large draught and ingurgitation of wine.


In*gust"a*ble (?), a. [L. ingustabilis. See Gustable.] Tasteless; insipid. Sir T. Browne.

In*hab"ile (?), a. [L. inhabilis: cf. F. inhabile. See In- not, and Habile, and cf. Unable.]

1. Not apt or fit; unfit; not convenient; inappropriate; unsuitable; as, inhabile matter. [Obs.]

2. Unskilled; unready; awkward; incompetent; unqualified; -- said of persons. [Obs.] See Unable.

In`ha*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. inhabileté, inhabilité. See Inability.] Unsuitableness; unaptness; unfitness; inability. [Obs.] Barrow.

In*hab"it (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inhabited; p. pr. & vb. n. Inhabiting.] [OE. enhabiten, OF. enhabiter, L. inhabitare; pref. in- in + habitare to dwell. See Habit.] To live or dwell in; to occupy, as a place of settled residence; as, wild beasts inhabit the forest; men inhabit cities and houses.

The high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity.

Is. lvii. 15.

O, who would inhabit
This bleak world alone?


In*hab"it, v. i. To have residence in a place; to dwell; to live; to abide. [Archaic or Poetic] Shak.

They say wild beasts inhabit here.


In*hab"it*a*ble (?), a. [L. inhabitabilis. See Inhabit.] Capable of being inhabited; habitable.

Systems of inhabitable planets.


In*hab"it*a*ble, a. [L. inhabitabilis: cf. F. inhabitable. See In- not, and Habitable.] Not habitable; not suitable to be inhabited. [Obs.]

The frozen ridges of the Alps
Or other ground inhabitable.


{ In*hab"it*ance (?), In*hab"it*an*cy (?), } n. 1. The act of inhabiting, or the state of being inhabited; the condition of an inhabitant; residence; occupancy.

Ruins yet resting in the wild moors testify a former inhabitance.


2. (Law) The state of having legal right to claim the privileges of a recognized inhabitant; especially, the right to support in case of poverty, acquired by residence in a town; habitancy.

In*hab"it*ant (?), n. [L. inhabitans, -antis, p. pr. of inhabitare.]

1. One who dwells or resides permanently in a place, as distinguished from a transient lodger or visitor; as, an inhabitant of a house, a town, a city, county, or state. "Frail inhabitants of earth." Cowper.

In this place, they report that they saw inhabitants which were very fair and fat people.

Abp. Abbot.

2. (Law) One who has a legal settlement in a town, city, or parish; a permanent resident.

In*hab"i*tate (?), v. t. To inhabit. [Obs.]

In*hab`i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. inhabitatio a dwelling.]

1. The act of inhabiting, or the state of being inhabited; indwelling.

The inhabitation of the Holy Ghost.

Bp. Pearson.

2. Abode; place of dwelling; residence. [Obs.] Milton.

3. Population; inhabitants. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

The beginning of nations and of the world's inhabitation.

Sir W. Raleigh.

In*hab"it*a*tive*ness (?), n. (Phrenol.) A tendency or propensity to permanent residence in a place or abode; love of home and country.

In*hab"it*ed, a. Uninhabited. [Obs.] Brathwait.

In*hab"it*er (?), n. An inhabitant. [R.] Derham.

In*hab"it*ive*ness (?), n. (Phrenol.) See Inhabitativeness.

What the phrenologists call inhabitiveness.


In*hab"it*ress, n. A female inhabitant. [R.]

In*hal"ant (?), a. [Cf. F. inhalant.] Inhaling; used for inhaling.

In*hal"ant (?), n. An apparatus also called an inhaler (which see); that which is to be inhaled.

In`ha*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. inhalation.] The act of inhaling; also, that which is inhaled.

In*hale" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inhaled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inhaling.] [L. inhalare to breathe upon; pref. in- in + halare to breathe: cf. F. inhaler. Cf. Exhale.] To breathe or draw into the lungs; to inspire; as, to inhale air; -- opposed to exhale.

Martin was walking forth to inhale the fresh breeze of the evening.


In*hal"ent (?), a. Used for inhaling; as, the inhalent end of a duct. Dana.

In*hal"er (?), n. 1. One who inhales.

2. An apparatus for inhaling any vapor or volatile substance, as ether or chloroform, for medicinal purposes.

3. A contrivance to filter, as air, in order to protect the lungs from inhaling damp or cold air, noxious gases, dust, etc.; also, the respiratory apparatus for divers.

In*hance" (?), v. t. See Enhance.

{ In`har*mon"ic (?), In`har*mon"ic*al (?), } a. Not harmonic; inharmonious; discordant; dissonant.

In`har*mo"ni*ous (?), a. [Pref. in- not + harmonious: cf. F. inharmonieux.]

1. Not harmonious; unmusical; discordant; dissonant.

Sounds inharmonious in themselves and harsh.


2. Conflicting; jarring; not in harmony.

In`har*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv. Without harmony.

In`har*mo"ni*ous*ness, n. The quality of being inharmonious; want of harmony; discord.

The inharmoniousness of a verse.

A. Tucker.

In*har"mo*ny (?), n. Want of harmony.

{ In"haul` (?), In"haul`er (?) }, n. (Naut.) A rope used to draw in the jib boom, or flying jib boom.

In*hearse" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inhearsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inhearsing.] To put in, or as in, a hearse or coffin. Shak.

In*here" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Inhered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inhering.] [L. inhaerere; pref. in- in + haerere to stick, hang. See Hesitate.] To be inherent; to stick (in); to be fixed or permanently incorporated with something; to cleave (to); to belong, as attributes or qualities.

They do but inhere in the subject that supports them.


{ In*her"ence (?), In*her"en*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. inhérence.] The state of inhering; permanent existence in something; innateness; inseparable and essential connection. Jer. Taylor.

In*her"ent (?), a. [L. inhaerens, -entis, p. pr. of inhaerere: cf. F. inhérent. See Inhere.] Permanently existing in something; inseparably attached or connected; naturally pertaining to; innate; inalienable; as, polarity is an inherent quality of the magnet; the inherent right of men to life, liberty, and protection. "A most inherent baseness." Shak.

The sore disease which seems inherent in civilization.


Syn. -- Innate; inborn; native; natural; inbred; inwrought; inseparable; essential; indispensable.

In*her"ent*ly, adv. By inherence; inseparably.

Matter hath inherently and essentially such an internal energy.


In*her"it (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inherited; p. pr. & vb. n. Inheriting.] [OE. enheriten to inherit, to give a heritage to, OF. enheriter to appoint as an heir, L. inhereditare; pref. in- in + hereditare to inherit, fr. heres heir. See Heir.]

1. (Law) To take by descent from an ancestor; to take by inheritance; to take as heir on the death of an ancestor or other person to whose estate one succeeds; to receive as a right or title descendible by law from an ancestor at his decease; as, the heir inherits the land or real estate of his father; the eldest son of a nobleman inherits his father's title; the eldest son of a king inherits the crown.

<! p. 764 !>

2. To receive or take by birth; to have by nature; to derive or acquire from ancestors, as mental or physical qualities; as, he inherits a strong constitution, a tendency to disease, etc.

Prince Harry is valiant; for the cold blood he did naturally inherit of his father he hath . . . manured . . . with good store of fertile sherris.


3. To come into possession of; to possess; to own; to enjoy as a possession.

But the meek shall inherit the earth.

Ps. xxxvii. 11.

To bury so much gold under a tree,
And never after to inherit it.


4. To put in possession of. [R.] Shak.

In*her"it (?), v. i. To take or hold a possession, property, estate, or rights by inheritance.

Thou shalt not inherit our father's house.

Judg. xi. 2.

In*her`it*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being inheritable or descendible to heirs. Jefferson.

In*her"it*a*ble (?), a. 1. Capable of being inherited; transmissible or descendible; as, an inheritable estate or title. Blackstone.

2. Capable of being transmitted from parent to child; as, inheritable qualities or infirmities.

3. [Cf. OF. enheritable, inheritable.] Capable of taking by inheritance, or of receiving by descent; capable of succeeding to, as an heir.

By attainder . . . the blood of the person attainted is so corrupted as to be rendered no longer inheritable.


The eldest daughter of the king is also alone inheritable to the crown on failure of issue male.


Inheritable blood, blood or relationship by which a person becomes qualified to be an heir, or to transmit possessions by inheritance.

In*her"it*a*bly, adv. By inheritance. Sherwood.

In*her"it*ance (?), n. [Cf. OF. enheritance.]

1. The act or state of inheriting; as, the inheritance of an estate; the inheritance of mental or physical qualities.

2. That which is or may be inherited; that which is derived by an heir from an ancestor or other person; a heritage; a possession which passes by descent.

When the man dies, let the inheritance
Descend unto the daughter.


3. A permanent or valuable possession or blessing, esp. one received by gift or without purchase; a benefaction.

To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away.

1 Pet. i. 4.

4. Possession; ownership; acquisition. "The inheritance of their loves." Shak.

To you th' inheritance belongs by right
Of brother's praise; to you eke 'longs his love.


5. (Biol.) Transmission and reception by animal or plant generation.

6. (Law) A perpetual or continuing right which a man and his heirs have to an estate; an estate which a man has by descent as heir to another, or which he may transmit to another as his heir; an estate derived from an ancestor to an heir in course of law. Blackstone.

The word inheritance (used simply) is mostly confined to the title to land and tenements by a descent. Mozley & W.

Men are not proprietors of what they have, merely for themselves; their children have a title to part of it which comes to be wholly theirs when death has put an end to their parents' use of it; and this we call inheritance.


In*her"it*or (?), n. One who inherits; an heir.

Born inheritors of the dignity.


In*her"it*ress (?), n. A heiress. Milman.

In*her"it*rix (?), n. Same as Inheritress. Shak.

In*herse" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Inhearse.

In*he"sion (?), n. [L. inhaesio. See Inhere.] The state of existing, of being inherent, in something; inherence. A. Baxter.

Constant inhesion and habitual abode.


In`hi*a"tion (?), n. [L. inhiatio, fr. inhiare to gape; pref. in- + hiare to gape.] A gaping after; eager desire; craving. [R.] Bp. Hall.

In*hib"it (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inhibited; p. pr. & vb. n. Inhibiting.] [L. inhibitus, p. p. of inhibere; pref. in- in + habere to have, hold. See Habit.]

1. To check; to hold back; to restrain; to hinder.

Their motions also are excited or inhibited . . . by the objects without them.


2. To forbid; to prohibit; to interdict.

All men were inhibited, by proclamation, at the dissolution, so much as to mention a Parliament.


Burial may not be inhibited or denied to any one.


In`hi*bi"tion (?), n. [L. inhibitio: cf. F. inhibition.]

1. The act of inhibiting, or the state of being inhibited; restraint; prohibition; embargo.

2. (Physiol.) A stopping or checking of an already present action; a restraining of the function of an organ, or an agent, as a digestive fluid or ferment, etc.; as, the inhibition of the respiratory center by the pneumogastric nerve; the inhibition of reflexes, etc.

3. (Law) A writ from a higher court forbidding an inferior judge from further proceedings in a cause before; esp., a writ issuing from a higher ecclesiastical court to an inferior one, on appeal. Cowell.

In*hib"i*tor (?), n. [NL.] That which causes inhibitory action; esp., an inhibitory nerve.

In*hib"i*to*ry (?), a. [LL. inhibitorius: cf. F. inhibitoire.] Of or pertaining to, or producing, inhibition; consisting in inhibition; tending or serving to inhibit; as, the inhibitory action of the pneumogastric on the respiratory center.

I would not have you consider these criticisms as inhibitory.


Inhibitory nerves (Physiol.), those nerves which modify, inhibit, or suppress a motor or secretory act already in progress.

In*hib"i*to*ry-mo"tor (?), a. (Physiol.) A term applied to certain nerve centers which govern or restrain subsidiary centers, from which motor impressions issue. McKendrick.

In*hive" (?), v. t. To place in a hive; to hive.

In*hold" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inheld (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inholding.] To have inherent; to contain in itself; to possess. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

In*hold"er, n. An inhabitant. [Obs.] Spenser.

In*hoop" (?), v. t. To inclose in a hoop, or as in a hoop. [R.] Shak.

In*hos"pi*ta*ble (?), a. [Pref. in- not + hospitable: cf. L. inhospitalis.]

1. Not hospitable; not disposed to show hospitality to strangers or guests; as, an inhospitable person or people.

Have you no touch of pity, that the poor
Stand starved at your inhospitable door?


2. Affording no shelter or sustenance; barren; desert; bleak; cheerless; wild. "Inhospitable wastes." Blair.

-- In*hos"pi*ta*ble*ness, n. -- In*hos"pi*ta*bly, adv.

In*hos`pi*tal"i*ty (?), n. [L. inhospitalitas: cf. F. inhospitalité. See In- not, and Hospitality.] The quality or state of being inhospitable; inhospitableness; lack of hospitality. Bp. Hall.

In*hu"man (?), a. [L. inhumanus: cf. F. inhumain. See In- not, and Human.]

1. Destitute of the kindness and tenderness that belong to a human being; cruel; barbarous; savage; unfeeling; as, an inhuman person or people.

2. Characterized by, or attended with, cruelty; as, an inhuman act or punishment.

Syn. -- Cruel; unfeeling; pitiless; merciless; savage; barbarous; brutal; ferocious; ruthless; fiendish.

In`hu*man"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Inhumanities (#). [L. inhumanitas: cf. F. inhumanité.] The quality or state of being inhuman; cruelty; barbarity.

Man's inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn.


In*hu"man*ly (?), adv. In an inhuman manner; cruelly; barbarously.

In*hu"mate (?), v. t. [L. inhumatus, p. p. of inhumare to inhume; pref. in- in + humare to cover with earth. See Humation, and cf. Inhume.] To inhume; to bury; to inter. Hedge.

In`hu*ma"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. inhumation.]

1. The act of inhuming or burying; interment.

2. (Old Chem.) The act of burying vessels in warm earth in order to expose their contents to a steady moderate heat; the state of being thus exposed.

3. (Med.) Arenation.

In*hume" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Inhumed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Inhuming.] [Cf. F. inhumer. See Inhumate.]

1. To deposit, as a dead body, in the earth; to bury; to inter.

Weeping they bear the mangled heaps of slain,
Inhume the natives in their native plain.


2. To bury or place in warm earth for chemical or medicinal purposes.

||In"i*a (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South American freshwater dolphin (Inia Boliviensis). It is ten or twelve feet long, and has a hairy snout.

In"i*al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the inion.

In`im*ag"i*na*ble (?), a. Unimaginable; inconceivable. [R.] Bp. Pearson.

In*im"i*cal (?; 277), a. [L. inimicalis, fr. inimicus unfriendly, hostile; pref. in- not + amicus friendly. See Amity.]

1. Having the disposition or temper of an enemy; unfriendly; unfavorable; -- chiefly applied to private, as hostile is to public, enmity.

2. Opposed in tendency, influence, or effects; antagonistic; inconsistent; incompatible; adverse; repugnant.

We are at war with a system, which, by its essence, is inimical to all other governments.


In*im`i*cal"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being inimical or hostile; hostility; unfriendliness. [R.]

In*im"i*cal*ly (?), adv. In an inimical manner.

In*im`i*ci"tious (?), a. [L. inimicitia enmity. See Inimical.] Inimical; unfriendly. [R.] Sterne.

In*im"i*cous (?), a. [L. inimicus.] Inimical; hurtful. [Obs.] Evelyn.

In*im`i*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being inimitable; inimitableness. Norris.

In*im"i*ta*ble (?), a. [L. inimitabilis: cf. F. inimitable. See In- not, and Imitable.] Not capable of being imitated, copied, or counterfeited; beyond imitation; surpassingly excellent; matchless; unrivaled; exceptional; unique; as, an inimitable style; inimitable eloquence. "Inimitable force." Dryden.

Performing such inimitable feats.


-- In*im"i*ta*ble*ness, n. -- In*im"i*ta*bly, adv.

||In"i*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'ini`on the back of the head.] (Anat.) The external occipital protuberance of the skull.

In*iq"ui*tous (?), a. [From Iniquity.] Characterized by iniquity; unjust; wicked; as, an iniquitous bargain; an iniquitous proceeding.

Demagogues . . . bribed to this iniquitous service.


Syn. -- Wicked; wrong; unjust; unrighteous; nefarious; criminal. -- Iniquitous, Wicked, Nefarious. Wicked is the generic term. Iniquitous is stronger, denoting a violation of the rights of others, usually by fraud or circumvention. Nefarious is still stronger, implying a breach of the most sacred obligations, and points more directly to the intrinsic badness of the deed.

In*iq"ui*tous*ly, adv. In an iniquitous manner; unjustly; wickedly.

In*iq"ui*ty (?), n.; pl. Iniquities (#). [OE. iniquitee, F. iniquité, L. iniquitas, inequality, unfairness, injustice. See Iniquous.]

1. Absence of, or deviation from, just dealing; want of rectitude or uprightness; gross injustice; unrighteousness; wickedness; as, the iniquity of bribery; the iniquity of an unjust judge.

Till the world from his perfection fell
Into all filth and foul iniquity.


2. An iniquitous act or thing; a deed of injustice or unrighteousness; a sin; a crime. Milton.

Your iniquities have separated between you and your God.

Is. lix. 2.

3. A character or personification in the old English moralities, or moral dramas, having the name sometimes of one vice and sometimes of another. See Vice.